WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid-electric vehicle applications

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  2. Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-13

    34Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited" Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications Sonya...requirements for DC-DC converters for electric and hybrid vehicles . This paper introduces a bidirectional, isolated DC-DC converter for medium power...the design and build of a medium power DC-DC converter . Key words: Power Converter , DC-DC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle , Battery, Galvanically Isolation

  3. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  4. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  5. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  6. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  7. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  8. Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Louey, R.

    Transport is one of the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil-fuels consumption. This has lead to a growing demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) to reduce air pollution and consumption of fossil fuels. CSIRO Energy Technology has developed the ultra-battery, a new technology that will reduce the cost and boost the performance of batteries in HEVs. The ultra-battery is a hybrid energy-storage device, which combines an asymmetric supercapacitor, and a lead-acid battery in one unit cell, taking the best from both technologies without the need for extra electronic controls. The capacitor will enhance the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer in discharging and charging. Consequently, this hybrid technology is able to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The ultra-battery has been subjected to a variety of tests. To date, results show that the discharge and charge power of the ultra-battery is ∼50% higher and its cycle-life is at least three times longer than that of the conventional lead-acid counterpart. Furthermore, the ultra-battery is able to be produced as either flooded-electrolyte or valve-regulated designs in the existing lead-acid factory and also able to reconfigure for a variety of applications, such as conventional automobile, power tool, forklift, high-power uninterruptible power supply and remote-area power supply. The prototype ultra-batteries have been constructed and are under laboratory evaluation and field trial. The success of the ultra-battery will obviously make HEVs more affordable and widespread. This, in turn, will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the urban environment and the consumption of limited supplies of fossil fuels.

  9. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  10. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  11. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  12. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from

  13. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from

  14. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  15. A Comprehensive Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiying Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. A comprehensive overview of HEVs is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on configurations, main issues, and energy management strategies. Conclusions are discussed finally.

  16. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  17. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  18. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  19. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  20. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  1. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  2. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  3. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  4. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  5. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  6. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  7. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  8. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  9. Development of an Auxiliary Power Unit Specification for Medium Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    As a part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program to develop hybrid and electric vehicles , a specification for medium duty...hybrid electric vehicles . Intended applications include medium duty commercial vehicles and buses. For the purposes of this specification an APU is

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  11. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  12. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  14. The novel application of optimization and charge blended energy management control for component downsizing within a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, R; Marco, James; Assadian, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integ...

  15. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  16. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  18. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  19. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  20. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  1. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  2. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  3. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  4. Multivariable speed synchronisation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, B.; Antritter, F.; Svaricek, F.; Schultalbers, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a new drivetrain configuration of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is considered and a novel model-based control design strategy is given. In particular, the control design covers the speed synchronisation task during a restart of the internal combustion engine. The proposed multivariable synchronisation strategy is based on feedforward and decoupled feedback controllers. The performance and the robustness properties of the closed-loop system are illustrated by nonlinear simulation results.

  5. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  6. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  7. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  8. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  10. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  11. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Laboratory

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  13. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  14. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  15. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  16. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  17. Application of the Fuel-Optimal Energy Management in Design Study of a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Pedram Pourhashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of occasional criticism they have attracted, hybrid vehicles (HVs have been warmly welcomed by industry and academia alike. The key advantages of an HV, including fuel economy and environment friendliness, however, depend greatly on its energy management strategy and the way its design parameters are “tuned.” The optimal design and sizing of the HV remain a challenge for the engineering community, due to the variety of criteria and especially dynamic measures related to nature of its working conditions. This paper proposes an optimal design scheme that begins with presenting an energy management strategy based on minimum fuel consumption in finite driving cycle horizon. The strategy utilizes a dynamic programming approach and is consistent with charge sustenance. The sensitivity of the vehicle’s performance metrics to multiple design parameters is then studied using a design of experiments (DOE methodology. The proposed scheme provides the designer with a reliable tool for investigating various design scenarios and achieving the optimal one.

