Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in
Control of non-conventional synchronous motors
Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,
Study of the Synchronous Reluctance Motor Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirba J.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on studying the external-rotor synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis is performed to estimate the influence of the number of stator slots and non-magnetic areas in the rotor (i.e., flux barriers on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple of the studied motor. It is concluded that the increase in the number of stator slots Z = 6 to Z = 18 causes an approximately twofold decrease in the ripple factor, but torque increases by 5 %. Electromagnetic torque will be increased approximately by 24 %, if non-magnetic flux barriers are created in the rotor of the studied synchronous reluctance motor.
Availability Analysis for High Voltage Synchronous Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Jin-hua; Erland Olsson; ZHOU Rong
2004-01-01
The operating experience data for 34 motors running for approximately 15 years in paper plants are collected. According to the data set, the reliability and availability characteristics of a highvoltage synchronous motor are analyzed based on the Markov Model. The unit or subsystem main rotor with windings in the motor system is more important for the motor system's availability, though its failure rate is lower compared to other units. Preventive maintenance is first introduced as a state in the markov Model for the motor system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J
2014-10-28
A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.
A.B. Chattopadhyay; Sunil Thomas
2014-01-01
Modeling of synchronous motor plays a dominant role in designing complicated drive system for different applications, especially large blower fans etc for steel industries. As synchronous motor has no inherent starting torque generally it is started as an induction motor with the help of a damper winding and it pulls into synchronism under certain conditions. The present paper exactly concentrates on this particular zone of transition from induction motor to synchronous motor mode for a curre...
A.B. Chattopadhyay; Sunil Thomas
2014-01-01
Modeling of synchronous motor plays a dominant role in designing complicated drive system for different applications, especially large blower fans etc., for steel industries. As synchronous motor has no inherent starting torque generally it is started as an induction motor with the help of a damper winding and it pulls into synchronism under certain conditions. The present study exactly concentrates on this particular zone of transition from induction motor to synchronous motor mode for a cur...
Comparison On Sensorless Control Of Synchronous Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liviu KREINDLER
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The paper compares two different methods for speed and position estimation in AC permanent magnet synchronous motors vector control applications. The first method implies two observer blocks — one for the speed, and the other for the electrical position, using the voltage equations in the (d,q reference frames. The second method estimates the same variables starting from the calculation of instantaneous reactive power. The tests have proved excellent behaviour in steady state (method 1 as well as in transient state (method 2. The implementation has been made on the 16 bits fixed-point DSP - TMS320F240 from Texas Instruments.
CAN-based Synchronized Motion Control for Induction Motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao
2009-01-01
A control area network (CAN) based multi-motor synchronized motion control system with an advanced synchronized control strategy is proposed.The strategy is to incorporate the adjacent cross-coupling control strategy into the sliding mode control architecture. As illustrated by the four-induction-motor-based experimental results,the multi-motor synchronized motion control system,via the CAN bus,has been successfully implemented.With the employment of the advanced synchronized motion control strategy,the synchronization performance can be significantly improved.
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirba J.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.
2017-04-01
The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors
Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.
2015-01-01
A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.
Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism
Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L.; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J.; Schmidt, R. C.
2017-01-01
Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and…
Single Phase Permanent Magnet Low Speed Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Lianxue
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In order to acquire a better cognition to the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor and validate the correctness of the motor mathematical model, the performances of the motor are tested with the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor whose type is 70TDY4, the corresponding simulations are done too. The resistance and the inductance of the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor are measured. According to the data of experiments and simulations, the static characteristics of the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor with the changes of the phase shift resistance and the phase shift capacitance are analysed, the results of experiments and simulations prove the correctness of the mathematics model.
Passive control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Dong-lian; WANG Jia-jun; ZHAO Guang-zhou
2005-01-01
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor model can exhibit a variety of chaotic phenomena under some choices of system parameters and external input. Based on the property of passive system, the essential conditions were studied, by which Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system could be equivalent to passive system. Using Lyapunov stability theory, the convergence condition deciding the system's characters was discussed. In the convergence condition area, the equivalent passive system could be globally asymptotically stabilized by smooth state feedback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.B. Chattopadhyay
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Modeling of synchronous motor plays a dominant role in designing complicated drive system for different applications, especially large blower fans etc for steel industries. As synchronous motor has no inherent starting torque generally it is started as an induction motor with the help of a damper winding and it pulls into synchronism under certain conditions. The present paper exactly concentrates on this particular zone of transition from induction motor to synchronous motor mode for a current source inverter fed synchronous motor drive system. Due to complexity of synchronous motor in terms of number of windings and finite amount of air gap saliency, direct modeling of such transition zone in time domain becomes cumbersome at the first instance of modeling. That is why the modeling in complex frequency domain (s-domain has been taken up using small perturbation model. Such a model clearly shows role of induction motor as noise function or disturbance function with respect to the open loop block diagram of synchronous motor. Such finding can be quantized in terms of important results and that is done in the present paper such that the results can help the designer for the successful design of a synchronous motor drive system.
Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.
2017-10-03
A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.
Bearingless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using Independent Control
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Normaisharah Mamat
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motor (BPMSM combines the characteristic of the conventional permanent magent synchronous motor and magnetic bearing in one electric motor. BPMSM is a kind of high performance motor due to having both advantages of PMSM and magnetic bearing with simple structure, high efficiency, and reasonable cost. The research on BPMSM is to design and analyse BPMSM by using Maxwell 2-Dimensional of ANSYS Finite Element Method (FEM. Independent suspension force model and bearingless PMSM model are developed by using the method of suspension force. Then, the mathematical model of electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force has been developed by using Matlab/Simulink. The relation between force, current, distance and other parameter are determined. This research covered the principle of suspension force, the mathematical model, FEM analysis and digital control system of bearingless PMSM. This kind of motor is widely used in high speed application such as compressors, pumps and turbines.
Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor
Coffey, H.T.
1993-10-19
A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.
Determination and analysis of synchronous motor's parameters
Mesņajevs, Aleksandrs; Zviedris, Andrejs
2009-01-01
In this work the parameters of synchronous machines are analyzed- direct-axis reaction Xad and quadrature-axis reaction Xaq. Methods of calculation in view of magnetic system's and its element's saturation are presented. It is shown that definition of these reactances, using as a basis a two-reaction method, is not correct and connected with work demanding chart analyzing calculations. The new approach to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of synchronous machine's operating modes which is based on consecutive use of the magnetic field's theory is offered, without it with two-reaction parameters Xad and Xaq. This approach is realized by means of a magnetic field's modeling using numerical methods with help of modern computers.
Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.
Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej
2014-07-10
Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Air Compressor Driving with Synchronous Motors at Optimal Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iuliu Petrica
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper a method of optimal compensation of the reactive load by the synchronous motors, driving the air compressors, used in mining enterprises is presented, taking into account that in this case, the great majority of the equipment (compressors, pumps are generally working a constant load.
SIMULATION RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS OFPERMANENT MAGNET LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪旭东; 高岩; 袁世鹰; 焦留成; 王兆安
2000-01-01
In this paper, a simulation model of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor (PMLSM) is established by using phase equations method. Special attention is paid to its structure and the influence of longitudinal end effect and the unbalance of current. The analytic method can be used for the analysis of dynamic and static characteristics of PMLSM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.B. Chattopadhyay
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Modeling of synchronous motor plays a dominant role in designing complicated drive system for different applications, especially large blower fans etc., for steel industries. As synchronous motor has no inherent starting torque generally it is started as an induction motor with the help of a damper winding and it pulls into synchronism under certain conditions. The present study exactly concentrates on this particular zone of transition from induction motor to synchronous motor mode for a current source inverter fed synchronous motor drive system. Due to complexity of synchronous motor in terms of number of windings and finite amount of air gap saliency, direct modeling of such transition zone in time domain becomes cumbersome at the first instance of modeling. That is why firstly the modeling is presented in complex frequency domain and then the time domain modeling is obtained by applying inverse Laplace transform technique. Apparently it seems to be a straight forward mathematical treatment but involvement of Convolution Integral for converting the formulation from s-domain to time domain becomes a matter of interest and it may draw the attention of various researchers working in this area. Furthermore the time domain response of the disturbance function may help a designer to fix up the time instant when the pull in phenomenon will be imposed by throwing the field winding to a DC supply.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melfi, Michael J.
2015-10-20
A mechanical soft-start type coupling is used as an interface between a line start, synchronous motor and a heavy load to enable the synchronous motor to bring the heavy load up to or near synchronous speed. The soft-start coupling effectively isolates the synchronous motor from the load for enough time to enable the synchronous motor to come up to full speed. The soft-start coupling then brings the load up to or near synchronous speed.
A New Torque Control System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evstratov Andrey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes a new approach to control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on the analysis of the electromechanical transformation. The proposed control system provides quick response and low ripple of the motor torque and flux. To synthesis this control system, the authors put the electromagnetic torque and the modulus of stator flux vector as controlled values and use the Lyapunov’s second method. In addition, the stator voltage constriction and ability of low-pass filtration are taken into account. The investigation of the proposed control system has carried out with the simulation and the experimental research which have confirmed that the proposed control system correspond to all above-mentioned control tasks and the permanent magnet synchronous motor controlled under this system may be recommended to use in robotics.
Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janda Žarko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.
Asynchronous slip-ring motor synchronized with permanent magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glinka Tadeusz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The electric LSPMSM motor presented in the paper differs from standard induction motor by rotor design. The insulated start-up winding is located in slots along the rotor circumference. The winding ends are connected to the slip-rings. The rotor core contains permanent magnets. The electromechanical characteristics for synchronous operation were calculated, as were the start-up characteristics for operation with a short-circuited rotor winding. Two model motors were used for the calculations, the V-shaped Permanent Magnet (VPM – Fig. 3, and the Linear Permanent Magnet (IPM – Fig. 4, both rated at 14.5 kW. The advantages of the investigated motor are demonstrated in the conclusions.
Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals
Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.
2013-07-01
Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different
Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingming Huang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.
Synchronization of motor controller and PC system clocks
Kittmann, Frank; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; Mohr, Lars; Berwein, Jürgen
2010-07-01
The power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with its two 8.4m primary mirrors sharing a common mount will unfold its full potential with the LINC-NIRVANA (LN) instrument. LINC-NIRVANA is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT and will interfere the light from the two 8.4m mirrors of the LBT in Fizeau mode. More than 140 motors have to be handled by custom developed Motor Controllers (MoCons). One important feature of the MoCon is the support of externally computed trajectories. Motion profiles provide information on the movement of the motor along a defined path over a certain period of time. Such profiles can be uploaded to the MoCon over Ethernet and can be started at a specific time. For field derotation it is critical that the derotation trajectories are executed with a very precise relative and absolute timing. This raises the problem of the synchronization of the MoCon internal clock with the system time of the servers that are hosting LINCNIRVANA's Instrument Control Software. The MoCon time should be known by the servers with an uncertainty of few milliseconds in order to match the start time of the motion profile and the field rotation trajectory. In this paper we will discuss how to synchronize the MoCon internal time and the PC system time.
Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motor Control System Based on ADRC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Wang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM is a strong coupling and non-linear system. In the PMSM speed-regulation system, PID controller is the conventional one, it is difficult to decide the parameters of PID. Moreover, the performance of PID controller is not very well in large disturbance. In the paper, the Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC is applied to the PMSM speed-regulation system. The result of simulations and experiments show that this algorithm has better anti-load-disturbance performance than PID controller.
Modelling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Incorporating Core-loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Suthamno
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a dq-axis modelling of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM with copper-loss and core-loss taken into account. The proposed models can be applied to PMSM control and drive with loss minimization in simultaneous consideration. The study presents simulation results of direct drive of a PMSM under no-load and loaded conditions using the proposed models with MATLAB codes. Comparisons of the results are made among those obtained from using PSIM and SIMULINK software packages. The comparison results indicate very good agreement.
Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Dong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.
Study on cogging force of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHANGGUAN Xuan-feng; YUAN Shi-ying; LI Qing-fu
2005-01-01
Presented the methods to obtain the cogging force of permanent magnet linear synchronous motors(PMLSMs), analyzed the characteristics of the cogging force,and provided a basis for reducing the effect of the cogging force. 2-dimensional finite element method(2D FEM) was used to solve the whole motor when its mover was at different position, so that the relation was derived between the cogging force and the mover position. The analysis results show that the cogging force between the two ends of the primary iron-core and the secondary permanent magnets (PMs) is sinusoidal function of the mover position under certain conditions only. Two proposed methods,namely direct and indirect methods, are applied to calculate the cogging force between the primary iron-core teeth and the secondary PMs. The agreement of the two methods is validated.
CALCULATION OF INDUCTANCE OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phyong Le Ngo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM refers to salient-pole synchronous motors, characterized by inequality of inductances of longitudinal (d and transverse (q axes. Electromagnetic torque of IPMSM consists of two components: active torque and reactive torque; the latter depends on inductances of d and q axes. An analytical method to calculate own inductances and mutual inductances of a three-phase IPMSM is presented. Distributed windings of the stator are substituted by equivalent sine distributed windings. An interior permanent magnets rotor is substituted by an equivalent salient-pole rotor. Sections of a magnetic circuit comprising interior permanent magnets, air barriers and steel bridges are substituted by equivalent air-gap. The expressions of the magnetic induction created by current of the stator windings at each point of the air gap as well as of magnetic flux linkage of the stator windings have been obtained. The equations of the self-inductances of phases A, B, C, and of inductance of mutual induction are determined from magnetic flux linkage. The inductance of the d and q axes have been obtained as a result of transformation of the axes abc–dq. The results obtained with the use of the proposed analytical method and the finite element method are presented in the form of a graph; the calculations that have been obtained by these two methods were compared.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Multi-motor vibratory transmission systems have been wide used in large vibratory machines, and four-motor linear vibratory machine is one typical equipment of them. Under non-forcible synchronization condition zero-phase synchronization of the machine is non-stationary and π-phase synchronization is stable. Under half-forcible synchronization condition in which only one motor is controlled being synchronous to another, only lag synchronization near zero-phase synchronization can be realized. Both of the characteristics have never been revealed with classical theory quantitatively. The problem is solved by means of establishing an electromechanical coupling mathematical model of the system and numerical analysis of the starting processes.
Passive control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system based on state observer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Dong-lian; WANG Qiao
2006-01-01
Passive system theory was applied to propose a new passive control method with nonlinear observer of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system. Through constructing a Lyapunov function, the subsystem of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system could be proved to be globally stable at the equilibrium point. Then a controller with smooth state feedback is designed so that the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system can be equivalent to a passive system.To get the state variables of the controller, the nonlinear observer is also studied. It is found that the outputs of the nonlinear observer can approximate the state variables of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system if the system's nonlinear function is a globally Lipschitz function. Simulation results showed that the equivalent passive system of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor chaotic system could be globally asymptotically stabilized by smooth state feedback in the observed parameter convergence condition area.
Torque Characteristics of Saturated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors
Takahashi, Akeshi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Wakui, Shinichi; Mikami, Hiroyuki; Ide, Kazumasa; Shima, Kazuo
The evaluation of torque characteristics in a saturated magnetic field for permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous motors is presented. The torque saturation characteristics of non-salient and salient pole machines are investigated by finite element analysis and measurement. Thus, it is found that the torque saturation originates in the magnetic saturation in both the stator teeth, which are located on the leading position toward the direct axis, and in the stator back yoke, which is located on the lagging position toward the direct axis. This mechanism can also explain the reason for the significant torque saturation in the salient-pole machine; the higher inductance of the quadrature axis of the salient-pole machine causes a significant magnetic saturation in the stator back yoke. Therefore, less saliency or a wider back yoke can improve the torque saturation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2002-01-01
DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2002-01-01
DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...
Rectification of SEMG as a tool to demonstrate synchronous motor unit activity during vibration.
Sebik, Oguz; Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Türker, Kemal S
2013-04-01
The use of surface electromyography (SEMG) in vibration studies is problematic since motion artifacts occupy the same frequency band with the SEMG signal containing information on synchronous motor unit activity. We hypothesize that using a harsher, 80-500 Hz band-pass filter and using rectification can help eliminate motion artifacts and provide a way to observe synchronous motor unit activity that is phase locked to vibration using SEMG recordings only. Multi Motor Unit (MMU) action potentials using intramuscular electrodes along with SEMG were recorded from the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) of six healthy male volunteers. Data were collected during whole body vibration, using vibration frequencies of 30 Hz, 35 Hz, 40 Hz or 50 Hz. A computer simulation was used to investigate the efficacy of filtering under different scenarios: with or without artifacts and/or motor unit synchronization. Our findings indicate that motor unit synchronization took place during WBV as verified by MMU recordings. A harsh filtering regimen along with rectification proved successful in demonstrating motor unit synchronization in SEMG recordings. Our findings were further supported by the results from the computer simulation, which indicated that filtering and rectification was efficient in discriminating motion artifacts from motor unit synchronization. We suggest that the proposed signal processing technique may provide a new methodology to evaluate the effects of vibration treatments using only SEMG. This is a major advantage, as this non-intrusive method is able to overcome movement artifacts and also indicate the synchronization of underlying motor units.
Neural Network Controllers in DTC of Synchronous Motor Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhakar Ambarapu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In recent times, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have gained numerous industrial applications, because of simple structure, high efficiency and ease of maintenance. But these motors have a nonlinear mathematical model. To resolve this problem several studies have suggested the application of vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC with soft-computing (SC techniques. This paper presents neuro direct torque control (NDTC of PMSM. Hence this paper aims to present a technique to control speed and torque with reduced ripple compared to previous techniques. The outputs of Artificial Neural Network(ANN controller mechanism is compared with that of classical DTC and the results demonstrate the influence of ANN is improved compared to classical DTC topology. The system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple, very low speed, sudden speed reversals, at low torque and at high torque. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using PI speed controller.
Metamodels for Optimum Design of Outer-Rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor
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Lavrinovicha Ludmila
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A new design of synchronous reluctance motor with segment-shaped outer rotor is presented and investigated in this paper. In order to obtain correct recommendations for optimal design of the studied synchronous reluctance motor, analytical relations of motor electromagnetic parameters and geometrical dimensions (also known as metamodels have been synthesized. Electromagnetic parameters, which have been used for metamodels synthesis, are obtained by means of magnetostatic field numerical calculations with finite element method using software QuickField.
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT OF THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH INCORPORATED MAGNETS
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Fyong Le Ngo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic circuitry computation is one of the central stages of designing a synchronous motor with incorporated magnets, which can be performed by means of a simplified method of the magnetic-circuits equivalent modeling. The article studies the magnetic circuit of the motor with the rotor-incorporated magnets, which includes four sectors: constant magnets with the field pole extension made of magnetically soft steel, magniflux dispersion sections containing air barriers and steel bridges; the air gap; the stator grooves, cogs and the frame yoke. The authors introduce an equivalent model of the magnetic circuit. High-energy magnets with a linear demagnetization curve are employed in the capacity of constant magnets. Two magnets create the magnetic flux for one pole. The decline of magnetic potential in the steel of the pole is negligible consequent on the admission that the poles magnetic inductivity µ = ∞. The rotor design provides for the air barriers and the steel bridges that close leakage flux. The induction-permeability curve linearization serves for the bridges magnetic saturation accountability and presents a polygonal line consisting of two linear sections. The estimation of the magnet circuit section including the cogs and the frame yoke is executed with account of the steel saturation, their magnetic conductivities thereat being dependent on the saturation rate. Relying on the equivalent model of the magnetic circuit, the authors deduce a system of two equations written from the first and the second Kirchhoff laws of the magnetic circuits. These equations allow solving two problems: specifying dimensions of the magnets by the preset value of the magnetic flow in the clearance and determining the clearance magnetic flow at the preset motor rotor-and-stator design.
Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan
2015-09-01
A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors' motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brosch, Peter F. [Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Fakultaet I
2012-06-11
Although permanent magnet synchronous motors increase the efficiency, but these motors make use of expensive neodymium-iron-boron magnets. On the other hand, the rotor of a reluctance motor requires neither an excitation winding nor permanent magnets. Moreover, the lack of rotor losses increase the efficiency.
ADAPTIVE FLUX OBSERVER FOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
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A. A. Bobtsov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the observer design problem for a flux in permanent magnet synchronous motors. It is assumed that some electrical parameters such as resistance and inductance are known numbers. But the flux, the angle and the speed of the rotor are unmeasurable. The new robust approach to design an adaptive flux observer is proposed that guarantees globally boundedness of all signals and, moreover, exponential convergence to zero of observer error between the true flux value and an estimate obtained from the adaptive observer. The problem of an adaptive flux observer design has been solved with using the trigonometrical properties and linear filtering which ensures cancellation of unknown terms arisen after mathematical calculations. The key idea is the new parameterization of the dynamical model containing unknown parameters and depending on measurable current and voltage in the motor. By applying the Pythagorean trigonometric identity the linear equation has found that does not contain any functions depending on angle or angular velocity of the rotor. Using dynamical first-order filters the standard regression model is obtained that consists of unknown constant parameters and measurable functions of time. Then the gradient-like estimator is designed to reconstruct unknown parameters, and it guarantees boundedness of all signals in the system. The proposition is proved that if the regressor satisfies the persistent excitation condition, meaning the “frequency-rich” signal, then all errors in observer exponentially converges to zero. It is shown that observer error for the flux explicitly depends on estimator errors. Exponential convergence of parameter estimation errors to zero yields exponential convergence of the flux observer error to zero. The numerical example is considered.
The rediscovery of synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent magnet motors tutorial course notes
Pellegrino, Gianmario; Bianchi, Nicola; Soong, Wen; Cupertino, Francesco
2016-01-01
This book offers an essential compendium on the analysis and design of synchronous motors for variable-speed applications. Focusing on synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous reluctance machines, it provides a broad perspective on three-phase machines for variable speed applications, a field currently dominated by asynchronous machines and rare-earth PM synchronous machines. It also describes synchronous reluctance machines and PM machines without rare-earth materials, comparing them to state-of-the-art solutions. The book provides readers with extensive information on and finite element models of PM synchronous machines, including all relevant equations and with an emphasis on synchronous-reluctance and PM-assisted synchronous-reluctance machines. It covers ferrite-assisted machines, modeled as a subcase of PM-assistance, fractional slot combinations solutions, and a quantitative, normalized comparison of torque capability with benchmark PM machines. The book discusses a wealth o...
Research on an Improved Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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Yingpei Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM traditional vector control system, PI regulator is used in the speed loop, but it has some defects. An improved method of PMSM vector control is proposed in the paper. The active-disturbance rejection control (ADRC speed regulator is designed with the input signals of given speed and real speed and the output of given stator current q coordinate component. Then, in order to optimize ADRC controller, the least squares support vector machines (LSSVM optimal regression model is derived and successfully embedded in the ADRC controller. ADRC observation precision and dynamic response of the system are improved. The load disturbance effect on the system is reduced to a large extent. The system anti-interference ability is further improved. Finally, the current sensor CSNE151-100 is selected to sample PMSM stator currents. The voltage sensor JLBV1 is used to sample the stator voltage. The rotor speed of PMSM is measured by mechanical speed sensor, the type of which is BENTLY 330500. Experimental platform is constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Finite-Time Chaos Control of a Complex Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor System
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Xiaobing Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the finite-time chaos control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor system with complex variables. Based on the finite-time stability theory, two control strategies are proposed to realize stabilization of the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor system in a finite time. Two numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the theoretical analysis.
Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou
2016-05-01
A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme.
Design and analysis of a novel inset permanent magnet synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, C.C. [Department of Electrical Enginering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhua Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cchwang@fcu.edu.tw; Liu, C.-T. [Department of Electrical Enginering, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Teng, C.C. [Department of Electrical Enginering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhua Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)
2008-07-15
This paper presents the design of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor with the magnets laid flush in slots let into the rotor surface, called inset magnet rotor. The finite element field analysis coupled with the drive circuit equations are briefly discussed for obtaining the motor performance. Experimental results obtained are in good agreement with the finite element analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen
2008-01-01
Accurate knowledge of the high frequency inductance profile plays an important role in many designs of sensorless controllers for Surface inductance. A special algorithm is used to decouple the cross-coupling effects between the d-axis and the q-axis, which allows Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM......) synchronous motors. This paper presents an AC+DC measurement method for determination of the d-axis and q-axis high frequency inductance profiles of SMPM synchronous motors. This method uses DC currents to set a desired magnetic working point on the motor laminations, and then superimpose balanced small AC...
Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system based on SVPWM
Wu, Haibo
2017-04-01
The control system is designed to realize TMS320F28335 based on the permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system, and put it to quoting all electric of injection molding machine. The system of the control method used SVPWM, through the sampling motor current and rotating transformer position information, realize speed, current double closed loop control. Through the TMS320F28335 hardware floating-point processing core, realize the application for permanent magnet synchronous motor in the floating point arithmetic, to replace the past fixed-point algorithm, and improve the efficiency of the code.
Speed Synchronization of Multi Induction Motors with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control
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HACHEMI Glaoui
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. Aspeed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed controlstrategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designedcontroller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Speed Tracking of Field Oriented Control Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Neural Network
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Wahyu Mulyo Utomo
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The field oriented control theory and space vector pulse width modulation technique make a permanent magnet synchronous motor can achieve the performance as well as a DC motor. However, due to the nonlinearity of the permanent magnet synchronous motor drive characteristics, it is difficult to control by using conventional proportional-integral-derivative controller. By this reason in this paper an online neural network controller for the permanent magnet synchronous motor is proposed. The controller is designed to tracks variations of speed references and also during load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by develop simulation model in MATLAB-simulink program. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can reduce the overshoot, settling time and rise time. It can be concluded that the performance of the controller is improved.
Innovative standstill position detection combined with sensorless control of synchronous motors
Persson, Jan
2005-01-01
Sensorless control of PMSM's (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors) has occupied scientists for a long time. The result of this research is becoming widely accepted by the industry due to its low cost and reliability. However, the majority of today's motor drives are still equipped with some kind of position sensor. The reason is that sensorless control still have several limitations and is usually more complex than a traditional motor control. A new method to estimate the standstill position ...
Permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC motor drives
Ramu, Krishnan
2009-01-01
Presents an introduction to machines, power devices, inverters, and control. This book covers pm synchronous machines, including modeling, implementation, control strategies, flux weakening operations, parameter sensitivity, sensorless control, and intelligent control applications.
Motor unit synchronization in FDI and biceps brachii muscles of strength-trained males.
Fling, Brett W; Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary
2009-10-01
Motor unit (MU) synchronization is the simultaneous or near-simultaneous firing of two MUs which occurs more often than would be expected by chance. The present study sought to investigate the effects of exercise training, muscle group, and force level, by comparing the magnitude of synchronization in the biceps brachii (BB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of untrained and strength-trained college-aged males at two force levels, 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 80% MVC. MU action potentials were recorded directly via an intramuscular needle electrode. The magnitude of synchronization was assessed using previously-reported synchronization indices: k', E, and CIS. Synchronization was significantly higher in the FDI than in the BB. Greater synchronization was observed in the strength-trained group with CIS, but not with E or k'. Also, synchronization was significantly greater at 80% MVC than at 30% MVC with E, but only moderately greater with CIS and there was no force difference with k'. Synchronization prevalence was found to be greater in the BB (80.1%) than in the FDI (71.5%). Thus, although the evidence is a bit equivocal, it appears that MU synchronization is greater at higher forces, and greater in strength-trained individuals than in untrained subjects.
A Study on the Design of Drive for Coreless Linear Synchronous Motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S. W. [Mirae Corporation, Chonan (Korea); Lee, J. H. [Haedong Information and Communications Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea); Kim, S. E.; Lee, S. G. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea); Kim, J. M. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, (Korea)
2001-06-01
In this paper, a controller design for coreless linear synchronous motor is proposed. The designed controller is mainly composed of speed and current control, which are carried out by the high-speed digital signal processor(DSP). In addition the PWM inverter is controlled by space voltage PWM method. This system is implemented using by 32-bit DSP(TMS320C31), a high-integrated logic device(EPM940), and IPM(Intelligent Power Modules) for compact and powerful system design. The experimental results show the effective performance of controller for coreless linear synchronous motor. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor
Wan-Tsun Tseng
2013-01-01
The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Hong
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Improving fault tolerant performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor has always been the central issue of the electrically supplied actuator for aerospace application. In this paper, a novel fault tolerant permanent magnet synchronous motor is proposed, which is characterized by two stators and two rotors on the same shaft with a circumferential displacement of mechanical angle of 4.5°. It helps to reduce the cogging torque. Each segment of the stator and the rotor can be considered as an 8-pole/10-slot five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor with concentrated, single-layer and alternate teeth wound winding, which enhance the fault isolation capacity of the motor. Furthermore, the motor has high phase inductance to restrain the short-circuit current. In addition, an improved optimal torque control strategy is proposed to make the motor work well under the open-circuit fault and short-circuit fault conditions. Simulation and experiment results show that the proposed fault tolerant motor system has excellent fault tolerant capacity, which is able to operate continuously under the third open-circuit fault and second short-circuit fault condition without system performance degradation, which was not available earlier.
Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishimura, T.; Ogama, Y.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Suzuki, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.
2008-01-01
A high Tc superconducting induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM) is designed, fabricated and tested with the use of YBCO coated conductors for rotor bars. The structure of this motor is the same with that of the squirrel-cage induction motor. The YBCO coated conductor, 10 mm in width, is produced by means of the MOCVD process, and then such tape is divided into four pieces by using a laser cutting machine. Four cut tapes are bundled for one rotor bar, and commercialized Bi-2223/Ag tapes are utilized for end rings. The fabricated HTS rotor is installed in a conventional stator, and then various tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen. It is successfully observed that the fabricated YBCO HTS-ISM has a synchronous torque. The motor also has an almost constant torque curve because of the steep take-off of the electric field versus current density property. Detailed test results are reported and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsekhnov, A.N.; Nissenbaum, I.A.
1979-01-01
Characteristics are presented for the working regime of a synchronous motor in the drive of a drilling winch and the noncorrespondence of dynamic stability and the coefficient of use of the motor power to its operating conditions is indicated. An analysis is made of the change in nominal values of current and power, coefficient of overload, working angle and angular characteristics of the synchronous motor on the salient-pole coefficient. It was established that decrease in the salient-pole coefficient will permit a creation of a motor of lower nominal power and overall dimensions with an improvement in dynamic and static stability in the winch drive with conservation of electrical-engineering materials in production and electricity in operation.
Design of Low-Torque-Ripple Synchronous Reluctance Motor with External Rotor
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Lavrinovicha L.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents new designs for synchronous reluctance motors that have external rotor (segment-shaped rotor, rotor with additional non-magnetic space to the quadrature axis of the rotor, and rotor with several flux barriers. Impact of the external rotor configuration on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple is analysed. Electromagnetic torque ripple factor is calculated for each studied motor using the results of magnetic field numerical calculations.
Cogging torque reduction for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors
Tost Candel, Miquel
2015-01-01
Interior permanent magnet synchronous machines show a good range of behaviours, which make these kinds of machines good candidates for an electromechanical energy conversion. However, in order to improve their accuracy in their torque responses, the cogging torque and torque ripple phenomena should be mitigated to obtain better performance of the machine. In order to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple, control techniques as well as geometric parameters of the machine have to be im...
Sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors with compressor load
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian; Xiao, Lei
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the mathematical model of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Through the mathematical deformation, the paper proposes the new sensorless method based on sliding mode observer for a IPMSM. The model is only associated with the q-axis inductance, and without...... of all the control strategies....
Finite-Time Chaos Suppression of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Systems
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Yi-You Hou
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of the chaos suppression for the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM system via the finite-time control. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and the finite-time controller are developed such that the chaos behaviors of PMSM system can be suppressed. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods are shown in numerical simulations.
CURRENT VECTOR CONTROL OF PERMANENT-MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR OF HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE
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S. Serikov
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Characteristics of traction permanent-magnet synchronous motor under current vector optimum control in the possible traction-speed mode area which are relevant for hybrid vehicle engine have been investigated. As a criterion of optimality a maximum of electromagnetic moment per unit of current have been taken.
Sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors with compressor load
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian; Xiao, Lei
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the mathematical model of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Through the mathematical deformation, the paper proposes the new sensorless method based on sliding mode observer for a IPMSM. The model is only associated with the q-axis inductance, and without...
Synchronization of lower limb motor unit activity during walking in human subjects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Naja L; Hansen, S; Christensen, L. O. D.
2001-01-01
Synchronization of motor unit activity was investigated during treadmill walking (speed: 3-4 km/h) in 25 healthy human subjects. Recordings were made by pairs of wire electrodes inserted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and by pairs of surface electrodes placed over this muscle and a number...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao;
2015-01-01
is developed and the instability of the system with unbalanced loads is analysed. Based on the analysis, a control strategy which can keep synchronism of the two rotors under varying load is implemented. In addition, a method for starting the motor reliably is proposed, which is applicable to ship or under...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhov M.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The performance of a two-coordinate drive system with permanent magnet synchronous motors is analyzed and discussed in this paper. Both motors have been controlled in brushless DC motor mode in accordance with the rotor positions. Detailed study has been carried out by means of mathematical modeling and computer simulation for the respective transient and steady-state regimes at various load and work conditions. The research carried out as well as the results obtained can be used in the design, optimization and tuning of such types of drive systems. They could be also applied in the teaching process.
Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Karthikeyan, Anitha; Duraisamy, Prakash
2016-12-01
In this paper we investigate the control of three-dimensional non-autonomous fractional-order model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and PI controlled fractional order Induction motor via recursive extended back stepping control technique. A robust generalized weighted controllers are derived to suppress the chaotic oscillations of the fractional order model. As the direct Lyapunov stability analysis of the controller is difficult for a fractional order first derivative, we have derived a new lemma to analyze the stability of the system. Numerical simulations of the proposed chaos suppression methodology are given to prove the analytical results.
Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor
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Wan-Tsun Tseng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.
Hida, Hajime; Tomigashi, Yoshio; Ueyama, Kenji; Inoue, Yukinori; Morimoto, Shigeo
This paper proposes a new torque estimation method that takes into account the spatial harmonics of permanent magnet synchronous motors and that is capable of real-time estimation. First, the torque estimation equation of the proposed method is derived. In the method, the torque ripple of a motor can be estimated from the average of the torque calculated by the conventional method (cross product of the fluxlinkage and motor current) and the torque calculated from the electric input power to the motor. Next, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulations in which two kinds of motors with different components of torque ripple are considered. The simulation results show that the proposed method estimates the torque ripple more accurately than the conventional method. Further, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by performing on experiment. It is shown that the torque ripple is decreased by using the proposed method to the torque control.
Large output-power, low-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor designs for ship propulsion drive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosu, M.
2001-07-01
Over the last decade, serious development has taken place in electric motor technology, and its impact is being felt in the shipbuilding community. This development has brought about a new generation of compact, high efficiency electrical machines. High performance, lightweight permanent magnet motors and generators have been developed for a wide range of applications including vehicle propulsion, power generation, pump and compressor drives. These machines combine the advances in magnetic materials and electronic design to provide shipbuilders new options for weight, energy and cost reduction. Permanent magnet machines were built in many different configurations and power classes, ranging from a few hundred watts to multi-megawatts for ship propulsion. Permanent magnet motors and generators for marine use were constructed and tested, all of these machines providing the same outstanding torque and power density. The basic electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design approaches were established and tested in small prototype machines, the development of larger machines constituting the engineering later in the design process. The goal of this research work is to find an optimum solution in terms of design and suitability of a low-speed and high-power permanent magnet motor for ship propulsion drive. In this work, the study-case analyses are limited to the electromagnetic part of the motor. Two types of radial flux permanent magnet synchronous motors are designed and optimised to meet the propulsion requirements. The first motor has the permanent magnets mounted on the surface of the rotor while the second motor has the permanent magnets mounted on the rotor surface and covered by laminated pole shoes. In their construction, high-energy NdFeB permanent magnets were chosen. These magnetic materials provide a sufficient airgap magnetic flux density with a low volume of material. Moreover, the NdFeB permanent magnets are endowed with high coercivity. As an immediate
Transient-based analysis for the detection of broken damper bars in synchronous motors
Antonino-Daviu, J. A.; Climente-Alarcón, V.; Pons-Llinares, J.; Puche, R.; Pineda-Sánchez, M.
2013-01-01
Synchronous generators and motors constitute critical elements in power generation plants and certain industrial facilities. Damper bars are crucial components of most of these synchronous machines. They enable, among other functions, the direct-on-line starting of these machines, just as if they were asynchronous. Some recent cases, reported by several authors, have demonstrated that eventual failure of damper bars is possible, mainly due to the currents and stresses rising during their operation. In this context, the development of reliable techniques able to diagnose possible damper breakages has attracted significant interest within the fault diagnosis area. The present paper proposes the application of a novel transient-based methodology to diagnose broken damper bars in synchronous motors. This methodology was previously assessed with success in industrial induction motors with diverse sizes. The approach relies on the analysis of the stator startup current demanded by the machine during a direct-on-line starting. To this end, suitable time-frequency decomposition tools are used. In this particular work, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is proposed, due to its simplicity, low computational requirements and easy interpretation of its results. Simulation and experimental results obtained with laboratory synchronous machines confirm the validity of the approach for condition monitoring of such windings.
Position Control of Synchronous Motor Drive by Modified Adaptive Two-phase Sliding Mode Controller
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohamed Said Sayed Ahmed; Ping Zhang; Yun-Jie Wu
2008-01-01
A modified adaptive two-phase sliding mode controller for the synchronous motor drive that is highly robust to uncertain-ties and external disturbances is proposed in this paper. The proposed controller uses two-phase sliding mode control (SMC) where the 1st phase mainly controls the system in steady states and disturbed states-it is a smoothing phase. The 2nd phase is used mainly in the case of disturbed states. Also, it is an autotuning phase and uses a simple adaptive algorithm to tune the gain of conventional variable structure control (VSC). The modified controller is useful in position control of a permanent magnet synchronous drive.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
骆光照; 张围围; 杨南方; 马鹏; 刘卫国
2012-01-01
A flux linkage compensation field oriented control (FOC) method was proposed to suppress the speed and torque ripples of a hrusbless wound-fleld synchronous motor in its starting process. The starting process was analyzed and the model of wound-field synchronous electric machine was established. The change of field current of the electric machine was described mathematically for simplified exciter and rotate rectifier. Based on the traditional field control, the flux linkage compensation was introduced in d-axis current to counteract the flux ripple. Some simulation and preliminary experiments were implemented. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.
GENETIC ALGORITHM IN OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
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Phuong Le Ngo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Classical method of designing electric motors help to achieve functional motor, but doesn’t ensure minimal cost in manufacturing and operating. Recently optimization is becoming an important part in modern electric motor design process. The objective of the optimization process is usually to minimize cost, energy loss, mass, or maximize torque and efficiency. Most of the requirements for electrical machine design are in contradiction to each other (reduction in volume or mass, improvement in efficiency etc.. Optimization in design permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is a multi-objective optimization problem. There are two approaches for solving this problem, one of them is evolution algorithms, which gain a lot of attentions recently. For designing PMSM, evolution algorithms are more attractive approach. Genetic algorithm is one of the most common. This paper presents components and procedures of genetic algorithms, and its implementation on computer. In optimization process, analytical and finite element method are used together for better performance and precision. Result from optimization process is a set of solutions, from which engineer will choose one. This method was used to design a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on an asynchronous motor type АИР112МВ8.
Study on a high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Tong
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor used in gantry-type five-axis machining center is designed and its performance was tested in this article. This motor is the subproject of Chinese National Science and Technology Major Project named as “development of domestic large thrust linear motor used in high-speed gantry-type five-axis machining center project” jointly participated by enterprises and universities. According to the requirement of the application environment and motor performance parameters, the linear motor’s basic dimensions, form of windings, and magnet arrangement are preliminarily specified through theoretical analysis and calculation. To verify the correctness of the result of the calculation, the finite element model of the motor is established. The static and dynamic characteristics of the motor are studied and analyzed through the finite element method, and the initial scheme is revised. The prototype of the motor is manufactured based on the final revised structure parameters, and the performance of the motor is fully tested using the evaluation platform for direct-drive motor component. Experimental test results meet the design requirements and show the effectiveness of design method and process.
Sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor control with rotational inertia adjustment
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Yongle Mao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Mechanical model is generally required in high dynamic sensorless motor control schemes for zero phase lag estimation of rotor position and speed. However, the rotational inertia uncertainty will cause dynamic estimation errors, eventually resulting in performance deterioration of the sensorless control system. Therefore, this article proposes a high dynamic performance sensorless control strategy with online adjustment of the rotational inertia. Based on a synthetic back electromotive force model, the voltage equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is transformed to that of an equivalent non-salient permanent magnet synchronous motor. Then, an extended nonlinear observer is designed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor in the stator-fixed coordinate frame, with rotor position, speed and load torque simultaneously estimated. The effect of inaccurate rotational inertia on the estimation of rotor position and speed is investigated, and a novel rotational inertia adjustment approach that employs the gradient descent algorithm is proposed to suppress the dynamic estimation errors. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated by experimental tests.
Initial Rotor Position Estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor
Abe, Takashi; Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi
This paper presents an initial rotor position estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor. In the previous paper, we proposed this motor as AC servo motor, which is based on the half-wave rectified brushless excitation principle. The basic principle of this estimation technique utilizes the dependence of inductance on the rotor position. The bias frequency component of half-Wave rectified brushless excitation is used to estimate the rotor position error. The magnetic pole is discriminated by the switching condition of the diode inserted into the rotor field winding. This estimation technique is confirmed by simulation include inverter circuit, control program and motor model. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation technique has been verified by experiments.
Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.
Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem
2016-10-07
Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.
Research on inverter test system of synchronous motor using modbus communication
Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao
2013-03-01
In this paper, the hardware architecture of the servo system composed by self-made inverter and permanent magnet synchronous motor is introduced as well as its measurement and control system software features. Basing on the Modbus-RTU protocols which contain the CRC data verification between IPC and the inverter, we have built a communication system. The measurement and control software of servo system are realized, which consists of self-made inverter and PMSM. Compared with the servo system which consists of Schindler's ATV31 inverter and SIMO's asynchronous motor, the results are given. The experiment parameters include harmonic content which is contained by phase current and voltage, and also the motor speed. The results show that the measurement and control system are stable and reliable. Both the harmonic content of the Inverter output and the motor speed meet the requirements.
The Modelling and Characteristic Analysis of Brushless Synchronous Motor with Sinusoidal back EMF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Il Nam [Dong Seoul College (Korea); Baek, Soo Hyun; Maeng, In Jae; Yoon, Shin Yong; Baek, Soo Hyun [Dongguk University (Korea); Kim, Cherl Jin [Hanlla University (Korea)
2000-06-01
This paper presents the mathematical analysis of Brushless Synchronous Motor(BLSM). The dynamic and the steady state characteristics of BLSM are simulated and analyzed : electromagnetic torque, speed, line voltage, and current. We used mathematical modelling to model of BLSM with sinusoidal back EMF, namely the shaft transformation referencing rotor frame from a, b, c three phase frame to d-q two phase frame. Therefore, the BLSM induced a sinusoidal back EMF requires sinusoidal current to produce constant torque like synchronous motor. The experiment result has already similar to compare with simulation result : torque error about 7%, speed error about 5%. The validity of proposed modelling and analysis was confirmed by the experimental result. (author). 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.
Position Sensorless Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Sliding Mode Observer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
An approach of position sensorless control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is put forward based on a sliding mode observer. The mathematical model of PMSM in a stationary αβ reference frame is adopted, and the system is controlled by the digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320LF2407 according to the control theory of sliding mode observer. In order to achieve closed loop operation of the motor, the stator magnetic field should be vertical with the rotor magnetic field and be synchronous with rotor rotating, so the position and speed of PMSM is estimated in real time and the estimated position is modified continuously. The simulation results indicate that the proposed observer has high precision in estimation of PMSM position and speed, and is more robust to the parametric variation and load torque disturbance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Sabirin Rahmat
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.
A COMPENSATOR APPLICATION USING SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH A PI CONTROLLER BASED ON PIC
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Ramazan BAYINDIR
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, PI control of a synchronous motor has been realized by using a PIC 18F452 microcontroller and it has been worked as ohmic, inductive and capacitive with different excitation currents. Instead of solving integral operation of PI control which has difficulties with conversion to the digital system, summation of all error values of a defined time period are multiplied with the sampling period. Reference values of the PI algorithm are determined with Ziegler-Nicholas method. These parameters are calculated into the microcontroller and changed according to the algorithm. In addition, this work designed to provide visualization for the users. Current, voltage and power factor data of the synchronous motor can be observed easily on the LCD instantly.
Improvements of Power Factor and Torque of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor with a Slit Rotor
Nashiki, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshimitu; Kawai, Youichi; Yokochi, Takanori; Satake, Akiyoshi; Okuma, Shigeru
Power factor and torque of synchronous reluctance motors with a slit rotor are studied. In there stators, divided teeth made of powder magnetic core are adopted and windings are improved to get high space factor of stator windings and to shorten coil ends. In there rotors, stainless sheets are inserted among soft magnetic metal sheets with adhesive to strengthen the rotors and rotor structure is improved to enlarge the saliency ratio (Ld/Lq). As the result, the power factor 0.78 and 1.6 times torque at same motor size are attained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
A discrete-time hybrid model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with saturation in voltage and current is formulated.The controller design with incorporated constraints is achieved in a systematic way from modeling to control synthesis and implementation.The Hybrid System Description Language is used to obtain a mixed-logical dynamical (MLD) model.Based on the MLD model,a model predictive controller is designed for an optimal speed regulation of the motor.For reducing computation complexity and ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2011-10-15
Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.
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Ting Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.
Estimation of Saturation of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors Through an Energy-Based Model
Jebai, AlKassem; Martin, Philippe; Rouchon, Pierre
2011-01-01
We propose a parametric model of the saturated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) together with an estimation method of the magnetic parameters. The model is based on an energy function which simply encompasses the saturation effects. Injection of fast-varying pulsating voltages and measurements of the resulting current ripples then permit to identify the magnetic parameters by linear least squares. Experimental results on a surface-mounted PMSM and an interoir magnet PMSM illustrate the relevance of the approach.
Towards an improved energy efficiency of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
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Gecić Marko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of energy efficiency increase in the drives with high speed permanent magnet synchronous motors. The losses are decreased by the proposed procedure, i.e. proper allocation of the available stator current capacity to the direct and quadrature current components. The approach provides increased energy efficiency by varying the ratio between copper and iron losses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III042004
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.
2011-01-01
According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage vec....... The experimental results show that the proposed method estimates the initial rotor position reliably and efficently. The method is also simple and can achieve satisfied estimation accuracy....
Online MTPA Control Approach for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Emotional Controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daryabeigi, Ehsan; Zarchi, Hossein Abootorabi; Markadeh, G. R. Arab
2015-01-01
In this paper, speed and torque control modes (SCM and TCM) of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) drives are proposed based on emotional controllers and space vector modulation under an automatic search of the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) strategy. Furthermore, in order to achieve an MTPA...... variations and external disturbances in both TCM and SCM. In addition, the proposed MTPA strategy shows a reliable and fast response to operating point change....
Single-phase PM synchronous motor simulation with Matlab/Simulink
Chiver, O.; Neamt, L.; Pop, E.; Horgos, M.; Erdei, Z.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.
2017-01-01
The permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors have a major advantage compared to the asynchronous motors, namely that there are no losses in the rotor. As regarding the single-phase motors must be considered the possibility to obtain the starting torque. A simple and inexpensive constructive solution is the motor with tapered air-gap, which can develop a starting torque (although specific starting torque is small) in a well-defined direction, simply by powering the stator winding from the network of industrial frequency. Starting torque occurs due to the fact that the axis of the rotor field created by PM in the rest position differs from the axis of the stator because of the tapered air gap. Therefore this motor is more often used in low power household appliances. The development and the implementation in Matlab / Simulink of the motor model will be presented in this paper. The model is based on a mathematical model with lumped parameters, parameters that are determined through calculations and finite elements analysis. The motor behavior will be studied, both in stationary and dynamic operation. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing simulation results with results obtained by measurements.
CONFIRMATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL ADEQUACY OF A LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
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V. F. Novikov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose.To reduce labor costs and the amount of computer time in the design of linear synchronous motors with excitation from a source of a constant magnetic field of high-speed ground transportation it is necessary to use engineering methods. The purpose of this study is to confirm the adequacy of the previously proposed mathematical model of this engine and assumptions. It is also intended to confirm the possibility of applying the method of calculation of traction that occurs in the engine in the interaction of the permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure.Methodology. As for empirical theories the positive result of the experiment is not absolute proof of the truth, for an unambiguous conclusion about the adequacy of the developed model and the effectiveness of the developed methods need to be tested for falsification. In accordance with this criterion, it is necessary to conduct an experiment, the results of which will coincide with the calculation but you also need to avoid errors caused by random coincidences. For this purpose the experiments with varying parameters are conducted. Findings. In a critical experiment configuration changes of the excitation system were held so that the shape dependence of traction from displacement is differed significantly. The comparison of the results of the calculated and experimental values of traction for different configurations showed that the differences are minor and easily explained by measurement error and uneven gaps between the poles and excitation coils of the track structure. Originality. The adequacy of the mathematical model of a linear synchronous motor without a ferromagnetic magnetic circuit and the assumptions and applicability of the calculation method of traction forces involved in it, at the interaction of a permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure were proved. This proof is built on
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Pyrhoenen, O.
1998-12-31
Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque
Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors by Neural Network Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Shyan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The sliding mode control has the merits with respect to the variation of the disturbance and robustness. In this paper, the sensorless sliding-mode observer with least mean squared error approach for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to detect the rotor position by counter electromotive force and then compute motor speed is designed and implemented. In addition, the neural network control is also used to compensate the PI gain tuning to increase the speed accuracy without regarding the errors of the current measurement and motor noise. In this paper, a digital signal processor TMS320F2812 utilizes its high-speed ADC module to get current feedback information and thus to estimate the rotor position and takes advantage of the built-in modules to achieve SVPWM current control so that the senseless speed control will be accomplished. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control system will be verified from the experimental results.
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Qiu Hongbo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In order to compare the performance difference of the permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with different rotor structure, two kinds of rotor magnetic circuit structure with surface-mounted radial excitation and tangential excitation are designed respectively. By comparing and analyzing the results, the difference of the motor performance was determined. Firstly, based on the finite element method (FEM, the motor electromagnetic field performance was studied, and the magnetic field distribution of the different magnetic circuit structure was obtained. The influence mechanism of the different magnetic circuit structure on the air gap flux density was obtained by using the Fourier theory. Secondly, the cogging torque, output torque and overload capacity of the PMSM with different rotor structure were studied. The effect mechanism of the different rotor structure on the motor output property difference was obtained. The motor prototype with two kinds of rotor structure was manufactured, and the experimental study was carried out. By comparing the experimental data and simulation data, the correctness of the research is verified. This paper lays a foundation for the research on the performance of the PMSM with different magnetic circuit structure.
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Abootorabi Zarchi, H., E-mail: abootorabi9@yahoo.co [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arab Markadeh, Gh.R., E-mail: arab-gh@eng.sku.ac.i [Department of Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, J., E-mail: j1234sm@cc.iut.ac.i [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-01-15
In this paper, a nonlinear speed tracking controller is introduced for three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) on the basis of input-output feedback linearization (IOFL), considering the different control strategies (maximum torque per Ampere, high efficiency and minimum KVA rating for the inverter) related to this motor. The proposed control approach is capable of decoupling control of stator flux and motor generated torque. The validity and effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation and experimental results.
Study on three dimensional electromagnetic model for permanent magnet linear synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪旭东; 王兆安; 袁世鹰
2002-01-01
In this paper, with the non-salient pole permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM)being cited, by using Fourier transform method and “slot-by-slot”, “pole -by-pole” current approach, a 3D electromagnetic field model of PMLSM is established. Special attention is paid to its structure and the influence of longitudinal and transverse end effect. The distribution of electromagnetic field of PMLSM can be obtained directly and promptly by using FFT algorithm. It can also be used for the analysis of other LSM.
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Tat-Bao-Thien Nguyen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, based on fuzzy neural networks, we develop an adaptive sliding mode controller for chaos suppression and tracking control in a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive system. The proposed controller consists of two parts. The first is an adaptive sliding mode controller which employs a fuzzy neural network to estimate the unknown nonlinear models for constructing the sliding mode controller. The second is a compensational controller which adaptively compensates estimation errors. For stability analysis, the Lyapunov synthesis approach is used to ensure the stability of controlled systems. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the validity and superiority of the proposed method.
Nonlinear Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Salient Poles
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K. Kyslan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with salient poles based on two-step linearization method. In the first step, the direct compensation of the nonlinearities in the equations of current is used. In the second step, the input-output linearization in the state space is used for the decoupling of flux and torque axis. Simulated results are compared to the field oriented vector control structure with PI controllers in order to show differences in the performance of both approaches.
Control of chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor by using optimal Lyapunov exponents placement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ataei, Mohammad, E-mail: ataei@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiyoumarsi, Arash, E-mail: kiyoumarsi@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Behzad, E-mail: behzad.ghorbani63@gmail.co [Department of Control Engineering, Najafabad Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-09-13
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) experiences chaotic behavior for a certain range of its parameters. In this case, since the performance of the PMSM degrades, the chaos should be eliminated. In this Letter, the control of the undesirable chaos in PMSM using Lyapunov exponents (LEs) placement is proposed that is also improved by choosing optimal locations of the LEs in the sense of predefined cost function. Moreover, in order to provide the physical realization of the method, nonlinear parameter estimator for the system is suggested. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the simulation results for applying this control strategy are provided.
Dsp-based Robust Nonlinear Speed Control of PM Synchronous Motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baik, I.C.; Kim, K.H.; Youn, M.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-02-01
A DSP-based robust nonlinear speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) is presented. A quasi-linearized and decoupled model including the influence of parameter variations and speed measurement error on the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is derived. Based on this model, a boundary layer integral sliding mode controller to improve the robustness and performance of the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is designed and compared with the conventional controller. To show the validity of the proposed control scheme, simulations and experimental works are carried out and compared with the conventional control scheme. (author). 17 refs., 10 figs.
Computer-aided design studies of the homopolar linear synchronous motor
Dawson, G. E.; Eastham, A. R.; Ong, R.
1984-09-01
The linear induction motor (LIM), as an urban transit drive, can provide good grade-climbing capabilities and propulsion/braking performance that is independent of steel wheel-rail adhesion. In view of its 10-12 mm airgap, the LIM is characterized by a low power factor-efficiency product of order 0.4. A synchronous machine offers high efficiency and controllable power factor. An assessment of the linear homopolar configuration of this machine is presented as an alternative to the LIM. Computer-aided design studies using the finite element technique have been conducted to identify a suitable machine design for urban transit propulsion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Vittek
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.
2011-01-01
According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...
Controlling Chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor based on finite-time stability theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Du-Qu; Zhang So
2009-01-01
This paper reports that the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM)degrades due to chaos when its systemic parameters fall into a certain area.To control the undesirable chaos in PMSM,a nonlinear controller,which is simple and easy to be constructed,is presented to achieve finite-time chaos control based on the finite-time stability theory.Computer simulation results show that the proposed controller is very effective.The obtained results may help to maintain the industrial servo driven system's security operation.
A simple and robust speed control scheme of permanent magnet synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dianguo XU; Yang GAO
2004-01-01
This paper presents a simple and robust speed control scheme of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor(PMSM). It is to achieve accurate control peffommance m the presence of load torque and plant parameter variation. A robust disturbance cancellation feed forward controller is used to estimate the torque disturbance. The simple and practical control scheme is easily implemented on a PMSM driver using a TMS320LF2407 DSP. The effectiveness of the proposed robust speed control approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.
A New Design Optimization Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motors
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Juncai Song
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This study focused on the design optimization of permanent magnet synchronous linear motors (PMSLM that are applied in microsecond laser cutting machines. A new design optimization method was introduced to enhance PMSLM performances in terms of motor thrust, thrust ripple, and inductive electromotive force (EMF. Based on accurate 3D finite element analysis (3D-FEA, a multiple support vector machine (multi-SVM was proposed to build a non-parametric quick calculation model by mapping the relation between multivariate structure parameters and multivariate operation performances. The gravity center neighborhood algorithm (GCNA was also applied to search the global optimal combination of the structure parameters by locating the gravity center of the multi-SVM model. The superiority and validity of this method are verified by experiments.
Metamodels for New Designs of Outer-Rotor Brushless Synchronous Electric Motors
Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.
2014-04-01
The authors consider the possibilities to synthesise metamodels for the analysis and optimisation of brushless synchronous motors. The metamodels are presented for new designs of the outer-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and the outer-rotor reluctance motor. The metamodels are synthesised based on the results obtained by the numerical calculations of magnetic field taking into account magnetic saturation. Analysis of the results for the motor magnetic field and tests of the metamodels at the selected and intermediate points shows that these can be synthesised with acceptable accuracy using numerical calculations instead of expensive real experiments. Rakstā ir apskatītas metamodeļu iegūšanas iespējas to izmantošanai bezkontaktu sinhrono dzinēju analīzē un optimizācijā. Ir iegūti metamodeļi sinhronam dzinējam ar pastāvīgajiem magnētiem un reaktīvam dzinējam ar ārējo rotoru. Sintezēto metamodeļu iegūšanai izmantoti elektrisko dzinēju magnētiskā lauka skaitlisko aprēķinu rezultāti, ievērojot magnētiskās ķēdes piesātinājumu. Metamodeļu pārbaude aprēķinu un starppunktos parādīja, ka to iegūšanai dārgo reālo eksperimentu vietā var izmantot magnētiskā lauka aprēķinu rezultātus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas WALDSCHIK
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, we report on the development of several synchronous motors with rotatory or linear movements. The synchronous micro motors are brushless DC motors or stepper motors with electrically controlled commutation consisting of a stator and a rotor. The rotor is mounted onto the stator and is adjusted by an integrated guidance. Inside the stator different coil systems are realized, like double layer sector coils or special nested coils. The coil systems can be controlled by three or six phases depending on the operational mode. Furthermore, inorganic insulation layers were used in order to reduce the thickness of the system. By this means four layers of electrical conductors can be realized especially for the 2D devices. The smallest diameter of the rotatory motor is 1 mm and could be successfully driven.
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Huangqiu Zhu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs, with all advantages of permanent magnet motors (PMSMs and magnetic bearings, have become an important research direction in the bearingless motor field. To realize a stable suspension for the BPMSM, accurate decoupling control between the electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force is indispensable. In this paper, a concise and reliable analysis method based on a magnetic field equivalent current is presented. By this analysis method, the operation principle is analyzed theoretically, and the necessary conditions to produce a stable radial suspension force are confirmed. In addition, mathematical models of the torque and radial suspension force are established which is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS. Finally, an experimental prototype of a 2-4 poles surface-mounted BPMSM is tested with the customized control strategy. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the motor has good rotation and suspension performance, and validated the accuracy of the proposed analysis method and the feasibility of the control strategy.
Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor
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Ainslie, M.D., E-mail: mda36@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T.J.; Coombs, T.A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2010-11-01
This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge's superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.
Gao, Lin; Wang, Jue; Chen, Longwei
2013-06-01
Objective. Various approaches have been applied for the quantification of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in EEG/MEG data analysis, but most of them are based on band power analysis. In this paper, we sought a novel method using a nonlinear measurement to quantify the ERD/ERS time course of motor-related EEG. Approach. We applied Kolmogorov entropy to quantify the ERD/ERS time course of motor-related EEG in relation to hand movement imagination and execution for the first time. To further test the validity of the Kolmogorov entropy measure, we tested it on five human subjects for feature extraction to classify the left and right hand motor tasks. Main results. The results show that the relative increase and decrease of Kolmogorov entropy indicates the ERD and ERS respectively. An average classification accuracy of 87.3% was obtained for five subjects. Significance. The results prove that Kolmogorov entropy can effectively quantify the dynamic process of event-related EEG, and it also provides a novel method of classifying motor imagery tasks from scalp EEG by Kolmogorov entropy measurement with promising classification accuracy.
Speed estimator for induction motor drive based on synchronous speed tracking
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S B Bodkhe; M V Aware; J G Chaudhari; J G Agrawal
2015-06-01
This paper presents a new open-loop speed estimation method for a three-phase induction motor drive. The open-loop speed estimators available in literature have the advantage of reduced computational stress over the observers but they share a common limitation of being largely dependent on flux and machine parameters. They involve integrations and differentiation in the algorithm that leads to serious error in estimation when subject to different operating conditions. The proposed estimator is based on synchronous speed tracking and is cost-effective. It is immune to any variation in machine parameters and noise. The synchronous speed is computed from stator frequency which is estimated on-line using the stator current signals. A unique, non-adaptive method for estimation of stator frequency within one-sixteenth of time period is also proposed to enhance the speed of estimation. Computer simulation and experimentation on a 2.2 kW Field oriented controlled induction motor drive is carried out to verify the performance of proposed speed estimator. The results show excellent response over a wide range of rotor speed in both directions including low speed and under different operating conditions. This confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A Novel Direct Torque Control Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive used in Electrical Vehicle
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Yaohua Li
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a modified direct torque control (DTC scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is investigated, which enables low torque ripple by using an improved voltage vector selection strategy instead of switching table used in conventional DTC. Based on the control of stator flux, torque angle and torque, voltage vector selection strategy of PMSM DTC drive is proposed. In the proposed voltage vector selection strategy, the applied voltage vector is determined according to outputs of hysteresis comparators for stator flux and torque, angular position of stator flux and torque angle, which is finally synthesized by space vector modulation (SVM. Modeling and experimental results for an interior PMSM used in Honda Civic 06My Hybrid electrical vehicle are given. Simulation and experimental results show torque ripple is reduced and the total harmonics of stator current is decreased when compared those of conventional DTC. And a fixed switching frequency is obtained with the help of SVM. In addition, the proposed DTC doesn’t need any additional PI controller, which maintains the simplicity in conventional DTC. Keywords: direct torque control, permanent magnet synchronous motor, electrical vehicle, torque ripple, switching frequency
Development of Digital Control for High Power Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
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Ming-Hung Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of digital control system for high power permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to yield good speed regulation, low current harmonic, and stable output speed. The design of controller is conducted by digitizing the mathematical model of PMSM using impulse invariance technique. The predicted current estimator, which is insensitive to motor feedback currents, is proposed to function under stationary frame for harmonic current suppression. In the AC/DC power converter, mathematical model and dc-link voltage limit of the three-phase switch-mode rectifier are derived. In addition, a current controller under synchronous frame is introduced to reduce the current harmonics and increase the power factor on the input side. A digital control system for 75 kW PMSM is realized with digital signal processor (R5F5630EDDFP. Experimental results indicate that the total harmonic distortion of current is reduced from 4.1% to 2.8% for 50 kW output power by the proposed predicted current estimator technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)
2013-08-15
The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)
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P. Ramana
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses modeling and parameter estimation of PMSM. The design of a control system for a high performance drive requires a mathematical model of the motor. This is usually derived fromphysical principles, then the parameters of the motor are determined through off-line testing or estimated on-line from input/output operating records data. The dynamics of synchronous motor can be described by a set of differential equations relating voltages, currents, speed and torque. The equations represented in d-q axes variables in the rotor reference frame using park’s transformation are presented. A parameter estimation technique employing the Hartley modulating function (HMF is detailed. Using the data obtained from open loop simulation physical parameters such as stator resistance andinductances as well as mechanical parameters such as moment of inertia and viscous friction coefficient have been estimated with a fair amount of accuracy. This estimate has been found to be quite sensitive to the choice of sampling period.
Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM
Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.
2010-11-01
A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.
Nakamura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Nishio, H.; Kajikawa, K.; Sugano, M.; Amemiya, N.; Wakuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, M.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.
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Xuan Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to control the permanent-magnet synchronous motor system (PMSM with different disturbances and nonlinearity, an improved current control algorithm for the PMSM systems using recursive model predictive control (RMPC is developed in this paper. As the conventional MPC has to be computed online, its iterative computational procedure needs long computing time. To enhance computational speed, a recursive method based on recursive Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (RLMA and iterative learning control (ILC is introduced to solve the learning issue in MPC. RMPC is able to significantly decrease the computation cost of traditional MPC in the PMSM system. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental results.
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Eduardo Espíndola-López
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A new Fourier Series Learning Controller (FSLC for velocity control on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is proposed and implemented. An analysis of the error convergence for the FSLC is presented, and the update law for the Fourier series coefficients is specified. The field-oriented control method is used as a basic element to implement three different controllers for a PMSM. The performance of the FSLC is compared with two control methods, a classical PI (Proportional Integral controller and an artificial neural network controller. The periodic nature of torque ripple in PMSMs is considered as a periodic disturbance, which must be compensated by the controller. With the FSLC implementation, a substantial reduction of the velocity ripple is obtained. Furthermore, a higher speed of learning is achieved with the FSLC in comparison with the artificial neural network.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
A bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motor(BPMSM)has two sets of stator windings,torque windings and suspension force windings.By analyzing the flux linkage intersection between the two sets of windings,a method of transforming mechanical coordinates to electrical coordinates is put forward.According to this method,flux linkage equations and voltage equations of the two stator windings are derived.The electromagnetic torque equation of the BPMSM is derived based on the analysis of the role of Lorentz force in the BPMSM.After analyzing the mathematical formula of various sort radial forces in the BPMSM,a complete function of radial suspension forces for the BPMSM is obtained.Finally,an experimental system control diagram and some test results are discussed.This mathematical model provides a theoretical foundation for BPMSM simulation study,experiment waveform analysis and structure design.
Speed tracking control of PM synchronous motor by internal model design
Ping, Zhaowu; Huang, Jie
2012-05-01
In this article, we consider a speed tracking and load torque disturbance rejection problem of PM synchronous motor by internal model design. The problem is first formulated as a global robust output regulation problem of a special class of multivariable systems. Then the output regulation problem is further converted into a global stabilisation problem of an augmented system composed of the original plant and an internal model. As the augmented system does not take any known special form, we have developed a specific tool to deal with the stabilisation problem. In particular, a generalised changing supply function technique applicable to non-input-to-state stable (ISS) systems is developed. This technique, in conjunction with a particular nonlinear internal model, leads to an effective solution to the problem.
Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...... variables, the torque and the square of stator flux magnitude. This linear model is intuitive and allows the implementation of DTC-type controllers that preserve all DTC advantages and eliminate its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Next, we investigate two controllers for toque and flux....... A variable structure controller (VSC) which is robust, fast, and produces low-ripple control is compared with a linear-DTC scheme which is ripple free. The torque time response is similar to a conventional DTC drive and the proposed solutions are flexible and highly tunable. We present the controller design...
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Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan 415000 (China)
2014-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
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Baghdad BELABES
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.
A Study on the Improvement of Torque Characteristics in PM Synchronous Motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryoo, Si Yeong [Chonan National Technical College (Korea); Lee, Doo Soo [Hanyang University (Korea)
2001-06-01
In this paper, we present a method to improve the torque characteristics of PMSM(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) and its hardware realization. It is based on the compensation of sinusoidal current delay caused by phase winding inductances. Since coordinate transformation is not used, simple hard-wired logic in the controller design is adopted and this scheme can eliminates the delay through the coordinate transformation. The delay components are varied according to rotation speeds, but this method can also make it possible to compensate those, dynamically. The control scheme has been verified by experiments on a 4-pole 3-phase PMSM, and the generated torques are increased at whole operation speed ranges. (author). 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing TIAN; Qun-tao AN; Li SUN‡; Dong-yang SUN; Jian-dong DUAN
2016-01-01
A novel nonlinear model for surface permanent magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) is adopted to estimate the initial rotor position for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Usually, the accuracy of initial rotor position estimation for SPMSMs relies on magnetic saturation. To verify the saturation effect, the transient finite element analysis (FEA) model is presented first. Hybrid injection of a static voltage vector (SVV) superimposed with a high-frequency rotating voltage is proposed. The magnetic polarity is roughly identified with the aid of the saturation evaluation function, based on which an estimation of the position is performed. During this procedure, a special demodulation is suggested to extract signals of iron core saturation and rotor position. A Simulink/MATLAB platform for SPMSMs at standstill is constituted, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified. The proposed method is also validated by experimental results of an SPMSM drive.
An Improved Stator Flux Observation Method of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guangjing Su; Hongmei Li; Ying Dai; Zheng Li
2016-01-01
The stator flux and electromagnetic torque observation is the basis of direct torque controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor ( PMSM) drive system. However, the traditional stator flux observer based on voltage model is affected by integral initial values and integral drift, that based on current model is affected by the parameters of PMSM, so a new stator flux observation method is proposed based on an improved second⁃order generalized integrator ( SOGI) . Compared to the stator flux observation method based on the conventional SOGI, the proposed method can not only overcome the influence of integral initial values and integral drift, but also completely eliminate the DC offset’ s influence. Therefore, the observation accuracy of stator flux is further improved. The simulation and experimental results both show that the proposed method has a higher stator flux and electromagnetic torque observation precision.
A Two-stage Kalman Filter for Sensorless Direct Torque Controlled PM Synchronous Motor Drive
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Boyu Yi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal two-stage extended Kalman filter (OTSEKF for closed-loop flux, torque, and speed estimation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVPWM operation of drive system. The novel observer is obtained by using the same transformation as in a linear Kalman observer, which is proposed by C.-S. Hsieh and F.-C. Chen in 1999. The OTSEKF is an effective implementation of the extended Kalman filter (EKF and provides a recursive optimum state estimation for PMSMs using terminal signals that may be polluted by noise. Compared to a conventional EKF, the OTSEKF reduces the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed OTSEKF observer for DTC of PMSMs.
Torque vector control using neural network controller for synchronous reluctance motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, X. [Teco-Westinghouse Motor Co, R and D Center, Round Rock, TX (United States); Belmans, R.; Hameyer, K. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Dic. ELEN, Dept. ESAT, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)
2000-08-01
This paper presents the torque vector control technique using a neural network controller for a synchronous reluctance motor. As the artificial neural network controller has the advantages of faster execution speed, harmonic ripple immunity and fault tolerance compared to a DSP-based controller, different multi-layer neural network controllers are designed and trained to produce a correct target vector when presented with the corresponding input vector. The trained result and calculated flops show that although the designed three layer controller with tansig, purelin and hard limit functions has more processing layers, the neuron number of each layer is less than that of other kinds of neural network controller, the requiring less flops and yielding faster execution and response. (orig.)
Luo, Shaohua
2014-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Thrust ripple optimization and experiment for a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Yue-tong; FU Jian-zhong; CHEN Zi-chen
2006-01-01
Thrust ripple such as end force,slot force and normal force are key factors that affect the properties of permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSM).According to different mechanics and analytical models,end force resulting from open magnetic circuit of PMLSM was greatly decreased by optimizing the length of the PMLSM mover.Slot force caused by slot effect was greatly reduced by using fraction slot structure,and normal force was calculated through the finite element method (FEM).After thrust ripple was calculated,its uniform formula was obtained through Fourier series nonlinear regression.An experimental system was set up to measure thrust ripple,and experiment results demonstrated that experimental force ripple was quite in line with that calculated by the fitting formula.The optimal theory and analysis method is effective,and the obtained formula can be utilized to compensate thrust ripple in practical applications and improve the motion performance of PMLSM.
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Jian-wei Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Taking advantage of the high reliability, multiphase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, such as five-phase PMSM and six-phase PMSM, are widely used in fault-tolerant control applications. And one of the important fault-tolerant control problems is fault diagnosis. In most existing literatures, the fault diagnosis problem focuses on the three-phase PMSM. In this paper, compared to the most existing fault diagnosis approaches, a fault diagnosis method for Interturn short circuit (ITSC fault of five-phase PMSM based on the trust region algorithm is presented. This paper has two contributions. (1 Analyzing the physical parameters of the motor, such as resistances and inductances, a novel mathematic model for ITSC fault of five-phase PMSM is established. (2 Introducing an object function related to the Interturn short circuit ratio, the fault parameters identification problem is reformulated as the extreme seeking problem. A trust region algorithm based parameter estimation method is proposed for tracking the actual Interturn short circuit ratio. The simulation and experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed parameter estimation method.
Application of neural networks for permanent magnet synchronous motor direct torque control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Chunmei; Liu Heping; Chen Shujin; Wang Fangjun
2008-01-01
Neural networks require a lot of training to understand the model of a plant or a process. Issues such as learning speed, stability, and weight convergence remain as areas of research and comparison of many training algorithms. The application of neural networks to control interior permanent magnet synchronous motor using direct torque control (DTC) is discussed. A neural network is used to emulate the state selector of the DTC. The neural networks used are the back-propagation and radial basis function. To reduce the training patterns and increase the execution speed of the training process, the inputs of switching table are converted to digital signals, i.e., one bit represent the flux error, one bit the torque error, and three bits the region of stator flux. Computer simulations of the motor and neural-network system using the two approaches are presented and compared. Discussions about the back-propagation and radial basis function as the most promising training techniques are presented, giving its advantages and disadvantages. The system using back-propagation and radial basis function networks controller has quick parallel speed and high torque response.
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Dongbin Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has high efficiency and high torque density. Field oriented control (FOC is usually used in the motor to achieve maximum efficiency control. In the electric vehicle (EV application, the PMSM efficiency model, combined with the EV and road load system model, is used to study the optimal energy-saving control strategy, which is significant for the economic operation of EVs. With the help of GPS, IMU, and other information technologies, the road conditions can be measured in advance. Based on this information, the optimal velocity of the EV driven by PMSM can be obtained through the analytical algorithm according to the efficiency model of PMSM and the vehicle dynamic model in simple road conditions. In complex road conditions, considering the dynamic characteristics, the economic operating velocity trajectory of the EV can be obtained through the dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Simulation and experimental results show that the minimum energy consumption and global energy optimization can be achieved when the EV operates in the economic operation area.
2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Male, G; Lubin, T; Mezani, S; Leveque, J, E-mail: gael.male@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France)
2011-03-15
An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.
Rowihal, Said Soliman
Both voltage-source and current-source inverters are widely used for supplying three-phase power to induction motor drives, each having their advantages and disadvantages. For high power drives and applications requiring accurate speed and tracking coordination, the synchronous motors are the optimum choice. For constant speed applications of synchronous motor drives, current-source inverters tend to be favored as the motor can usually be operated in the overexcited leading power factor region, thus providing the inverter with sufficient electro-motive force to allow natural commutation. Generally speaking low speed operation of synchronous motors is not satisfactory from naturally commutated current-source inverters. To provide a dynamic range of speed and frequency would require expensive control circuitry and complicates the performance of the drive. The advantage of the voltage-source inverter for the wide range of speed and frequency control herein envisaged is that forced commutation is employed throughout the range and the commutating circuits have been well developed and established. On balance, voltage-source inverters represent a viable compromise for variable-speed three -phase synchronous motor drives including start-up. To investigate the transient response of the voltage -source fed-synchronous motor drives, a digital computer program is developed. The program is based on two models --machine model and inverter model. The machine is represented by a detailed two-axis model which includes the effects due to saliency, damper windings, and machine resistances. The inverter model represents a forced-commutated voltage-source inverter assuming ideal switching devices (thyristors and diodes). To cope with the wide variations of power factor during start-up, a thyristor with a reverse connected parallel diode are integrated as a bidirectional switch. The digital program provides the machine variables of interest (phase currents, field current, damper winding
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Qiu Hongbo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available At present, the drivers with different control methods are used in most of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM. A current outputted by a driver contains a large number of harmonics that will cause the PMSM torque ripple, winding heating and rotor temperature rise too large and so on. In this paper, in order to determine the influence of the current harmonics on the motor performance, different harmonic currents were injected into the motor armature. Firstly, in order to study the influence of the current harmonic on the motor magnetic field, a novel decoupling method of the motor magnetic field was proposed. On this basis, the difference of harmonic content in an air gap magnetic field was studied, and the influence of a harmonic current on the air gap flux density was obtained. Secondly, by comparing the fluctuation of the motor torque in the fundamental and different harmonic currents, the influence of harmonic on a motor torque ripple was determined. Then, the influence of different current harmonics on the eddy current loss of the motor was compared and analyzed, and the influence of the drive harmonic on the eddy current loss was obtained. Finally, by using a finite element method (FEM, the motor temperature distribution with different harmonics was obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao LIU; Yun-yue YE; Zhuo ZHENG; Qin-fen LU
2008-01-01
A novel elevator door driven by tubular permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (TPMLSM) is presented. This TPMLSM applies axial magnet array topology of the secondary rod, air-cored armature windings and slotless structure of the forcer to improve the stability of the thrust. The influence of two major dimensions, the pitch and radius of the permanent magnet (PM), on magnetic field was studied and the best values were given by the finite element analysis (FEA). The magnetic field, back EMF and thrust of the motor were analyzed and the PM size was optimized to reduce the harmonic components of the magnetic field and improve the performance of the motor. Predicted results are validated by the experiment. It is shown that the performance of the motor and the novel elevator door system is satisfying.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kan Liu; Qiao Zhang; Zi-Qiang Zhu; Jing Zhang; An-Wen Shen; Paul Stewart
2010-01-01
Two model reference adaptive system(MRAS)estimators are developed for identifying the parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSM)based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and the Popov stability criterion,respectively.The proposed estimators only need online measurement of currents,voltages,and rotor speed to effectively estimate stator resistance,inductance,and rotor flux-linkage simultaneously.The performance of the estimators is compared and verified through simulations and experiments,which show that the two estimators are simple,have good robustness against parameter variation,and are accurate in parameter tracking.However,the estimator based on the Popov stability criterion,which can overcome parameter variation in a practical system,is superior in terms of response speed and convergence speed since there are both proportional and integral units in the estimator,in contrast to only one integral unit in the estimator based on the Lyapunov stability theorem.In addition,the estimator based on the Popov stability criterion does not need the expertise that is required in designing a Lyapunov function.
Li, Kunpeng
2017-01-01
The compatibility problem between rapidity and overshooting in the traditional predictive current control structure is inevitable and difficult to solve by reason of using PI controller. A novel predictive current control (PCC) algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is presented in this paper. In order to displace PI controller, the LADRC strategy which consisted of linear state error feedback (LSEF) control algorithm and linear extended state observer (LESO), is designed based on the mathematic model of PMSM. The purpose of LSEF is to make sure fast response to load mutation and system uncertainties, and LESO is designed to estimate the uncertain disturbances. The principal structures of the proposed system are speed outer loop based on LADRC and current inner loop based on predictive current control. Especially, the instruction value of qaxis current in inner loop is derived from the control quantity which is designed in speed outer loop. The simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink software, and the results illustrate that the dynamic and static performances of proposed system are satisfied. Moreover the robust against model parameters mismatch is enhanced obviously.
Comparison of Modulation Techniques for Multilevel Inverter fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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V. NAGA BHASKAR REDDY
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Multilevel inversion is a power conversion strategy in which the output voltage is obtained in steps thus bringing the output closer to a sine wave and reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion. Multilevel inverter structures have been developed to overcome shortcomings in solid-state switching device ratings so that they can be applied to higher voltage systems. In recent years, the multilevel inverters have drawn tremendous interest in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy control. Three different topologies have been proposed for multilevel inverters like Diode-Clamped Inverter, Capacitor Clamped Inverter and Cascaded Multi cell Inverter. In addition, several modulation and control strategies have been developed or adopted for multilevel inverters including the following multilevel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM, and Space Vector Modulation. In this paper, simulation of various modulating techniques i.e., Pulse Width Modulate techniques such as Sinusoidal PWM, Trapezoidal PWM, Stepped PWM, Stair case PWM, third harmonicinjected PWM, Modified SVPWM are applied for both Diode Clamped Three-Level Inverter and Diode Clamped Five-Level Inverter, and Space Vector PWM technique are analyzed for DC3LI. The best modulationtechnique are extended to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.
Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun
2016-06-01
Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.
A Phase Current Reconstruction Approach for Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
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Hao Yan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are widely used in renewable energy applications such as wind power generation, tidal energy and electric vehicles owing to their merits such as high efficiency, high precision and high reliability. To reduce the cost and volume of the drive system, techniques of reconstructing three-phase current using a single current sensor have been reported for three-phase alternating current (AC control system using the power converts. In existing studies, the reconstruction precision is largely influenced by reconstructing dead zones on the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM plane, which requires other algorithms to compensate either by modifying PWM modulation or by phase-shifting of the PWM signal. In this paper, a novel extended phase current reconstruction approach for PMSM drive is proposed. Six novel installation positions are obtained by analyzing the sampling results of the current paths between each two power switches. By arranging the single current sensor at these positions, the single current sensor is sampled during zero voltage vectors (ZVV without modifying the PWM signals. This proposed method can reconstruct the three-phase currents without any complex algorithms and is available in the sector boundary region and low modulation region. Finally, this method is validated by experiments.
Kwon, Chung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Joong; Han, Woo-Young; Min, Won-Kyoung
2005-12-01
The rotor position and speed estimation of permanent-magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) was dealt with. By measuring the phase voltages and currents of the PMSM drive, two diagonally recurrent neural network(DRNN) based observers, a neural current observer and a neural velocity observer were developed. DRNN which has self-feedback of the hidden neurons ensures that the outputs of DRNN contain the whole past information of the system even if the inputs of DRNN are only the present states and inputs of the system. Thus the structure of DRNN may be simpler than that of feedforward and fully recurrent neural networks. If the backpropagation method was used for the training of the DRNN the problem of slow convergence arise. In order to reduce this problem, recursive prediction error(RPE) based learning method for the DRNN was presented. The simulation results show that the proposed approach gives a good estimation of rotor speed and position, and RPE based training has requires a shorter computation time compared to backpropagation based training.
Nicolas Denis; Yoshiyuki Kato; Masaharu Ieki; Keisuke Fujisaki
2016-01-01
In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM) is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM) control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but ...
Perfetti, Bernardo; Moisello, Clara; Landsness, Eric Carl; Kvint, Svetlana; Lanzafame, Simona; Onofrj, Marco; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M Felice
2011-10-12
The formation of new motor memories, which is fundamental for efficient performance during adaptation to a visuo-motor rotation, occurs when accurate planning is achieved mostly with feedforward mechanisms. The dynamics of brain activity underlying the switch from feedback to feedforward control is still matter of debate. Based on the results of studies in declarative learning, it is likely that phase synchronization of low and high frequencies as well as their temporal modulation in power amplitude underlie the formation of new motor memories during visuo-motor adaptation. High-density EEG (256 electrodes) was recorded in 17 normal human subjects during adaptation to a visuo-motor rotation of 60° in four incremental steps of 15°. We found that initial learning is associated with enhancement of gamma power in a right parietal region during movement execution as well as gamma/theta phase coherence during movement planning. Late stages of learning are instead accompanied by an increase of theta power over that same right parietal region during movement planning, which is correlated with the degree of learning and retention. Altogether, these results suggest that the formation of new motor memories and, thus, the switch from feedback to feedforward control is associated with the modulation of gamma and theta spectral activities, with respect to their amplitude and phase, during movement planning and execution. Specifically, we propose that gamma/theta phase coupling plays a pivotal role in the integration of a new representation into motor memories.
Ottewill, J. R.; Ruszczyk, A.; Broda, D.
2017-02-01
Time-varying transmission paths and inaccessibility can increase the difficulty in both acquiring and processing vibration signals for the purpose of monitoring epicyclic gearboxes. Recent work has shown that the synchronous signal averaging approach may be applied to measured motor currents in order to diagnose tooth faults in parallel shaft gearboxes. In this paper we further develop the approach, so that it may also be applied to monitor tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes. A low-degree-of-freedom model of an epicyclic gearbox which incorporates the possibility of simulating tooth faults, as well as any subsequent tooth contact loss due to these faults, is introduced. By combining this model with a simple space-phasor model of an induction motor it is possible to show that, in theory, tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes may be identified from motor currents. Applying the synchronous averaging approach to experimentally recorded motor currents and angular displacements recorded from a shaft mounted encoder, validate this finding. Comparison between experiments and theory highlight the influence of operating conditions, backlash and shaft couplings on the transient response excited in the currents by the tooth fault. The results obtained suggest that the method may be a viable alternative or complement to more traditional methods for monitoring gearboxes. However, general observations also indicate that further investigations into the sensitivity and robustness of the method would be beneficial.
Interaction of In-wheel Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Tire Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Ziyou; LI Jianqiu; WEI Yintao; XU Liangfei; OUYANG Minggao
2015-01-01
Drive wheel systems combined with the in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor (I-PMSM) and the tire are highly electromechanical-coupled. However, the deformation dynamics of this system, which may influence the system performance, is neglected in most existing literatures. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detalled I-PMSM are modeled using Matlab/Simulink. Furthermore, the influence of tire/road contact interface is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and magic formula pragmatic model. The drive wheel model used in this paper is closer to that of a real tire in contrast to the rigid tire model which is widely used. Based on the near-precise model mentioned above, the sensitivity of the dynamic tire and I-PMSM parameters to the relative error of slip ratio estimation is analyzed. Additionally, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations of the drive wheel are presented both in time and frequency domalns when a quarter vehicle is started under conditions of a specific torque curve, which includes an abrupt torque change from 30 N•m to 200 N•m. The parameters sensitivity on drive wheel vibrations is also studied, and the parameters include the mass distribution ratio of tire, the tire torsional stiffness, the tire damping coefficient, and the hysteresis band of the PMSM current control algorithm. Finally, different target torque curves are compared in the simulation, which shows that the estimation error of the slip ratio gets violent, and the longitudinal force includes more fluctuation components with the increasing change rate of the torque. This paper analyzes the influence of the drive wheel deformation on the vehicle dynamic control, and provides useful information regarding the electric vehicle traction control.
Simple Design Approach for Low Torque Ripple and High Output Torque Synchronous Reluctance Motors
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Mohamed Nabil Fathy Ibrahim
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The rotor design of Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs has a large effect on their efficiency, torque density and torque ripple. In order to achieve a good compromise between these three goals, an optimized rotor geometry is necessary. A finite element method (FEM is a good tool for the optimization. However, the computation time is an obstacle as there are many geometrical parameters to be optimized. The flux-barrier widths and angles are the two most crucial parameters for the SynRM output torque and torque ripple. This paper proposes an easy-to-use set of parametrized equations to select appropriate values for these two rotor parameters. With these equations, the reader can design a SynRM of distributed windings with a low torque ripple and with a better average torque. The methodology is valid for a wide range of SynRMs. To check the validity of the proposed equations, the sensitivity analysis for the variation of these two parameters on the SynRM torque and torque ripple is carried out. In addition, the analysis in this paper gives insight into the behavior of the machine as a function of these two parameters. Furthermore, the torque and torque ripple of SynRMs having a rotor with three, four and five flux-barriers are compared with three literature approaches. The comparison shows that the proposed equations are effective in choosing the flux-barrier angles and widths for low torque ripple and better average torque. Experimental results have been obtained to confirm the FEM results and to validate the methodology for choosing the rotor parameters.
Li, Huajun; Du, Chang; Xuan, Weiming; Pen, Jianfei; Hu, Haotian; Liu, Lin; Kang, Li; Xu, Lirong; Huang, Zhaorong; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xiaoping
2007-04-01
Two sets of super-synchronization speed control assemblies for two 80 MVA motor-generator units have been developed successfully in order to satisfy the demand of the toroidal field system in the HL-2A tokamak. Based on the three-phase logical no-circumfluence a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speeds of two 2500 kW double fed drive motors have been regulated by means of the vector control technology. The maximum operating speed of each motor- generator unit has been raised from 1488 rpm (revolutions per minute) to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each unit during a pulsed discharge can reach 500 MJ. As a result, the toroidal field system has the capacity to provide 2.8 tesla (T) in HL-2A experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jabid Quiroga Méndez
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces condition-based maintenance (CBM architecture regarding an electrical application. Appropriate and efficient fault detection constitutes one of the major challenges associated with CBM and a model-based approach constitutes the way to achieve it. A case study using a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is presented to illustrate implementing CBM using a neural network motor model. CBM may be implemented in real time using Matlab and dSpace. The difference between line currents' negative sequence components, predicted by a multilayer neural network, and the current values acquired from the motor is used as fault indicator. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the proposed model in detecting several stator winding short faults in differing load conditions and fault severity, obtaining up to 95% reliability.
Open-Phase Fault Tolerance Techniques of Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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Jing Zhao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Multi-phase motors are gaining more attention due to the advantages of good fault tolerance capability and high power density, etc. By applying dual-rotor technology to multi-phase machines, a five-phase dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM is researched in this paper to further promote their torque density and fault tolerance capability. It has two rotors and two sets of stator windings, and it can adopt a series drive mode or parallel drive mode. The fault-tolerance capability of the five-phase DRPMSM is researched. All open circuit fault types and corresponding fault tolerance techniques in different drive modes are analyzed. A fault-tolerance control strategy of injecting currents containing a certain third harmonic component is proposed for five-phase DRPMSM to ensure performance after faults in the motor or drive circuit. For adjacent double-phase faults in the motor, based on where the additional degrees of freedom are used, two different fault-tolerance current calculation schemes are adopted and the torque results are compared. Decoupling of the inner motor and outer motor is investigated under fault-tolerant conditions in parallel drive mode. The finite element analysis (FMA results and co-simulation results based on Simulink-Simplorer-Maxwell verify the effectiveness of the techniques.
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Borzou Yousefi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have special applications in which highly accurate speed and torque control of the motor are a strong requirement. Direct Torque Control (DTC is a suitable method for the driver structure of these motors. If in this method, instead of using a common five-phase voltage source inverter, a three-phase to five-phase matrix converter is used, the low-frequency current harmonics and the high torque ripple are limited, and an improved input power factor is obtained. Because the input voltages of such converters are directly supplied by input three-phase supply voltages, an imbalance in the voltages will cause problems such as unbalanced stator currents and electromagnetic torque fluctuations. In this paper, a new method is introduced to remove speed and torque oscillator factors. For this purpose, motor torque equations were developed and the oscillation components created by the unbalanced source voltage, determined. Then, using the active and reactive power reference generator, the controller power reference was adjusted in such a way that the electromagnetic torque of the motor did not change. By this means, a number of features including speed, torque, and flux of the motor were improved in terms of the above-mentioned conditions. Simulations were analyzed using Matlab/Simulink software.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang MENG; Tao ZHANG; Jing-feng HE; Jing-yan SONG; Jun-wei HAN
2010-01-01
For an electrical six-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform,it is difficult to compute the equivalent inertia of each motor in real time,as the inertia is time-varying.In this study,an analysis using Kane's equation is undertaken of the driven torque of the movements of motor systems(including motor friction,movements of motor systems along with the actuators,rotation around axis of rotors and snails),as well as driven torque of the platform and actuators.The electromagnetic torque was calculated according to vector-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM)dynamics.By equalizing the driven torque and electromagnetic torque,a model was established.This method,taking into consideration the influence of counter electromotive force(EMF)and motor friction,could be applied to the real-time dynamic control of the platform,through which the calculation of the time-varying equivalent inertia is avoided.Finally,simulations with typically desired trajectory inputs are presented and the performance of the Stewart platform is determined,With this approach,the multi-body dynamics of the electrical Stewart platform is better understood.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Wanqing, E-mail: duanwanqing@126.com; Yan, Zhongming, E-mail: 6885391@qq.com; Luo, Wenbo; Zhang, Peixing; Gui, Zhixing; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Yu
2015-01-15
Highlights: • Thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil were measured. • Effects of armature current, coil current and running time were studied. • Thrusts of HTS coil with magnetizers were studied. • Effect of seams between magnetizers was studied. - Abstract: The thrusts of a cylindrical linear synchronous motor with an HTS coil magnet as the excitation system were measured the first time and will be presented in this paper. The HTS coil magnet is made of second generation YBCO wire. The coil is a double pancake coil consisting of 34 turns wire. The inner diameter, outer diameter and height of the coil are 20, 30 and 13 mm, respectively. The armature of the motor is three phases, and the inner diameter is 40 mm. It is made of copper windings. With a direct current of 40 A for the HTS coil magnet and a RMS current of 10 A for the armature, a peak thrust of 3.8 N was measured at the temperature of 77 K and a radial gap of 5 mm between the armature and the excitation system. Effects of armature current, coil current, running time, magnetizers and seams between magnetizers were also studied. In the experiments, the peak thrusts of different types of HTS coil magnets were about from 1.3 times to 8 times as strong as the peak thrust of the coreless coil magnet under the same conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Hong; Xu Jinquan
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on the fault mode for the ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under various open-circuit and short-circuit fault conditions, which includes the optimal torque control and the torque limitation control based on the fault mode. The optimal torque control is adopted to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque operation for the ten-phase motor system under the post-fault condition. Furthermore, we systematically analyze the load capacity of the ten-phase motor system under different fault modes. And a torque limitation control approach based on the fault mode is proposed, which was not available earlier. This approach is able to ensure the safety operation of the faulted motor system in long operating time without causing the overheat fault. The simulation result confirms that the proposed fault tolerant control for the ten-phase motor system is able to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque and the safety operation in long operating time under the normal and fault conditions.
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Rachid Askour
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, experimental results of 3-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM sensorless speed control are presented. To estimate the rotor position, a sliding mode current observer (SMCO was implemented. This observer estimates the back emfs of the motor in the stationary reference frame using only the measured voltages and currents of the motor. These emfs were utilized to obtain the rotor position. The speed of the motor was calculated by differentiating the rotor position angle. The stability of the proposed SMCO was verified using Lyapunov method to determine the observer gain. The saturation function was adopted in order to reduce the chattering phenomenon caused by the SMCO. A vector control method was employed to achieve the sensorless drive system. The control application was developed in C/C++ language and implemented using the Texas Instruments TMS320LF2812 digital signal processor (DSP. This new processor enables intelligent control for motors. We used to test the drive the MCK2812 which is a professional development kit available from Technosoft Company. The theoretical finding is validated with experimental results that show the effectiveness of the real-time implementation.
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Guo Hong
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on the fault mode for the ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under various open-circuit and short-circuit fault conditions, which includes the optimal torque control and the torque limitation control based on the fault mode. The optimal torque control is adopted to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque operation for the ten-phase motor system under the post-fault condition. Furthermore, we systematically analyze the load capacity of the ten-phase motor system under different fault modes. And a torque limitation control approach based on the fault mode is proposed, which was not available earlier. This approach is able to ensure the safety operation of the faulted motor system in long operating time without causing the overheat fault. The simulation result confirms that the proposed fault tolerant control for the ten-phase motor system is able to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque and the safety operation in long operating time under the normal and fault conditions.
Fujimura, Hiroshi; Nitomi, Hirokatsu; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi
The torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), in which core materials were our conventional non-oriented electrical steel 35SX250 and our developed steels 35SXH, 27SXH with high permeability, were measured by a pulse wave modulation (PWM) inverter control. The torque characteristics of the motor with developed steels were superior to that of conventional steel. The advantage of developed steels was remarkable in the high-toque region. Experimental torque separation using current phase control showed that reluctance torque was strongly affected by the magnetic properties of core materials. And we did magnetic field analysis of the motors by finite element method (FEM). The flux density in the teeth of the stator core was higher in the high permeability steels than that in the conventional steel under the same current condition. The developed steels are expected to be suited to the stator material of IPMSM used as drive motors for electric vehicles and compressor motors for air conditioner.
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Ali Reza Sadoughi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Given the importance of electric machines in the industry with high efficiency, and speed control of this machines are also important, in this paper, three-phase line start permanent magnet synchronous motor and three-phase induction motors that are same in nominal power and the number of poles, is controled, monitored and compared by open-loop voltage to frequency drive, with each other. To this end, simulating the same conditions for the launch of electronic drive with open loop control V/Hz with constant load torque is provided.Simulation results from MATLAB/Simulink software are presented for both line-starting and Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD applications in the same situations, to provide a comprehensive comparison, and it shows a transient and steady-state response of an LSPMSM drive compared to its IM.
Yamamoto, Shu; Yamaguchi, Tomonobu; Hirahara, Hideaki; Ara, Takahiro
This paper presents asymmetric circuit models and an inductance parameter measurement method for Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motors (PMLSMs). The reason why the tested PMLSM with surface permanent magnet structure exhibits both asymmetry and salient pole natures is investigated. Asymmetric circuit models considering the saliency and inductance harmonic effects are discussed for PMLSM fed by three-phase three-wire power source systems. All fundamental and harmonic inductance parameters are easily determined by a standstill test using a single-phase commercial source. Experimental and simulation results on a single-sided PMLSM with a 3-phase, 4-pole and 14-slot mover demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Myung-jin; CHUNG; Sang-yeon; HWANG
2010-01-01
<正>Recently,there is an increasing requirement for controlling linear motion up to a few hundred of millimeter strokes in the area of the liquid crystal display(LCD) production equipment.The requirements of the motion system for LCD production equipment are high acceleration and high velocity with positioning accuracy.To satisfy these requirements,it has to be designed with the high-thrust force and low velocity ripple.In this work, high-thrust and double-sided linear synchronous motor (LSM)module is proposed and the developed high-thrust and double-sided LSM module is verified by performance test.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ancuti, Mihaela Codruta; Tutelea, Lucian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel
2014-01-01
This article introduces a control strategy to obtain near-maximum available torque in a wide speed range with sensorless operation via the active flux concept for permanent magnet-reluctance synchronous motor drives. A new torque dq current reference calculator is proposed, with reference torque...... digital simulation results (1–6000 rpm) and experimental results (50–3000 rpm at low inverter available DC voltage of 12 Vdc instead of 48 Vdc) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control strategy in a wide speed range, with stable and reliable operations up to a speed equal to eight...
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Limei Zhao
2005-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a DSP-based controller for a super high-speed (>80,000 rpm permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. The PMSM is a key component of the centrifugal compressor drive of a reverse Brayton cryocooler that is currently under development for NASA and Florida Solar Energy Center. The design of the PMSM open-loop control is presented. Experimental results with open-loop control schemes are presented. System optimization and analysis are also illustrated. They verify the effectiveness of the controller design and the optimization scheme.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munteanu, A.; Agarlita, S. C.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The present paper introduces a novel six-step commutation strategy for sensorless control applied for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor that implies only dc link measurement (battery current and battery voltage). The control strategy makes use of a modified I-f starting procedure...... and then switches seamlessly to sensorless speed control. Soft-switching for the six-step commutation pattern is considered. It will be shown that the current absorbed from the battery contains consistent information that can be used to determine the commutation points; the detection of the zero...
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Shaohua Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.
Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moukam Kakmeni, F.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: fmoukam@uycdc.uninet.cm; Bowong, S. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: sbowong@uycdc.uninet.cm; Nana, L. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon)], E-mail: Inana@uycdc.uninet.cm; Kofane, T.C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: tkofane@uycdc.uninet.cm
2009-01-15
This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SI Ji-kai; CHEN Hao; WANG Xu-dong; JIAO Liu-cheng; YUAN Shi-ying
2008-01-01
Presented field-circuit coupled adaptive time-stepping finite element method to study on permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) characteristics fed by SPWM voltage source inverter. In air-gap field where the direction or magnitude of the field is changing rapidly, the smallest elements are demanded due to high accuracy to use adaptive meshing technique. The co-simulation was used with the status space functions and time-step finite element functions, in which time-step of the status space functions was the smallest than finite element functions'. The magnitude relation of the normal elec-tromagnetic force and tangential electromagnetic force and the period were attained, and current curve was very abrupt at current zero area due to the bigger resistance and leak-age reactance, including main characteristics of motor voltage and velocity. The simulation results compare triumphantly with the experiments results.
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D. Vimalakeerthy,
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Induction Motors(IM are preferred as the most common drive for industrial and civil applications due to their simple construction and robustness. But they are not suitable when the application requires speed regulation. In several cases high torque, high efficiency, and simple controllability are often desired. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Reluctance Motor “PMSRM” has gained interest due to several factors like reduced cost, ability to operate at near zero speed even at full load and flux weakening capability for spindle and traction applications. As the high field strength of neodymium- ron-boron (NdFeB magnets become commercially available with affordable prices, PMSRMs are receiving increasing attention due totheir high speed, high power density and high efficiency. A modified design in the location of permanent magnets in the flux barriers of PMSRM is proposed and its results are validated to improve theperformance. Finite Element Method(FEM is used to analyze the design parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Huajun; WANG Fen; WANG Xiaoping; DU Chang; XUAN Weiming; PEN Jianfei; HU Haotian; LIU Lin; KANG Li; XU Lirong; HUANG Zhaorong
2007-01-01
Two sets of super-synchronization speed control assemblies for two 80 MVA motorgenerator units have been developed successfully in order to satisfy the demand of the toroidal field system in the HL-2A tokamak.Based on the three-phase logical no-circumfluence a.c./a.c.cycloconverter,the speeds of two 2500 kW double fed drive motors have been regulated by means of the vector control technology.The maximum operating speed of each motor- generator unit has been raised from 1488 rpm (revolutions per minute) to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each unit during a pulsed discharge can reach 500 MJ.As a result,the toroidal field system has the capacity to provide 2.8 tesla (T) in HL-2A experiments.
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Wen-Bin Lin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a super-twisting algorithm second-order sliding mode controller (SOSMC for a synchronous reluctance motor. SOSMC is an effective tool for the control of uncertain nonlinear systems since it overcomes the main drawbacks of conventional sliding mode control, that is, large control effort and chattering. The practical implementation of SOSMC has simple control laws and assures an improvement in sliding accuracy with respect to conventional sliding mode control. This paper proposes a control scheme based on super-twisting algorithm SOSMC. The SOSMC is mathematically derived, and its performance is verified by simulation and experiments. The proposed SOSMC is robust against motor parameter variation and mitigates chattering.
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Glowacz A.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Thermography is a technology that enables recognition of objects in the specific area. The goal of using thermographic techniques for ironworks is to diagnose electrical equipment. These techniques can be also use to increase safety and quality control in ironworks. Faulty equipment can be dangerous for engineers. Article describes the method of the recognition of imminent failure states of synchronous motor. Thermal images of the stator are used for an analysis of electrical machine. Researches of image processing techniques have been carried out for three states of motor. Proposed approach uses patterns recognition. Using of medial axis transformation and classifier based on words gave good results. In the future electrical machines and metallurgical equipment will use diagnostic systems based on recognition of thermal images.
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Gao Run-Ze
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The motor drive system represents a key technology for development of the electrical vehicles, and the permanent magnet synchronous motor becomes the mainstream of the new energy vehicle drive motor for the superior performances in power density, low-speed torque density, efficiency and reliability. The paper studies the field weakening control strategy for the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM and provides a field weakening control strategy for the IPMSM at the full-speed range. By studying the mathematical IPMSM model and the methods of conventional vector control and analyzing the operating conditions of the IPMSM at the full-speed range, the paper divides the operating conditions into constant torque operation region I, constant torque operation region II, constant power field weakening operation region and high-speed field weakening operation region to confirm the control strategy algorithm in each region and the transition conditions between regions and provide the current control strategy that the d-axis current and q-axis current are confirmed by the reference torque and the feedback speed. Modeling of the field weakening control strategies in each region is made through the Matlab/Simulink, and simulation of the operating conditions with a steady-state load and a dynamic load is done to verify that the field weakening control strategy in each region is feasible. A co-simulation is made by combining the Matlab/Simulink-based control model, the RecurDyn-based virtual prototype and the RT-LAB to verify the feasible field weakening control strategy.
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Gilberto Herrera-Ruíz
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component’s harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.
Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto
2013-03-19
A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.
Kristeva-Feige, Rumyana; Fritsch, Christoph; Timmer, Jens; Lücking, Carl-Hermann
2002-01-01
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of attention and precision level of exerted force on beta range EEG-EMG synchronization. We simultaneously recorded cortical electrical activity (EEG) in a bipolar manner from the contralateral sensorimotor areas and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity from the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle in 10 healthy subjects during a maintained motor contraction task at 8% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force level. The coherence between oscillatory processes in the EEG and EMG was calculated. Three different conditions were investigated: (i) performing the task with high precision (HP); (ii) performing the task with high precision and simultaneously performing a mental arithmetic task (HPAT), i.e. attention was divided between the motor task and the mental arithmetic task; and (iii) performing the task with low precision (LP). We have found that the amount of beta range EEG-EMG synchronization decreases below the 95% confidence level when attention is divided between the motor task and the mental arithmetic task. The results also show that the frequency of beta range synchronization is higher with a higher level of precision but still lies within the beta frequency range (15-30 Hz). The data indicate that beta range synchronization represents a state of the cortico-muscular network when attention is directed towards the motor task. The frequency of synchronization of this network is associated with, and possibly encodes, precision in force production.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨成德
2001-01-01
Through analysing the phenomenon of the constant damages of the synchronous electric motor, the author finds that it' s all because the traditional excitation technique has its shortcomings. The thesis also expounds the technical improvenent of the synchronous electric motor's excitation installation.%通过对同步电动机频繁损坏的现象进行分析，其原因在于传统的励磁技术存在缺陷，论述了对同步电动机励磁装置的技术改进。
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Kentaro eOno
2015-04-01
Full Text Available For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertise effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures.
Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard
2015-01-01
For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor's direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor's gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor's gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor's next action from the gestures.
The Performance Analysis of Ultra High Speed PM Type Synchronous Motor-Generator for Micro Turbine
Hong, Do-Kwan; Woo, Byung-Chul; Jeong, Yeon-Ho; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Cho, Yun-Hyun
This paper deals with loss analysis, structural, thermal-fluid and rotordynamics (critical speed and unbalance) which need in developing the motor-generator. This machine has designed of a generator of 800 W, 400 krpm and a starter of 400 W, 200 krpm. The generated losses of motor-generator are derived by magnetic analysis. Thermal-fluid analysis is performed using loss analysis result. The critical speed is extracted by Campbell diagram. Unbalance vibration response analysis enable to predict the expected vibration amplitude by unbalance. The motor-generator is well-developed using the applied several techniques of analysis.
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M. Nabil
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the performance analysis of a photovoltaic (PV energy source driving a synchronous reluctance (SyncRel motor. The design considerations of the PV array, suitable for driving a centrifugal pump, are studied. Three design approaches are proposed at an average insolation of 0.5 kW/m2. These approaches depend upon determining the system operating point firstly and then maintaining this point on the PV generator characteristics. The first approach takes motor starting current into account as an additional design criterion. The second one is based on achieving the maximum power at the system operating point. The third approach considers maintaining voltage regulation of the PV generator at a pre-specified suitable value. A sample of the simulation results is introduced using the SyncRel motor measured parameters and the estimated parameters of the PV array. It has been found that the minimum number of cells can be achieved using the second approach.
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Yumeng Li
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results.
Nondahl, T. A.; Richter, E.
1980-09-01
A design study of two types of single sided (with a passive rail) linear electric machine designs, namely homopolar linear synchronous machines (LSM's) and linear induction machines (LIM's), is described. It is assumed the machines provide tractive effort for several types of light rail vehicles and locomotives. These vehicles are wheel supported and require tractive powers ranging from 200 kW to 3735 kW and top speeds ranging from 112 km/hr to 400 km/hr. All designs are made according to specified magnetic and thermal criteria. The LSM advantages are a higher power factor, much greater restoring forces for track misalignments, and less track heating. The LIM advantages are no need to synchronize the excitation frequency precisely to vehicle speed, simpler machine construction, and a more easily anchored track structure. The relative weights of the two machine types vary with excitation frequency and speed; low frequencies and low speeds favor the LSM.
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Xiaofeng Ding
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of silicon carbide (SiC metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs on the dynamic performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive systems. The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs are evaluated experimentally taking into account temperature variations. Then the switching characteristics are firstly introduced into the transfer function of a SiC-inverter fed PMSM drive system. The main contribution of this paper is the investigation of the dynamic control performance features such as the fast response, the stability and the robustness of the drive system considering the characteristics of SiC MOSFETs. All the results of the SiC-drive system are compared to the silicon-(Si insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs drive system counterpart, and the SiC-drive system manifests a higher dynamic performance than the Si-drive system. The analytical results have been effectively validated by experiments on a test bench.
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Yen, F; Li, J; Zheng, S J; Liu, L; Ma, G T; Wang, J S; Wang, S Y; Liu Wei, E-mail: fei.h.yen@gmail.co [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)
2010-10-15
Thrust measurements were performed on a coil made of a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor acting as the excitation system of a single-sided linear synchronous motor. The superconducting coil was a single pancake in the shape of a racetrack with 100 turns, the width and effective lengths were 42 mm and 84 mm, respectively. The stator was made of conventional copper wire. At 77 K and a gap of 10 mm, with an operating direct current of I{sub DC} = 30 A for the superconducting coil and alternating current of I{sub AC} = 9 A for the stator coils, a thrust of 24 N was achieved. With addition of an iron core, thrust was increased by 49%. With addition of an iron back-plate, thrust was increased by 70%.
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Zhang Lei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.
Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying
2012-09-01
A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations.
Ren, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Ning; Liu, Si-Yuan
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a sensorless speed control strategy for ship propulsion interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) based on a new sliding-mode observer (SMO). In the SMO the low-pass filter and the method of arc-tangent calculation of extended electromotive force (EMF) or phase-locked loop (PLL) technique are not used. The calculation of the rotor speed is deduced from the Lyapunov function stability analysis. In order to reduce system chattering, sigmoid functions with switching gains being adaptively updated by fuzzy logic systems are innovatively incorporated into the SMO. Finally, simulation results for a 4.088 MW ship propulsion IPMSM and experimental results from a 7.5 kW IPMSM drive are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed SMO method.
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Baik, I.C.; Kim, K.H.; Cho, K.Y.; Youn, M.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-04-01
A DSP-based robust nonlinear speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is robust to unknown parameter variations and speed measurement error is presented. The model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based adaptation mechanisms for the estimation of slowly varying parameters are derived using the Lyapunov stability theory. For the disturbances or quickly varying parameters, a quasi-linearized and decoupled model including the influence of parameter variations and speed measurement error on the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is derived. Based on this model, a boundary layer integral sliding mode controller to improve the robustness and performance of the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is designed and compared with the conventional controller. To show the validity of the proposed control scheme, simulations and experimental works are carried out and compared with the conventional control scheme. (author). 19 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.
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Mehdi Manoochehri
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Applying the direct thrust force control (DFC method in permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM leads to some important problems. The most important disadvantages of applying this method are electromagnetic force and linkage flux big ripple and variable switching frequency. In this paper space vector modulation (SVM technique is applied for removing the disadvantages of classic DFC method. SVM technique makes the switching frequency constant and provides continues Voltage space compared with discrete space in classic method. Simulation results confirmed the theory. They show that combining the DFC method with SVM technique removes lots of the disadvantages of classic DFC method like big ripples and variable switching and remains the benefits of this method.
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Nicolas Denis
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but also by the PWM carrier signal that implies a high frequency harmonic in the magnetic flux density. It is demonstrated that the AMM can reduce the core losses by about 56 %.
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Xuan Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The accurate information of the initial rotor position is very critical for successful starting of the Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (SPMSM. In order to solve the problems of low accuracy and unreliability in the conventional estimation strategy, in this paper, an improved initial rotor position estimation strategy without any position sensor for SPMSM at standstill is proposed based on rectangular pulse voltage injection. In the work, when the second series of pulse voltages were applied. By the ways of strengthening the effect of weakening or strengthening magnetic fields and increasing the difference between each current of the vector. The improved strategy enhanced reliability and raised the initial position estimation accuracy from 7.5° to 1.875°. The improved strategy does not need any additional hardware. Experimental results demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the improved strategy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Yangzhong; HU Yuwen; HUANG Wenxin; ZHONG Tianyun
2007-01-01
The electrically excited synchronous motor (ESM)has typically small synchronous inductance values and quite low transient values because of the damper windings mounted on the rotor.Therefore,the torque and stator flux linkage ripples are high in the direct torque control(DTC)drive of the ESM with a torque and flux linkage hysteresis controller (basic DTC).A DTC scheme with space vector modulation(SVM)for the ESM was investigated in this paper.It is based on the compensation of the stator flux linkage vector error using the space vector modulation in order to decrease the torque and flux linkage ripples and produce fixed switching frequency under the principle that the torque is controlled by the torque angle in the ESM.Compared with the basic DTC,the results of the simulation and experiment show that the torque and flux linkage rippies are reduced,the maximum current value is decreased during the startup,and the current distortion is much smaller in the steady-state under the SVM-DTC.The field-weakening control is incorporated with the SVM-DTC successfully.
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Olfa B.H.B. Kechiche
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigates a novel optimized scheme of a High Frequency Signal Injection (HFSI based sensorless technique in order to carry out a precise and robust rotor position error estimation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM drive designed for washing machines. The study is carried out for standstill condition, where precise position information is required for this application. Approach: In order to get rotor position error information, a PMSM high frequency model is considered in the estimated rotor reference frame (d,q. Then, the impact of the HFSI technique parameters choice on the PMSM rotor position estimation performance is studied and experimentally tested, under various injection conditions. Results: The experimental results show that the amplitude of the high frequency current, resulting from injection, is not significant to carry out high performance rotor position estimation. In order to improve rotor position estimation performance and robustness, a modified demodulation of the high frequency current resulting from injection is proposed by using a high pass filter amplifier applied to PMSM measured currents. The novel proposed rotor position error extraction scheme is implemented on a dsPIC30F6010A and is experimentally validated on a 1kW washing salient pole PMSM. Conclusion: This study presents an improved high frequency voltage injection based sensorless control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM designed for washing machines. The optimal parameters choice of the HFSI technique and the use of a high pass filter amplifier have allowed to take the most of the high frequency injected signal for extracting the rotor position error at standstill, compared to a conventional scheme.
Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.
2011-01-01
In order to meet changing curricular and societal needs, a three-phase system and synchronous motor laboratory experience for sophomore-level students in a wide variety of engineering majors was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum, and in that it focuses primarily on basic…
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Abbasian Mohsen
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental research on magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a coaxially-linear synchronous motor with reciprocal motion within the pole pitch and axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization are presented.
A novel Back EMF observer for sensorless control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a position sensing method for IPM motors based on an observer referring to the estimated frame of reference, eliminating problems with position dependent inductances. Convergence of the estimation error to zero is proofed, under the assumption that the mechanical time constant...
Eom, Beomyong; Lee, Changhyeong; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Changyoung; Yun, Sangwon
The existing wheel-type high-speed railway with a rotatable motor has a limit of 600 km/h speed. The normal conducting electromagnet has several disadvantages to realize 600 km/h speed. Several disadvantages are the increased space and weight, and the decreased electric efficiency to generate the required high magnetic field. In order to reduce the volume and weight, superconducting electromagnets can be considered for LSM (Linear Synchronous Motor). Prior to the fabrication of the real system, a prototype demo-coil is designed and fabricated using 2G high temperature superconducting wire. The prototype HTS coil is cooled by the conduction using a GM cryocooler. To reduce the heat penetration, thermal design was performed for the current leads, supporting structure and radiation shield considering the thermal stress. The operating temperature and current are 30∼40 K and 100 A. The coil consists of two double pancake coils (N, S pole, respectively) and it is driven on a test rail, which is installed for the test car. This paper describes the design and test results of the prototype HTS LSM system. Thermal characteristics are investigated with additional dummy thermal mass on the coil after turning off the cryocooler.
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Martin Victor Sale
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.
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Mahdi Karami
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to investigating static eccentricity in a three-phase LSPMSM. The modeling of LSPMSM with static eccentricity between stator and rotor is developed using finite element method (FEM. The analytical expression for the permeance and flux components of nonuniform air-gap due to static eccentricity fault is discussed. Various indexes for static eccentricity detection using stator current signal of IM and permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM are presented. Since LSPMSM is composed of a rotor which is a combination of these two motors, the ability of these features is evaluated for static eccentricity diagnosis in LSPMSM. The simulated stator current signal of LSPMSM in the presence of static eccentricity is analyzed in frequency domain using power spectral density (PSD. It is demonstrated that static eccentricity fault generates a series of low frequency harmonic components in the form of sidebands around the fundamental frequency. Moreover, the amplitudes of these components increase in proportion to the fault severity. According to the mentioned observations, an accurate frequency pattern is specified for static eccentricity detection in three-phase LSPMSM.
Sale, Martin V; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A
2016-01-01
The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.
Analysis of a polyphase synchronous reluctance motor with two identical stator windings
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Obe, E.S. [Laboratory of Power Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu State (Nigeria); Senjyu, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)
2006-04-15
This paper presents the performance analysis of a cageless two-stator-winding reluctance motor which is capable of developing reluctance torque at good power factors in the absence of inverter control. The machine stator has two separate identical polyphase windings whose pole numbers are the same as that of the cageless rotor. The machine performance is investigated using the traditional circle diagrams, and the d-q rotor reference frame equations derived in space-vector form by applying the concept of winding functions. Core loss and saturation are accounted for in the developed dynamic model. It is shown that if one winding is connected directly to the supply and the other fed with a balanced capacitor, the developed torque is superior to a brushless doubly-fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) of similar size. Other motor characteristics, its line-start behaviour and torque ripples are also presented and discussed. Experimental results corroborate the simulations. (author)
Kidgell, Dawson J; Sale, Martin V; Semmler, John G
2006-11-01
The purpose of the study was to quantify the strength of motor unit synchronization and coherence from pairs of concurrently active motor units before and after short-term (4-8 weeks) strength training of the left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Five subjects (age 24.8 +/- 4.3 years) performed a training protocol three times/week that consisted of six sets of ten maximal isometric index finger abductions, whereas three subjects (age 27.3 +/- 6.7 years) acted as controls. Motor unit activity was recorded from pairs of intramuscular electrodes in the FDI muscle with two separate motor unit recording sessions obtained before and after strength training (trained group) or after 4 weeks of normal daily activities that did not involve training (control group). The training intervention resulted in a 54% (45.2 +/- 8.3 to 69.5 +/- 13.8 N, P = 0.001) increase in maximal index finger abduction force, whereas there was no change in strength in the control group. A total of 163 motor unit pairs (198 single motor units) were examined in both subject groups, with 52 motor unit pairs obtained from 10 recording sessions before training and 51 motor unit pairs from 10 recording sessions after training. Using the cross-correlation procedure, there was no change in the strength of motor unit synchronization following strength training (common input strength index; 0.71 +/- 0.41 to 0.67 +/- 0.43 pulses/s). Furthermore, motor unit coherence z scores at low (0-10 Hz; 3.9 +/- 0.3 before to 4.4 +/- 0.4 after) or high (10-30 Hz; 1.7 +/- 0.1 before to 1.9 +/- 0.1 after) frequencies were not influenced by strength training. These motor unit data indicate that increases in strength following several weeks of training a hand muscle are not accompanied by changes in motor unit synchronization or coherence, suggesting that these features of correlated motor unit activity are not important in the expression of muscle strength.
Comparison of Unmodulated Current Control Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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Anwar Muqorobin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses comparison of unmodulated current controls in PMSM, more specifically, on-off, sliding mode, predictive and hybrid controls. The purpose of this study is to select the most appropriate control technique to be adopted. The comparison method is preceded by modeling the motor and entering the values of the motor parameters. PI control is used for speed control and zero d-axis current is employed. Furthermore, performing simulation for each type ofthe selected current controls and analyzing their responses in terms of dq and abc currents, q-axis current response with step reference, as well as THD. Simulation results show that the on-off control gives the best overall performance based on its abc-axis current ripple and THD at large load torque. The hybrid control shows the best response occurring only at the fastest transient time of q-axis current but its response exhibits bad qualities compared with other controls. The predictive control yields the best responses offering the smallest d-axis ripple current and THD at small load torque condition. The sliding mode control, however, does not exhibit any prominent performance compared to the others. Results presented in this paper further indicate that for the PMSM used in the simulation the most appropriate control is the predictive control.
Hida, Hajime; Tomigashi, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Keiji
High efficiency drive can be achieved by the maximum torque-per-ampere (MTPA) control which used reluctance torque effectively. However, the calculations for estimating rotor position and for controlling the d-axis current are required. The motor parameters of inductance etc. that are easily affected by magnetic saturation are included in those calculations. This paper proposes a new MTPA control method, which is robust against changes of motor parameters caused by magnetic saturation. In addition, complex calculation for d-axis current or reference to the table is not necessary. In this method, we define a novel coordinate frame, which has one axis aligned with the current vector of the MTPA control, and estimate the frame directly. Because the parameter Lqm for estimating the frame is less affected by the magnetic saturation than the conventional Lq, the effect of magnetic saturation on the position estimation can be greatly suppressed. First, an extended electromotive force model based on the proposed frame and a parameter Lqm for an estimation of the frame are derived. Next, the effectiveness of this proposed method is confirmed by simulations and experiments.
Detecting of Multi Phase Inter Turn Short Circuit in the Five Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Yassa, N.; Rachek, M.; Djerdir, A.; Becherif, M.
2016-10-01
This paper proposes a general model of five phase permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) which is capable of representing the multiphase Inter Turn Short Circuit (ITSC) occurring in several phase simultaneously this model is based on a coupled magnetic circuit approach leading to a differential equations system goveming the induction machine behavior. The obtained time-differential state equations system is implemented under Matlab environment and numerically solved using the fourth order Rung-Kutta method with variable step time corrected at each rotor displacement through the electromagnetic torque. Also, Fast Fourier Transform and (FFT) analysis is performed to the phase current signal to detect the frequency spectrum, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is chosen as a classification method. Its efficiency depends on its ability to discriminate between various faults generating the same range of harmonics in the stator current spectrum and on its ability to evaluate the fault severity. So, in order to improve the efficiency of these diagnosis methods, one needs a relatively accurate model to simulate the five-phase PMSM in the case of inter-tum short circuit fault helping to predict performances andor to extract fault signature in the machine main quantities. Simulation work has been carried out using MATLAB to verify the performance of the proposed detection/diagnosis method.
Permanent magnet synchronous motor optimization platform based on VB%基于VB的永磁同步电机设计及优化平台
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王琇; 范承志
2012-01-01
为解决传统永磁同步电机由于设计计算和查表工作复杂、耗时长、计算修正参数过多而导致精确性较差等的问题,将禁忌算法和模糊控制应用到传统永磁同步电机设计中,利用Visual Basic编写程序,对永磁电机磁路法设计过程进行了编程,建立了动定子结构尺寸和电机工作特性曲线之间的关系,提出了一种优化电机效率和功率因素,调整电机结构尺寸的方法；利用有限元软件对永磁同步电机的电感、功率等几个重要参数加以验证,并进行了瞬态仿真试验.仿真试验结果表明,该优化方法可提高电机的功率因素和效率,减小定子的电流密度,并可有效地优化永磁同步电机.%In order to solve the problem that calculation and look-up table work in traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) design is complex, time-consuming, and that calculated correction parameters used in design cause poor accuracy, Taboo algorithm and fuzzy control was applied to the traditional design of permanent magnet synchronous motor, a simple man-machine interface using Visual Basic was investigated. After the analysis of the relationship between moving stator structure and motor characteristic curve, an optimization of motor efficiency and power factor was put forward in the permanent magnet motor magnetic circuit design process. The finite element software was used to inspected several important parameters such as the inductance of permanent magnet synchronous motor and motor power. The experimental results show that, after the optimization, motor power factor and efficiency has been improved, the stator current density decreases, optimization of permanent magnet synchronous motor is effective.
Qiao, Wenjun; Tang, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Shiqi; Xie, Yuanlong; Song, Bao
2016-09-01
In this paper, an adaptive two-degree-of-freedom (2Dof) proportional-integral (PI) controller is proposed for the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Firstly, an enhanced just-in-time learning technique consisting of two novel searching engines is presented to identify the model of the speed control system in a real-time manner. Secondly, a general formula is given to predict the future speed reference which is unavailable at the interval of two bus-communication cycles. Thirdly, the fractional order generalized predictive control (FOGPC) is introduced to improve the control performance of the servo drive system. Based on the identified model parameters and predicted speed reference, the optimal control law of FOGPC is derived. Finally, the designed 2Dof PI controller is auto-tuned by matching with the optimal control law. Simulations and real-time experimental results on the servo drive system of PMSM are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yong-jun; HUANG Sheng-hua; WAN Shan-ming; WU Fang
2008-01-01
A high-performance digital servo system built on the platform of a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a fully digitized hardware design scheme of a direct torque control (DTC) and a low speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed. The DTC strategy of PMSM is described with Verilog hardware description language and is employed on-chip FPGA in accordance with the electronic design automation design methodology. Due to large torque ripples in low speed PMSM, the hysteresis controller in a conventional PMSM DTC was replaced by a fuzzy controller. This FPGA scheme integrates the direct torque controller strategy, the time speed measurement algorithm, the fuzzy regulating technique and the space vector pulse width modulation principle. Experimental results indicate the fuzzy controller can provide a controllable speed at 20 r min-1 and torque at 330 N m with satisfactory dynamic and static performance. Furthermore, the results show that this new control strategy decreases the torque ripple drastically and enhances control performance.