  18. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Truchot, Cyril; Cugnet, Mikaël; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gering, Kevin; Sazhin, Sergiy; Jamison, David; Michelbacher, Christopher

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising {LiMn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3O 2 + LiMn 2O 4} is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  19. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  20. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  1. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  2. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  3. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  4. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  5. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integration of battery systems is often cited as one of the main barriers to vehicle commercialization. The ability to integrate the optimization of the energy management control system with the sizing of key PHEV powertrain components presents a significant area of research. Contained within this paper is an optimization study in which a charge blended strategy is used to facilitate the downsizing of the electrical machine, the internal combustion engine and the high voltage battery. An improved Equivalent Consumption Method has been used to manage the optimal power split within the powertrain as the PHEV traverses a range of different drivecycles. For a target CO2 value and drivecycle, results show that this approach can yield significant downsizing opportunities, with cost reductions on the order of 2%–9% being realizable.

  6. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  7. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  8. Application of simplified model for the analysis of a novel battery used in General Motors' Precept hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbrugge, M.W. [General Motors Corp., Troy, MI (United States). Advanced Technology Vehicles

    2000-07-01

    The challenges facing the integration of a battery module into an electric vehicle (EV) was discussed and some simple approaches to address these challenges were proposed. The cost of EV batteries inhibits large-scale commercialization. Other challenges include the current, potential and state of charge (SOC) as well as the thermal system requirements and design. One solution is to develop hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) which would mean the battery size could be significantly reduced because the engine would supply most of the needed energy to power the vehicle. The author suggested a simple mathematical method to analyze HEV batteries and conduct trade-offs in order to optimize a car's energy storage, high voltage and thermal systems. A newly developed HEV nickel-metal hydride battery system which is found in General Motors' Precept HEV was used to test the approach. The analysis is partly based on understanding how the past charges and discharges influence the apparent hysteresis characterizing the SOC versus open-circuit potential relationship. The method does not address the temperature deviations with the battery pack. The difference between liquid and air cooling was also determined. It is hoped that battery suppliers will adopt this method to speed the advancement of this sector of development. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  10. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  11. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  12. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  13. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  14. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  15. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  16. Evaluating the Degradation Mechanism and State of Health of LiFePO4 Lithium-Ion Batteries in Real-World Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Application for Different Ageing Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of the performance and precise prediction of the state of health (SOH of lithium-ion batteries are necessary to ensure reliability and efficiency in real-world application. However, most SOH offline studies were based on dynamic stress tests, which only reflect the universal rule of degradation, but are not necessarily applicable for real-world applications. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of two different operations of real-world plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with LiFePO4 batteries as energy-storage systems. First, the LiFePO4 batteries were subjected to a set of comparative experimental tests that consider the effects of charge depleting (CD and charge sustaining (CS operations. Then, different voltage analysis along with the close-to-equilibrium open circle voltage was utilized to evaluate the performance of the batteries in life cycles. Finally, a qualitative relationship between the external factors (the percentage of time of CD/CS operations during the entire driving range and the degradation mechanism was built with the help of the proposed methods. Results indicated that the external factors affect the degree of the batteries degradation, but not up to the point when the capacity fading stage occurs. This relationship contributes to the foundation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ (PHEVs’ energy management strategy or battery management system control strategy.

  17. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  18. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Shouliang Han; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Ching Chuen Chan

    2014-01-01

    The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM) is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not onl...

  19. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  20. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  2. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  3. Penalty for Fuel Economy - System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a quantitative point of view. It also introduces a quantitative meaning to the...internal combustion engine based vehicle and later transition of those to hybrid electric vehicles . The paper intends to drive the point that in HEV...Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric

  4. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  6. A dual-channel flux-switching permanent magnet motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wu, Zhongze; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Baoan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    The flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is a relatively novel brushless machine having both magnets and concentrated windings in the stator, which exhibits inherently sinusoidal PM flux-linkage, back-EMF waveforms, and high torque capability. However, in the application of hybrid electric vehicles, it is essential to prevent magnets and armature windings moving in radial direction due to the possible vibration during operation, and to ensure fault-tolerant capability. Hence, in this paper based on an original FSPM motor, a dual-channel FSPM (DC-FSPM) motor with modified structure to fix both armature windings and magnets and improved reliability is proposed for a practical 10 kW integral starter/generator (ISG) in hybrid electric vehicles. The influences of different solutions and the end-effect on the static characteristics, are evaluated based on the 2D and 3D finite element analysis, respectively. Finally, both the predicted and experimental results, compared with a prototype DC-FSPM motor and an interior PM motor used in Honda Civic, confirm that the more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and lower torque ripple can be achieved in the DC-FSPM motor, whereas the torque is smaller under the same coil current.