Khan, Mansoor; Yong, Wang; Mustafa, Ehtasham
2017-07-01
After the rapid advancement in the field of power electronics devices and drives for last few decades, there are different kinds of Pulse Width Modulation techniques which have been brought to the market. The applications ranging from industrial appliances to military equipment including the home appliances. The vey common application for the PWM is three phase voltage source inverter, which is used to convert DC to AC in the homes to supply the power to the house in case electricity failure, usually named as Un-interrupted Power Supply. In this paper Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation techniques is discussed and analysed under the control technique named as Field Oriented Control. The working and implementation of this technique has been studied by implementing on the three phase bridge inverter. The technique is used to control the Permanente Magnet Synchronous Motor. The drive system is successfully implemented in MATLAB/Simulink using the mathematical equation and algorithm to achieve the satisfactory results. PI type of controller is used to tuned ers of the motothe parametr i.e. torque and current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayyed Asghar Gholamian
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Multiphase machines have gained an increasing attention due to their more advantages in comparison with three-phase machines. In recent literatures, only voltage source inverters (VSIs have been used to supply five-phase drives. Matrix converters (MCs pose many advantages over conventional VSIs, such as lack of dc-bulk capacitors, high quality power output waveform and higher number of output voltages. Due to some special applications of multiphase machines such as ship propulsion and aerospace, the volume of these drives is an important challenging problem. As a consequence, using MCs can be a reasonable alternative. In this paper, a new direct torque control (DTC algorithm using a three-to-five phase MC is proposed for five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs. All of output voltage space vectors of three-to-five phase MC are extracted and a new switching table is proposed. Because of higher number of output voltages in MCs, there is a degree of freedom to control input power factor to keep close to unit moreover the torque and flux control. In other words, this proposed method use the advantages of both DTC method and MCs. Simulation results show the effectiveness of presented method in different operation modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junxiao Wang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available For reducing the steady state speed ripple, especially in high performance speed servo system applications, the steady state precision is more and more important for real servo systems. This paper investigates the steady state speed ripple periodic disturbance problem for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM servo system; a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller is designed in the speed loop based on repetitive control and fuzzy information theory for reducing periodic disturbance. Firstly, the various sources of the PMSM speed ripple problem are described and analyzed. Then, the mathematical model of PMSM is given. Subsequently, a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller based on repetitive control and fuzzy logic control is designed for the PMSM speed servo system. In addition, the system stability analysis is also deduced. Finally, the simulation and experiment implementation are respectively based on the MATLAB/Simulink and TMS320F2808 of Texas instrument company, DSP (digital signal processor hardware platform. Comparing to the proportional integral (PI controller, simulation and experimental results show that the proposed fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller has better periodic disturbance rejection ability and higher steady state precision.
Zheng, Jun; Shi, Yunhua; He, Dabo; Jing, Hailian; Li, Jing; Deng, Zigang; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Cardwell, David A.
2014-11-01
Bulk high temperature superconductor magnets (HTSMs) have a higher flux-generating capability compared to conventional permanent magnets (PMs). These materials potentially can be used in high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous motors (LSMs) as superconducting secondary magnets, what will result in a reduced volume and weight as well as in higher force density and efficiency of these devices when compared to conventional PMs. The focus of this paper is on the effect of size of the secondary HTSM on the static performance (thrust force and normal force) of a LSM. In order to obtain high-field HTSM as the secondary, single grain bulk GdBCO-Ag superconductors of diameter 20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm, which have higher Jc and trapped fields than YBCO superconductors, were used in this device for the first time following application by the same optimized magnetization condition. It was found that both thrust and normal forces increase and saturate with the increasing size of the HTSM secondary at the small size range, and then potentially distort when the physical size of the HTSM secondary approaches the pole pitch of the linear three-phase primary windings of the LSM. Furthermore, more experiments of a larger-sized multi-seeded HTSM secondary, confirmed that the relationship between the HTSM secondary size and the pole pitch of the primary is an important factor for achieving higher thrust and normal forces. It is suggested that the multi-pole HTSM secondary will be more beneficial to future HTS LSM designs since the single-pole HTSM secondary size should be equal to or smaller than the stator pole pitch in the paper.
Current Analysis and Modification Measures of High Voltage Synchronous Motor Shaft%高压同步电机轴电流分析及改装措施
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯江继
2014-01-01
通过现场高压同步电机与焦炉气压缩机轴瓦烧损的故障处理，分析了轴电流产生的原因及电机和焦炉气压缩机滑动轴瓦的危害，并提出防止电机产生轴电流电腐蚀的有效措施。%Through the fault processing of the burned field high voltage synchronous motor and coke oven gas compressor, this paper analyzes the cause of the shaft current and its hazard on motor and coke oven gas compressor sliding bearing, and puts forward some effective measures to prevent the motor shaft current electric corrosion.
Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay
2017-09-01
This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.
Direct Torque Control and Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor%永磁同步电机直接转矩控制及仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯涛; 陆华
2013-01-01
A simple and effective direct torque control method based on permanent magnet synchronous motor was described.The direct torque control system was built by using simulink,and the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor under different speeds and torque was analyzed.The feasibility of the method was verified through simulation analysis.This control method could satisfy the rapidity requirement,that was,it had good speed control characteristic.The results showed that stator flux and motor torque could be controlled effectively if a reasonable voltage space vector is selected.%介绍了一种基于永磁同步电机(PMSM)的简单有效的直接转矩控制(DTC)技术.利用Simulink搭建DTC系统,仿真分析了PMSM在不同转速和转矩条件下的性能,并验证算法的可行性.该控制技术能够满足系统控制快速性的要求,具有良好的速度控制特性.结果分析表明,定子磁链和电机转矩可通过选择合理的电压空间矢量得到有效控制.
Overview of static current for sine wave permanent magnet synchronous motor%正弦波永磁同步电机静态电流概述
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄明
2013-01-01
In the numerical control machine, the enabled sine wave permanent magnet synchronous motor has been in zero velocity state. The stator winding has continuous static current to complete locking servo motor rotor. For its current detection and combining the maintenance experience and motion control system theory, A kind of theoretical calculation method of AC permanent magnet synchronous motor static current is proposed.% 数控机床中，已经使能的正弦波交流永磁同步电机零速状态下，其定子绕组存在持续静态电流，完成对伺服电机转子的锁定。针对正弦波永磁同步电机静态电流检测问题，结合运动控制系统理论和维修经验，提出一种交流永磁同步电机静态电流理论计算方法。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morizane Toshimitsu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available It has been proposed that a novel maglev transport system uses both of the attractive force and thrust force of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM. In our proposal, these two forces will be controlled by two different frequency components. One of the frequency components is synchronous with the motor speed (fm. Another frequency component is drive frequency (fd. Our proposed system enables the independent and simultaneous control of the attractive and thrust force of LIM. Each value of the attractive and the thrust force generated by fm and fd must be identified in order to design that LIM control system. For these purpose, a disc-shaped LIM has been developed as an experimental equipment. The force profiles, especially around zero slip, have been analyzed under experimental conditions.
Design of Optimal Excitation Control System for Synchronous Motor%同步电机最优励磁控制系统设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆娴; 郭昊坤; 陆国超
2011-01-01
Introduction was made to the design principle of linear optimal control system. Based on the optimal control principle, this paper constructed a math model of linear optimal excitation controller. Via MATLAB Simulation model’s establishment, under operational experiment conditions of three-phase short circuit, the synchronous motor excitation control system was compared with the traditional excitation means. The result shows that the synchronous motor excitation control system is with better static and dynamic stability.%介绍了线性最优控制系统的设计原理,并基于最优控制原理建立了线性最优励磁控制器的数学模型。通过MATLAB仿真模型的建立,在三相短路的运行实验情况下,将同步电机励磁控制系统与传统的励磁手段相比较可知,前者具有更好的静态和动态稳定性。
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Fatu, M.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents with the r......This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents...... transition from I-f to emf sensorless vector control when the frequency reaches a certain level, and back. The PMSM rotor position and speed are extracted by using a PLL state-observer from the estimated rotor-flux, which is based on an equivalent integrator in close- loop with a PI speed......-adaptive compensator to eliminate dc-offset and phase-delay. Digital simulations for PMSM start-up with full load torque are presented for different initial rotor-positions. The transitions from I-f to emf motion-sensorless vector control and back as well, at very low-speeds, are fully validated by experimental...
永磁同步电机转矩波动分析及其抑制%Analysis and Inhibition of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Torque Ripple
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏俊天; 康劲松; 崔宇航
2014-01-01
针对车用电驱动系统的高频噪声问题，研究了永磁同步电机矢量控制系统的转矩波动问题。其主要来源为位置检测产生的影响、电流检测产生的影响、逆变器中产生的误差、磁链谐波以及齿槽效应等电机本体的影响四方面。之后建立永磁同步电机矢量控制MATLAB/Simulink仿真模型，针对角度误差对比分析了转矩波动三维谱图，并与转矩波动分析相验证。最后，给出了两个角度误差引起的转矩波动的抑制方法并通过仿真验证。%According to the high frequency noise problems of automotive electric drive systems, this paper stud-ies the torque ripple problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control system. Its main source is the im-pact of position detection, the impact of current detection, the error generated in inverter and the influence of motor ontology( magnetic chain harmonic and the cogging effect and so on) . Then establish the permanent magnet synchro-nous motor vector control, MATLAB/Simulink simulation model. For the angle error, this paper analyses the torque ripple 3-D spectrogram, verifies the torque ripple analysis. In the end, the two angle fluctuation suppression method was presented, and be verified by simulation.
Chen, Joyce L; Penhune, Virginia B; Zatorre, Robert J
2008-02-01
Much is known about the motor system and its role in simple movement execution. However, little is understood about the neural systems underlying auditory-motor integration in the context of musical rhythm, or the enhanced ability of musicians to execute precisely timed sequences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how performance and neural activity were modulated as musicians and nonmusicians tapped in synchrony with progressively more complex and less metrically structured auditory rhythms. A functionally connected network was implicated in extracting higher-order features of a rhythm's temporal structure, with the dorsal premotor cortex mediating these auditory-motor interactions. In contrast to past studies, musicians recruited the prefrontal cortex to a greater degree than nonmusicians, whereas secondary motor regions were recruited to the same extent. We argue that the superior ability of musicians to deconstruct and organize a rhythm's temporal structure relates to the greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex mediating working memory.
Synchronicity from Synchronized Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory S. Duane
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related eventsmysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1 synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2 the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, T; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T; Ogama, Y; Kawamoto, M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1 Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Okazaki, T; Ayai, N; Oyama, H [Electric Power and Energy Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd, 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohaya-Ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: tk_naka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We report on the direct relationship between output power and the current carrying capability of a squirrel-cage HTS induction/synchronous motor based on experiment. The secondary windings are fabricated by use of so-called DI-BSCCO tapes, and the conventional (normal conducting) stator, three-phase and four-pole, is utilized. The tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen for two kinds of HTS windings, in which the number of HTS rotor bars is varied. It is directly shown that the output power is proportional to the rotor bars' critical current at 77 K. In other words, the torque can be enlarged by increasing the critical current of the HTS rotor bars.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈强; 南余荣; 郑恒火; 任雪梅
2015-01-01
A full-order sliding mode control based on a fuzzy extended state observer is proposed to control the uncertain chaos in the permanent magnet synchronous motor. Through a simple coordinate transformation, the chaotic PMSM model is transformed into the Brunovsky canonical form, which is more suitable for the controller design. Based on the fuzzy control theory, a fuzzy extended state observer is developed to estimate the unknown states and uncertainties, and the restriction that all the system states should be completely measurable is avoided. Thereafter, a full-order sliding mode controller is designed to ensure the convergence of all system states without any chattering problem. Comparative simulations show the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed control method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Liu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed for reducing speed ripple of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs controlled by space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM. A flux graph and mathematics are used to analyze the speed ripple characteristics of the PMSM. Analysis indicates that the 6P (P refers to pole pairs of the PMSM time harmonic of rotor mechanical speed is the main harmonic component in the SVPWM control PMSM system. To reduce PMSM speed ripple, harmonics are superposed on a SVPWM reference signal. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal phase and multiplier coefficient of the superposed harmonics. The results of a Fourier decomposition and an optimized simulation model verified the accuracy of the analysis as well as the effectiveness of the speed ripple reduction methods, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhonglin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM model with smooth air gap and an exogenous periodic input is introduced and analyzed in this paper. With a simple mathematical transformation, a new nonautonomous Lorenz-like system is derived from this PMSM model, and this new three-dimensional system can display the complicated dynamics such as the chaotic attractor and the multiperiodic orbits by adjusting the frequency and amplitude of the exogenous periodic inputs. Moreover, this new system shows a double-deck chaotic attractor that is completely different from the four-wing chaotic attractors on topological structures, although the phase portrait shapes of the new attractor and the four-wing chaotic attractors are similar. The exotic phenomenon has been well demonstrated and investigated by numerical simulations, bifurcation analysis, and electronic circuit implementation.
Wu, Wenye; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Quan, Li; Fan, Deyang; Xiang, Zixuan
2017-05-01
Low-energy permanent magnet (PM) such as ferrite is usually adopted in a PM-assisted reluctance (PMAREL) motor to enhance the output torque and reduce costs. However, the relatively low magnetic energy product and remanence in such PMs may lead to the risk of demagnetization. By using two types of materials of rare-earth NdFeB and non-rare-earth ferrite PM, a new less-rare-earth hybrid PMAREL motor is proposed in this paper, where the output torque and the power factor can be improved obviously, and meanwhile the risk of irreversible demagnetization in ferrite PMs can be reduced significantly due to the existence of NdFeB PMs. To verify the validity of the proposed motor, the operating principles of the motor and the positive interaction influences between the two involved types of PMs are analyzed. Moreover, by using the finite element method, the torque characteristics and anti-demagnetization capabilities are also investigated in details. Both the theoretical analysis and simulated results confirm the advantages of the proposed motor.
Study on Double-Motor Synchronous System Based on Neural Network Control%基于神经网络控制的两电动机同步系统研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张运芳; 陈荣; 赵永建
2009-01-01
Taking the multi-variable,non-linear and high coupling synchronization system of AC induction motor as study object,focusing on the system of induction motors powered by current-tract SPWM transducers,the mathematical model of the two motor system was established. Combined with decoupling technology of adaptive neuron decoupling compensator, RBF neural network adaptive PID controller was adopted to design the neural network controller of two-motor synchronous system. Experimental results show that the two-motor synchronous system is decoupled based on neural network control.%以多变量、非线性、强耦合的两电动机同步控制系统为研究对象,对变频器供电的感应电机系统进行重点研究,建立两电机同步系统的数学模型.采用RBF神经网络自适应PID控制器,结合自适应神经元解耦补偿的解耦控制技术,设计了两电机同步调速系统的神经网络控制器,试验结果表明该方法可以实现电机转速和皮带张力的解耦控制.
Soft Start of the Single-phase AC Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor%单相交流永磁同步电机的软起动
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卓春光
2014-01-01
介绍一种通过电子硬件电路和软件算法相结合的检测U型铁心单相永磁同步电机静止时转子位置，并按程序设置的规则控制电子开关工作，有效抑制起动电流过大的方法。改进后的控制使电机起动更快、更平稳，且能解决该电机永磁体退磁的问题。%A method of combining electronic hardware circuit and soft algorithm to detect the rotor position of the single-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor with the U-shaped stator core in the condition of power off was introduced. The on/off of electronic switch was controlled by the set program while the over starting current was restrained effectively. The improved control brought up with quick and stable start of the motor, solving the problem of demagnetization of the permanent magnet.
Liu, Yi-Hung; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Quanquan; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hsiao, Yu-Tsung; Su, Jui-Yiao; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G
2015-08-01
This paper presents a robotic gait training system for neuro-motor rehabilitation of hemiplegic stroke survivors. The system is composed of a treadmill consisting of two separated belts, footprint array sensor attached below each belt for gait data acquisition, and an electroencephalography (EEG) device for monitoring brain activities during gait training. The split belt treadmill allow physical therapists to set different treadmill belt velocities to modify physical workload of the patients during walking, thus being able to better improve the symmetry of gait phases between affected and unaffected (sound) legs in comparison with conventional treadmills where there is only one single belt. In contrast to in-shoe pressure sensors, the under-belt footprint sensor array designed in this study not only reduces the preparation complexity of gait training but also collects more gait data for motion analysis. Recorded EEG is segmented synchronously with gait-related events. The processed EEG data can be used for monitoring brain-activities during gait training, providing a neurological approach for motion assessment. One subject with simulated stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis participated in this study. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of the proposed system to improve gait function and monitor neuro-motor recovery.
同步电机稳态不对称短路的分析%Synchronous motor steady state asymmetric short circuit analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈巧玲; 张相林; 钱俊良
2013-01-01
采用旋转磁场原理，参考坐标设置在定子上的120坐标系统，对简化等值电路进行分析，导出了同步电机端点发生各种稳态不对称短路时各相电流和电压的解析式。并以具体实例验证，对仿真结果进行对比分析可知，单相接地短路相电流最大，它对电机的影响也最严重，故对不对称短路的研究有着现实意义。%This paper ,using the principe of a rotating magnetic field ,reference coordinate setting in the stator of 120 coordinate system , analyzing the simplified equivalent circuit ,presented the synchronous motor end to produce all sorts of steady state asymmetric short cir -cuit for each phase current and voltage of the analytic expression .And with specific examples ,the simulation results are compared and analyzed ,it is known that the one - phase ground fault current is the largest ,the influence of it on the motor is the most serious ,so the asymmetric short circuit research has practical significance .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jabid E. Quiroga
2010-05-01
Full Text Available A negative sequence analysis in time domain was applied to fault detection of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM. The fundamental components of the motor terminal currents were obtained using a Notch filter, based on which the negative se- quence components in time domain were then calculated; the negative sequence current constituted the stator winding short-cir- cuit fault indicator. The negative sequence current also provided a qualitative evaluation regarding the severity of the fault. The proposed method promptly (< 22 ms and reliably determined the stator winding short for different levels of severity in faults around and greater than 6.25% of the shorted phase. Experimental studies confirmed the proportional relationship between fault indicator and the level of severity. Using negative sequence current in time domain reduced computational cost and detection ti- me compared to that in frequency domain. The proposed method could be extended to detect the shorted phase to improve mo- nitoring. The method was validated online using a PMSM experimental setup with dSPACE and Matlab/Simulink environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nissenbaum, I.A.; Gorbacheva, N.Y.
1980-01-01
Currently used methods of computing the start-up period of large synchronous electric motors do not give us reliable information about the mode of the electrical system of the oil field when the motor is started up. The reason for this is that the response of the oil field electrical transducers to voltage drops is not taken into account in these methods. A new program is proposed, called the Computation of the Start-up Period of Large Synchronous Electric Motors, written and compiled in PL/1 for Unified System computers. The program makes it possible to undertake automated computations of a residual voltage table at the nodes of the designed power supply network and the operating modes of the most powerful oil field transducers.
Bailey, Jennifer Anne; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B
2014-04-01
Evidence in animals and humans indicates that there are sensitive periods during development, times when experience or stimulation has a greater influence on behavior and brain structure. Sensitive periods are the result of an interaction between maturational processes and experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 show enhancements in behavior and white matter structure compared with those who begin later. Plastic changes in white matter and gray matter are hypothesized to co-occur; therefore, the current study investigated possible differences in gray matter structure between early-trained (ET; 7) musicians, matched for years of experience. Gray matter structure was assessed using voxel-wise analysis techniques (optimized voxel-based morphometry, traditional voxel-based morphometry, and deformation-based morphometry) and surface-based measures (cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature). Deformation-based morphometry analyses identified group differences between ET and LT musicians in right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), which correlated with performance on an auditory motor synchronization task and with age of onset of musical training. In addition, cortical surface area in vPMC was greater for ET musicians. These results are consistent with evidence that premotor cortex shows greatest maturational change between the ages of 6-9 years and that this region is important for integrating auditory and motor information. We propose that the auditory and motor interactions required by musical practice drive plasticity in vPMC and that this plasticity is greatest when maturation is near its peak.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fezzani Amor
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of the performances of a robust speed sensorless nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous machine. In the first part, the controllers are designed using two methods: the first one using the input output feedback linearization control and the second is a nonlinear control based on Lyapunov theory combined with sliding mode control. This second solution shows good robustness with respect to parameter variations, measurement errors and noises. In the second part, the high order sliding mode speed observer is used to overcome the occurring chattering phenomena. The super twisting algorithm is modified in order to design a speed and position observer for PMSM. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control methods.
Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo
2016-05-01
In this paper, phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques is studied. Firstly, the electromechanical coupling model of the linear vibratory feeder is established by associating induction motor's model with the dynamic model of the system, which is a typical under actuated model. According to the characteristics of the linear vibratory feeder, the complex control problem of the under actuated electromechanical coupling model converts to phase and speed synchronization control of four ERs. In order to keep the four ERs operating synchronously with zero phase differences, phase and speed synchronization controllers are designed by employing adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm via a modified master-slave structure. The stability of the controllers is proved by Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed controllers are verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program and compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The results show the proposed controllers can reject the time-varying load torques effectively and four ERs can operate synchronously with zero phase differences. Moreover, the control performance is better than the conventional SMC algorithm and the chattering phenomenon is attenuated. Furthermore, the effects of reference speed and parametric perturbations are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Finally, experiments on a simple vibratory test bench are operated by using the proposed controllers and without control, respectively, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers further.
Simulation of Double- Motor Synchronous Control System for Brushless DC Motor%双无刷直流电机同步传动系统仿真研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾丽; 段文潇
2011-01-01
针对双电机同步驱动控制在负载发生扰动时同步控制性能较差的问题，建立了双无刷直流电机偏差耦合同步控制系统的数学模型，提出了智能PI控制器作为速度补偿器的同步控制方案．智能PI控制器可有效缓解普通PI控制系统快速性和平稳性的矛盾，使系统具有更高的同步控制精度．仿真结果表明，采用智能PI控制的系统优于采用普通PI控制的系统．%For the problem of synchronous performance of double - motor being at a low - level with disturbance of the drive motors＇ load, the math model of double - motor＇ s sync - drive control system for brushless DC motor is built, and based on the relative coupling strategy and the intelligent PI as speed compensator to control the double -motor＇s relative is presented. Compared with common PI control system, the intelligent PI control system suc- cessfully solves the contradiction between quickness and smoothness. Simulation results show that the system of rel- ative coupling which adopt intelligent PI is better than common PI＇ s.
Chi, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Ming-Yang
2014-03-01
Due to issues such as limited space, it is difficult if it is not impossible to employ a position sensor in the drive control of high-speed micro PMSMs. In order to alleviate this problem, this paper analyzes and implements a simple and robust position sensorless field-oriented control method of high-speed micro PMSMs based on the sliding-mode observer. In particular, the angular position and velocity of the rotor of the high-speed micro PMSM are estimated using the sliding-mode observer. This observer is able to accurately estimate rotor position in the low speed region and guarantee fast convergence of the observer in the high speed region. The proposed position sensorless control method is suitable for electric dental handpiece motor drives where a wide speed range operation is essential. The proposed sensorless FOC method is implemented using a cost-effective 16-bit microcontroller and tested in a prototype electric dental handpiece motor. Several experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Spindle Motor Control System%永磁同步主轴电动机控制系统设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘洋; 刘景林; 李欣
2013-01-01
A vector control system using TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) as the main chip for the permanent magnet synchronous spindle motor (PMSM) was proposed,which utilized the vector control priciple and the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method in order to decouple and control the d-q axis currents separately.Based on this,the flux-weaking control algorithm was realized through a d-axis control method based on the saturation extent of outer voltage loop,which extended the speed range of the permanent magnet synchronous spindle motor control system.The control system consists of the main power circuit,the control circuit,isolation circuit,signal detection and regulating circuit,the auxiliary power supply,display and the parameter setting circuit.It is verified through experiments that the control system is reliable,and the static and dynamic performance meets the application requirements of the CNC machine tool spindle drive.%以数字信号处理器TMS320F2812为主控芯片,根据矢量控制原理,结合空间电压矢量脉宽调制SVPWM方法,实现d-q轴电流的解耦控制,完成永磁同步主轴电动机的矢量控制.在此基础上,设计了利用外环电压饱和程度进行直轴电流弱磁控制的算法,拓宽了永磁同步主轴电机控制系统的调速范围.控制系统主要包括功率主电路、控制电路、隔离驱动电路、信号检测及调理电路、辅助电源、显示及参数设定电路.经实验验证,控制系统运行可靠、动静态性能良好,基速以下具有恒转矩特性,基速以上实现了弱磁升速,满足数控机床主轴驱动应用要求.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Percy Rafael Viego Felipe
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre aplicaciones de los motores sincrónicos de reluctancia (MSR controlados por accionamientos de frecuencia variable (AFV, que posibilitan el ahorro de energía. Se realizó una comparación entre las características constructivas de los MSR y los motores asincrónicos de jaula (MA, evaluando las ventajas y limitaciones que aquellos presentan. Una ventaja notable del MSR es que las pérdidas en el rotor se eliminan prácticamente. Una comparación experimental evidenció que para igual momento, el MSR presenta una mayor eficiencia; y que para igual incremento de temperatura, con las mismas dimensiones IEC, se logra más potencia. Por comparaciones entre datos de un fabricante, se demostró las ventajas de utilizar, con el mismo AFV y para cargas centrífugas, un MSR de mayor clase de eficiencia que la de un MA. Un análisis económico con técnicas de descuento, evidenció una atractiva recuperación de la inversión cuando se opera todo el año. A study on applications of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM controlled by variable frequency drives (VFD for energy saving is presented. A comparison between the basic construction elements of the SynRM and the squirrel cage induction motor (IM is carried out, evaluating advantages and disadvantages. A nearly complete elimination of rotor losses is a significant asset of the SynRM. An experimental comparison showed that at the same torque, the SynRM presents a higher efficiency than the IM; and that at the same temperature rise, more power is obtained with the same IEC frame for both motor types. Comparing data from a manufacturer, the advantages of using, with the same VFD and for centrifugal loads, a higher efficiency class SynRM than that of a lower efficiency IM was demonstrated. An economical study using discount techniques, made evident an attractive pay back when operating all year around.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15
Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.
Decoupling Control of Synchronous Drive System with Multiple Induction Motors%多电机同步传动系统的解耦控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄松清; 胡寅峰; 赵圣宝
2011-01-01
针对异步电动机组成的同步传动系统,在两相静止αβ坐标系下建立系统的11阶非线性模型,推导出系统的向量相对阶.研究表明系统相对阶不能满足系统进行精确线性化的要求,故在研究点的切空间中,寻求满足条件的补充变换基.采用微分几何非线性状态反馈控制方法,将系统解耦为4个线性子系统,在各子系统中,运用线性系统理论分别设计控制器,实现速度、磁链、张力的解耦控制.仿真结果表明,解耦控制获得了令人满意的性能.%The mathematic model of multi-motor synchronous drive system, constructed with two induction motors, is given under stationary aβ frame. Vector relative degree of the system was calculated, as the relative degree does not meet the requirements of exact linearization, complementary bases of transformation matrix are found in tangent space. The method of differential geometric nonlinear state feedback control is introduced and the nonlinear drive system is decoupled to four linear subsystems. Linear system theory is used to design controllers. Some simulations have been employed, and the results are satisfactory.
非正弦永磁同步电机转矩脉动抑制%Torque ripple compensation in a non-sinusoidal permanent magnet synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周志斌; 谢卫; Luc LORON
2009-01-01
In order to study the influence on the torque ripples exerted by the non-sinusoidal flux linkage distribution in a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a control system of the non-sinusoidal PMSM with a large cogging torque is simulated in Matlab/Simulink. An Iterative Learning Control (ILC) algorithm is applied to compensate the speed and torque ripple of the PMSM. Two different compensation schemes with ILC implemented in speed loop and in torque loop are compared. The simulation results show that both ILC schemes can be used to compensate the torque and speed ripples.%为研究永磁同步电机中非正弦气隙磁链分布及其对转矩脉动的影响,用Matlab/Simulink对磁链非正弦、且存在较大齿槽转矩的永磁同步电机及其控制系统进行仿真.采用迭代学习控制算法抑制永磁同步电机转速和转矩的脉动.对转速环和转矩环下两种不同的迭代学习控制方案进行比较.仿真结果表明,两种不同的迭代学习控制方案均可以抑制转矩和转速的脉动.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. K. Metwally
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective vector control strategy for four switch three phase (FSTP inverter fed a synchronous reluctance motor with conventional rotor (SynRM drive. The reduction of the number of power switches from six to four improves the cost-effectiveness, volume-compactness and reliability of the three phase inverters. In this paper, a simulation model of the drive system is developed and analyzed in order to verify the effectiveness of the approach. The application of vector control to a SynRM at maximum torque control (MTC operation is presented with emphasis on the effects of saturation and iron losses are briefly considered. A PI controller is used to process the speed error. Two independent hysteresis current controllers with a suitable hysteresis band are utilized for inverter switches signals. A simplified steady-state d-q model including saturation and iron losses is presented. Simulation results show that the drive system provides a fast speed response and good disturbance rejection capability.
外转子永磁同步电动机计算机辅助设计%CAD System for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with External Rotors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许宁; 黄开胜; 邱小华; 覃建波; 宋湛华
2012-01-01
介绍外转子永磁同步电动机的设计方法,讨论了设计重点,提出了外转子永磁同步电动机计算极弧系数、绕组分布系数、铁心损耗等具体参数的计算方法.在此基础上开发出了基于windows的CAD系统,并给出了一个20P,16.8 kW的外转子永磁同步电动机的设计实例.%This paper introduced methods to design permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM ) with external rotors, and proposed methods to calculate parameters of the PMSM with external rotors, such as αi, Kdl,Pfe,etc.A computer aided design (CAD) system was developed based on Windows, with giving an example of 20 P, 16. 8 kW external rotor PMSM.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李小号; 刘杰; 刘劲涛; 姚兆
2009-01-01
针对双激励电动机在振动筛中的同步驱动问题,在建立双电动机激励单质体非线性系统的动力学模型基础上,分析系统在锐共振(共振频率比z=0.95～1.05)情况下,双激振电动机作反向同步回转的振动同步性及同步稳定性,推导出双激振电动机在平衡奇点处的振动同步稳定性条件.通过数值仿真,在不同初始条件下对双激振电动机的同步性影响因素进行了讨论,对推导的同步稳定性条件的正确性进行了验证.研究结果为进一步开发高效的锐共振振动机械提供了理论支持和实验依据.%According to the synchronous driving problem of dual exciting motors in vibrating screen which was used in agricultures and industries, to establish the dynamic model of single-mass nonlinear system which was driven by dual exciting motors, the vibration synchronization and synchronous stability of dual exciting motors which were rotated in opposite directions had been researched by theoretical method, under system sharp resonance conditions (resonant frequency ratio z=0. 95 ～ 1.05). And the necessary conditions of vibration synchronization stability were deduced while the dual exciting motors moving at the balance singular point. Using the numerical simulation, the influence factors of vibration synchronization for dual exciting motors were discussed under different initial conditions, and the validation of synchronous stability theory was investigated. This research provides the theoretical fundamental and test basis for further exploitation of efficient and energy - saving sharp resonance shaker.
防爆高压电机接线盒的设计%Design on Terminal Box for Synchronous Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张亮; 闫红
2015-01-01
介绍了高压防爆电机接线盒的设计思路、设计关键点和结构组成，根据内部接线方式、适用电机功率范围将接线盒分类阐述，以满足接线工艺可行性、接线可靠无故障和便于安装维修，为防爆类接线盒的设计提供参考。%This paper introduces designing idea, designing key point, and structural com-ponent for terminal box of high-voltage explosion-proof motor. The terminal box is expounded by classification based on inner wiring method, scope of applicable power, it meets feasible wiring technology, reliable and trouble-free wiring, easy installation and maintenance, it provides ref-erence for design ideas and designer of explosion-proof type terminal box.
Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Palomar–Lever
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The basic ideas to design discrete algorithms used to calculate unmeasured mechanical or electrical variables, in order to control electrical motors in mechanical systems are presented. The main point of the paper is to simplify the algorithms by using a linear discrete time model without any variable limitations and to reduce the computing capacity requirements of the controller. Limited references, based on the discrete sliding mode for the exception of the influences of variable limitations, are proposed and designed. The main advantage of the controller presented in this paper is that a large control error does not bestow any problems. In such a case, the system always works in an area without the limitations. Original observation algorithms of both position and rotational velocity for exterior permanent magnet synchronous motors are designed. A computer simulation was performed and the results are presented, showing high dynamic accuracy.Se presentan las ideas básicas para diseñar algoritmos discretos para calcular las variables mecánicas o eléctricas, no medidas sino estimadas, para controlar motores eléctricos en sistemas mecánicos. El objetivo principal de este artículo es simplificar los algoritmos usando un modelo de tiempo discreto lineal sin ninguna limitación en las variables y reducir los requisitos de capacidad informática del controlador. Las referencias limitadas, basadas en el modo deslizante discreto para la excepción de las influencias de limitaciones de las variables, se proponen y diseñan. La ventaja principal del controlador presentada en este artículo es que un error de control grande no causa ningún problema. En dicho caso, el sistema trabaja siempre en un área sin limitaciones. Se diseñan los algoritmos de la observación originales de la posición y de la velocidad rotatoria para el imán permanente exterior de motores síncronos. Se llevó a cabo una simulación en computadora y se presentan los
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周密; 熊微洁
2016-01-01
Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been widely used in various industrial fields due to its high power density, high torque ratio and high efficiency. In this paper, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is used as the research ob-ject, and the control strategy is summarized. The control strategy is analyzed. The control status and development of the perma-nent magnet synchronous motor are summarized.%永磁同步电机（PMSM）由于其高功率密度、高转矩惯性比和高效率等优点已经广泛应用于各种工业场所。本文以永磁同步电机为研究对象，对反推控制策略进行综述，分析了反推控制策略的原理和作用，阐述了其应用在永磁同步电机中的控制现状和发展动态，最后对反推控制技术作出总结，并展望其发展前景。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾礼光
2015-01-01
With the rapid development of high-power AC motor control technology, the electric propulsion technology replaces traditional marine power plant gradually. This paper study on the simulation vector control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor for ship. By building the mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous motor of ship in a two-dimensional rotating coordinate system, and calculating parameters of the motor. Then a closed-loop simulation model of marine permanent magnet synchronous motor is built. Finally, simulation of the model was carried out in Matlab. The simulation results show that the model is able to fully reflect the actual system, which provides the right ideas to research and development of material object.%随着大功率交流电机控制技术的快速发展，电力推进技术逐渐取代了传统的船舶动力装置。本文对船用永磁同步电动机矢量控制系统进行仿真研究，通过在二维旋转坐标系中建立船用永磁同步电动机的数学模型，计算出电机在正常工作时的各项参数，搭建船用永磁同步电动机的闭环仿真模型。最后用Matlab对该模型进行模拟仿真。仿真结果表明，该模型能够充分反映实际系统，能够给实物开发提供正确的思路。
Permanent magnet motors from ABB eliminate gearboxes%ABB永磁电机在船舶上的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱丽春
2004-01-01
Permanent magnet motor is synchronous and eliminates brushes, rotor windings ABB's permanent magnet motor is an AC synchronous motor. With such a motor, there is no rotor slip, which provides better accuracy than induct asynchronous, motors.
An Off-line Parameter Estimation Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor%嵌入式永磁同步电机离线参数辨识技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈振锋; 钟彦儒; 李洁
2009-01-01
An off-line parameter estimation technique to determine the parameters which are necessary to implement the vector control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)is presented.Based on the motor dynamic model mo-tor,a DC or an AC current is injected into the motor,and then the stator resistance,rotor flux linkage,d-axis inductance and q-axis inductance are estimated by voltage measuring.The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the pro-posed method.%详细介绍了一种永磁同步电机(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor,简称PMSM)矢量控制系统电机参数的离线辨识技术.该技术基丁电机的动态数学模型,通过在电机端注入直流或交流电流,测量相应的电压响应,辨识出电机的定子电阻、转子磁链、直轴电感和交轴电感.实验结果证明了该算法的正确性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李文庆; 王大伟; 丁云飞; 金蒙; 林猛
2012-01-01
为了提高交流永磁同步电动机运动控制系统的控制精度,讨论了基于DSP的永磁同步伺服控制系统的软硬件组成及设计方案,采用转子磁场定向矢量控制和TMS320LF2812数字信号处理器,实现了对永磁同步伺服电动机的矢量控制.采用高速、高精度的DSP芯片以及矢量控制的永磁同步电动机伺服控制系统具有良好的动态响应性能和静态性能,并具有结构紧凑、设计合理和控制灵活等优点.%In order to improve the AC permanent magnet synchronous motor control precision of the motion control system based on DSP, this paper discusses the software and hardware composition and design scheme of permanent magnet synchronous servo control system, adopts the rotor field-oriented vector control, u-sing TMS320LF2812 digital signal processor, realizes the permanent magnet synchronous servo motor vector control. Adopting high speed, high precision DSP chipset, the vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor servo control system has good dynamic response performance and static performance, and with compact structure, reasonable design, control flexible, etc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴轩钦; 谭国俊; 叶宗彬; 景巍
2011-01-01
The magnetic circuit in the motor is saturated easily when the load current increases and thus the motor flux can not be accurately identified by traditional linear current model.Therefore,salient pole synchronous motor flux observer model must consider the saturation effect.Because of rotor structural asymmetry in saliency synchronous motors,d axis saturation curve,which obtained by experiment,can not be fully expressed saturation effect of the motor.In this paper,using the q axis conversion ideas,the salient pole motor is converted into a non-salient pole motor.Furthermore,static saturation inductance,dynamic saturation inductance and cross saturation inductance are introduced to represent saturation characteristics.On this basis,a hybrid air gap flux estimator,which considering the magnetic saturation effected,and its vector control strategy are proposed.Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed dc excited salient pole synchronous motor vector control system has excellent control property,and it has pretty high value in theories and applications.%随着负载电流的增大,电机的磁路会进入饱和状态,传统的线性电流模型无法准确辨识电机磁链,因此凸极同步电机磁链观测模型中必须考虑饱和效应的影响。针对凸极同步电机转子结构不对称,通过实验得到的d轴饱和曲线无法完整表述电机的饱和效应,本文采用了一种q轴折算思想,将凸极同步电机转化为隐极同步电机,同时引入稳态饱和电感、动态饱和电感及交叉饱和电感。并在此基础上提出了考虑磁场饱和效应的凸极同步电机混合气隙磁链观测模型及其矢量控制策略。仿真和实验结果表明所提直流励磁凸极同步电机矢量控制解决方案具有优良的控制性能,以及很高的理论与应用价值。
Sliding mode controller design for synchronous permanent magnet planar motor%永磁同步平面电动机的滑模控制器设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王丽梅; 郑浩; 贾启
2014-01-01
To achieve high performance positioning servo control of synchronous permanent magnet planar motor( SPMPM) , the method of sliding mode motion control based on disturbance observer was proposed. On the basis of modified super-twisting algorithm, the position servo controller for SPMPM was designed. A disturbance observer( DOB) was used in the closed-loop control to estimate external disturbances and then compensate them to improve the performance and stability of the system. The SPMPM control system with the controller proposed was simulated. The simulation results show that the control strategy and algo-rithms proposed makes the system the desired performances and the control system has good robustness and stability.%为了实现永磁同步平面电动机的高性能定位伺服控制，提出了基于干扰观测器的滑模控制方法。基于改进的超螺旋算法，设计了永磁同步平面电动机的位置伺服控制器，在闭环系统中采用干扰观测器，对外部大扰动进行补偿，滑模控制器用来消除干扰观测误差，从而提高系统的鲁棒性和抗干扰能力。对所设计的控制系统进行了仿真研究，结果表明所采用的控制策略和控制算法使系统获得较好的定位精度，同时具有良好的鲁棒性和稳定性。
Design and Simulation ofPermanent-MagnetSynchronous MotorBased on Ansoft%基于Ansoft的永磁同步电动机设计与仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尤迪; 张学义
2015-01-01
Based on the rated data of permanent magnet synchronous motor, the motor rotor, stator and air gap are designed and calculated; then, a model for the designed motor is established using Ansoft, a simulation is made to solve the induced EMF, cogging torque, torque and induced current of the motor when it is no load and in steady state. Finally, the direct and quadrature axis inductance of the motor is calculated using the result of the simulation, the motor performance whether according with the standard is checked.%根据永磁同步电动机的额定数据，对电机的转子、定子及气隙进行设计计算；然后运用Ansoft软件对所设计的电机进行建模，仿真求解电机在空载和稳态下的感应电动势、齿槽转矩、转矩、感应电流，最后运用仿真结果计算电机的直轴和交轴电感，通过仿真结果校核电机性能是否达标。
Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator
Liu, Xiang-Quan
Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.
Chaos Control in Synchronous Reluctance Motors Using the LaSalle Theory%基于拉萨尔不变集定理控制同步磁阻电动机的混沌振荡
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李健昌; 韦笃取; 张波
2013-01-01
A new strategy for chaos control was investigated using the LaSalle's invariant theory. This strategy was free of the effect of uncertain equilibria in the synchronous reluctance motor. The accuracy and validity of the proposed control method were approved by the results of simulation analysis. The strategy can automatically find the balance point of the system and work when the motor balance point is unknown, so the principle is simple, direct and favorable to practical application. The study results are helpful for maintaining the secure operation of synchronous reluctance motor.%首先基于拉萨尔(LaSalle)不变集定理提出一种新的控制方法,然后证明混沌同步磁阻电动机(Syn-RMs)在该控制器作用下达到稳定.由于该控制方法能自动识别系统平衡点,在电机平衡点位置未知的情况下仍然有效,因此控制器设计原理简洁直接,有利于实际应用.研究结果对保证SynRMs的可靠运行具有重要意义.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王恩德; 黄声华
2012-01-01
电流环直接影响表贴式永磁同步电机(surface permanent magnet synchronous motor,SPMSM)伺服系统的电流波形和电磁转矩,使系统的动、静态性能变差.当系统运行工况变化使得电机电感饱和时,电流环中含有电感参数的解耦项就会失效.从合成矢量的角度出发,提出了一种同步dq旋转坐标系下无需电感参数的电流解耦调节器,实现了无电感参数解耦控制,改善了SPMSM系统的动态性能.另外,由于死区、电机制造工艺、磁场饱和等原因,电机电流中含有影响系统性能的5、7、11、13等低次谐波.提出了同步旋转dq坐标系下比例积分+比例谐振(proportional integral+ proportional resonance,PI+PR)的电流复合调节器,对低次电流谐波进行闭环调节,从而显著减小了谐波电流,改善了系统性能.仿真分析和实验结果均验证了该方案的可行性.%The current control loop directly affects the current of the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) and the electromagnetic torque, which makes the static and dynamic performance of the motor deteriorate. The decoupling control cannot be realized with the changes of the motor's inductance parameters due to saturation effects when the operating condition changes. This paper proposed a decoupling control to improve the dynamic performance, without the inductance value with the perspective of complex vector. As the dead zone, the motor manufacturing process and the magnetic saturation, the servo system current often contains low-order harmonics, such as 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, which produce torque ripple and affect the motor's performance. The current regulation with the proportional Integral and proportional resonance based on the synchronous rotating dq coordinate was used for the closed loop control of the low harmonic currents, to improve the system performance. Simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the schemes proposed by this paper.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邢绍邦; 罗印升; 宋伟; 陈太洪
2012-01-01
基于永磁同步电机(PMSM)直接转矩控制(DTC)平台,针对最小损耗模型和最大转矩电流比两种效率改善策略进行了比较研究.前者通过计算PMSM的铜损和铁损,建立了最小损耗模型,求得最优励磁电流,进而给出最优定子磁链指令值ψ*s.后者利用Lagrange乘子法推导出了最大转矩电流比(MTPA)时输出转与最小定子电流之间的关系式,利用曲线拟合的方法求得最优励磁电流,进而给出最优定子磁链指令值ψ*s.仿真实验表明,两种控制策略都能够在保持良好性能的基础上提升运行效率,且最大转矩电流比方法要优于最小损耗模型法.%Based on the direct torque control (DTC) platform of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) .comparing research on efficiency improvement strategies of the minimum loss model method and the maximum torque per ampere method was done. For the former method, it computes firstly copper and iron loss utilizing the PMSM minimum loss model,finds the optimal magnetizing current,and then gives the optimal ref-erence stator flux Ψ: . For the latter one, the relation between torque and minimum stator currents while maxi-mum torque per ampere(MTPA) is deduced using Lagrange multiplier method,and the optimal excitation cur-rent is obtained using the curve fitting method,and then the optimal stator flux instruction value Ψ," is given. Simulation experiments show that both the two control strategies can not only keep good performances,but al-so increase the motion efficiency in comparison with the traditional DTC scheme keep good performance on the basis of operational efficiency,and the effect of MTPA method is superior to the minimum loss model method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王正; 王一平
2012-01-01
To solve many defects in the traditional mechanical sensor,this paper used a sliding-mode observer speed control method based on the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control system. By measuring the current and voltage of the permanent magnet synchronous motor stator side,the method calculated the rolor position,the system was low cost and high reliability. According to the principle of sliding-mode observer,this paper established the speed sensorless control model of the system which based on the fuzzy sliding-mode observer. At the same time,set up sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motor simulation platform with Matlab simulation tool,and the simulation results proved the effectiveness of the sliding-mode observer method.%为解决传统机械传感器应用存在的诸多缺陷,针对永磁同步电机矢量控制系统,采用一种滑模观测器的无速度控制方法.该方法是通过测量永磁同步电机定子侧电流和端电压来计算出转子的实际位置,系统成本低、可靠性较高.根据滑模观测器原理,建立了基于滑模观测器的PMSM无速度传感器控制的系统模型.同时利用Matlab仿真工具建立无位置传感器的永磁同步电机仿真平台,仿真结果验证了滑模观测器法的有效性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢慕君; 步伟明; 冯敬芳; 王志乾
2013-01-01
针对电励磁同步电动机负载变化易失步的问题，通过对转矩角特性分析，提出了一种基于转矩角截止负反馈的控制策略。阐述了利用转矩角控制防止失步的原理，建立了基于同步电动机磁链观测的转矩角数学模型，并设计了转矩角外环、励磁电流内环的双闭环控制系统。仿真结果表明，该控制策略与常规控制相比，适应负载变化的能力显著提高，有效抑制了电机的失步，为电机的稳定控制开辟了新途径。%Aiming at the problem that the electrical synchronous excited motor will be out of step with the load changes, this paper raised a control strategy based on torque-angle cut-off feedback via the analysis of torque-angle characteristics. Discussion was made to the principle using torque-angle control to prevent out-of-step. The mathematical model of torque-angle was constructed based on the flux linkage observation of synchronous motors and the double closed-loop control system for the outer loop adopting torque-angle and the inner loop adopting field current were designed. The simulation results show that compared with conventional control, this control strategy obviously met the requirements of load changes, effectively restraining out-of-step of motors, which opens up a new way for stable control of motors.
Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maksim; Seigneur, Joseé; Sejnowski, Terrence
2011-01-01
Summary Neuronal synchronization occurs when two or more neuronal events are coordinated across time. Local synchronization produces field potentials. Long-range synchronization between distant brain sites contributes to the electroencephalogram. Neuronal synchronization depends on synaptic (chemical/electrical), ephaptic, and extracellular interactions. For an expanded treatment of this topic see Jasper’s Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, Fourth Edition (Noebels JL, Avoli M, Rogawski MA, Olsen RW, Delgado-Escueta AV, eds) published by Oxford University Press (available on the National Library of Medicine Bookshelf [NCBI] at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books). PMID:24850952
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Ronald Harahap
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes proportional-integral/proportional gain controller parameter tuning in a two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF control system using the fictitious reference iterative tuning (FRIT method for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM speed control using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA for a high-frequency SiC MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor inverter. The PI-P (proportional-integral/proportional controller parameters can be tuned using the FRIT method from one-shot experimental data without using a mathematical model of the plant. Particle swarm optimization is used for FRIT optimization. An inverter that uses a SiC MOSFET is presented to achieve high-frequency operation at up to100 kHz using a switching pulse-width modulation (PWM technique. As a result, a high-responsivity and high-stability PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor control system is achieved, where the speed response follows the ideal response characteristic for both the step response and the disturbance response. High-responsivity and optimal disturbance rejection can be achieved using the 2DOF control system. FPGA-based digital hardware control is used to maximize the switching frequency of the SiC MOSFET inverter. Finally, an experimental system is set up, and experimental results are presented to prove the viability of the proposed method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郝建红; 汪筱巍; 张恒
2014-01-01
针对永磁同步电动机混沌系统，考虑受不确定因素的影响，对其数学模型采用基于微分几何理论的精确反馈线性化法，建立鲁棒控制模型，设计鲁棒控制器，实现永磁同步电动机混沌系统的鲁棒镇定和输出跟踪控制。数值仿真的结果证明了所提出方法的有效性及控制器的鲁棒性。%In this paper, targeting the permanent magnet synchronous motor chaotic system, we consider the system influenced by uncertain factors. We use the method of the exact feedback linearization which is based on differential geometry theory to establish the nonlinear robust control model and design the robust controller for realizing the robust stabilization and output tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor chaotic system. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the robustness of the controller.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯勇; 阳林; 吴发亮; 陈楠楠
2015-01-01
Drive motor is a mechanical power source FSE car,and has a significant impact on the racing competition results.Based on research ob-j ect FSE electric car,the permanent magnet syn-chronous motor of FSE racing car is designed. Then,in order to verify the operating parameters of the motor,a motor model in Ansoft electromagnet-ic field analysis software is created,and the motor load characteristics and performance characteristics at rated load are calculated.At last,the prototype is installed on the FSE racing car ,the power per-formance of the car is measuredaccording to proj ect power performance testing racing contest.The re-sults show that the racing car has excellent dynam-ic performance,and thedesign of the motor proto-typemeet the requirements well.%驱动电机是 FSE 赛车的机械动力源，对赛车的参赛成绩有重大影响。以 FSE 赛车为对象，设计了FSE赛车永磁同步电机，在Ansoft Maxwell电磁场分析软件中创建电机模型，对电机的空载特性、额定负载特性进行计算，验证电机运行的重要参数。将样机装配FSE赛车，按照大赛项目对赛车性能进行实测，赛车实测数据表明：赛车动力性能优异，电机设计成功，满足赛车正式比赛争先的要求。
三重野, 保男; 篠原, 勝次; 実成, 義孝; 東, 義高; ミエノ, ヤスオ; シノハラ, カツジ; ミナリ, ヨシタカ; ヒガシ, ヨシタカ; MIENO, Yasuo; SHINOHARA, Katsuji; MINARI, Yoshitaka; Higashi, Yoshitaka
1995-01-01
The use of permanent magnet motors in variable speed drives is increasing with the development of power electronics.In the design of drive motors, an analysis of torque has always been important.In this paper, a salient-pole type rotor with a surface mounted permanent magnet is proposed, and an analysis of torque characteristics as compared to normal type surface magnet motor is made by calculationof airgap flux density distribution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁焕侠; 杨忠秀; 史德利; 张亚男; 魏文娟
2013-01-01
目的 探讨同步健康教育对小儿脑瘫运动功能康复的影响.方法 将脑瘫患儿采用脑瘫粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)分级后,筛选符合诊断标准和纳入标准的GMFCS Ⅰ～Ⅲ级的脑瘫患儿60例,随机分为治疗组和对照组(n＝30).对照组按照一般健康教育宣传模式进行常规指导.治疗组除进行一般健康教育外,责任护士根据患儿粗大运动功能情况给予家长同步健康教育,观察时间6个月.结果 同步健康教育后,治疗组GM-FCS Ⅰ级的患儿21例,对照组13例,治疗组患儿康复至GMFCS Ⅰ级的比率明显高于对照组(P＜0.05)；2组患儿康复6个月后,56项粗大运动功能(GMFM)评价积分均较同步健康教育前增加(P＜0.05),且治疗组积分增加程度较对照组明显(P＜0.05).结论 同步健康教育对小儿脑瘫运动功能的改善产生积极的影响.%Objective To investigate the effects of synchronous health education on rehabilitation of motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Methods Being ranked as GMFCS,60 children with cerebral palsy consistent with the diagnostic criteria of GMFCS Ⅰ-Ⅲ were screened and randomly divided into therapy or control group.All the children received common health education,but parents of the therapy group were offered synchronous health education based on the condition of the children's motor function.Primary nurses would give parents some special intensive training program and guide parents to participate in training function program during different critical periods in the study.Besides,during the relatively sluggish of children's motor development,nurses would guide parents to consolidate their motor development.Observation time lasted 6 months.Results Before the synchronous health education,the number between therapy group and control group GMFCS Ⅰ children was in the same level.After the synchronous health education,children with rehabilitation therapy group to GMFCS Ⅰ level were
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔皆凡; 闫红; 单宝钰
2013-01-01
For the characteristics of external disturbances and uncertain variable model parameters in permanent magnet linear synchronous motor,model-free adaptive control was firstly applied into the direct trust control of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor With this method,the differential equation between the electromagnetic force and speed was fitted in real time during the operation,and the given electromagnetic force was caculated through control law function,ultimately,direct trust control of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor based on model-free adaptive control method could be achieved.Compared with PI control,model-free adaptive control could not only eliminate the need for adjusting PI controller parameters,but also reduce the speed and force ripples caused by parameter variations and load disturbance in motor control system.,the stability of control system was ensured and robustness to internal disturbances and external disturbances was improved.%针对永磁直线同步电机模型参数不确定且时变并且在运行过程中容易受外部扰动影响的特点,首次将无模型自适应控制理论应用到永磁直线同步电机直接推力控制中.采用无模型自适应方法,实时拟合出永磁直线同步电机运行过程中电磁推力和速度之间的时变差分方程,通过控制率函数推算出给定电磁推力,实现永磁直线同步电机无模型自适应直接推力控制.与传统的PI控制相比,无模型自适应直接推力控制算法既不需要调节PI参数,又明显减少了由于电机控制系统参数变化和负载扰动引起的速度和推力脉动,在保证了系统稳定运行情况下提高了电机控制系统对内部和外部干扰的鲁棒性.
Research on Excitation Power for Synchronous Motor Based on Fuzzy Control%基于模糊控制的同步电动机励磁电源研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴延华; 邱丽
2012-01-01
目前大部分同步电动机励磁电源都采用相控方法,其控制存在自适应能力不高和抗干扰能力弱的问题,为此,提出了一种基于自适应神经网络模糊控制理论的PID控制的移相方法.为验证该控制方法的合理性,建立了基于该方法的励磁电源仿真模型,仿真结果表明,该方法能够弥补传统传动控制的不足,并且能够有效地解决复杂控制问题,可以动态地适应外界环境的变化,从而为同步电动机提供稳定且可靠的励磁电源,满足了实际同步电动机的工作需要.%Most of the excitation power for synchronous motor is controlled through phase. The strategy has deficiencies of shorter adaptability and robustness. Therefore, phased-shifted PID control method is put forward based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy theory. And simulation models are constructed to verify the plan. The results show it can availably compensate the lack of conventional control and effectively settle complicated control, and it has the excellent dynamic adaptability in various environments. So it can provide stability and security power for synchronous motor, and meets the actual needs of work for the motor.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹奕刚
2014-01-01
介绍了国内外电梯驱动永磁同步电动机伺服系统的使用概况。通过搭建平台、数据采样、试验分析等手段，验证其相关机械特性及控制品质特性，如控制精度、快速性、稳定性等。将交流伺服系统驱动的三相永磁同步( SM型)电动机应用在电梯上，改善了电梯调速系统的动态性能，做到了节能减耗，降低了电梯的运营成本，为推广永磁电动机交流伺服系统应用于电梯市场提供了借鉴和帮助。%The situations of the use of elevators driven permanent magnet synchronous motor servo system in domestic and foreign were introduced. By the way of platform, data sampling, test analysis and other means, its related mechanical properties and control of quality characteristics, such as control precision, quickness, stability, etc. , were verified. Three-phase AC servo system of permanent magnet synchronous ( SM type) motors were used in elevators to improve the dynamic performance of the elevator speed control, and to reduce consumption of energy, reducing the elevator operating costs. And for promoting the permanent magnet AC servo motor to be used in elevator systems market it offers a good reference and help.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张少丕; 陈世元; 皮明超
2014-01-01
Critical dimension of permanent magnet synchronous motor used in compressor for the home inverter air conditioner was confirmed by magnetic circuit analysis method, and motor performances were calculated accurately by finite element method. Comparing the difference between theoretical designed value and testing value of motor performances, compared the performance of inverter compressor and the corresponding air conditioner, the actual test showed that this method was accurate and feasible.%拟采用磁路解法确认家用变频空调器的压缩机用调速永磁同步电机的关键尺寸，再利用有限元分析方法精确计算电机的各项性能。对比电动机性能的理论设计值与实际测试值的差异，同时对比了变频压缩机和对应空调器的性能，通过实际测试说明该方法的准确性与可行性。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱鲁佳
2015-01-01
针对电动汽车用永磁同步电机驱动系统的特点，以内置式永磁同步电机为控制对象，设计了以TC1797为主控芯片的硬件驱动系统。软件控制中采用最大转矩电流控制结合电压负反馈闭环的弱磁控制的方式，使得整个驱动系统起动转矩大、调速范围宽、功率密度和效率高。搭建电动汽车用永磁同步电机驱动系统进行测试验证。试验结果表明该驱动系统弱磁扩速倍数可达3.5；系统的峰值效率达到95%，系统效率>85%的区域超过80%，验证了该控制技术的高效性和可行性。%Due to the characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system used in electric car, with the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor as the control object, designed the hardware drive system which was used the TC1797 as main control chip, used maximum torque per ampere control and field weakening as soft control strategy, then made the whole driving system have big startup torque, wide speed range, high power density and efficiency. Finally set up the permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system which was used in electric car for test validation. The test results showed that the drive system of field weakening expansion speed ratio could reach 3. 5, system peak efficiency could reached 95% , the area which the system efficiency was more than 85% can reach more than 80% , this proved the efficiency and feasibility of the control technology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵凯辉; 陈特放; 张昌凡; 何静; 黄刚
2014-01-01
To improve the performance of the torque precision for PMSM(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor)of railway vehicles, a novel sliding mode observer of active flux and a precise torque control method are proposed for a vector control system of PMSM. The concept of active flux is adopted and the mathematical model of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchro-nous Motor(IPMSM)has been established. The sliding mode observer of active flux is constructed in α-β stator coordinate frame, and it is observed active flux by applying sliding mode equivalent control methodology, then it realizes the real-time estimation of torque. The precise torque closed-loop control system is constituted combining with the torque command. The simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. The torque control precision of the PMSM can be improved, and the driving performance of railway PMSM vehicles is fulfilled and guaranteed. This method is not only applicable to IPMSM but to Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors(SPMSM)as well.%为了改善轨道交通永磁同步电动机转矩控制的性能，提出了一种改进的有效磁链滑模观测器，实现了永磁同步电动机的精确转矩闭环控制。采用有效磁链的概念，建立了基于有效磁链的内置式永磁同步电机数学模型；在α-β静止坐标系建立了有效磁链的滑模观测器，并基于滑模等值控制方法实现了有效磁链的观测，进而进行转矩的实时估算，以此和转矩给定值形成精确转矩闭环控制。通过仿真验证该方法的可行性和有效性。结果表明提高永磁同步电动机的转矩控制精度，改善了轨道永磁同步电动机控制系统的性能。该方法不仅适用于内置式永磁同步电机，而且适用于表贴式永磁同步电机。
自适应模糊滑模变结构在永磁同步电动机的应用%Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding mode Control into Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2013-01-01
针对永磁同步电动机存在参数时变、多变量耦合、负载扰动以及非线性等不确定因素，提出一种新颖的、带有扩展反馈和切换增益的自适应模糊滑模变结构控制方法。%Against the indefinite factors of the time variation of parameters, multivariable coupling, load distur-bances and nonlinear of the permanent magnet synchronous motor, an innovative approach to adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control with a new type of extended feedback and switching gains was introduced.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊微洁; 胡伊菁; 邓惊雷
2016-01-01
This paper makes an introduction on the mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous motor and the princi-ple of space vector pulse width modulation and its arithmetic are presented in detail. Then the simulation model of PMSM con-trol system based on SVPWM is built in MATLAB/Simulink, and it proves that the system is of good performance both in steady and dynamic state.%本文介绍了永磁同步电机的数学模型以及空间矢量脉宽调制技术的原理，并详细阐述了SVPWM算法，，最后在MATLAB/Simulink环境下搭建了基于SVPWM的永磁同步电机控制系统的仿真模型，实验结果表明该系统具有良好的动态性能。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张颖; 陈幼平; 艾武; 周祖德
2008-01-01
The detent force of a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) is analyzed and the correspondingoptimization methods are presented to reduce it. The detent force, which is divided into two components, i.e. resulting from the end effect and resulting from the slotting effect, can be analyzed respectively by the finite element method (FEM). To reduce the detent force arising from the end effect, several optimal design techniques are utilized, namely, adopting the suitable length and end shape of the primary armature. The detent force resulting from the slotting effect is reduced by means of skewing and adjusting the width of the magnets mounted on the secondary armature, and adopting the fractional slots of the primary armature. The validity of the analytical detent force predictions and the effectiveness of the detent force reduction techniques are verified by the experimental measurements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田以涛; 王英
2013-01-01
在分析永磁同步电动机数学模型基础上,通过极值原理推导出基于最大转矩电流比控制方法下电磁转矩与d、q轴电流之间的关系式,给出了一种关系式的工程近似求解方法,分析了3次拟合多项式与5次拟合多项式下的拟合特点.分析结果表明5次拟合情况下的电机空载运行电流明显小于3次拟合情况下的电机空载运行电流,有利于降低电机空载运行时的损耗.仿真对比了两种拟合多项式控制下的电机运行状态,仿真结果与理论分析相符.%Based on the mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM),the relational expression between electromagnetic torque and d-axes,q-axes current,was controlled based on maximum torque per ampere (MTPA),which was deduced according to extremal principle.An engineering approximate algorithm for the maximum torque per ampere control was given.And the fitting characteristic of three times fitting polynomial and five times fitting polynomial was analyzed.The current of the motor no-load running under five times polynomial was obviously lower than that under three times polynomial,which helped to reduce the motor no-load running loss.The motor operation under the control of two fitting polynomial was compared by the simulation.The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical analysis.
Synchronously deployable truss structure
Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪旭东; 王福忠; 王兆安; 焦留成; 袁世鹰
2001-01-01
从相方程式直接导出不对称运行永磁直线同步电动机的稳态模型，提出"二端口线电压等效电路"的方法分析不对称稳态运行该电机的性能。较好地考虑了铁心开断、边端效应、补偿绕组、三相绕组电流不对称等影响。计算结果与实验值吻合。它适用于供电电源、励磁电势对称的永磁直线同步电动机稳态运行性能的准确计算。也可进一步应用于其它类型同步电机的稳态计算。%In this paper, with the non-salient pole permanent magnet linear synchronous motor being cited, a static mathematical model of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) under asymmetric running is established by using phase equations method. And "line-line voltage equivalent circuit" is developed to analyze the static performance of PMLSM. Special attention is paid to its structure and the influence of longitudinal end effect and the unbalance of current. The method can be used for the analysis of static performance of PMLSM. It can also be used for other type LSM.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张晓光; 赵克; 孙力; 安群涛
2011-01-01
为了提高永磁同步电动机(permanent magnet synchronous motor,PMSM)调速系统的动态品质,提出了一种新型指数趋近律,与常规指数趋近律不同,该趋近律将趋近速度与系统状态量的变化相关联,克服了常规指数趋近律的缺点,有效抑制了滑模的固有抖振问题,并增大了趋近速度.将该趋近律应用于永磁同步电动机调速系统,设计了基于新型指数趋近律的滑模变结构速度控制器,以取代传统PI 调节器.仿真和实验结果表明,该速度控制器能够有效地提高系统的静态、动态特性与鲁棒性.%To improve dynamic quality of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) speed servo system, a novel exponent reaching law was proposed. Different from the conventional exponential reaching law, the reaching speed of novel reaching law was associated with the changes of the system state; the novel exponential reaching law can overcome the disadvantage of traditional reaching law, suppress the chattering and improve the reaching speed. The novel reaching law was applied to the PMSM speed servo system; a novel speed controller was designed to replace the traditional PI regulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the novel speed controller can improve steady, dynamic performances and robustness characteristics of speed servo system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯金红; 林叶锦; 贾宝柱; 张均东; 王川
2011-01-01
以“中铁渤海轮渡”的永磁同步电机(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor,PMSM)应用的直接转矩控制(Direct Torque Control,DTC)-空间矢量脉宽调制(Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation,SVPWM)系统为研究对象,设计了一个网络控制系统(Network Control System,NCS)的量化器；根据NCS的数据传输特性,推导出由传感器的数据传输延时导致的发电机组功率额外输出的延时-功率关联公式,分析了NCS中网络延时与发电机组额外输出功率之间的定量关系,并使用VS.NET编写程序进行数值仿真.仿真结果证明了网络延时可增加额外功率消耗；同时说明了:减少NCS的网络延时,对电力推进船舶节约能源消耗具有重要意义.%A NCS (Network Control System) quantizer is designed with respect to DTC-SVPWM (Direct Torque Control- Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation) of PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) equipped on "china railway Bohai ferry". Based on the property of data transportation in NCS, time delay-power correlated equation is derived to quantify the relationship between time-delay and generators extra power output. Numerical simulation is carried out with VS.NET program. Simulation result indicates that it is significant for electrical propulsion ship to save energy by reducing network time-delay.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
兰志勇; 杨向宇; 王芳媛; 郑超迪
2011-01-01
The equivalent magnetic circuit method for designing the sinusoidal interior permanent magnet synchronous motor to obtain the basic parameters of the electromagnetic designing is detailed. It presents the usage of the taguchi method to optimal design the permanent magnet synchronous motor（PMSM）, and details the optimal parameters and its constrain, reference parameters considering the error caused by the processing technic, built the experimenting orthogonal matrixes used by the taguchi method. Then solved the arrays by finite element method（FEM）, analyzed the tendency and ratios of the affect of the motor＇s performance index caused by the variable of the optimal parameters, then obtained the rules of selection and the optimized parameters based on the multi-objective optimization of the motor design. The results of FEM verify the validity of this method.%详细推导了利用等效磁路法确定内嵌式正弦波永磁同步电机设计基本电磁参数；提出Taguchi参数优化设计方法用于永磁同步电机的多目标优化设计，详细分析了Taguchi方法所用的优化参数和取值范围、考虑加工工艺等引起误差的参考参数以及建立实验正交矩阵；利用有限元分析软件求解实验矩阵，分析优化参数改变对电机性能指标影响的变化趋势及比重，得出电机多目标优化设计的选择规律。有限元分析结果验证了该方法的有效性。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈华; 程志平; 支长义; 武杰
2015-01-01
In view of the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous linear motor ( SPMSLM) for constant load obstruction under the known and unknown circumstances , using port-controlled dissipative Hamiltonian ( PCHD ) method to make the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous linear motor models , giving the closed-loop ex-pected Hamiltonian function , designing the desired interconnection and damping matrix of the system′s controller, and analyzing the equilibrium point of the system .However , the load resistance is unknown , and the observer is designed . The simulation results show that the proposed scheme for the load resistance under known and unknown circumstances with good position tracking performance and good disturbance resistance and strong robustness .%针对面装式永磁同步直线电机（ SPMSLM）在负载阻力已知恒定和未知的情况下，采用端口受控耗散哈密顿（ PCHD）方法，对面装式永磁同步直线电机进行建模，给出了闭环期望哈密顿函数，并配置了期望的互联与阻尼矩阵，设计了系统的控制器，并且在负载阻力未知时，设计了观测器，然后分析了系统平衡点的稳定性。仿真结果表明文中所提出的方案对负载阻力已知恒定和未知的情况具有很好的位置跟踪性能、很好的抗扰性能和很强的鲁棒性。
Speed Synchronization of Multiple Bldcmotors In Textile &Paper Mills Using Micro Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ankur Shukla
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Multiple motor setup has vast application in industries. The application can be in textile mills, paper mills and robotics. In these all application the synchronization is must between the motors to perform certain task. Speed synchronization is very essential in these all operation to avoid damage to the product. The synchronization is done by using microcontroller chip which controls the master slave whose speed is followed by the other motors which all have to be synchronized.
Out of Step for Synchronous Motor and Clamp in Air Gap of DC Motor%同步电机的失步与直流电机的气隙磁场箝位
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
童钟良
2014-01-01
文章阐明了电机原理中缺少的失步及箝位概念，指出自控变频的电动机实际上是馈电方式交流化的直流电动机。%The concept of clamp and out of step was explained in this paper. It was indicated that the self-controlled variable frequency motor exactly was DC motor with AC supply.
Chalmers, B J
2013-01-01
Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡军; 万山明
2011-01-01
The paper first analyzed the performance of the PMSM with the saliency-ratio greater than 1 and the different d、 q inductance, then researched the motor with the saliency-ratio less than 1.At last compared the torque and maximum output power of the PMSM with the saliency-ratio greater than 1 and less than 1.Torque and maximum power output curves were obtained by mathematical simulation, the simulation results show that a permanent magnet synchronous motor with the saliency-ratio greater than 1 is more suited to the flux-weakening operation at high speed.%该文首先分析了永磁同步电动机凸极比大于1时凸极比、交直轴电感量对电机性能的影响,然后分析凸极比小于1时电机运行性能,进而分析比较凸极比大于1和凸极比小于1时电机在弱磁调速时的转矩和最大输出功率,通过数学仿真求得转矩和最大功率输出曲线,仿真分析结果表明凸极比大于1的永磁同步电动机更适合弱磁调速.
Boldea, Ion
2005-01-01
This work begins with an introduction to energy resources and the main electric energy conversion solutions, along with efficiency and environmental merits and demerits. The classification and principles of various electric generator topologies are covered alongside their power ratings and main applications including constant-speed synchronous gene
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨丙洲; 彭达洲
2012-01-01
A new rotor position and speed observer of permanent magnet synchronous motor was proposed based on the least square algorithm to accurately estimate the rotor position and speed and achieve sensorless control. Observer used the voltage equation in the synchronous rotating coordinate system, saw the voltage and current as the information variables and the rotor speed as parameter variables, used identification model of the least squares algorithm for online identification of the speed. The algorithm was simple and the computation cost was small. The results of MATLAB simulation showed that this control method was effective with its rapid response speed and strong robustness.%为准确估计永磁同步电机的转子位置和转速,实现无传感器控制,提出了一种基于最小二乘法的转子位置和转速观测器.观测器采用同步旋转坐标系下的电压方程,将电压、电流视为信息量,转子转速视为参数量,利用最小二乘法的辨识模型对转速进行在线辨识.该算法简单明了,计算量小.Simulink仿真结果表明该算法具有响应速度快、鲁棒性强,是一种有效的控制方法.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘星桥; 唐琳; 周丽
2012-01-01
On the basis of mathematical model analysis of the three-motor synchronous control system,combined with characteristics of active disturbance rejection control theory,a new control method based on second-order active disturbance rejection controller（ADRC） is designed and applied into the synchronous control of three-motor variable frequency speed-regulating system.Three second-order ADRCs are designed for speed control loop and two tension control loops to achieve system dynamic decoupling between speed and tension.In the second-order ADRC,the internal interference in system model,the external disturbance and the coupling effects between speed and tension are made as a total system disturbance by extended state observer,and the extended state observer is used to estimate and compensate the total disturbance of the system.Three experiments of decoupling property,tracking performance and anti-disturbance performance are completed on the platform based on SIMATICS 7？300 power PLC.The results show that second-order ADRC can realize the decoupling control of speed and tension in three-motor synchronous system,improve the anti-interference ability,and make the system has stronger robustness.%分析了三电机同步控制系统数学模型,结合自抗扰控制理论特点,提出了一种新的基于二阶自抗扰控制器（ADRC）的三电机同步系统控制方案。设计了三个二阶ADRC分别对速度控制回路和两张力控制回路进行控制,实现了系统速度和张力之间的动态解耦。在二阶ADRC中,扩张状态观测器将系统模型内扰、外扰以及速度张力之间的耦合影响统一视为系统总扰动,对系统总扰动进行实时观测和补偿。结合西门子S7？300 PLC构建了实验平台,进行了解耦特性、跟踪性能和抗负载扰动能力测试实验。结果表明：二阶ADRC控制器不仅实现了三电机同步系统中速度和张力的解耦控制,还提高了系统的
一种三级式航空无刷同步电机起动控制策略%Starting control strategy for three-stage aviation brushless synchronous motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马鹏; 刘卫国; 骆光照; 焦宁飞; 杨南方
2012-01-01
When three-stage aviation brushless synchronous motor is excited by single-phase AC during the starting period, the excitation current of the main generator contains pulsating components, and the e-lectromagnetic and mechanical coupling between the main generator and exciter is serious. The adoption of traditional control method based on single motor model for starting control leads to the motor torque with larger ripple, and makes the starting with load difficult. A starting control strategy under unstable current excitation was presented, based on the analysis of the output characteristics of exciter and the research of the integration model considering exciter and main generator in starting period. Experiment results verify that this method is insensitive to the excitation pulsating disturbance, and great improvement is achieved in the stability and load capacity of motor state.%针对三级式航空无刷同步电机在采用单相交流励磁方式实现起动功能的过程中,主发电机励磁电流脉动,与励磁机电磁和机械耦合严重,采用单一电动机模型的传统起动控制方法会导致电机转矩脉动大、带载起动困难的问题,通过分析励磁机在起动过程中的输出特性,研究集励磁机和主发电机的一体化数学模型,提出了一种在非恒定电流励磁情况下的三级式航空无刷同步电机起动控制策略.实验结果表明,该控制策略对励磁脉动干扰不敏感,可明显提高电机在电动状态时的运行稳定性以及带载能力.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑昌陆; 胡月波; 耿宇翔
2015-01-01
研究了一种基于锁相环原理的转子位置估计方法。该方法的实际转子位置与估计转子位置间的比较环节相当于锁相环模型中的鉴相器，从转速到转子位置的一次积分相当于锁相环模型中的压控振荡，通过系统输入信号和输出信号之间的误差来调整电机的转速。仿真结果表明采用该转子位置和转速估计的PMSM无传感器矢量控制系统表现出较好的动静态性能，基于锁相环原理的PMSM调速系统具有优良的性能。%A rotor position estimation method based on the principle of phase-locked loop was studied. In the method,compare link between actual rotor position and the estimated rotor position was equivalent to the phase detector in the phase-locked loop model and an integral from speed to the rotor position was equivalent to the voltage-controlled oscillator phase-locked loop model. The speed of the motor was adjusted through the error between the input signal and the output signal of the system. The simulation results showed that sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control system which used the rotor position and speed estimation showed good performance.
Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Fading Kalman Filter%基于渐消卡尔曼滤波器的永磁同步电机的仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余跃; 何凤有; 鲍卫宁
2011-01-01
使用带渐消因子的自适应卡尔曼滤波构造了永磁同步电机的速度观测器.该滤波器根据永磁同步电机的输出,在线自适应调整渐消因子,从而使滤波器在电机模型存在误差或电机受到外扰的情况下仍收敛并保持最佳,同时具有高收敛速率的特点.最后对基于渐消卡尔曼滤波器的永磁同步电机进行仿真实验.仿真结果表明,该观测器能有效地实现电机的转速观测,具有良好的动、静态特性.%The adaptive Kalman filter with fading factor was used to construct the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) speed observer. According to the output of the PMSM, the filter can adaptively adjust the fading factor on-line, so that the filter still maintains the best convergence and possesses a high convergence rate even when the model error or the interference by outside circumstances is existed. Finally, the test of the PMSM based on fading Kalman filter was established in Matlab. Simulation results confirm that the proposed observer can estimate the motor speed effectively and can achieve a perfect dynamic and static performance.
BP神经网络在双伺服同步运动系统中的应用%Application of BP Neural Network in Double Servo Synchronous Motor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭丽; 石航飞; 陈志锦; 杨凯; 李勇
2011-01-01
In the double servo synchronous motor system, the current speed often surpasses or lags the given speed,however the traditional PID algorithm can't solve this problem. Therefore, introduce a new PID regulator which combines the traditional PID with BP neural network's PID algorithm, it can control the movement of two servo motors. The traditional PID is used for controlling the two axles during normal operation. However, BP neural network PID algorithm is used to modify the parameters of the position regulator and parameters of the speed regulator in the process of debugging.Through this method, we can achieve the axis B track the speed and orbit of the axis A accurately.%针对传统的PID调节器不能解决双伺服同步运动系统中经常出现的超调和滞后问题,提出一种将传统PID和BP神经网络的PID调节器相结合的方式来控制两伺服电机轴的运动.其中,传统PID算法用于系统正常运行时的控制,而BP神经网络的PID算法用于调试过程中修改位置调整器和速度调节器的参数.该方案能实现轴B准确地跟踪轴A的速度和轨迹而运动.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
司纪凯; 汪旭东; 袁世鹰
2009-01-01
The cause of thrust ripple of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor( PMLSM) is the detent force. It also produces shake and noise, and at the lower speed region, its control performances become increasingly deteriorated. Finite element analysis data of the end component of PMLSM was interpolated using cubic spline function at incompletely coupled zone of the secondary and primary. The interpolation result is identical to finite element analysis result. Analytical result is benefit to state equation establishment of PMLSM.%磁阻力造成永磁直线同步电动机的推力波动,产生振动和噪声,尤其是电机工作在速度或位置控制的低速区时,控制性能进一步恶化.在初、次级不完全耦合区域,采用样条函数对永磁直线同步电动机磁阻力的端部分量的有限元数据进行插值.插值结果与有限元分析结果一致.解析结果为永磁直线同步电动机的状态方程建模提供依据.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李立; 光宣亮; 吴文贤
2016-01-01
This paper adopts a kind of fast SVPWM algorithm which can be applied in the control system of three-phase voltage inverter. Compared with the traditional SVPWM, this calculation method is able to realize simple and fast calculation in the microprocessor. In this paper, through establishing simulation model for control system of per-manent magnet synchronous motor in the MATLAB, the calculation methods of fast SVPWM and traditional SVPWM are compared, and the fast SVPWM algorithm is verified to be feasible and effective.%本文采用一种快速SVPWM算法，可应用于三相电压型逆变器的控制系统中，相比于常规SVPWM，该算法在微处理器上实现简单，运算速度快。本文通过在MATLAB中搭建永磁同步电机控制系统仿真模型，对比了快速SVPWM和常规SVPWM两种算法，验证了快速SVPWM算法的可行性和有效性。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林辉; 吕帅帅; 樊明迪
2013-01-01
Combining the advantages of sliding mode control system and fuzzy control system,both of which don't rely on the model of the controlled system, the sliding mode control with fuzzy feedforward for permanent magnet synchronous motor was proposed. The robustness of the sliding mode control was ensured, the response speed of the system was improved , and the dithering was reduced. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the method, and the structure and algorithm are simple and easy to realize for engineering.%由于滑模控制和模糊控制均不依赖被控对象系统的模型,针对这一特点,将两者的优点结合起来,提出了基于模糊前馈的永磁同步电机滑模矢量控制.该方法既保证了滑模控制的鲁棒性,又能够提高系统的响应速度,减小了抖动.仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性,且计算简单,便于工程实现.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘志刚; 李世华
2008-01-01
在用1阶自抗扰(active disturbance rejection controller,ADRC)控制的永磁同步电机(permanent magnetic synchr-onous motor,PMSM)调速系统中,当扰动变化大时,扩张的状态观测器(extended State observer,ESO)难以保证对扰动的估计精度.为了使ESO对扰动有更好的估计,提高1阶自抗扰控制器的性能,提出了PMSM调速系统的模型补偿自抗扰控制器方案.辨识出系统的部分模型,利用部分模型信息在一阶自抗扰控制器对扰动进行部分补偿,从而减小了ESO对扰动估计的压力,使得扰动估计精度提高.仿真结果表明,该算法具有更好的抗负载扰动能力.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑俊; 曾岳南; 吴一祥
2012-01-01
研究永磁同步直线电机在id=0动子磁场定向矢量控制策略下的三闭环伺服控制系统设计,对动子初始磁极位置采用逐渐逼近的方法进行检测,并搭建了软硬件系统,进行相应的实验,实验证明系统动子初始磁极对位准确,具有良好的动态性能和控制精度.%This paper makes a study of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor(PMLSM) three closed-loop servo control system design in which d-axis current of stator is set to be zero in the rotor flux-oriented control strategy. Testing the rotor initial pole position using the method of gradually approximation and set up the hardware and software system for the corresponding experiment. The experiment prove the rotor initial position testing is accurate, have good dynamic performance and control precision.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周羽; 李槐树; 苏广东
2013-01-01
为了研究多相梯形波永磁同步电动机(以下简称TPMSM)的换流转矩脉动,基于Y-Y移30°电角度的六相TPMSM建立电流型调速系统的数学模型,给出了换流重叠角的计算公式,并利用仿真分析了换相超前角和换流重叠角之间的关系以及换相超前角和转矩脉动之间的关系.结果表明,减小换相超前角有利于减小转矩脉动,但是会增加换流重叠角,甚至导致换流失败.%In order to study the commutation torque ripple of multiphase trapezia-wave permanent magnet synchronous motor (TPMSM) ,the mathematical model of current-type speed control system was established based on the six-phase TPMSM with Y-Y winding shifting 30° electric-degree. The calculating formula of commutating angular overlap was given. And the relationship of commutating angle and commutating angular overlap and relationship of commutating angular overlap and torque ripple were analyzed. The results show that reducing commutating angle is beneficial to reducing torque ripple, but it will increase commutating angular overlap,even bring on the failure of commutation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁大鹏; 安志华; 刘双
2011-01-01
The structure of air-cooled 20MW synchronous motor is compact, whether the ventilation system is designed reasonable or not greatly impacts the temperatures of stator, rotor and end part of the electric machines. In this paper, the temperature rise in each part is studied with the method of air paths and temperature distribution. By simulation analyzing to the air paths and heat generation parts, the affect of ventilation and the temperature rise of major part are provided.%空冷20MW同步电动机的结构紧凑,通风系统的设计合理与否对电机定子、转子以及端部件温度有显著的影响.本文采用风路与温度相结合的方法,研究电机各部分温升问题.通过对风路和电机各部分发热元件的仿真分析,得出了电动机的通风效果和主要部分的温升情况.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李雪恺; 陈勇; 张鑫彬; 鲜亚平
2016-01-01
为准确获取永磁同步电机转速与转子的位置信息，提出一种自适应滑模观测器对电机的转子位置和速度进行估算。通过对自适应切换函数、自适应低通滤波器、转子角度估算误差补偿等改进滑模观测器。仿真分析表明：该方法能快速和准确地跟踪电机转子的位置和速度，系统性能良好。%To accurately obtain the speed and rotor position of permanent magnet synchronous motor, an adaptive sliding mode observer for rotor position and speed estimating is proposed. The sliding mode observer is improved by using adaptively switching function, adaptive low-pass filter, the rotor angle estimation error compensation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can both quickly and accurately track rotor position and speed, have good system performance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙杰; 崔巍; 范洪伟; 章跃进
2011-01-01
To solve the problem of sensorless vector control for permanent magnet synchronous motors, a sliding mode observer was constructed and the continuous position was obtained by means of the sliding mode control theory in this paper.The switch function was replaced by the saturation function to solve the problem of the chattering in the sliding mode observer.Finally, Simulation and experiment proves the effectiveness of the proposed improved sliding mode observer.%针对永磁同步电动机的无位置传感器矢量控制问题,借助于滑模变结构控制理论,通过构造滑模观测器的方法,实现了永磁同步电动机连续转子位置的观测.针对滑模控制固有的抖振问题,通过采用饱和函数替代切换函数的方法,有效抑制了抖振问题对转子位置观测性能的影响.最后通过仿真和实验验证了所实现的改进滑模观测器的有效性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙杰; 崔巍; 范洪伟; 章跃进
2011-01-01
To solve the problem of sensorless vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor( PMSM ), a sliding mode observer was constructed and the continuous position was obtained by means of the sliding mode control theory. The boundary layer was used to solve the problem of the chattering in the sliding mode observer. Finally, the effectiveness of the sliding mode observer improved was proved by the simulation and experimental.%根据滑模变结构控制理论,构造了滑模观测器,实现了永磁同步电机无位置传感器矢量控制.针对滑模变结构控制所固有的抖振问题,采用边界层法,有效抑制了抖振问题,提高了转子位置估算精度.通过仿真和试验,验证了所实现的改进滑模观测器的有效性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
安群涛; 孙力; 孙立志
2015-01-01
双逆变器供电的开放式绕组永磁同步电机(open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor，OEW-PMSM)系统作为一种新型电机驱动拓扑，其直流母线电压利用率高、绕组电流控制自由度大、容错能力强，在电力拖动领域具有良好的应用价值。该文建立了OEW-PMSM的数学模型及其采用双逆变器供电的矢量控制系统，结合双逆变器工作原理和输出矢量，分析系统零序电压和零序电流问题，采用不产生零序电压的电压矢量进行空间矢量脉宽调制(space vector pulse width modulation，SVPWM)来消除零序电压，并给出实现算法。在采用消除零序电压的SVPWM 控制时，双逆变器供电的OEW-PMSM 可以将基速提高为星接绕组时的1.7倍，降低了系统弱磁设计和控制的难度。仿真和实验验证了所提方法的正确性和可行性。%Open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motors (OEW-PMSMs) fed by dual inverters as a kind of novel drive topology have competitive application prospects in the electric drive field for their high utility of DC-link voltage, more control freedoms of currents and good fault-tolerant ability. The mathematic model and vector control system fed by the dual inverter of OEW-PMSMs were built. Based on the principle and output voltage vectors of the dual inverter, the zero-sequence voltage and current were analyzed, and a SVPWM switching strategy which employs voltage vectors that do not contribute to zero-sequence voltage was proposed to eliminate zero-sequence voltage. And, its implement algorithm was discussed. The basic speed of the OEW-PMSM fed by the dual inverter with the zero-sequence voltage eliminated SVPWM strategy can be improved to 1.7 times of the star-connected winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (SCW-PMSM). Therefore, the difficulty of their flux-weakening design and control can be reduced greatly. The proposed method is validated by simulation and experimental
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈兴卫
2014-01-01
讨论了驱动往复式压缩机用同步电动机定子电流波动的计算和飞轮力矩的选择。介绍了合理选择同步电动机的飞轮力矩和控制定子电流波动计算方法，为同步电动机设计提供参考。%The calculation of stator current fluctuation and selection of flywheel torque of the synchronous motor to drive the compressor were discussed. The way to select the flywheel torque reasonably and calculation to control the stator current fluctuation were proposed, thus to provide the reference for the synchronous motor design.