  7. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahamed Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the converter in continuous conduction mode, thereby significantly reducing input current harmonics. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while an experimental digital control system is used to implement the new control strategy. A detailed converter operation, analysis and control strategy are presented along with simulation and experimental results for universal ac input voltage (100–240V to 380V dc output at up to 3.0 kW load and a power factor greater than 0.98. Experimental results show the advantages and flexibilities of the new control method for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging application.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  9. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of hybrid electric vehicle NiMH high-voltage battery is obtained. This model allows to explore the interaction of vehicle tractive electric drive and high-voltage battery at the electric motive power motion and in the process of recuperation of braking kinetic energy.

  11. EMI Measurement and Mitigation Testing for the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-27

    will be a more realistic approach for evaluating the EMI radiated from the electric vehicles . Vehicle Converter TyJ:!e OJ:!en-Field Screen Room...radiation from the electric vehicles considered were motor controllers, de to de converters , power steering motors, brake vacuum pumps, distribution...the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program Anthony B. Bruno Engineering and Technical Services Department Oscar R. Zelaya Submarine Electromagnetic

  12. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  13. Sensorless torque control scheme of induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Cheng SHAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the sensorless torque robust tracking problem of the induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)applications is addressed.Because motor parameter variations in HEV applications are larger than in industrial drive system,the conventional field-oriented control(FOC)provides poor performance.Therefore,a new robust PI-based extension of the FOC controller and a speed-flux observer based on sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed in order to Improve the overall performance.Simulation results show that the proposed sensorless torque control scheme is robust with respect to motor parameter variations and loading disturbances.In addition,the operating flux of the motor is chosen optimally to minimize the consumption of electric energy,which results in a significant reduction in energy losses shown by simulations.

  14. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses the development of advanced batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. We discuss the basic design concepts of PHEVs, compare three sets of influential technical goals, and explain the inherent trade-offs in PHEV battery design. We then discuss the current state of several battery chemistries, including nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their abilities to meet PHEV goals, and potential trajectories for further improve...

  15. OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAIN DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhengli; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    According to bench test results of fuel economy and engine emission for the real powertrain system of EQ7200HEV car, a 3-D performance map oriented quasi-linear model is developed for the configuration of the powertrain components such as internal combustion engine, traction electric motor, transmission, main retarder and energy storage unit. A genetic algorithm based on optimization procedure is proposed and applied for parametric optimization of the key components by consideration of requirements of some driving cycles. Through comparison of numerical results obtained by the genetic algorithm with those by traditional optimization methods, it is shown that the present approach is quite effective and efficient in emission reduction and fuel economy for the design of the hybrid electric car powertrain.

  16. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  17. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  18. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  19. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  20. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  1. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  2. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  3. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  4. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  5. Parametric Matching of Drivetrain For Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Zhongwei; Yu Hao; Li Yingli

    2013-01-01

    ...; this thesis presents a simulation analysis of the PHEV and the influence on vehicle characteristic by component parameters of drivetrain, and studies the parametric choice and proper parametric...

  6. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  7. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  8. Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles: benefit of prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles require a supervisory algorithm, often referred to as energy management strategy, which governs the drivetrain components. In general the energy management strategy objective is to minimize the fuel consumption subject to constraints on the components, vehicle performance and driver

  9. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  10. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  11. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  13. Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 15 years of development at the Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzoni Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document 15 years of hybrid electric vehicle energy management research at The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (OSUCAR. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV technology encompasses many diverse aspects. In this paper we focus exclusively on the evolution of supervisory control strategies for on-board energy management in HEV. We present a series of control algorithms that have been developed in simulation and implemented in prototype vehicles for charge-sustaining HEVs at OSU-CAR. These solutions span from fuzzy-logic control algorithms to more sophisticated model-based optimal control methods. Finally, methods developed for plug-in HEVs energy management are also discussed