Sensorless control and start-up strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motor%永磁同步电机无传感器控制及其启动策略
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张耀中; 黄进; 康敏
2015-01-01
In order to realize sensorless vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor, a novel method based on improved flux observer was adopted. A low-pass filter was used instead of a pure inte-grator, which reduced the errors caused by the initial value and DC offset. The magnitude and phase er-rors of the stator flux linkage introduced by the low-pass filters were compensated in the polar coordinate to make accurate estimation of speed and rotor position. In order to start motor successfully under the load conditions, a start-up method called I-f control was used, which can avoid the problem of overcurrent. A new switching strategy was also adopted. The given position was switched to the estimated according to weighting function. At the same time the given stator current was changed accordingly. It ensured that motors could switch from I-f control mode to vector control mode smoothly and reliably. The experimental results verify that the sensorless control system can work reliably and stably with smooth switching process and good control performance.%为了实现永磁同步电机的无速度传感器矢量控制，采用改进的磁链观测器法，用低通滤波环节代替纯积分环节，减小了初值误差及直流偏置误差，同时在极坐标系下对定子磁链幅值及相位进行补偿，实现转速和转子位置的准确估算。针对带载情况下无法自启动的问题，采用I-f控制自启动方法，避免了启动过程中出现过流情况。设计了一种新的切换方式，给定坐标角度按加权函数切换至位置观测值，同时相应改变定子电流给定值，保证电机平滑可靠地从I-f控制方式切换为矢量控制方式。实验表明，控制系统能够可靠稳定运行，切换过程平滑，控制性能良好。
Analyses of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor and validated by FEM%永磁直线同步电机解析分析及有限元验证
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王淑红; 熊光煜
2011-01-01
Considering permanent magnet linear synchronous motor s( PMLSM) end effects, air gap being not even, air-gap magnetic field distribution being complex, permanent magnetic poles geometry size being difficult to determine, design criteria are concluded after dicussing on the field in air-gap and specifications of the motor affected by the motor main sizes, based on two dimensional (2-D) field analytical results obtained by finite element method(FEM). Given saturation and end effects, the nonlinear, asymmetric and variety inductance parameters of PMLSM were analyzed. The parameters of self-inductance and mutual inductance with displacement were obtained. The results calculated by FEM show that the analytical formulas,derived in this paper for calculation of the variable inductances are suitable.%针对永磁直线同步电动机具有边端效应、气隙不均匀、气隙磁场分布复杂、永久磁极几何尺寸难以确定的问题,给出了单段永磁直线同步电动机气隙磁场的二维解析分析,讨论了电机的各主要尺寸参数对气隙磁场和性能的影响,提出了永久磁极的设计原则和计算公式,分析了考虑饱和影响、计及边端效应时分段式永磁直线同步电动机的非线性、不对称、变化的自感和互感参数的解析计算方法,得到了定子绕组自感和互感系数随动子位置不同时的变化曲线.有限元数值计算结果表明,导出的分段式永磁直线同步电动机永久磁极的设计计算公式以及电机变电感参数解析计算公式是适用的.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王斯博; 赵慧超; 李志宇; 王晓旭
2015-01-01
The characteristic of powertrain torsional vibration was studied in an electric vehicle,the mathe-matical equation of powertrain torsional vibration was built, and the reason was that the electric vehicle powertrain resonates with motor' s torque ripple in low speed condition. Then, the model of torque ripple due to non-sinusoidal magnetic field distribution was built, and the orders and frequencies of torque rip-ple in PMSM ( permanent magnet synchronous motor) were analyzed. According to the relationship be-tween the torsional vibration in low-speed of the electric vehicle and the frequency of motor torque ripple, for the situation that there were few literatures on analyzing the torque ripple and test method of PMSM in electric vehicles, a dynamic torque ripple test bench was built. The correctness of the torque ripple fre-quency analysis is verified by testing. Meanwhile, in order to make up the amplitude and phase distortion caused by the dynamic test, a new locked-rotor static method for torque ripple test was proposed. It pro-vides an accurate means of testing and evaluation for the torque ripple of PMSM in electric vehicles.%研究了电动车传动系统谐振的特点,推导了电动车传动系统谐振方程,论证了永磁同步电机转矩波动引起整车低速抖动的机理. 建立了气隙谐波磁场产生转矩波动的数学模型,揭示了永磁同步电机转矩波动的频率与幅值特性. 根据电动汽车低速谐振特性与同步电机转矩波动幅频的对应特点,并且针对国内外少有文献对车用电机转矩波动测试方法进行分析的现状,搭建了转矩波动动态测试台架,通过试验验证了转矩波动频次分析的正确性,同时为了弥补波动动态测试会产生幅值及相位失真的不足,提出一种新型静态堵转测试方法,为电动汽车用永磁同步电机提供了准确的转矩波动测试评价手段.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
隋峻; 王晶; 樊键; 尹彦东; 仲丽萍
2011-01-01
为了提高工作效率,使电机工作状态更加平穗,对SVPWM在永磁同步电机系统中的应用与仿真进行研究.分析了永磁同步电动机矢量控制系统结构及SVPWM技术原理,在Matlab/Simulink环境中.建立了永磁同步电动机电流、速度双闭环矢童控制系统仿真模型,并进行了仿真比较试验.试验结果证明:与传统的SPWM技术相比,该控制方法具有较高的快速响应性,转矩波动小.仿真波形符合理论分析,系统运行平稳,为永磁同步电机控制系统算法改进提供了仿真模型基础.%In order to improve work efficiency and make the motor running more stable, the application of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) in PMSM vector control system are researched and simulated. On the basis of vector control strategy and the theory of SVPWM, the simulation model of PMSM vector control system with electric current loop and speed loop based on space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) was established by using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results prove that PMSM control system runs with faster response and smaller torque pulse than the traditional sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM). The simulation wave accords with the theory research and PMSM system runs stable. It provides algorithm of PMSM vector control system improving with theoretical basis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢伟甫; 赵海森; 刘明基; 罗应立
2013-01-01
To achieve good starting performance and higher anti-demagnetization ability, the composite material rotor bar of a line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor is optimized. Firstly, by using the time-stepping finite element method, the effects of the bar size and the alloy material s electromagnetic characteristics on the starting and running performance of the motor were analyzed. Then the optimization was conducted by taking the bar size and the alloy materials electromagnetic characteristics as the design variables, and the permanent magnet motor' s anti-demagnetization ability as the objective function, the locked-rotor torque and locked-rotor currents as the constraints. The concrete optimization steps were as follows; first, the orthogonal test method was applied to the experimental design; secondly, the quadratic responding surface regression equation of each performance index was fitted by the orthogonal experimental results; thirdly, the equations were used as the fitness functions of genetic algorithm for searching the optimal objective. Finally, the anti-demagnetization ability of the permanent magnet motor with the optimized composite material rotor bar improved, and the higher locked-rotor torque and lower locked-rotor currents are gained.%为了获得较好的电机起动性能和抗退磁能力,对自起动永磁电机的复合材料转子导条进行优化.利用时步有限元法分析得到复合材料导条尺寸和合金材料本身的电磁特性对电机起动和运行性能的影响.以复合材料导条的尺寸和材料的电磁特性为设计变量,以永磁电机的抗退磁能力为优化目标,同时以堵转转矩和堵转电流为约束条件进行优化.具体优化步骤为:先采用正交试验法进行试验条件设计,接着利用正交试验结果拟合出各项性能指标的二次响应面回归方程,并将其作为遗传算法的适应度函数,进行最优目标搜索.通过优化复合材料导条参数提高了永磁
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张宏伟; 余发山; 王新环; 王福忠
2015-01-01
针对多定子永磁直线同步电机(PMLSM)运行过程中绕组切换故障可能引起的失步问题，研究了绕组切换故障特性。在分析 PMLSM 推力功角特性的基础上，研究了频率对稳定运行区间的影响规律，建立了考虑出入端效应的多定子 PMLSM 推力模型，研究了绕组切换故障对稳定性的影响规律，利用样机进行了实验研究，得到了一台及两台绕组切换故障时，电机运行频率、运行方式对运行特性的影响规律。研究结果表明：低速 PMLSM 的电阻效应不能忽略，动子所受正向推力作用空间变小，负向推力作用空间增大。相同数量的绕组失电，提升运行时较易失步。失电绕组越多，剩余电机承担电流越大，越易引起失步。%Since the windings of multi-primary permanent magnet linear synchronous motor ( PMLSM) switching failure may cause motor lose step, characteristics of windings switching failure was researched. On the analysis of thrust power angle characteristic of PMLSM, the influence of frequency on stable oper-ation area was researched. The thrust model with entry and exit effect of multi-primary PMLSM was con-structed and the influence of windings switching failure on stable characteristic was researched. A multi-primary PMLSM prototype was applied to experiments. The influence of motor operating frequency and operation mode on running characteristics was obtained when one or two primary windings switching fails. The research results show that the impact of primary resistance is not negligible when the operating fre-quency of PMLSM is low. The forward thrust stable operation region is reduced and downward stable op-eration region is increased. If the stator windings switch failed when going upward, the motor is easy to out of step. The more number of switching failure windings is, the greater current of residual windings is, and the easier of the PMLSM is out of step.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢伟甫; 罗应立; 赵海森
2012-01-01
为了研究自起动永磁同步电机起动过程中电枢反应引起的永磁体退磁,采用场-路-运动耦合的时步有限元法,分析了自起动永磁同步电机起动过程中,电枢同步旋转磁场和转子永磁磁场的相对空间位置角δ与电枢电流幅值对永磁体工作点磁密的影响,得到了不同负载条件下的电枢反应退磁特点.结果表明:当相对位置角δ=π时,电枢磁场对永磁磁场的去磁作用较大,永磁体平均工作点磁密较低,且负载系数越大,永磁体经历δ=π时刻的次数越多,永磁体磁密多次出现较低点,永磁体退磁几率变大；起动过程中随着转速升高,电枢电流幅值减小,在接近同步速的δ=π时刻,永磁体磁密出现最低点,电枢反应退磁较严重.%To research the demagnetization of permanent magnet caused by the armature reaction during the start process of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor ( LSPMSM ) , the field-circuit-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method was adopted to analyze the influence of 5 and the current amplitude on the permanent magnet working point flux density during the start process of LSPMSM, where 5 was the relative space position angle between the rotor permanent magnetic field and the armature synchronous rotating magnetic field. The armature reaction demagnetization characteristics under different load conditions were gained. Results show that at the moment of δ = π, the demagnetization effect of the armature magnetic field on the permanent magnetic field is significant, and the average working point flux density of permanent magnet is low. However, the permanent magnet suffers more moments of δ = π during the start with heavier load, and the lower permanent magnet flux density appears more times, which make the magnet demagnetization more liable. Moreover, the armature current amplitude decreases with speed rising, and the permanent magnet flux density reaches the lowest point at the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于吉坤; 李立毅; 杜鹏程; 张江鹏
2016-01-01
在高速永磁同步电机谐波分析中，主要有解析和仿真两种方法。解析法则适用于连续系统，而仿真法适用于离散系统的，但两种方法之间关联性问题研究相对较少，针对此问题，提出一种基于空间矢量脉宽调制（ SVPWM）技术电枢电流谐波解析法和仿真法内在关联的分析方法。根据连续函数和离散函数的傅里叶级数公式，分析了这两种方法在谐波计算中偏差的分布规律。分析结果表明，采样频率和负载是离散电枢谐波计算的主要影响因素，随着采样频率的升高电枢电流谐波呈现振荡阻尼衰减的特性，并收敛于连续系统的解析值，而负载则能降低振荡幅值和提高收敛速度。构建了基于DSP的永磁同步电机系统实验平台，实验结果验证了该分析方法的有效性。%There are two methods in harmonic analysis of the high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor, and they are analytical method and simulation method.The analytical method is suitable for con-tinuous systems, and the simulation method for discrete system.As the relevance of these two methods has been rarely studied, one correlation analysis method was proposed, which is based on the space vector pulse width modulation ( SVPWM) technology.From Fourier series of the continuous function and the discrete function,the deviation distribution law between these two methods in the harmonic calculation was analyzed.The analysis results show that the main influence factors of discrete harmonic calculation of ar-mature are sampling frequency and load condition.The armature current harmonics oscillate damping at-tenuation with increase in sampling frequency and converge to the analytical results of the continuous sys-tem.The oscillation amplitude is reduced and the convergence speed is improved by load.The permanent magnet synchronous motor system experiment platform based on DSP is constructed, and it is confirmed that the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄刚; 罗意平; 张昌凡; 赵凯辉
2016-01-01
An online permanent magnet demagnetization failures detection method based on a minimum order ex‐tended flux linkage sliding mode observer was presented for torque closed‐loop control system of interior per‐manent magnet synchronous traction motor . After the establishment of a mathematical model in the two‐phase stationary reference frame for the demagnetization fault ,a variable rate reaching law sliding mode observer was built by using the extended flux linkage as state variables , to realize the reconstruction of torque and perma‐nent magnet flux linkage . The estimation method can accurately track the torque and permanent magnet flux linkage , with a shorter transient time , smaller overshoot in the dynamic process of the system , higher obser‐vation precision and stronger system robustness , It can offer real‐time accurate torque feedback and permanent magnet flux linkage information for the improvement of the control performance and reliability of the traction drive system of the permanent magnet synchronous motor . Then the RT‐LAB real‐time simulation was used to build the simulation model of hardware in the loop . The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method .%针对内置式永磁同步牵引电机转矩闭环控制系统，提出一种基于最小阶扩展磁链滑模变结构观测器的永磁体失磁在线监测方法。通过建立两相静止坐标系下永磁同步牵引电机失磁故障的数学模型，以扩展磁链为状态变量，构建变速趋近律滑模状态观测器，实现了转矩和永磁体磁链的重构。该方法能够准确观测转矩和永磁体磁链信息，系统动态响应速度快，动态过程超调小，观测精度高，系统鲁棒性更强，可为提高永磁同步电机牵引传动系统的控制性能和可靠性实时提供准确的转矩反馈和转子磁链信息。基于RT‐LAB搭建了硬件在环仿真试验系统，
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨影; 陈鑫; 涂小卫; 韩冰
2014-01-01
Calculation duty ratio is an important issue in Direct torque control ( DTC) of permanent mag-net synchronous motor ( PMSM) based on the duty ratio modulation. The effect of zero vector on elctro-magnetic torque during all speed range was analyzed on the basis of the relation between voltage vector and torque current component and an important phenomenon was revealed and explained that torque rip-ple in low speed range is less than that in high speed range in DTC based on the duty ratio modulation. A robust DTC method of PMSM based on the duty ratio control was designed in which the duty ratio is cal-culated with the error of torque and flux. The method is simple to implement and insensitive to motor pa-rameter error. Simulation and experiments are carried out and show that the improved DTC based on duty ratio modulation has the advantage of simplicity, robustness and improved performance in low speed.%针对如何确定占空比调制的永磁同步电机直接转矩控制的零矢量作用时间问题。根据电压矢量与电流转矩分量关系，分析了在不同转速下零矢量作用时电磁转矩的变化规律，引入占空比调制后低速区转矩脉动要小于中高速区转矩脉动。设计了基于占空比调制的永磁同步电机直接转矩控制系统，利用转矩偏差和定子磁链的偏差计算占空比，该方案易于实现，对电机参数误差不敏感。仿真和实验结果表明，该方法结构简单、鲁棒性强，能够明显改善低速性能。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
解红磊; 张为民; 杨勇
2012-01-01
In order to improve the positioning accuracy of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSM), a neural network is adopted to identify and compensate two types of disturbance force represented by thrust ripple and cutting force respectively in this paper. At first, the thrust ripple result from special structure of PMLSM was identified by sampling the no-load current of motor and modifying the phase difference ; then, the mod- el of thrust ripple was built and the parameters of neural network offline were optimized. Also, eliminate the error of model and compensate for the second type of disturbance force with the adaptability and nonlinear function of neural network. A complex controller with three loops and feed forward based on neural network is designed to conquer the disadvantage of pure model and makes full use of the predictable disturbance force. Simulation results verify that this controller can improve the positioning accuracy of PMLSM and its robustness is strong.%为提高永磁直线同步电机（PMLSM）的定位精度,采用神经网络技术对以推力波动和切削力为代表的两类干扰力分别进行辨识和补偿。针对PMLSM固定结构引起的推力波动,利用电机空载电流进行辨识和修正,建立推力波动模型并离线优化神经网络权系数。加工过程中,利用神经网络的自适应和非线性能力修正模型误差并补偿第二类干扰力。设计了基于神经网络的三环控制与速度、电流前馈复合控制器,克服了纯模型适应性差的缺点并充分利用可预测干扰力。仿真结果表明该控制器能够有效提高PMLSM定位精度,鲁棒性强。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张海燕; 刘军; 兖涛; 赵瑶瑶
2014-01-01
提出一种混合控制策略以实现永磁同步电机在全速范围内的无速度传感器控制，在中、高速范围内，采用基于基波模型的滑模观测器法估算电机转子速度与位置。在零速、低速范围内，为避免滑模法的缺陷则切换到高频信号注入法。实现了滑模观测器法的应用，测算出滑模法的应用速度下限，确立混合模式下速度切换区的依据。试验仿真结果表明：结合滑模观测器法与高频注入法的混合模式能够有效降低算法切换过程中的抖振，实现了永磁同步电机在全速范围内的无速度传感器控制。%A hybrid control strategy was proposed, in order to realize the position-sensorless vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor ( PMSM ) at full speed range. The sliding mode observer method based on fundamental wave model was used for estimating the motor rotor speed and position at medium and high speed range. While at low or zero speed range, in order to avoid the defects of sliding mode observer, it switches to the high frequency injection method. The application of sliding mode observer was achieved. And the speed limit of sliding mode observer was measured, which is used as basis for establishing a speed switching area of mixed mode. The experiment simulation results show that the mixed mode of sliding mode observer and high frequency injection can effectively reduce the chatter in the process of switching of algorithm, and the control of PMSM is realized at full speed range.
Initial rotor position estimation of three-stage brushless synchronous motors%三级式无刷同步电机转子初始位置估算方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
毛帅; 刘卫国; 马鹏; 彭纪昌
2016-01-01
提出一种三级式无刷同步电机在无位置传感器并且静止的情况下转子初始位置的估算方法。该方法首先利用三级式无刷同步电机主发电机定子铁心的饱和特性，通过给主发电机定子施加特定方向的电压空间矢量，检测并比较相应的定子电流来预估1个转子的初始位置。然后，利用预估的转子初始位置对主发电机定子电流进行造型，通过高斯曲线拟合估算转子初始位置。实验结果表明：转子初始位置的估算精度在0.5°电角度以内。%A method of estimating the initial rotor position of a three-stage brushless synchronous motor at standstill without any position sensors was presented. Based on the magnetic saturation characteristics of the stator core, the preliminary initial rotor position of the machine was estimated by applying specified voltage vectors to the main generator and comparing the stator current values. Then, the stator current values were modeled using the preliminary initial rotor position information and Gaussian curve fitting was performed. The results show that the standstill rotor position is within 0.5° in electrical angle.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱熀秋; 曹莉; 刁小燕; 李天博; 邹花蕾
2012-01-01
The principle of the bearingless synchronous reluctance motor (BSRM) is expatiated and the mathematics model is established. Then the least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) system method is applied to decoupling control of the BSRM, which decouples the original system into 3 relatively independent SISO pseudo-linear subsystems. At the same time, the closed loop linear controllers are designed based on the linear system theory. The simulation system is constructed with Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation results show that this kind of control strategy can realize dynamic decoupling among electromagnetic torque and radial suspension forces of the BSRM, and the control system has excellent dynamic and static performance.%在阐述了无轴承同步磁阻电机(BSRM)工作原理的基础上,建立其数学模型,采用最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)逆系统方法对其进行解耦控制,将原系统解耦成3个相对独立的伪线性子系统,并应用线性系统理论设计了闭环控制器.最后采用Matlab/Simulink构建仿真系统.仿真结果表明:此解耦控制策略能够实现无轴承同步磁阻电机电磁转矩和径向悬浮力之间的动态解耦,且系统具有良好的动、静态特性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙延昭; 黄守道; 黄科元; 佘峰
2009-01-01
在介绍永磁同步发电机(PMSG)d,q轴数学模型和矢量控制理论基础上,提出在直驱式永磁同步风电系统机侧采用PWM控制方式,通过转子磁场定向控制策略.实现有功无功功率解耦控制,减小了损耗,并且较好地控制了转速.利用Matlab/Simulink进行仿真,并给出了仿真结果.同时搭建了基于TMS320F2808控制器的试验平台,对该控制策略进行了实验,实验结果验证了该控制系统的正确性与可行性.%The PWM control strategy of directly-driven permanent magnet synchronous wind turbine sys-tem in motor-side was presented,which based on the dq-axis mathematical model of PMSG and the vector con-trol theory, by using the strategy of rotor field oriented, the active power and reactive power can be deeoupled, while the loss can be decreased, and the rotor speed is controlled very well. Matlab/Simulink was carried out to prove the validity of the system, and the simulating results was given. An experimental system based on TMS320F2808 was set up to verify the validity and the feasibility.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘文英; 屈百达; 徐保国
2013-01-01
For studying sensorless speed identification,a speed observer was constructed based on the theory of model reference adaptive system (MRAS) by stator flux reference model and rotor flux adjustable model of permanent magnet synchronous servo motor (PMSM). At the same time,in view of the problem existed in servo system including parametric variation and disturbance,a new ob-serve method was proposed. Sliding mode variable structure control was used to construct self-adaptation principle of rotating speed, and the sigmoid function was introduced to eliminate the common dithering of sliding mode control. By MATLAB/Simulink simulation, it is proved using sliding mode variable structure MRAS speed observer,speed identification can be effectively realized.% 研究无速度传感器速度的辨识，利用永磁同步电机的定子磁链参考模型和可调模型，构造基于模型参考自适应控制的速度观测器。同时针对伺服系统中存在的参数变化、扰动等问题，提出一种新型的观测方法。运用滑模变结构控制来构造转速估计自适应律，并引入Sigmoid函数来克服滑模控制引起的抖振。通过MATLAB／Simulink仿真，表明滑模变结构MARS速度观测器能够更好地实现速度的辨识。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
雷静希; 肖文生
2013-01-01
To improve low speed operation stability of direct-drive top-drive permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM), optimum design was performed on the magnet pole. Two schemes of different pole-arc coefficient and eccentricity combinations were comparatively analyzed, giving the relation curves among the pole-arc coefficient, eccentricity, cogging torque and air gap flux density. The cogging torque, air gap flux density and the total harmonic distortion were analyzed numerically, and finally the optimal solution was obtained. From the above analysis results, the optimal solution is selected which can improve operation stability of the PMSM effectively.% 为改善直驱顶驱永磁同步电机低速运行时的平稳性，对永磁电机磁极进行了优化设计。对比分析了两种极弧系数与偏心距的组合方案，绘制出极弧系数、偏心距与齿槽转矩、气隙磁密之间的关系曲线；定量分析了齿槽转矩、气隙磁密和谐波畸变率，并得到最优解。经验证，采用合理的磁极极弧系数以及偏心距是改善直驱永磁同步电机空载运行平稳性的有效方法。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
普朝文
2013-01-01
The loss reduction ,energy conservation and conduction device can reduce the losses caused by brush slip rings up to 12 .3% ~ 14 .2% ,reducing by 85 ,8% ~ 87 .7% ,can eliminate such damages as pollution ,faults and defects caused by powdered carbon arc copper foam from the brush slip rings ,can im-prove operation reliability ,safety ,limit capacity ,efficient output and service life of the generators ,can re-duce excitation losses ,service intensity and maintenance cost ,and can eliminate pollution of powdered car-bon copper foam . Therefore ,the loss reduction ,energy conservation and conduction device can enable brush excitation generators and synchronous electric motors to implement energy conservation and emis -sion reduction as well as to upgrade and to replace the older generators by the new ones .% 降损节能导电装置能把电刷滑环引起的损耗降低到12．3％～14．2％，能减少85．8％～87．7％的损耗；能消除电刷滑环产生的电弧碳粉铜沫引起的污染、故障、事故的危害，能提高发电机的运行可靠性、安全性、极限容量、效率出力、使用寿命，能减少励磁损耗、维护工作量、维护费用，能消除碳粉沫铜沫污染。因此降损节能导电装置能使有刷励磁发电机、同步电动机实现节能减排升级换代。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈镁斌; 徐正华
2016-01-01
提出了一种改进型滑模观测器，用于永磁同步电机（PMSM）无速度传感器控制系统的转速辨识。针对机械式传感器引起的永磁同步电机矢量控制系统可靠性的下降、安装布置时空间局限性和传统滑模观测器抖振问题，改进型滑模观测器分别在切换函数、开关增益、速度估算三个方面进行了综合改造，用饱和函数代替符号函数，可变开关增益替代固定开关增益，锁相环替换直接计算法，较大程度上削弱了抖振，加快了收敛速度，同时提高了转速辨识精度。%This paper proposes an improved sliding-mode observer(SMO) to identify the speed of sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) control system.In order to overcome the decline of reliability of PMSM vector control sys-tem,the limitation of instal ation and the chattering problem of the conventional SMO.The improved SMO has three aspects include that the switch function,switch gain and speed estimation,and carry on the comprehensive transformation which make use of saturation function instead of sign function,a variable observer gain instead of fixed gain and phase-locked loop to replace direct calculation method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈利萍; 张建文; 严双喜; 王金鹏
2012-01-01
基于永磁同步电动机(PMSM)矢量控制原理,给出系统主电路并分析其工作原理及控制策略.将Z源逆变器应用于PMSM驱动系统,利用阻抗网络将前端二极管整流器与逆变桥连接,通过实时调整空间矢量调制中的直通时间,获得逆变桥侧稳定直流电压,有效度越电网电压跌落故障,降低网侧电流谐波,提高系统功率因数及可靠性.仿真结果验证了Z源PMSM驱动系统的可行性与优越性.%Based on vector control principle of permanent magnet synchronous motor,the operating principle, control strategy and circuit analysis were given. Z-source inverter(ZSI) was adopted in the PMSM drive system,and it was coupled with diode rectifier and inverter using a unique impendence network. In order to obtain the steady DC voltage in the inverter bridge side,shoot-through time interval in space vector pulse width modulation of ZSI was real-time adjusted. The system can provide excellent features under voltage sags,reduce line harmonics,and improve the power factor and reliability. The MATLAB simulation results verifies the feasibility and superiority of PMSM drive system by Z source inverter.
Dynamical system synchronization
Luo, Albert C J
2013-01-01
Dynamical System Synchronization (DSS) meticulously presents for the first time the theory of dynamical systems synchronization based on the local singularity theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The book details the sufficient and necessary conditions for dynamical systems synchronizations, through extensive mathematical expression. Techniques for engineering implementation of DSS are clearly presented compared with the existing techniques. This book also: Presents novel concepts and methods for dynamical system synchronization Extends beyond the Lyapunov theory for dynamical system synchronization Introduces companion and synchronization of discrete dynamical systems Includes local singularity theory for discontinuous dynamical systems Covers the invariant domains of synchronization Features more than 75 illustrations Dynamical System Synchronization is an ideal book for those interested in better understanding new concepts and methodology for dynamical system synchronization, local singularity...
Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorkova Elena E.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张婷婷; 朱熀秋
2011-01-01
为了有效解决无轴承同步磁阻电机这一非线性、强耦合的多输入多输出系统的动态解耦问题,提出了基于α阶逆系统理论的无轴承同步磁阻电机解耦控制策略.本文在阐述了无轴承同步磁阻电机径向悬浮力产生机理的基础上,推导出其数学模型,采用α阶逆系统方法将原系统解耦并线性化为一个一阶线件积分子系统和两个二阶线性积分子系统,并应用线性系统理论设计了闭环控制器.最后采用MATLAB软件环境构建了仿真系统,针对系统的阶跃响应、转子起浮、解耦性能等进行了仿真和分析.仿真试验表明这种解耦控制策略能够实现无轴承同步磁阻电机电磁转矩与径向悬浮力之间的动态解耦.并且系统具有良好的动、静态性能.%A deeoupling control approach based on α-th order inverse system method has been developed for a bearingless synchronous reluctance motor(BSRM), which is a nonlinear, strong-coupled, multiple-input and multiple-output system. The working principle of radial suspension forces for the BSRM is explained and the mathematical models are derived in detail. Using α-order inverse system method, the original system is decoupled into one first-order linear integral subsystem and two second-order linear integral subsystems. The linear system theory is applied to design the closed-loop controllers. Simulation and analysis have been carried out for investigating the step response, rotor suspending forces,decoupling control, etc. Results validate the dynamic decoupling control among the electromagnetic torque and two radial suspension forces with desirable dynamic and static performances.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
干瑞; 朱元; 王双全
2012-01-01
In order to achieve the estimation of rotor position of IPMSM at low speed and zero speed, a scheme based on high frequency injection method for sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motor was presented. The basic principal of high frequency injection method was discussed combined with the mathematical model of PMSPM in detail. In consideration of the magnetically saturated saliency, the high frequency response character of PMSM was studied, based on which a new method extracting the DC component of high frequency current was proposed for distinguishing the rotor polarity at zero speed. The impact and compensation of phase deviation of high frequency current was also discussed. The experiment result shows that the methods adopted have satisfies performance at both zero speed and low speed.%研究了一种基于高频注入法的永磁同步电机无传感器控制技术,以实现内埋式永磁同步电机在静止及低速下转子位置的估算.结合电机数学模型阐述了脉振注入法的原理.利用电机的饱和凸极性,分析了电机在静止时的高频响应特性,并提出了一种通过提取高频电流直流分量来判断电机转子极性的方法.为r解决响应电流存在相位偏移的问题,将d轴高频电流作为输入量,通过锁相环得到响应电流的相位偏移值,并做出相应的补偿.实验结果表明,采用的方法跟踪性能良好,适用于电机的静止以及低速运行阶段.
Decoupling control for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on single neuron%基于单神经元的永磁同步电机解耦控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晓宁; 赵现枫; 黄大贵; 邵伟
2012-01-01
The conventional decoupling strategy for the magnetic field-oriented control of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) is difficult to achieve high performances. To deal with this problem, we put forward a decoupling control strategy based on the single neuron, by exploiting the independency of neural network on the object model as well as its excellent learning ability. On the basis of the model of traditional magnetic field-oriented control, we build a single neuron decoupling control system for the PMSM, and perform the simulation as well as the experimental tests on the platform with digital signal processor (DSP) as the core element. The experimental results show that the PMSM control system based on the single neuron decoupling has rapid response ability and is almost with no static error and overshoot. It realizes high performance in PMSM control.%针对永磁同步电机(PMSM)磁场定向控制为代表的传统解耦策略难以实现高性能控制的问题,本文利用神经网络不依赖对象模型的特点以及出色的学习能力,提出了一种基于单神经元的永磁同步电机解耦控制策略.在传统磁场定向控制模型的基础上,构建了基于单神经元的永磁同步电机解耦控制系统,进行了仿真,并搭建以数字信号处理器为核心的电机控制实验平台上进行实验论证.结果表明,基于单神经元解耦的永磁同步电机控制系统具有快速响应能力,并且几乎达到无静差、无超调,实现了PMSM的高性能控制.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李冉; 龙雪涛; 陈辉
2013-01-01
Sliding mode observer has been successfully applied to sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motor,however,the side effect of the sliding mode method caused chattering due to its mechanism,so the estimation errors of rotor position and velocity would be increased.To solve the chattering problem,a new approach was presented by combining sliding mode observer with phase-locked loop.Firstly,back electromotive force was estimated by means of sliding mode observer,then rotor position detected system based on phase-locked loop was designed,furthermore,the rotor position and velocity signal could be extracted from estimated back electromotive force.The proposed approach could instead of the traditional sliding mode observer,which obtained the rotor position and velocity signal directly by means of numerical operation.So it could effectively reduce the affect of the sliding mode chattering and improve the estimation precision of rotor position and velocity.The results of experimental and simulation show the proposed approach is correct and feasible.%基于滑模观测器的永磁同步电机无传感器控制系统中由于滑模自身机制带来的高频抖动,会使电机转子位置以及速度估计时存在很大的误差.为了解决这一问题,将滑模观测器与锁相环技术结合起来,先通过滑模观测器估计电机反电动势,然后再构造基于锁相环结构的转子位置检测单元,从估计的反电动势中提取电机转子位置和速度信号.这种方法能够避免滑模观测器直接通过数值关系运算得到转子位置和速度存在的抖动现象,从而一定程度上削弱估计反电动势中的高频抖动分量对系统被估量的影响,提高了估计精度,仿真分析和实验结果均表明该方法的正确性和可行性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘昇; 卢广山; 徐瑜; 刘闯
2013-01-01
In order to realize the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) sensorless control with high performance,which cannot be reached by conventional sliding-mode observer algorithm with defects of violent chattering phenomena,slow convergence speed and relatively low steady state accuracy,an improved sliding-mode observer algorithm using the saturated function as reaching law is put forward.By using saturated function instead of traditional switch function,and combined with the corresponding filter link and compensation link,the accuracy and the robustness of the observer are greatly improved.As a result,this algorithm provides conditions for the realization of PMSM space vector sensorless control.In the actual system,linear approximation method is used to simulate saturated function.Related simulation and experiment prove that this method provides better performance than the traditional sliding-mode observer.%为了实现永磁同步电机的高性能无位置控制,针对传统滑模观测器算法抖振现象剧烈、收敛速度慢、稳态精度不高的特点,提出了一种基于饱和函数趋近律的改进型滑模观测器无位置算法.由饱和函数取代传统的开关函数,并结合相应的滤波环节、补偿环节,提高了观测器的准确性和鲁棒性,为实现永磁同步电机的无位置矢量控制提供了条件.在实际系统中采用线性逼近的方法模拟饱和函数.相关的仿真和实验证明了该方法比传统滑模观测器具有更好的性能.
The realization of the virtual synchronous generator based on the park model
Yu, L.; Su, J. H.; Guo, L.; Lai, J. D.
2017-06-01
In this paper, a kind of virtual synchronous generator control algorithm is proposed that can accurately simulate the external characteristic of a synchronous generator. This algorithm based on the synchronous generator park mathematical model considers the motor salient pole effect and the influence of damper windings. Using two-step Adams method to solve the mathematical model of the synchronous motor for current of the motor’s port, the converter is controlled to track the current so that the output status values have the same port characteristics with the actual motor. Simulation results verify that in many typical working conditions such as the synchronous motor starting, the output voltage mutating or the frequency changing, the converter controlled in the above algorithm can mimic a real synchronous generator.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晓琳; 丁强
2011-01-01
无轴承永磁同步电机以转子位置信息为媒介实现解耦控制,整个算法复杂且依赖速度传感器.本文研究电机无传感器运行及解耦算法简化的方法.首先将传统扩张状态观测算法简化为线性形式.然后将二、三阶线性扩张状态观测器分别加入转矩和悬浮系统电流环和位移环,并定义电角速度与转矩d-q轴电流乘积以及转矩系统q轴磁链与悬浮d-q轴电流乘积为扰动项,利用观测器辨识转速信息及悬浮扰动力.接着对转速信息进行处理、对悬浮扰动力进行补偿从而实现无速度传感器运行并简化悬浮解耦算法.最后通过仿真验证所提控制策略能够实现电机无速度传感器运行,保证额定转速下稳定悬浮.%The conventional decoupling control of permanent-magnet bearingless synchronous motors depends on the rotor-position information. This control algorithm is complex and dependent on speed-sensor. We propose a decoupling control algorithm with no speed-sensor working for the motor. First, the traditional extended state observer（ESO） algorithm is simplified to a linear form, and then, the second-order and third-order linear-ESO algorithms are added respectively to the current-loop in the torque system and the displacement-loop in the suspension system. The product of the electrical angular speed and the d-q axis current in the torque system, and the product of the q-axis flux in the torque system and the d-q axis current in the suspension system are defined as disturbances to the linear-ESO in identifying the speed information and the levitation disturbance force. Thirdly, the speed information is processed, and the levitation disturbance force is simplified, thus realizing the operation without the speed-sensor, and the simplication of the levitation decoupling algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can achieve the operation with no speed-sensor and guarantee the
Regulation and controlled synchronization
Huijberts, H.J.C.; Huijberts, H.J.C.; Nijmeijer, Henk; Willems, R.M.A.
1998-01-01
We investigate the problem of controlled synchronization as a regulator problem. In controlled synchronization one is given autonomous transmitter dynamics and controlled receiver dynamics. The question is to find a (output) feedback controller that achieves matching between transmitter and
Inverse anticipating chaos synchronization.
Shahverdiev, E M; Sivaprakasam, S; Shore, K A
2002-07-01
We derive conditions for achieving inverse anticipating synchronization where a driven time-delay chaotic system synchronizes to the inverse future state of the driver. The significance of inverse anticipating chaos in delineating synchronization regimes in time-delay systems is elucidated. The concept is extended to cascaded time-delay systems.
Cluster Synchronization Algorithms
Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming
2010-01-01
This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,
Dahiya, Abhishek S; Opoku, Charles; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Camara, Nicolas; Daumont, Christophe; Barbagiovanni, Eric G; Franzò, Giorgia; Mirabella, Salvo; Alquier, Daniel
2017-01-11
The production of high-quality semiconducting nanostructures with optimized electrical, optical, and electromechanical properties is important for the advancement of next-generation technologies. In this context, we herein report on highly obliquely aligned single-crystalline zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnO NSs) grown via the vapor-liquid-solid approach using r-plane (01-12) sapphire as the template surface. The high structural and optical quality of as-grown ZnO NSs has been confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, respectively. To assess the potential of our NSs as effective building materials in high-performance flexible electronics, we fabricate organic (parylene C)/inorganic (ZnO NS) hybrid field-effect transistor (FET) devices on flexible substrates using room-temperature assembly processes. Extraction of key FET performance parameters suggests that as-grown ZnO NSs can successfully function as excellent n-type semiconducting modules. Such devices are found to consistently show very high on-state currents (Ion) > 40 μA, high field-effect mobility (μeff) > 200 cm(2)/(V s), exceptionally high on/off current modulation ratio (Ion/off) of around 10(9), steep subthreshold swing (s-s) low hysteresis, and negligible threshold voltage shifts with prolonged electrical stressing (up to 340 min). The present study delivers a concept of integrating high-quality ZnO NS as active semiconducting elements in flexible electronic circuits.
Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those...... methods based on back emf measurements, and those methods based on novel techniques not included in the previous categories. The paper concludes with a comparison table including all main features for all control strategies....
Speed Synchronization of web winding System with Sliding Mode Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hachemi Glaoui
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. A speed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed control strategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designed controller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hansen, Irving G.
Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.
Hansen, Irving G.
1990-01-01
Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.
Industrial electric motors; Moteurs electriques industriels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maye, P.
2005-08-15
This book makes a synthesis of the present day knowledge on electric motors as main industrial applications of energy conversion. It explains the basic principles and the main physical laws controlling their operation. It describes with details the different types of motors with their utilization: the asynchronous motor (the most common AC motor), the synchronous motor with its 2 versions (winded for high powers and with magnets for high efficiency drives), the variable reluctance motor (promising and still under development), and the DC motor. (J.S.)
Synchronization of chaotic systems.
Pecora, Louis M; Carroll, Thomas L
2015-09-01
We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators.
Synchronization of chaotic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)
2015-09-15
We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators.
Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?
Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai
2013-01-01
The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW), under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggest that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single E. coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed. PMID:25167320
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱熀秋; 左文全; 吕艳博; 付向东
2011-01-01
为解决密封泵系统中泵体的密封性问题,提出采用无轴承电动机替代传统电动机构成新型无轴承密封泵方案,研制无轴承电动机成为其关键.阐述了无轴承密封泵中永磁型无轴承电动机转子悬浮原理,并给出电磁转矩和径向悬浮力数学模型.根据无轴承永磁同步电动机控制系统功能框图,构建无轴承永磁同步电动机数字控制系统,为了使控制系统软件与硬件之间互相配合,设计并使用人机交互界面对无轴承永磁同步电动机控制系统中转速、PID控制器等参数进行实时在线调试和控制.样机试验结果表明:使用人机交互界面进行试验调试,能够快速地达到预期目标,转子转速为1 200 r/min,转子轴心在平衡位置中心(0,0)附近振动,径向偏心位移振动幅值控制在50.μm范围之内,满足对无轴承永磁同步电动机数字控制系统进行实时在线调试和控制的要求,对无轴承密封泵的研制与应用具有重要的理论意义和实用价值.%It was proposed that sealing problems existed in the traditional canned pumps could be solved by using bearingless canned pumps. Introducing the principle of rotor suspension of a bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motor(BPMSM) , the mathematical models of electromagnetic torque and radial suspension forces were given. According to the BPMSM control system function block diagram,the digital control system was described. In order to make software and hardware of the BPMSM control system work in coordination, the human-computer interaction interface based on the BPMSM control system for real-time online debugging and control was designed and used. The experimental results showed that the human-computer interaction interface for debugging and controlling the system can achieve the design goal quickly, at a rotation speed of 1 200 r/min, the central line of the rotor-shaft oscillates near the equilibrium position (0, 0 ) , the vibration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马琮淦; 左曙光; 杨德良; 何吕昌; 孟姝; 孙庆
2013-01-01
Torque ripple of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) causes body structural vibration and noise in an electric vehicle.Here,firstly the dynamical and high order torque signals of PMSM were measured,their order features were revealed and analyzed.Then,a mathematical model of torque ripple in PMSM considering non-sinusoidal magnetic field distribution and slotting was built.Orders and frequencies of torque ripple were predicted and then the rotating speed criterion for measuring dynamical and high order torque signals was presented.Both test study and theoretical study showed that torque of PMSM has a feature of order ripple and the main orders are the (h-1) th orders,the 2(h-1)th orders,the (6i + h-1)th orders and the (6i + h-1)th orders(h ∈ N; i ∈ N); the hth order current causes the (h-1) th order and the 2 (h-1) th order torque ripple; the hth order current,non-sinusoidal magnetic field distribution and slotting cause the (6i + h-1) th order and the (6i-h + 1) th order torque ripple.%针对电动汽车车身阶次振动和车内噪声的主要振源—永磁同步电机的转矩波动,首先通过转矩测量试验测得了电机24阶以内的动态、高阶转矩信号,分析与揭示了永磁同步电机转矩信号的阶次特性现象；为解释该试验现象,从理论上建立了一种考虑非正弦永磁磁场分布、开槽、时间谐波电流的永磁同步电机转矩波动数学模型,获得了谐波转矩的解析解,预测了转矩波动的阶次与频率,进而提出了试验测量动态、高阶转矩信号的转速判据.试验研究和理论研究表明:永磁同步电机的转矩具有明显的阶次波动特征,主要阶次有h-1、2(h-1)、6i+h-1、6i-h+l阶(h∈N,且由变频器决定；i∈N)；h次时间谐波电流将单独引起h-1、2(h-1)阶的转矩波动,h次时间谐波电流、非正弦永磁磁场分布、开槽将共同引起6i+h-1、6i-h+1阶的转矩波动.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张帅君; 赖雨薇; 刘会涛; 高伟航; 张庆勇; 苏伟民
2015-01-01
A new kind of loop was introduced in which hydraulic synchronization and hydraulic brake could be realized. How to realize synchronization and braking functions was illustrated through example. And the loop has simple structure, practicality and safety utmostly.%介绍一种可同时实现液压同步和液压制动的回路，通过具体实例说明如何实现同步和制动的功能，并且最大可能实现结构简单、经济实用和安全可靠。
Efficiency Characteristics of Low Power Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin-Woo
2009-01-01
Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are usually considered inferior in terms of efficiency as compared to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC-motors (BLDC), but less costly. This article presents a test of a 70W hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM), that archieves a peak...... efficiency for the motor drive of more than 74%, and an efficiency for the motor of almost 80%....
Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.
2014-02-01
The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.
Synchronization of Two Self-Synchronous Vibrating Machines on an Isolation Frame
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyu Zhao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates synchronization of two self-synchronous vibrating machines on an isolation rigid frame. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the disturbance parameters for the angular velocities of the four unbalanced rotors. Then the stability problem of synchronization for the four unbalanced rotors is converted into the stability problems of two generalized systems. One is the generalized system of the angular velocity disturbance parameters for the four unbalanced rotors, and the other is the generalized system of three phase disturbance parameters. The condition of implementing synchronization is that the torque of frequency capture between each pair of the unbalanced rotors on a vibrating machine is greater than the absolute values of the output electromagnetic torque difference between each pair of motors, and that the torque of frequency capture between the two vibrating machines is greater than the absolute value of the output electromagnetic torque difference between the two pairs of motors on the two vibrating machines. The stability condition of synchronization of the two vibrating machines is that the inertia coupling matrix is definite positive, and that all the eigenvalues for the generalized system of three phase disturbance parameters have negative real parts. Computer simulations are carried out to verify the results of the theoretical investigation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, N.
2001-12-15
A new axial field machine with armature and field windings fixed in the air-gap is studied. A double face printed winding is presented and a new tool, using a surface permeance model is developed. A simplified current control is proposed. Finally, considering the association synchronous machine-inverter the loss minimization problem is investigated, including both geometry and command parameters. (author)
Understanding social motor coordination.
Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna
2011-10-01
Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王萌; 杨家强; 张翔; 祝长生
2015-01-01
For the disadvantages in the open loop I/f control method of surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM), such as the speed fragility, prone to lose synchronism and fixed current amplitude, an I/f control method with closed loop regulation of current vector was proposed. After analyzing SPMSM model in the current vector orientedγ-δ coordinates, instantaneous power based feedback regulations were added to the structure of basic open-loop I/f control method. The speed of current vector was corrected by instantaneous reactive power, which adds damping torque component in electric torque to improve the motor speed convergence performance. The amplitude of current vector was adjusted by instantaneous active power, which improves the stability of system, and also maintains the steady operation point on the maximum torque/current condition. The method could work properly without motor speed information, and was asymptotic stable on the maximum torque/current condition. Simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed method during startup, steady state and load torque varying process.%针对表贴式永磁同步电机(surface permanent magnet synchronous motor，SPMSM)开环I/f控制方法存在转速易波动、易失步、电流幅值固定的缺点，提出一种电流矢量闭环I/f控制方法。通过对SPMSM在电流矢量定向γ-δ坐标系下模型的分析，在SPMSM开环I/f控制结构的基础上引入瞬时功率反馈调节算法，通过电机的瞬时有功功率调节电流矢量的转速，在电磁转矩中增加阻尼特性分量，改善电机的转速收敛特性；通过瞬时无功功率调节电流矢量的幅值，使SPMSM运行在最大转矩/电流比状态，提高电机的效率和稳定性。该控制方法无需电机转速信息，且在最大转矩/电流比状态具有渐近稳定性。仿真和实验结果验证了该控制方法在电机起动、稳定运行和负载突变时的良好性能。
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R E Amritkar
2008-08-01
We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and multi-cluster synchronization. For networks with time-varying topology we compare the synchronization properties of these networks with the corresponding time-average network. We find that if the different coupling matrices corresponding to the time-varying networks commute with each other then the stability of the synchronized state for both the time-varying and the time-average topologies are approximately the same. On the other hand, for non-commuting coupling matrices the stability of the synchronized state for the time-varying topology is in general better than the time-average topology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林福; 左曙光; 吴旭东; 吴双龙; 毛钰
2016-01-01
为了识别出永磁同步电机的噪声来源，该文对常见的机械噪声和不同影响因素下的电磁噪声特点进行研究。首先分析了滚动轴承产生的噪声阶次特征，识别出了滚珠内外圈通过频率对应的分数阶噪声。其次通过麦克斯韦应力张量法推导了理想条件下作用于定子内表面的径向力波的频率阶次，结合实测电流谐波分析了不同电流谐波类型下的径向力波特征，通过引入偏心修正系数分析了转子动态偏心对径向力波的影响，从而识别出了不同影响因素下的电磁噪声源。并且建立了永磁同步电机的有限元模型，通过模态试验对定子铁芯和绕组的等效进行验证，由电机约束模态分析获取了电机在实际安装条件下的模态参数，对实测的共振噪声来源进行解释。最后分析了各影响因素产生的噪声对总体噪声的贡献量，指出电机的主要噪声源。该研究可以识别出永磁同步电机的每一阶次噪声和共振噪声的来源，为进一步的减振降噪奠定基础。%The noise source of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) was identified in this paper. Firstly, the noise signal in the acceleration process was tested and the short time Fourier transform (STFT) was used to perform the time-frequency analysis. Main noise characteristics including frequency order and resonance region were obtained. Then, the order feature of rolling bearing was studied and the fractional order noise produced by ball pass frequency was recognized. Based on the Maxwell stress tensor method, the frequency order of radial electromagnetic force acting on the teeth surface was derived. The characteristics of the ideal radial force under sinusoidal current with no rotor eccentricity were derived. The influence of current harmonics on the radial force was discussed. Current in the acceleration process was monitored and STFT was used to analyze the type of current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨杰; 黄坤
2013-01-01
针对基于PI控制器的永磁同步电动机直接转矩控制系统存在转矩波动大、易受负载变化影响的问题,设计了一种基于转速外环的自抗扰控制器,代替PI控制器以改善永磁同步电动机直接转矩控制系统的性能；采用粒子群优化算法对自抗扰控制器的相关参数进行了优化计算,改进了控制器的调节性能.仿真和实验结果表明,基于参数优化自抗扰控制器的永磁同步电动机直接转矩控制系统具有较高的抗负载扰动能力,更快的响应速度和良好的动、静态性能.%In view of problems of big torque fluctuation and easy to be influenced by load change existed in direct torque control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on PI controller,the paper designed an active disturbance rejection controller based on speed loop to replace PI controller to improve performances of direct torque control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor.It used particle swarm optimizer algorithm to make optimization calculation for the parameters of the active disturbance rejection controller and improved adjustment performance of the controller.The simulation and experimental results show that the system based on the active disturbance rejection controller with parameters optimization has higher ability of anti-disturbance of load,faster response speed and good dynamic and static performance.
An evaluation of electric motors for ship propulsion
Bassham, Bobby A.
2003-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An evaluation was conducted of the various propulsion motors being considered for electric ship propulsion. The benefit of such an evaluation is that all of the propulsion options being considered by the U.S. Navy have been described in one document. The AC induction motor, AC synchronous motor, High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) motor and Superconducting DC Homopolar Motor (SDCHM) are examined. The properties, advan...
Asynchronized synchronous machines
Botvinnik, M M
1964-01-01
Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv
Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines
Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.
Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy
Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Roversi, MF; Bos, AF; Paolicelli, PB; Ranzi, A; Prechtl, HFR
2002-01-01
Objective: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. Design: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were seria
The Role of Synchronization in Perception-Action
Chan, Tin-Cheung; Yue, Xiaomin; Shi, Zhuanghua; Hong, Bo
Synchronization between brain areas can be taken as a sign of processes of self-organization modifying the connectivity between brain centers in such a way that they can engage effectively in different tasks. The results of an experiment investigating two issues concerning brain synchronization will be discussed here. First, does synchronization occur automatically, without effort, or through controlled processes? Second, is synchronization maintained or is it transient? In the experiment, eight participants watched two numbers presented on a screen. If the sum of these numbers was odd, participants were asked to press a button corresponding to the geometric figure following the presentation of the numbers, with the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) varied between trials. In case of an even sum, no action was needed. EEG was collected with a 32-channel NeuroScan EEG machine. Analysis was conducted with multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) modeling in order to show coherence between brain areas on a spatio-temporal map. Results suggest that synchronization between perceptual or motor brain areas is automatic. When decisions have to be made, however, latency is affected by the proximity of the tasks, which shows that controlled processes are involved. Results also show that brain synchronization is transient in nature, therefore providing for synchronization patterns to be produced in sequence. It appears that the maintenance of a certain brain state and the related behavior is based on the embodiment of stimulus and task in brain synchronization.
Beam Synchronous Timing Systems
Peters, A
2003-01-01
For many beam diagnostics purposes beam synchronous timing systems are needed in addition to the timing systems supplied by the control systems of the different accelerators. The demands and techniques of different accelerator facilities will be discussed along the following aspects: Bunch and macro pulse synchronous timing systems Solutions for different time scales from ps to ms Coupling to the RF and control systems of the different accelerators Electronics for the beam synchronous timing systems: parameters, techniques, controlling Use of industrial products for bunch synchronous timing systems, e.g. function generators Distribution of the timing signals: electronically via cables, optically via fibres or wireless Coupling to and use of timing standards: IRIG-B, GPS, ? The participants should present and describe solutions from their facilities with some transparencies as a starting point for the discussion.
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...
Advanced synchronous luminescence system
Vo-Dinh, Tuan
1997-01-01
A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.
Synchronization in complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.
2007-12-12
Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.
Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri
2014-01-01
been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...
DUAL THREE-PHASE ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVE WITH SYNCHRONIZED SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleschuk V.I.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Split-phase symmetrical motor drive on the base of two voltage source inverters, controlled by algorithms of synchronized pulse width modulation (PWM, has been investigated. Simulation results are presented for dual three-phase power conversion systems with continuous, discontinuous and combined versions of synchronized PWM.
Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleksandr V. Popovych
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the nervous system synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR neuromodulation we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, nonlinear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP,CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from anabnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.
Role of across‐muscle motor unit synchrony for the coordination of forces
Santello, Marco; Fuglevand, Andrew J.
2004-01-01
Evidence from five‐digit grasping studies indicates that grip forces exerted by pairs of digits tend to be synchronized. It has been suggested that motor unit synchronization might be a mechanism responsible for constraining the temporal relationships between grip forces. To evaluate this possibility and quantify the effect of motor unit synchrony on force relationships, we used a motor unit model to simulate force produced by two muscles using three physiological levels of motor unit synchro...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王丽梅; 郭庆鼎
2001-01-01
提出了一种永磁同步电机转子位置估算的自检测方法。文中讨论了利用旋转矢量载波高频信号注入、外差法及跟踪观测器检测转子位置的原理。同时给出了针对内埋式永磁同步电机的实验系统及实验结果。%This paper presents an implementation of rotor position estimation with self-sensing method for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machines. The methods using rotating vector, carrier frequency excitation and heterodyning, tracking observers for rotor position estimation are discussed. The experimental system used for this work is presented. The experimental results for the case of a buried PM machine are shown in the paper.
Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohui Ren
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.
Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and electromyogram
Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang
2011-04-01
A non-intrusive novel detection scheme has been implemented to detect the lateral muscle extension, force of the skeletal muscle and the motor action potential (EMG) synchronously. This allows the comparison of muscle dynamics and EMG signals as a basis for modeling and further studies to determine which architectural parameters are most sensitive to changes in muscle activity. For this purpose the transmission time for ultrasonic chirp signal in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 2.5 MHz passing through the muscle under observation and respective motor action potentials are recorded synchronously to monitor and quantify biomechanical parameters related to muscle performance. Additionally an ultrasonic force sensor has been employed for monitoring. Ultrasonic traducers are placed on the skin to monitor muscle expansion. Surface electrodes are placed suitably to pick up the potential for activation of the monitored muscle. Isometric contraction of the monitored muscle is ensured by restricting the joint motion with the ultrasonic force sensor. Synchronous monitoring was initiated by a software activated audio beep starting at zero time of the subsequent data acquisition interval. Computer controlled electronics are used to generate and detect the ultrasonic signals and monitor the EMG signals. Custom developed software and data analysis is employed to analyze and quantify the monitored data. Reaction time, nerve conduction speed, latent period between the on-set of EMG signals and muscle response, degree of muscle activation and muscle fatigue development, rate of energy expenditure and motor neuron recruitment rate in isometric contraction, and other relevant parameters relating to muscle performance have been quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高新鹏沈天益; 赵银平
2015-01-01
在使用自抗扰（Active Disturbance Rejection ControI er，ADRC）控制器的表贴式永磁同步电机（Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor，SPMSM）系统中，电流环依然存在耦合现象，扩张状态观测器（Extended State Observer，ESO）对于变化较大的扰动难以保证对其的估计精度。为了提高负载的动态性能，提出了改进的自抗扰控制器设计方案。基于表贴式永磁同步电机模型，利用最小二乘算法辨识出电流环参数，对电流环模型进行补偿，实现电流环的精确解耦，减小ESO对扰动估计的压力，提高扰动估计精度。仿真结果表明，改进的自抗扰控制器提高了负载的动态性能。%In the surface-mounted permanet magnetic synchronous motor(SPMSM) system controI ed by active disturbance rejection controI er (ADRC),the current Ioop coupIed phenomenon stiI exists,it is difficuIt to ensure the estimation precision of disturbance by extended state observer (ESO)in the case of big disturbance.In order to improve the controI performance of ADRC,the improved ADRC is present in this paper.Based on SPMSM modeI identification by using Ieast square method, make compensation to decrease the pressure of estimation disturbance of ESO.
Measure Synchronization on Symplectic Map
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Shao-Ying; XU Hai-Bo; WANG Guang-Rui; CHEN Shi-Gang
2004-01-01
Measure synchronization in coupled Hamiltonian systems is a novel synchronization phenomenon. The measure synchronization on symplectic map is observed numerically, for identical coupled systems with different parameters. We have found the properties of the characteristic frequency and the amplitude of phase locking in regular motion when the measure synchronization of coupled systems is obtained. The relations between the change of the largest Lyapunov exponent and the course of phase desynchronization are also discussed in coupled systems, some useful results are obtained. A new approach is proposed for describing the measure synchronization of coupled systems numerically,which is advantage in judging the measure synchronization, especially for the coupled systems in nonregular region.
Synchronization and Inertial Frames
Viazminsky, C P
1999-01-01
In classical mechanics, a procedure for simultaneous synchronization in all inertial frames is consistent with the Galilean transformation. However, if one attempts to achieve such a synchronization utilizing light signals, he will be facing in the first place the break down of simultaneity, and secondly, a self-contradictory transformation that has the Lorentz transformation, or its confinement to the velocity of light, as the only possible ways that resolve the contradiction. The current work constitutes a smooth transition from traditional to relativistic vision of mechanics, and therefore is quite appealing from pedagogical point of view.
Analysis of synchronous machines
Lipo, TA
2012-01-01
Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张婷婷; 曹莉; 刁小燕; 朱熀秋
2012-01-01
在阐述二自由度无轴承同步磁阻电机和三自由度混合磁轴承工作原理基础上,推导出五自由度无轴承同步磁阻电机状态方程,采用逆系统方法将五自由度无轴承同步磁阻电机这一非线性、强耦合的多输入多输出系统解耦并线性化为伪线性系统,并应用线性系统理论设计闭环控制器,最后采用Matlab软件环境构建了仿真系统,对转子起浮特性及解耦性能进行了仿真。仿真结果表明：这种解耦控制策略能够实现五自由度无轴承同步磁阻电机各个被控量之间的动态解耦,并且系统具有良好的动、静态性能。%Based on explanation of the operation principle for the 2 degrees of freedom（2-DOF） bearingless synchronous reluctance（BSRM） and 3-DOF magnetic bearing,the state equations of 5-DOF BSRM were deduced.As a multi-variable,nonlinear and strong-coupled system,the 5 degrees of freedom（5-DOF） bearingless synchronous reluctance motor（BSRM） was decoupled into pseudo-linear system using inverse system method.The linear system theory was proposed to design the closed-loop controllers.The simulation system was constructed by using Matlab software,and suspension characteristic of rotor and decoupling performance were simulated.The simulation results show that this kind of control strategy can realize dynamic decoupling among the controlled variables of the 5-DOF BSRM,and the control system has good dynamic and static performance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周扬忠; 程明; 熊先云
2015-01-01
逆变器死区、功率管导通压降及开关过渡过程等非线性因素易导致直接转矩控制(direct torque control，DTC)多相永磁同步电机定子电流严重畸变。该文针对六相对称偏置60°定子绕组永磁同步电机提出一种DTC策略。首先，基于零序电流等于零思想进行电压矢量重构，并由此提出理想DTC；其次，基于死区补偿原理对实际电压矢量作用时间进行离散补偿；最后，利用 PI 调节器对电压矢量作用时间进行连续补偿，实现零序电流等于零目的。实验结果表明该文提出的驱动控制系统具有快速的转矩动态响应特性；同时零序电流基本等于零，定子电流总谐波含量较低。%There may be serious distortion in stator currents of multi-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor with direct torque control (DTC) because of the nonlinear factors such as inverter dead-zone, power switch voltage drop and switching transition. A novel DTC was proposed for six-phase symmetric winding phase-shifted by a 60 degree permanent magnet synchronous motor. Firstly, the synthesized voltage vectors were determined to achieve the zero-sequence current, and the ideal DTC strategy was proposed based on the synthesized vectors. Secondly, the factual voltage vector operating time was compensated according to the principle of dead-zone compensation. At last, the voltage vector operating time was regulated continuously by a proportion-integral controller aiming at zero zero-sequence current. The experimental results show that the presented DTC has fast response of torque and the total harmonics is very small due to very lower zero-sequence current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung-Hun Shin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.
Position Control of Motor Drive Systems: A Data Driven Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Parastvand
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new model free approach to the design of robust PID controller for the position control of electrical machines, such as induction motor, synchronous motor and DC motor faced to un-modeled dynamics. It is illustrated that knowing the frequency response data is sufficient to calculate the family of robust PID controllers that satisfy -norm on the complementary sensitivity function. The usefulness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulation on an induction motor drive system.
Sensorless speed Control including Zero Speed on Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2006-01-01
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor stat...
Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2005-01-01
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor stat...
Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius
1997-01-01
Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...... characterized by multiple positive Lyapunov exponents are reviewd....
Synchronization of respiration
Garssen, B.
In order to study synchronization of respiration, three different videofragments were presented to 21 normal subjects. Each fragment showed a ‘therapeutic interview’ specially performed for this purpose, with a ‘patient’ breathing in a particular way. The respiration of model 1 was deep, slow and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王莹; 胡育文; 杨建飞
2011-01-01
在以往的永磁同步电机直接转矩控制研究中,将零电压矢量引入到转矩调节器中,认为其起到保持当前转矩的作用.该文对永磁同步电机中零电压矢量对转矩脉动和磁链脉动的影响进行了详细的理论分析,指出在电机高速运行的情况下,零矢量实际是起到减小转矩的作用.转速越高,零矢量减小转矩的效果越明显.仿真结果证明了理论分析的正确性,这为正确理解零矢量在永磁同步电机直接转矩控制的作用以及今后对零矢量作用的范围进行优化设计具有指导意义.%In previous study of permanent magnet synchronous motor direct torque control ( PMSM DTC ) , considered to keep the torque stable, zero voltage vector was introduced into the torque controller. The influence of zero voltage vector on flux and torque ripple in PMSM DTC. Was analyzed detailedly in this paper. And it pointed out that, when the motor run with a high speed, zero voltage vector actually reduced the torque. The higher the rotor speed was, the more obvious the effect of reducing the torque was. The simulation result verified the validity of the theory analysis. It is a significant guide for understanding correctly the function of zero voltage vector in PMSM DTC and optimizing the design of zero voltage vector working zone in the future.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李冉; 赵光宙; 徐绍娟
2012-01-01
针对传统滑模观测器在估计电机转速时存在的抖动问题,本文通过永磁同步电机扩展状态方程以及扩展滑模观测器,将滑模控制和模型参考自适应结合在一起,来提取电机转速。从仿真和实验两方面,对新方法与传统滑模观测器方法作了详细的比较,结果验证了新方法可以避免传统滑模参数估计时存在的抖动问题,同时具有良好的动静态性能以及更高的估计精度。%Aiming at the chattering problem arising from the estimation of rotor velocity by using traditional sliding mode observer（SMO）,the paper combines sliding mode control with model reference adaptive systems by the extended state equations of permanent magnet synchronous motor（PMSM） and the equations of extended sliding mode observer of PMSM,and then the new estimation method of rotor velocity is presented.The detailed comparison between the proposed method and the traditional one is introduced according to simulation analysis and experimental validation.The simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method which avoid the chattering problem of the traditional one and better estimated precision,moreover,good dynamic and static performance are achieved.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王淑旺; 高月仙; 张磊
2016-01-01
新能源汽车的需求使得永磁同步电机( PMSM)向高功率密度方向发展，温升成为其中的一个关键问题，因此对散热系统的研究显得尤为重要。以一台额定功率30 kW的强制液冷PMSM为例，通过正交试验法，结合仿真软件的数值模拟，对电机散热系统性能及其影响因素进行研究。根据相关文献和工程经验，确定电机壳体材料、冷却管道结构、冷却介质和管道数目是影响电机散热效果的主要因素。通过对仿真试验结果的极差分析。确定电机散热性能影响因素的主次顺序，得出冷却介质对最高温度影响最大，冷却结构是对管道压降影响最显著的因素。最后从由结果分析给出了较好的方案组合。%The demand for clean-energy vehicles made permanent magnet synchronous motor ( PMSM) develop in the direction of high power density and the study of the cooling system was particularly important for the temperature rise was one of the key problems. A 30 kW forced liquid-cooled PMSM was set as an example. By orthogonal experiment and numerical simulation software, the motor cooling system properties and its influence factors were studied. According to the relevant literature and engineering experience, the housing materials, the cooling structure, the cooling medium and the number of pipelines were determined as the main factors affecting the motor cooling effect. The primary and secondary order of these factors were determined by the range analysis of the simulation results and it showed that the cooling medium and the cooling structure were, respectively, the most significant factor of the temperature rise and pressure drop. Simultaneously the results of the analysis also gave a better combination.
LHC synchronization test successful
The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/
Synchronization of micromasers
Davis-Tilley, C.; Armour, A. D.
2016-12-01
We investigate synchronization effects in quantum self-sustained oscillators theoretically using the micromaser as a model system. We use the probability distribution for the relative phase as a tool for quantifying the emergence of preferred phases when two micromasers are coupled together. Using perturbation theory, we show that the behavior of the phase distribution is strongly dependent on exactly how the oscillators are coupled. In the quantum regime where photon occupation numbers are low we find that, although synchronization effects are rather weak, they are nevertheless significantly stronger than expected from a semiclassical description of the phase dynamics. We also compare the behavior of the phase distribution with the mutual information of the two oscillators and show that they can behave in rather different ways.
Modeling for write synchronization in bit patterned media recording
Lin, Maria Yu; Chan, Kheong Sann; Chua, Melissa; Zhang, Songhua; Kui, Cai; Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid
2012-04-01
Bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a contender for next generation technology after conventional granular magnetic recording (CGMR) can no longer sustain the continued areal density growth. BPMR has several technological hurdles that need to be overcome, among them is solving the problem of write synchronization. With CGMR, grains are randomly distributed and occur almost all over the media. In contrast, BPMR has grains patterned into a regular lattice on the media with an approximate 50% duty cycle. Hence only about a quarter of the area is filled with magnetic material. During writing, the clock must be synchronized to the islands or the written in error rate becomes unacceptably large and the system fails. Maintaining synchronization during writing is a challenge as the system is not able to read and write simultaneously. Hence reading must occur periodically between the writing frequently enough to re-synchronize the writing clock to the islands. In this work, we study the requirements on the lengths of the synchronization and data sectors in a BPMR system using an advanced model for BPMR, and taking into consideration different spindle motor speed variations, which is the main cause of the mis-synchronization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张金宝
2015-01-01
考虑到对电动汽车永磁同步电机驱动的成本以及控制算法的复杂程度，在此研究一种基于低分辨率霍尔传感器的电动汽车永磁同步电机驱动系统。该系统采用三相对称开关型霍尔传感器进行位置估计。由于传统的基于平均速度的位置估算方法，在速度变化不大时，估算出的速度和位置值较准确，但是在电机加速、减速或者受到速度扰动时，估算出的速度和位置值就会存在较大偏差，严重影响系统的性能。因此这里使用基于平均加速度的位置估算方法，考虑当前扇区的加速度值，以减小估算误差。通过Matlab进行仿真研究，仿真结果表明，相比传统的基于平均速度的位置估算方法，基于平均加速度的位置估算方法无论是平稳运行阶段还是加速、减速阶段，系统估计速度和位置对实际速度和位置都具有较好的跟踪性能，速度超调量仅为2%。%Taking account of the cost of the traditional driving system for permanent magnet synchronous motor and com⁃plexity of control algorithm for electric vehicle,a new driving system based on low resolution Hall sensor is proposed for perma⁃nent magnet synchronous motor of electric vehicle,which uses three⁃phase symmetrical switch type Hall sensor to estimate posi⁃tion. Since the traditional position estimation method based on average velocity can not estimate the accurate velocity and posi⁃tion values,and even affects the system performance severely while the motor is accelerating,decelerating or influenced by speed perturbance,a position estimation method based on average acceleration is adopted in this paper to reduce the estimation error,which allows for the acceleration magnitude of the current sector. The Matlab simulation results show that,compared with the traditional estimation method based on average velocity,the new one based on average acceleration has a better tracking per
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李景灿; 廖勇; 姚骏
2009-01-01
埋入式永磁同步电机转子磁路结构与普通同步电机有很大差别,电感参数用传统计算方法难以准确计算.分别采用传统方法和保存与运行点相对应的磁导率的方法(fixed permeability method,FPM),利用Ansoft软件对永磁同步电机进行二维有限元计算,得到了电机的永磁体磁链λ_m、d、q轴电枢反应电感参数.分析了采用不同计算方法产生差异的原因,研究了饱和对埋入式永磁同步电机永磁体磁链λ_m、d、q轴电枢反应电感特性以及磁桥宽度对电感特性的影响.总结出埋入式永磁同步电机电感参数的变化规律,为永磁同步电机设计和性能分析提供了理论依据.%Since rotor structures of the IPMSM are different from the common motor, inductance parameters are hard to be accurately calculated by the traditional calculation method. A new analytical method, which is called the fixed permeability method (FPM), is used to calculate the inductance parameters and the magnet flux A_m of IPMSM. The results calculated by the FPM and the conventional finite element method (FEM) are compared and the reasons which caused the different results are analyzed. The impacts of saturation and cross coupling on the inductance and the magnet flux A_m and the impact of the width of the bridge on the inductance are studied. On the basis of the analysis, the influence factors and the rules of the inductance parameters of IPMSM are summarized, which are good for analysis and design of PMSM.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘景林; 丁晓峰; Chris Mi; 侯瑞茵
2011-01-01
Aim. The introduction of the full paper reviews Refs. 2 through 7 and then, with the help of Fig. 1, proposes our effective method for dealing with the sudden losses of drive signals by inverter switches of IPMSM system during field-weakening high-speed operation. Sections 1 and 3 explain our effective method. Section 1 is entitled the simplified mathematical model of uncontrolled generation (UCG); Section 2 is entitled the simulation results of UCG transient process and their analysis; Section3 is entitled the improvements of UCG system. Fig. 3 gives the simulation model of UCG; Figs. 4 through 7 present the simulation results and give the feedback power obtained throughout the transient process; Figs. 8 through 11 propose the circuit improvements for effectively charging the battery and avoiding as much as possible the destruction risks of battery, motor, inverter and other relevant components during UCG.%内置式永磁同步电动机(IPMSM)弱磁高速运行时,逆变器开关管的信号突然消失会导致电动机系统处在不可控发电运行状态.此时,逆变器的续流二极管组成不可控整流桥,电流由电机通过整流桥整流,然后流向直流侧电池.文章首先建立了系统的数学模型,然后通过对系统运行过程进行仿真分析,求得电池吸收能量值和整个过程反馈能量值.接着,为避免不可控发电对电池、电机、逆变器以及其它系统组成部分的损害和有效地对电池进行充电,对电路提出了改进措施.
ENGINEERING CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS MECHANISM EXPLANATION OF VIBRATORY SYNCHRONIZATION TRANSMISSION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiong Wanli; Wen Bangchun; Duan Zhishan
2004-01-01
Vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) is a kind of special physical phenomenon in inertia vibra-tion mechanical systems.For an inertia vibration mechanical system driven by one pair of motors runs in step,even the power supply of one motor is cut off,the motor can continue to keep rotating state under the vibration exciting of the machine body driven by only one other motor.And its rotating frequency will be the same as that of the other one.The transient process of this wonderful physical phenomenon has not been described quantitatively according to current-existing mechanical models.On the basis of investigation of the engineering characteristics of VST,a mechanical and electrical coupling mathematical model of a two-shaft inertia vibration machine is established.With this model,the transient process of VST is recurred quantitatively and successfully,and a reasonable explana-tion is given.
The transient ladder synchronization of chaotic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, H.-K. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No. 11, Gungye Rd., Dali City, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: kanechen@giga.net.tw; Sheu, L.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ljsheu@chu.edu.tw
2006-07-03
A new type for chaotically synchronizing systems, transient ladder chaos synchronization, is proposed in this Letter. For some physical systems, chaotic synchronization is possible in only some of the variables. It is shown that, for the non-synchronizing variable, synchronization up to a constant difference for t{sub 1}=
SUMS: synchronous undulator-monochromator scans at Synchrotron Soleil.
Izquierdo, Manuel; Hardion, Vincent; Renaud, Guillaume; Chapuis, Lilian; Millet, Raphael; Langlois, Florent; Marteau, Fabrice; Chauvet, Christian
2012-07-01
A strategy for performing synchronous undulator-monochromator scans (SUMS) compatible with the control system of Synchrotron Soleil has been developed. The implementation of the acquisition scheme has required the development of an electronic interface between the undulator and the beamline. The characterization of delays and jitters in the synchronous movement of various motor axes has motivated the development of a new electronic synchronization scheme among various axes, including the case when one of the axes is electronically accessible in `read-only' mode. A software prototype has been developed to allow the existing hard continuous software to work in user units. The complete strategy has been implemented and successfully tested at the TEMPO beamline.
Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus
2012-01-01
When listening to music, humans tend to synchronize their movements with the perceived beat (e.g., foot-tapping). Brain areas associated with motor function have been closely linked to the perception of beat and rhythm, but the mechanism of this temporal auditory–motor coupling is not fully under...
Remote Synchronization in Complex Networks
Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Fortuna, Luigi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Frasca, Mattia
2013-01-01
We show the existence of a novel dynamical state called remote synchronization in general networks of coupled oscillators. This state is characterized by the synchronization of pairs of nodes that are not directly connected via a physical link or any sequence of synchronized nodes. This phenomenon cannot be observed in networks of phase oscillators as its underlying mechanism is the modulation of the amplitude of those intermediary nodes between the remotely synchronized units. Our findings thus show the ubiquity and robustness of these states and bridge the gap from their recent observation in simple toy graphs to complex networks.
PARTIAL SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jun; LIU Zeng-rong
2005-01-01
A new method for partial synchronization between different systems was obtained. The definition of partial synchronization under which the problem works is given. The stability of the method is analyzed by the Liapunov function method and the condition of choosing the control term is derived. The reliability of this method is proved by some numerical examples, in which the dynamical behaviors of the synchronized systems are observed and it is found that whatever state the response system is partial synchronization can be always achieved by adding some proper control term.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounsgaard, Jorn
2017-01-01
Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘英培; 栗然; 梁海平
2014-01-01
Traditional PI regulator has some defects. Direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on active-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) optimized by least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) method was proposed in this paper. The speed regulator based on ADRC was designed with the inputs of given speed and real speed and the output of given electromagnet torque. The Gaussian radial basis kernel function was chosen in the model. The realization of the LSSVM regression model embedded in ADRC regulator was analyzed in-depth and detailed, which optimized the ADRC regulator. The ADRC observation precision and dynamic response are improved. The effect of motor parameters and load disturbances on the system is significantly reduced. The anti-interference ability of the system is further improved. Simulation and experiment results have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.%针对传统PI调节器的缺陷，提出一种基于最小二乘支持向量机(least squares support vector machine，LSSVM)优化自抗扰控制器(active-disturbance rejection control， ADRC)的永磁同步电机直接转矩控制方法。以给定转速和实际转速作为输入信号，以给定电磁转矩作为输出信号，设计了 ADRC 速度调节器；在此基础上，在回归模型中选取高斯径向基核函数，深入分析了将LSSVM回归模型有效嵌入ADRC调节器的实现方法，实现对ADRC控制器的优化，以提高 ADRC 观测精度及系统动态响应速度，很大程度上降低了电机参数变化和负载扰动对系统的影响，进一步改善了系统的抗干扰能力。仿真和实验结果验证了该方法的可行性和有效性。
Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlova S.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.
Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact
Orlova, S.; Rassõlkin, A.; Kallaste, A.; Vaimann, T.; Belahcen, A.
2016-12-01
Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.
FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization
Pozniak, Krzysztof T.
2013-10-01
The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.
Erika E Rodríguez; Enrique Hernández-Lemus; Itzá-Ortiz, Benjamín A.; Ismael Jiménez; Pablo Rudomín
2011-01-01
The analysis of the interaction and synchronization of relatively large ensembles of neurons is fundamental for the understanding of complex functions of the nervous system. It is known that the temporal synchronization of neural ensembles is involved in the generation of specific motor, sensory or cognitive processes. Also, the intersegmental coherence of spinal spontaneous activity may indicate the existence of synaptic neural pathways between different pairs of lumbar segments. In this stu...
Methods, systems and apparatus for synchronous current regulation of a five-phase machine
Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Perisic, Milun
2012-10-09
Methods, systems and apparatus are provided for controlling operation of and regulating current provided to a five-phase machine when one or more phases has experienced a fault or has failed. In one implementation, the disclosed embodiments can be used to synchronously regulate current in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase AC machine, a five-phase inverter module coupled to the five-phase AC machine, and a synchronous current regulator.
A sensorless initial rotor position's estimation for permanent magnet synchronous machines
Krasnov, I.; Langraf, S.; Odnolopylov, I.; Koltun, V.
2015-10-01
Permanent magnet synchronous motors for the effective start require information about the initial position of a rotor. In this regard, most systems use position sensors, which substantially increase entirely a cost of an electrical drive [1-3]. The aim of this article is to develop a new method, allowing determining the absolute angular position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor [4,5]. With a certain voltage pulses applied to the motor, its stator is magnetized by currents leakage in the windings. This allows using a special algorithm to calculate the absolute position of the rotor without using any motor parameters [6]. Simulation results prove the simplicity and efficiency of this method for determining an initial position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor. Thus, this method can be widely used in the electrical industry.
The role of temporal prediction abilities in interpersonal sensorimotor synchronization.
Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E
2011-06-01
Musical ensemble performance is a form of joint action that requires highly precise yet flexible interpersonal action coordination. To maintain synchrony during expressive passages that contain tempo variations, musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. Our previous studies revealed that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming event timing when finger tapping in synchrony with tempo-changing pacing signals (i.e., the degree to which inter-tap intervals match vs. lag behind inter-onset intervals in the pacing signal varies between individuals). The current study examines the influence of these individual differences on synchronization performance in a dyadic tapping task. In addition, the stability of individual prediction tendencies across time is tested. Individuals with high or low prediction tendencies were invited to participate in two experimental sessions. In both sessions, participants were asked (1) to tap alone with a tempo-changing pacing signal and (2) to tap synchronously in dyads comprising individuals with similar or different prediction tendencies. Results indicated that individual differences in prediction tendencies were stable over several months and played a significant role in dyadic synchronization. Dyads composed of two high-predicting individuals tapped with higher accuracy and less variability than low-predicting dyads, while mixed dyads were intermediate. Prediction tendencies explained variance in dyadic synchronization performance over and above individual synchronization ability. These findings suggest that individual differences in temporal prediction ability may potentially mediate the interaction of cognitive, motor, and social processes underlying musical joint action.
Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines
Harbour, Joel P.
2001-01-01
CIVINS The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanent magnet, superconducting synchronous an...
Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Kalapish
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.
Two-phase induction motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaabjerg, Frede; Lungeanu, Florin; Skaug, Kenneth
2004-01-01
There is a continuous debate today concerning the ?motor of the future? for low-power applications requiring less than 1-2 kW. The specialists are focusing on superior motors [1] like brushless-dc, permanent-magnet synchronous, or electronically commutated types, because they show improvements...... in efficiency, reliability, torque-per-volume/mass ratio, maintenance, and service life. Despite this effort, the industry seems to be responding with manifest rigidity in changing standard induction motor solutions when considering the installed volume into the field, the investment in manufacturing base...
Global Exponential Projective Synchronization and Lag Synchronization of Hyperchaotic Lü System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Qun-Jiao; LU Jun-An; JIA Zhen
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the projective synchronization and lag synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system[Physica A 364 (2006) 103]. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, two novel nonlinear controllers are respectively designed to guarantee the global exponential projective synchronization (including complete synchronization and anti-synchronization) and lag synchronization. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the main results.
Digital synchronization and communication techniques
Lindsey, William C.
1992-01-01
Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.
Order release in synchronous manufacturing
Riezebos, J.
2010-01-01
Synchronous manufacturing aims at achieving the benefits of intermittent production lines in production situations that operate without lines. Benefits such as short and constant throughput times and predictable capacity loading can be acquired through an appropriate design of the synchronous manufa
Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Tyrrell
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.
Exploiting Schemas in Data Synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foster, J. Nathan; Greenwald, Michael B.; Kirkegaard, Christian
2005-01-01
Increased reliance on optimistic data replication has led to burgeoning interest in tools and frameworks for disconnected updates to replicated data.We have implemented a generic synchronization framework, called HARMONY, that can be used to build state-based synchronizers for a wide variety of t...
Benefits of Synchronous Online Courses
Moser, Scott; Smith, Phil
2015-01-01
Most online courses are offered as "asynchronous" courses and have no real-time contact with students. The Synchronous online alternative provides normal scheduled class time and allows students to login to a virtual online classroom with the instructor. We provide an overview of two different platforms for hosting synchronous classes…
Network algebra for synchronous dataflow
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.; Ștefánescu, G.
2013-01-01
We develop an algebraic theory of synchronous dataflow networks. First, a basic algebraic theory of networks, called BNA (Basic Network Algebra), is introduced. This theory captures the basic algebraic properties of networks. For synchronous dataflow networks, it is subsequently extended with
Order release in synchronous manufacturing
Riezebos, J.
2010-01-01
Synchronous manufacturing aims at achieving the benefits of intermittent production lines in production situations that operate without lines. Benefits such as short and constant throughput times and predictable capacity loading can be acquired through an appropriate design of the synchronous manufa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin Oleschuk
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Novel method of space-vector-based pulse-width modulation (PWM has been disseminated for synchronous control of four inverters feeding six-phase drive on the base of asymmetrical induction motor which has two sets of windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees. Basic schemes of synchronized PWM, applied for control of four separate voltage-source inverters, allow both continuous phase voltages synchronization in the system and required power sharing between DC sources. Detailed MATLAB-based simulations show a behavior of six-phase system with continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronized PWM.
Synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Albert C.J., E-mail: aluo@siue.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1805 (United States); Min Fuhong [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1805 (United States)
2011-06-15
Highlights: > Synchronization dynamics of two distinct dynamical systems. > Synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization. > A controlled pendulum synchronizing with the Duffing oscillator. > Synchronization invariant set. > Synchronization parameter map. - Abstract: In this paper, synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems is investigated through the theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization (penetration or grazing) are presented. Using such a synchronization theory, the synchronization of a controlled pendulum with the Duffing oscillator is systematically discussed as a sampled problem, and the corresponding analytical conditions for the synchronization are presented. The synchronization parameter study is carried out for a better understanding of synchronization characteristics of the controlled pendulum and the Duffing oscillator. Finally, the partial and full synchronizations of the controlled pendulum with periodic and chaotic motions are presented to illustrate the analytical conditions. The synchronization of the Duffing oscillator and pendulum are investigated in order to show the usefulness and efficiency of the methodology in this paper. The synchronization invariant domain is obtained. The technique presented in this paper should have a wide spectrum of applications in engineering. For example, this technique can be applied to the maneuvering target tracking, and the others.
Chua's Circuit: Control and Synchronization
Irimiciuc, Stefan-Andrei; Vasilovici, Ovidiu; Dimitriu, Dan-Gheorghe
Chaos-based data encryption is one of the most reliable methods used in secure communications. This implies a good control of a chaotic system and a good synchronization between the involved systems. Here, experimental results are shown on the control and synchronization of Chua's circuits. The control of the chaotic circuit was achieved by using the switching method. The influence of the control signal characteristics (amplitude, frequency and shape) on the system's states was also investigated. The synchronization of two similar chaotic circuits was studied, emphasizing the importance of the chaotic state characteristics of the Master system in respect to those of Slave system. It was shown that the synchronization does not depend on the chaotic state type, neither on the dimension (x, y or z) used for synchronization.
Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara
2012-01-01
Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.
Synchronous anorectal melanoma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Drinko Balicevic; Karla Tomic; Miroslav Bekavac-Beslin; Igor Kovacevic; August Mijic; Mladen Belicza; Bozo Kruslin
2006-01-01
Anorectal melanoma is a very rare tumor with poor prognosis. Rectal bleeding is the most frequent symptom and surgical treatment ranges from local excision to radical abdominoperineal resection. We report a case of a 75-years-old male patient who presented with a history of recurrent rectal bleeding, and whose histopathological diagnosis was melanoma. Macroscopically, we found two distinct tumors in anorectal region, 0.5 cm and 1.5 cm from dentate line. The first one was pedunculated, on a thin stalk, measuring 1 cm in greatest diameter, and the second one was sessile and nodular measuring up to 2.8 cm in largest diameter. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. This case represents multiple synchronous primary melanoma of the anorectal region, with a possibility that one of the lesions is primary melanoma and the second one is a satellite lesion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Erik W.
, to exist, in order to underline the cognitive basis of man's (comprehension of) existence. A theory of history (existence) is set up on the basis of the traditional dualistic sign function, and the traditional sound-law concept and sound development are reinterpreted in terms of the theory's system...... of definitions. Historical linguistics ('change') is not dependent on an arbitrary synchronic theory. The two language universals polysemy and synonymy are reinterpreted and defined in accordance with the advanced definitions. Louis Hjelmslev's glossematic theory is the general horizon of the argument...... and is criticized for being based on a dated metaphysics. Two epistemological principles are introduced, The Phenomenal Error and The Critico-Philological Method. Conclusion: Historical linguistics is an autonomous scientific discipline. ...
Does interpersonal movement synchronization differ from synchronization with a moving object?
Ouwehand, P Elma W; Peper, C Lieke E
2015-10-01
We examined whether movement synchronization is different during coordination with another person than during coordination with a moving object. In addition, the influence of belief in the other person's agency was assessed. Participants synchronized their lower-arm movements with a computer-controlled rhythmic reference movement. The reference movements were pre-recorded, biological movements and were identical in all conditions. They were presented either by means of a confederate's arm in a motor-driven manipulandum or by means of movements of the manipulandum alone. To assess the influence of the belief in the confederate's agency, participants either were or were not informed that the confederate's movements were motor driven. The strength of coupling between the participant's movements and the reference movements was assessed in terms of the standard deviation of relative phase and the time needed to re-establish the coordination pattern after an unexpected perturbation of the reference signal. Mean relative phase indicated whether the participant was leading or lagging the reference movements. Coupling strength was not affected by the presence of another person in the coordination task, nor by the belief in this person's agency. However, participants had a stronger tendency to lead while synchronizing with the manipulandum, indicating that they responded differently to the observed kinematics of this moving object than to the kinematics of the confederate's arm movements, at least when the confederate's agency was assumed. Hence, although neither the involvement of another person nor the participant's belief in this person's agency affected coupling strength, the form of the coupling seemed to be influenced by the former factor, suggesting a different attunement to the reference movements during a joint-action situation. Future research is required to determine whether these interpretations extend to unintentional and bidirectional coordination, in which
Dual-scale multimedia dynamic synchronization model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李乃祥
2009-01-01
Multimedia synchronization is the key technology in application of distributed multimedia.Solution of synchronization conflicts insides and among streams as well as that of user interaction,synchronization granularity refinement and synchronization precision improvement remain great challenges although great efforts have been invested by the academic circle.The construction method of a dual-scale dynamic synchronous model of multimedia presented in this article realizes multimedia synchronization on two sca...
Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo
2016-05-01
In this paper, self- and controlled synchronizations of three eccentric rotors (ERs) in line driven by induction motors rotating in the same direction in a vibrating system are investigated. The vibrating system is a typical underactuated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system. The analysis and control of the vibrating system convert to the synchronization motion problem of three ERs. Firstly, the self-synchronization motion of three ERs is analyzed according to self-synchronization theory. The criterions of synchronization and stability of self-synchronous state are obtained by using a modified average perturbation method. The significant synchronization motion of three ERs with zero phase differences cannot be implemented according to self-synchronization theory through analysis and simulations. To implement the synchronization motion of three ERs with zero phase differences, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm based on a modified master-slave control strategy is employed to design the controllers. The stability of the controllers is verified by using Lyapunov theorem. The performances of the controlled synchronization system are presented by simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of controllers. Finally, the effects of reference speed and non-zero phase differences on the controlled system are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Additionally, the dynamic responses of the vibrating system in different synchronous states are analyzed.
Transition to complete synchronization via near-synchronization in two coupled chaotic neurons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Qing-Yun; Lu Qi-Shao; Wang Hai-Xia
2005-01-01
The synchronization transition in two coupled chaotic Morris-Lecar (ML) neurons with gap junction is studied with the coupling strength increasing. The conditional Lyapunov exponents, along with the synchronization errors are calculated to diagnose synchronization of two coupled chaotic ML neurons. As a result, it is shown that the increase in the coupling strength leads to incoherence, then induces a transition process consisting of three different synchronization states in succession, namely, burst synchronization, near-synchronization and embedded burst synchronization, and achieves complete synchronization of two coupled neurons finally. These sequential transitions to synchronization reveal a new transition route from incoherence to complete synchronization in coupled systems with multi-time scales.
Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.
Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo
2014-08-01
The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.
Application and Perspectives of Multiphase Induction Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benas Kundrotas
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The article considers the areas of applying multiphase induction motors. Their advantages against three phase motors have become the main reason for employing them in multiphase drives. The paper deals with the six-phase induction motor having two similar three phase windings in the stator shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase windings in the rotor. Differential equations for this motor are presented and transformed to dq synchronous reference frame. The transformed equations are expressed in a matrix form and solved by MATLAB software using the Dormand-Prince (ode45 method. The transient characteristics of the torque, speed and current of the six-phase induction motor are calculated and discussed.Article in Lithuanian
Synchronization in an evolving network
Singh, R K
2015-01-01
In this work we study the dynamics of Kuramoto oscillators on a stochastically evolving network whose evolution is governed by the phases of the individual oscillators and degree distribution. Synchronization is achieved after a threshold connection density is reached. This cumulative effect of topology and dynamics has many real-world implications, where synchronization in a system emerges as a collective property of its components in a self-organizing manner. The synchronous state remains stable as long as the connection density remains above the threshold value, with additional links providing resilience against network fluctuations.
PM Synchronous Motor Dynamic Modeling with Genetic Algorithm ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Adel
intelligence like neural network, genetic algorithm, etc (El Shahat and El Shewy, ..... maximum power factor has the most powerful effect on all various machine .... Artificial Intelligence, Renewable Energy, Power System, Control Systems, PV ...
Design and Characteristic Analysis of the Linear Homopolar Synchronous Motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jang, Seok Myeong; Jeong, Sang Sub; Lee, Soung Ho [Chungnam National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Tae [KRISS (Korea, Republic of)
1997-07-21
The LHSM is the combined electromagnetic propulsion and levitation, braking and guidance system for Maglev. In this paper, the LHSM has the figure-of-eight shaped 3 {phi} armature windings, the field winding, and segmented secondary having transverse bar track. we treat of the development - design, analysis - of a combined electromagnetic propulsion/levitation systems, LHSM. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
THE STUDY OF TRANSIENT PROCESSES OF THE FREQUENCY-REGULATED SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. I. Firago
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the power indices and to simplify the system of frequency speed control the scope of application of synchronous variable-frequency electric drives with independent frequency setting is being expanded. The synchronous motors with electromagnetic excitation and permanent magnet excitation in various industrial settings, including load-lifting machines and mechanisms, are used. As compared with the asynchronous frequency-regulated electric drives the synchronous ones have lower power loss, harder mechanical characteristic without feedback for speed and the simplest law of frequency control, i. e., a proportional one that, however, provides the maximum electromagnetic torque of the motor constant at all frequencies, due to the constant magnetic flux. The article concerns an analytical study of transient processes of synchronous electric drive with consideration of the influence of damping winding when the motor supply voltage frequency varies linearly during the transient time. As a result of the analysis the formulas have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the angular velocity of the rotor and the electromagnetic torque of the motor at start-up, braking, and impingement and discharge of loads, evaluating the quality of the transition process and tracking the maximum value of the electromagnetic torque, that must not exceed the permissible value. Validation of the developed technique of calculation of transient processes of synchronous electric drive has been obtained by comparison of calculations according to the formulas with the simulation results of the electric drive on the basis of the synchronous motor of the SD3 13-34-6 type (power of 500 kW and voltage of 6 kV.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐艳平; 钟彦儒
2009-01-01
永磁同步电机传统直接转矩控制在电机低速运行时存在着转矩脉动大、开关频率不恒定等问题,本文在详细分析影响磁链和转矩脉动大小因素的基础上,提出了一种准确确定占空比大小的永磁同步电机新型直接转矩控制方法.该方法基于精确的数学模型利用转矩误差计算出当前所选有效电压矢量的作用时间在整个采样周期中的占空比,实时地调整有效电压矢量的作用时间.仿真和实验结果表明,基于占空比控制的永磁同步电机直接转矩控制在保持传统直接转矩控制优点的基础上,能够有效减小转矩脉动,改善了传统直接转矩控制系统性能.%Disadvantages of traditional direct torque control (DTC) systems for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are high torque ripples and inconstant switching frequency at low speed. A novel DTC strategy of PMSM combined with exact duty ratio calculation is proposed based on the detailed analysis of effects factors of flux linkage and torque ripples. In this method the duty ratio between the action time of effective voltage vector and the sampling period is calculated according to torque errors based on exact mathematical models and the action time of active voltage vectors is adjusted. Simulation and experimental results show that the new DTC strategy based on duty ratio control has advantages of traditional DTC and effectively reduces torque ripples which improve the performance of traditional DTC.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶涛; 唐明军; 花良浩; 周杰; 吕志香
2016-01-01
A novel control strategy based on sliding mode observer was present for the purpose of solving the problems of cost and reliability caused by the mechanical sensor of the bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motor ( BPMSM) vector control system. The sliding-mode surface and the sliding-mode equivalent control method was used in the control system. And, the sliding-mode surface was defined on the errors between the actual and estimated currents. The estimated back-EMF was observed to calculate the angle and speed of the rotor. Simulation system of speed sensorless was constructed in MATLAB/Simulink environment and simulations of speed/angle identification for the rotor were carried out. The simulation results had showed that sliding mode observer speed/angle identification precision was very well and was able to achieve stable sensorless suspension running.%为解决无轴承永磁同步电机矢量控制系统中传统机械式传感器带来的成本及可靠性等问题，将滑模观测器技术应用到其控制系统中。该系统采用滑模面及滑模等效控制方法，并基于转矩绕组观测电流和其实测电流差值构建滑模面，观测电机反电动势，从而实现转子位置角及转速的精确估算。利用MATLAB仿真软件构建了无速度传感器运行仿真系统，对电机转速、转角信号进行辨识。仿真结果表明：滑模观测器的转角、转速信号辨识精度较高，并能满足无轴承永磁同步电机无速度传感方式的稳定悬浮运行要求。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁雷†; 沈建清; 肖飞; 陈明亮
2013-01-01
提出一种以d-q同步旋转坐标系下，电流为观测对象的插入式永磁同步电机的非奇异高阶终端滑模观测器，用来获得高性能矢量控制系统所必需的电机转子位置及速度信息。采用非奇异终端滑模控制，提高了观测器的动态响应速度及鲁棒性，利用高阶滑模控制技术的特性，有效地抑制了传统滑模控制的抖振现象。同时给出了转速环及电流环调节器的参数设计方法，转速环调节器采用积分反馈算法，电流环调节器使用前馈解耦内模控制技术，参数在线调整简单。将该算法应用到2 MW永磁同步低速电机无传感器控制系统中，实验结果表明，该方法能够准确计算出电机的位置和速度，使系统具有良好的稳态精度和动态性能。%A nonsingular high-order terminal sliding-mode observer of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is presented, of which the state variable is the current of rotor-oriented d-q reference frame, to obtain the accurate information about angular speed and rotor position for high-performance vector control system. A nonsingular terminal sliding-mode observer is used to improve dynamic response of the observer speed and robustness of the current observer, and the high-order sliding mode method is adopted to estimate the chattering phenomenon of the conventional sliding-mode. Meanwhile, to obtain the regulator parameters of speed and current loop, an integral-feedback method of estimating the rotor speed is adopted, and the inner current loop is realized using a decoupling and diagonal internal model control algorithm. Experimental results of 2 MW PMSM drive system show that the proposed method can accurately estimate the position and speed of the rotor, and the system has good dynamic and static performances.
Incoherence-Mediated Remote Synchronization
Zhang, Liyue; Motter, Adilson E.; Nishikawa, Takashi
2017-04-01
In previously identified forms of remote synchronization between two nodes, the intermediate portion of the network connecting the two nodes is not synchronized with them but generally exhibits some coherent dynamics. Here we report on a network phenomenon we call incoherence-mediated remote synchronization (IMRS), in which two noncontiguous parts of the network are identically synchronized while the dynamics of the intermediate part is statistically and information-theoretically incoherent. We identify mirror symmetry in the network structure as a mechanism allowing for such behavior, and show that IMRS is robust against dynamical noise as well as against parameter changes. IMRS may underlie neuronal information processing and potentially lead to network solutions for encryption key distribution and secure communication.
Synchronous identification of friendly targets
Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.
1998-01-01
A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.
How to suppress undesired synchronization
Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J
2012-01-01
It is delightful to observe the emergence of synchronization in the blinking of fireflies to attract partners and preys. Other charming examples of synchronization can also be found in a wide range of phenomena such as, e.g., neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in communication networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge of the system, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement in mitigation is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected ele...
Agustín Martín Muñoz
2007-01-01
Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...
Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy
Jain, Rajesh Kumar
2012-01-01
The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital
Chaotic synchronization via linear controller
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Feng-Xiang; Zhang Wei-Dong
2007-01-01
A technical framework of constructing a linear controller for chaotic synchronization by utilizing the stability theory of cascade-connected system is presented. Based on the method developed in the paper, two simple and linear feedback controllers, as examples, are derived for the synchronization of Liu chaotic system and Duffing oscillator, respectively.This method is quite flexible in constructing a control law. Its effectiveness is also illustrated by the simulation results.
Synchronized Swimming of Two Fish
Koumoutsakos, Petros; Novati, Guido; Abbati, Gabriele; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim
2015-11-01
We present simulations of two, self-propelled, fish-like swimmers that perform synchronized moves in a two-dimensional, viscous fluid. The swimmers learn to coordinate by receiving a reward for their synchronized actions. We analyze the swimming patterns emerging for different rewards in terms of their hydrodynamic efficiency and artistic impression. European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Investigator Award (No. 2-73985-14).
Photonic Cavity Synchronization of Nanomechanical Oscillators
Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X.
2013-01-01
Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gi...
VOLTAGE REGULATORS OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grigorash O. V.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical power autonomous electrosupply systems, including backup systems. They are also used in a structure of rotating electricity converters and are widely used in renewable energy as part of wind power plants of small, mini and micro hydroelectric plants. Increasing the speed and the accuracy of the system of the voltage regulation of synchronous generators is possible due to the development of combined systems containing more stabilizers. The article illustrates the functional schemes of circuit voltage stabilizers and frequency synchronous generators (with electromagnetic excitation and permanent magnet excitation and describes the features of their work, including two and three-aggregate rotating converters of electricity used in uninterruptible power supply systems. To improve the technical characteristics of the system of stabilization we have proposed functional solutions for stabilizers of synchronous generators made on the base of direct frequency converters and using a transformer with a rotating magnetic field. To improve the reliability of and to improve the operational characteristics of the autonomous independent sources of electricity we suggest creating the main functional blocks and the elements of the stabilization system in a modular way. The functional circuit solutions of voltage regulators of synchronous generators and the characteristics of their work considered in the article, are able to improve the efficiency of pre-design work in the development of new technical solutions for stabilizing the voltage and the frequency in synchronous generators of electrosupply autonomous systems
2003-06-01
and T. Higuchi, "Cylindrical Micro Ultrasonic Motor Utilizing Bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 38, pp. 3347-3350, 1999.
Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornejo-Perez, Octavio [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: octavio@ipicyt.edu.mx; Femat, Ricardo [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfemat@ipicyt.edu.mx
2005-07-01
Synchronization dynamics of two noiseless Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons under the action of feedback control is studied. The spiking patterns of the action potentials evoked by periodic external modulations attain synchronization states under the feedback action. Numerical simulations for the synchronization dynamics of regular-irregular desynchronized spiking sequences are displayed. The results are discussed in context of generalized synchronization. It is also shown that the HH neurons can be synchronized in face of unmeasured states.
Impulsive Synchronization of Discrete Chaotic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑永爱; 年漪蓓; 刘曾荣
2003-01-01
Impulsive synchronization of two chaotic maps is reformulated as impulsive control of the synchronization error system. We then present a theorem on the asymptotic synchronization of two chaotic maps by using synchronization impulses with varying impulsive intervals. As an example and application of the theorem, we derives some sufficient conditions for the synchronization of two chaotic Lozi maps via impulsive control. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated with chaotic Lozi map.
Impulsive Synchronization of Laser Plasma System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yang; LIAO Xiao-Feng; LI Chuan-Dong; CHEN Guo
2007-01-01
The issue of impulsive synchronization of the coupled chaotic laser plasma system is investigated. A new framework for impulsive synchronization of such chaotic systems is presented, which makes the synchronization error system a linear impulsive control system. We derive some sufficient conditions for the synchronization of a laser plasma system via impulsive control with the varying impulsive intervals, which allows us to derive the impulsive synchronization law easily. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results, two numerical examples are given.
Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙文; 燕子宗; 陈士华; 吕金虎
2011-01-01
This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme.
Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir
2009-10-01
In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.
Neural synchrony within the motor system: what have we learned so far?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernadette C. M. van Wijk
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Synchronization of neural activity is considered essential for information processing in the nervous system. Both local and inter-regional synchronization are omnipresent in different frequency regimes and relate to a variety of behavioral and cognitive functions. Over the years, many studies have sought to elucidate the question how alpha/mu, beta, and gamma synchronization contribute to motor control. Here, we review these studies with the purpose to delineate what they have added to our understanding of the neural control of movement. We highlight important findings regarding oscillations in primary motor cortex, synchronization between cortex and spinal cord, synchronization between cortical regions, as well as abnormal synchronization patterns in a selection of motor dysfunctions. The interpretation of synchronization patterns benefits from combining results of invasive and non-invasive recordings, different data analysis tools, and modeling work. Importantly, although synchronization is deemed to play a vital role, it is not the only mechanism for neural communication. Spike timing and rate coding act together during motor control and should therefore both be accounted for when interpreting movement-related activity.
Beat Synchronization across the Lifespan: Intersection of Development and Musical Experience.
Thompson, Elaine C; White-Schwoch, Travis; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
2015-01-01
Rhythmic entrainment, or beat synchronization, provides an opportunity to understand how multiple systems operate together to integrate sensory-motor information. Also, synchronization is an essential component of musical performance that may be enhanced through musical training. Investigations of rhythmic entrainment have revealed a developmental trajectory across the lifespan, showing synchronization improves with age and musical experience. Here, we explore the development and maintenance of synchronization in childhood through older adulthood in a large cohort of participants (N = 145), and also ask how it may be altered by musical experience. We employed a uniform assessment of beat synchronization for all participants and compared performance developmentally and between individuals with and without musical experience. We show that the ability to consistently tap along to a beat improves with age into adulthood, yet in older adulthood tapping performance becomes more variable. Also, from childhood into young adulthood, individuals are able to tap increasingly close to the beat (i.e., asynchronies decline with age), however, this trend reverses from younger into older adulthood. There is a positive association between proportion of life spent playing music and tapping performance, which suggests a link between musical experience and auditory-motor integration. These results are broadly consistent with previous investigations into the development of beat synchronization across the lifespan, and thus complement existing studies and present new insights offered by a different, large cross-sectional sample.
Feeling the Beat: Bouncing Synchronization to Vibrotactile Music in Hearing and Early Deaf People
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pauline Tranchant
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The ability to dance relies on the ability to synchronize movements to a perceived musical beat. Typically, beat synchronization is studied with auditory stimuli. However, in many typical social dancing situations, music can also be perceived as vibrations when objects that generate sounds also generate vibrations. This vibrotactile musical perception is of particular relevance for deaf people, who rely on non-auditory sensory information for dancing. In the present study, we investigated beat synchronization to vibrotactile electronic dance music in hearing and deaf people. We tested seven deaf and 14 hearing individuals on their ability to bounce in time with the tempo of vibrotactile stimuli (no sound delivered through a vibrating platform. The corresponding auditory stimuli (no vibrations were used in an additional condition in the hearing group. We collected movement data using a camera-based motion capture system and subjected it to a phase-locking analysis to assess synchronization quality. The vast majority of participants were able to precisely time their bounces to the vibrations, with no difference in performance between the two groups. In addition, we found higher performance for the auditory condition compared to the vibrotactile condition in the hearing group. Our results thus show that accurate tactile-motor synchronization in a dance-like context occurs regardless of auditory experience, though auditory-motor synchronization is of superior quality.
Disc Motor: Conventional and Superconductor Simulated Results Analysis
Inácio, David; Martins, João; Neves, Mário Ventim; Álvarez, Alfredo; Rodrigues, Amadeu Leão
Taking into consideration the development and integration of electrical machines with lower dimensions and higher performance, this paper presents the design and development of a three-phase axial flux disc motor, with 50 Hz frequency supply. It is made with two conventional semi-stators and a rotor, which can be implemented with a conventional aluminum disc or a high temperature-superconducting disc. The analysis of the motor characteristics is done with a 2D commercial finite elements package, being the modeling performed as a linear motor. The obtained results allow concluding that the superconductor motor provides a higher force than the conventional one. The conventional disc motor presents an asynchronous behavior, like a conventional induction motor, while the superconductor motor presents both synchronous and asynchronous behaviors.
Bodily Synchronization Underlying Joke Telling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. C. Schmidt
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock-knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily dance occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this dance is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction.
Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W
2015-08-01
Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.
Product Sound: Acoustically pleasant motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathe, Laszlo
The work in this thesis is focused on the acoustic noise generated by electrical motors driven by a pulse width modulated (PWM) power electronic inverter. In a usual inverter based electrical drive, the modulation uses fixed switching frequency; that introduces a set of harmonics in the acoustic...... is to ameliorate this whistling acoustic noise, while maintaining the efficiency of the drive. The first chapter of the report is an introductory chapter where the motivation, objectives, limitations and an overview on electrical motor acoustics are presented. A list of main contributions of this PhD project...... the acoustic measurements of the ventilation system using various modulation techniques. A new trend in HVAC is to use permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) instead of the asynchronous motor, in order to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive. In this chapter, the acoustic performance of the two...
Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...... including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction even at zero speed. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different from zero. In order to verify...
Synergetic driving concepts for bundled miniature ultrasonic linear motors.
Mracek, Maik; Hemsel, Tobias
2006-12-22
Rotary ultrasonic motors have found broad industrial application in camera lens drives and other systems. Linear ultrasonic motors in contrast have only found limited applications. The main reason for the limited range of application of these very attractive devices seems to be their small force and power range. Attempts to build linear ultrasonic motors for high forces and high power applications have not been truly successful yet. To achieve larger force and higher power, multiple miniaturized motors can be combined. This approach, however, is not as simple as it appears at first glance. The electromechanical behaviour of the individual motors differs slightly due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. The individual motor characteristics are strongly dependent on the driving parameters (frequency, voltage, temperature, pre-stress, etc.) and the driven load and the collective behaviour of the swarm of motors is not just the linear superposition of the individual drive's forces. Thus, the bundle of motors has to be synchronized and controlled appropriately in order to obtain an optimized drive that is not oversized and costly. We have investigated driving and control strategies of a set of linear ultrasonic motors. Our contribution will be divided into three main parts. In part I ultrasonic linear motors will be introduced. In part II driving strategies for a single motor as well as for a bundle of motors will be presented. These concepts will be verified by simulation results and experimental data. In part III a simplified model for the motor's electromechanical behaviour will be given.
Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde
2017-05-01
This paper is concerned with the issues of synchronization and anti-synchronization for fractional chaotic financial system with market confidence by taking advantage of active control approach. Some sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the synchronization and anti-synchronization for the proposed fractional system. Moreover, the relationship between the order and synchronization(anti-synchronization) is demonstrated numerically. It reveals that synchronization(anti-synchronization) is faster as the order increases. Finally, two illustrative examples are exploited to verify the efficiency of the obtained theoretical results.
Simultaneous Synchronization and Anti-Synchronization of Two Identical New 4D Chaotic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Rong-Wei
2011-01-01
We investigate the synchronization and anti-synchronization of the new 4D chaotic system and propose a same adaptive controller in the form which not only synchronizes, but also anti-synchronizes two identical new 4D chaotic systems. Numerical simulations verify the correctness and the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.%@@ We investigate the synchronization and anti-synchronization of the new 4D chaotic system and propose a same adaptive controller in the form which not only synchronizes, but also anti-synchronizes two identical new 4D chaotic systems.Numerical simulations verify the correctness and the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.
Synchronization in uncertain complex networks
Chen, Maoyin; Zhou, Donghua
2006-03-01
We consider the problem of synchronization in uncertain generic complex networks. For generic complex networks with unknown dynamics of nodes and unknown coupling functions including uniform and nonuniform inner couplings, some simple linear feedback controllers with updated strengths are designed using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle. The state of an uncertain generic complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network. The famous Lorenz system is stimulated as the nodes of the complex networks with different topologies. We found that the star coupled and scale-free networks with nonuniform inner couplings can be in the state of synchronization if only a fraction of nodes are controlled.
How to suppress undesired synchronization.
Louzada, V H P; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J
2012-01-01
Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.
Multicentric synchronous recurrent aggressive fibromatosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kavita Kohli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are known as aggressive fibromatosis (AFM. Synchronous and metachronous multicentric aggressive fibromatosis are rare lesions and pose dilemma in diagnosis and management. A rare and interesting case of recurrent multicentric, synchronous AFM is presented which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported earlier. A young male presented with well defined, hard, fixed swelling on the thigh. Resected tumor mass on histopathology was diagnosed as an extra abdominal fibromatosis. He presented again after two months with swelling at the same site; and two more swellings on the foot. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from all three sites was performed; and was suggestive of benign spindle cell lesion of fibrogenic origin with the possibility of multicentric synchronous recurrent aggressive fibromatosis.
Cluster synchronization in oscillatory networks
Belykh, Vladimir N.; Osipov, Grigory V.; Petrov, Valentin S.; Suykens, Johan A. K.; Vandewalle, Joos
2008-09-01
Synchronous behavior in networks of coupled oscillators is a commonly observed phenomenon attracting a growing interest in physics, biology, communication, and other fields of science and technology. Besides global synchronization, one can also observe splitting of the full network into several clusters of mutually synchronized oscillators. In this paper, we study the conditions for such cluster partitioning into ensembles for the case of identical chaotic systems. We focus mainly on the existence and the stability of unique unconditional clusters whose rise does not depend on the origin of the other clusters. Also, conditional clusters in arrays of globally nonsymmetrically coupled identical chaotic oscillators are investigated. The design problem of organizing clusters into a given configuration is discussed.
Phase Synchronization in Railway Timetables
Fretter, Christoph; Weihe, Karsten; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten
2010-01-01
Timetable construction belongs to the most important optimization problems in public transport. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is a targeted contribution to the functioning of public transport. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g., by minimal average travel times), a significant feature of a timetable is its robustness against delay propagation. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in long-distance railway timetables (in particular the current long-distance railway timetable in Germany) from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspective opens a new avenue towards an understanding of railway timetables by representing them as spatio-temporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue-Liang Zhang; Bang-Chun Wen; Chun-Yu Zhao
2012-01-01
In this paper,the synchronization problem of three homodromy coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system of plane motion is studied.By introducing the average method of modified small parameters,we deduced dimensionless coupling equation of three exciters,which converted the problem of synchronization into that of the existence and stability of zero solutions for the average differential equations of the small parameters.Based on the dimensionless coupling torques and characteristics of the corresponding limited functions,the synchronization criterion for three exciters was derived as the absolute value of dimensionless residual torque difference between arbitrary two motors being less than the maximum of their dimensionless coupling torques.The stability criterion of its synchronous state lies in the double-condition that the inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive as well.The synchronization determinants are the coefficients of synchronization ability,also called as the general dynamical symmetry coefficients.The double-equilibrium state of the vibrating system is manifested by numeric method,and the numeric and simulation results derived thereof indicate the indispensable and crucial role the structural parameters of the vibrating system play in the stability criterion of synchronous operation.Besides,by adjusting its structural parameters,the elliptical motion of the vibrating system successfully met the requirements in engineering applications.
SENSITIVE ERROR ANALYSIS OF CHAOS SYNCHRONIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG XIAN-GAO; XU JIAN-XUE; HUANG WEI; L(U) ZE-JUN
2001-01-01
We study the synchronizing sensitive errors of chaotic systems for adding other signals to the synchronizing signal.Based on the model of the Henon map masking, we examine the cause of the sensitive errors of chaos synchronization.The modulation ratio and the mean square error are defined to measure the synchronizing sensitive errors by quality.Numerical simulation results of the synchronizing sensitive errors are given for masking direct current, sinusoidal and speech signals, separately. Finally, we give the mean square error curves of chaos synchronizing sensitivity and threedimensional phase plots of the drive system and the response system for masking the three kinds of signals.
Short-term synchronization of intercostal motoneurone activity.
Sears, T A; Stagg, D
1976-12-01
1. The hypothesis is advanced that the joint occurrence of unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials e.p.s.p.s) evoked in motoneurones by branches of common stem pre-synaptic fibres causes short-term synchronization of their discharge during the rising phases of the unitary e.p.s.p.s. 2. This hypothesis was tested using the pre- and post-stimulus time (PPST) histogram to detect synchronized firing among groups of intercostal motoneurones discharging in response to their natural synaptic drives. 3. Motor nerve action potentials were recorded monophasically from nerve filaments of the external intercostal muscles of anaesthetized, paralysed cats maintained on artificial ventilation. 4. Computer methods were used to measure peak spike amplitude, spike amplitude, spike interval and filament identification for simultaneous recordings from four filaments. The spike amplitude histograms were derived for each filament and groups of spikes were selected for analysis. 5. With spikes of one group designated as 'stimuli' (occurring at zero time) and those of a second as 'response' the PPST histogram was computed with different time bin widths. 6. With bin widths of 100 and 10 msec the central respiratory periodicity was apparent in the PPST histogram. With 1.0 msec bins the PPST histogram showed a narrow central peak extending to +/- 3.0 msec at its base. This 'short-term synchronization' supports the hypothesis of joint firing due to common presynaptic connectivity. 7. It was shown that detection of short-term synchronization was critically dependent on a sufficient quantity of data but that provided a simple criterion of adequate counts per bin in the PPST histogram was met, short-term synchronization could be detected between intercostal motoneurones of the same and adjacent segments.
Forced synchronization of quasiperiodic oscillations
Stankevich, N. V.; Kurths, J.; Kuznetsov, A. P.
2015-01-01
A model of a generator of quasiperiodic oscillations forced by a periodic pulse sequence is studied. We analyze synchronization when the autonomous generator demonstrates periodic, quasiperiodic, respective weakly chaotic oscillations. For the forced quasiperiodic oscillations a picture of synchronization, consisting of small-scale and large-scale structures was uncovered. It even includes the existence of stable the three-frequency tori. For the regime of weak chaos a partial destruction of this features and of the regime of three-frequency tori are found.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨淑英; 占琦; 张兴; 郭磊磊; 周岩峰
2014-01-01
The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) used in wind turbine and electric vehicle situations usually has to directly track the torque command issued by the main control system.As a matter of fact,however,no torque test components such as a torque sensor is available in an actual system.So the exact acquisition of the observed torque is of utmost importance for the torque control system.To enhance the torque observer performance,this paper proposes a real-time stator flux linkage observation method based on a minimum extended flux linkage observer,through which the stator flux linkage and the electrical torque are calculated.The proposed stator flux linkage observer is not only free from the flaws of the traditional pure integral strategy,such as saturation,phase shift,amplitude deviation,and so on,but also,as a pure integral strategy,is robust for parameter deviation, namely, the precision of the observed torque is basically unaffected by the direct-and quadrature-axis inductance and the rotor flux linkage.Simulations and experiments on an 11kW PMSM have validated the performance of the proposed method.%用于风力发电和电动汽车等特殊应用场合中的永磁同步电机(PMSM)驱动器通常需要直接跟踪主控系统下发的转矩指令，而实际系统中通常不安装扭矩仪等转矩检测部件，因此，电磁转矩的准确获取对高精度转矩闭环至关重要。文中提出了一种基于最小阶扩展磁链观测器的实时定子磁链观测方案，并在此基础上完成电磁转矩的观测计算。该定子磁链观测方案不仅可以避免传统方案造成的积分饱和、相位或幅值偏差等不利影响，而且该观测方案具有较强的参数鲁棒性，其转矩观测计算精度基本不受PMSM交、直轴电感以及转子磁链的影响。11 kW的 PMSM仿真与实验验证了该方案的可行性和有效性。
Adaptive observer for speed sensorless PM motor control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
2003-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive observer for extimating the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaptation structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet...... is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The observer estimates the stator flux by integration of the measured BEMF signal. In order to verify the applicability of the method the observer has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....
Adaptive observer for speed sensorless PM motor control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
2003-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive observer for extimating the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaptation structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet...... is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The observer estimates the stator flux by integration of the measured BEMF signal. In order to verify the applicability of the method the observer has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders
2011-01-01
MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders
2011-01-01
MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...
Dynamic Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Power Electronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
OZCIRA, S.
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet DC motor-generators (PMDC, PMSG have been widely used in industrial and energy sectors recently. Power control of these systems can be achieved by controlling the output voltage. In this study, PMDC-PMSG systems are mathematically modeled and simulated in MATLAB and Simulink software. Then the results are discussed. A low power permanent magnet synchronous generator is driven by a permanent magnet DC motor and the output voltage is controlled by a frequency cycle-converter. The output of a half-wave uncontrolled rectifier is applied to an SPWM inverter and the power is supplied to a 300V, 50Hz load. The load which is connected to an LC filter is modeled by state-space equations. LC filter is utilized in order to suppress the voltage oscillations at the inverter output.
Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.
1975-01-01
A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.
Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.
1975-01-01
A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.
Memory formation by neuronal synchronization.
Axmacher, N.; Mormann, F.; Fernandez, G.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.
2006-01-01
Cognitive functions not only depend on the localization of neural activity, but also on the precise temporal pattern of activity in neural assemblies. Synchronization of action potential discharges provides a link between large-scale EEG recordings and cellular plasticity mechanisms. Here, we focus
Process algebra for synchronous communication
Bergstra, J.A.; Klop, J.W.
1984-01-01
Within the context of an algebraic theory of processes, an equational specification of process cooperation is provided. Four cases are considered: free merge or interleaving, merging with communication, merging with mutual exclusion of tight regions, and synchronous process cooperation. The rewrite