  14. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  15. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  16. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  17. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  18. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  19. Energy efficient non-road hybrid electric vehicles advanced modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Johannes; Jakubek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications, which work in continuous high dynamic operation, this book gives practical insight in to how to maximize the energetic efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. The book addresses an energy management control structure, which considers all constraints of the physical powertrain and uses novel methodologies for the prediction of the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of an entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short term loads as well as for an entire load cycle by means of a cycle detection. A maximization of the energetic efficiency can so be achieved, which is simultaneously a reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Readers will gain a deep insight into the necessary topics to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles and that only a combinatio...

  20. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  1. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  2. Batteries for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elton J; Albertus, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Batteries have powered vehicles for more than a century, but recent advances, especially in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are bringing a new generation of electric-powered vehicles to the market. Key barriers to progress include system cost and lifetime, and derive from the difficulty of making a high-energy, high-power, and reversible electrochemical system. Indeed, although humans produce many mechanical and electrical systems, the number of reversible electrochemical systems is very limited. System costs may be brought down by using cathode materials less expensive than those presently employed (e.g., sulfur or air), but reversibility will remain a key challenge. Continued improvements in the ability to synthesize and characterize materials at desired length scales, as well as to use computations to predict new structures and their properties, are facilitating the development of a better understanding and improved systems. Battery research is a fascinating area for development as well as a key enabler for future technologies, including advanced transportation systems with minimal environmental impact.

  3. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  4. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

  5. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  6. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  7. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  8. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  9. 2011 Honda CR-Z 2982 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Tyler [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Wishart, Jeffrey [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  13. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  14. Development of Novel Bipolar Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 史鹏飞; 张森

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of bipolar Ni/MH batteries. After optimizing the parameters of bipolar plates by adjusting electrode thickness and modifying the capacity ratio of two adjacent electrodes of a single cell, some bipolar Ni/MH stacks with a voltage of 6 V were assembled and examined. Electrochemical testing results showed that the bipolar battery has excellent high rate discharge and recharge characteristics, satisfying pulse discharge performance even in a low state of charge (SOC). Moreover, the battery showed good stability during pulse cycles as simulating hybrid electric vehicle working conditions. It would be a promising alternative for power storage system in hybrid electxic vehicles.

  15. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  16. ESTIMATION METHOD ON THE BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Jiaxi; AO Guoqiang; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    A combined algorithm for battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is proposed to solve the critical issue of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). To obtain a more accurate SOC, both coulomb-accumulation and battery resistance-capacitor (RC) model are weighted combined to compensate the deficiencies of individual methods. In order to solve the key issue of coulomb-accumulation, the battery thermal model is used. Based on the principle of energy conservation, the heat generated from battery charge and discharge process is converted into the equivalent electricity to calculate charge and discharge efficiency under variable current. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) as a closed loop algorithm is applied to estimate the parameters of resistance-capacitor model. The input variables do not increase much computing difficulty. The proposed combined algorithm is implemented by adjusting the weighting factor of coulomb- accumulation and resistance-capacitor model. In the end, four different methods including Ah-efficiency, Ah-Equip, RC-SOC and Combined-SOC are compared in federal testing procedure (FTP) drive cycle. The experiment results show that the proposed method has good robustness and high accuracy which is suitable for HEV application.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  18. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  19. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  20. Control Strategy Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust evolutionary computation method called a “memetic algorithm (MA” to optimize the control parameters in parallel HEVs. The “local search” mechanism implemented in the MA greatly enhances its search capabilities. In the implementation of the method, the fitness function combines with the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR and is set up according to an electric assist control strategy (EACS to minimize the fuel consumption (FC and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx of the vehicle engine. At the same time, driving performance requirements are also considered in the method. Four different driving cycles, the new European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal Test Procedure (FTP, Economic Commission for Europe + Extra-Urban driving cycle (ECE + EUDC, and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS are carried out using the proposed method to find their respectively optimal control parameters. The results show that the proposed method effectively helps to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as guarantee vehicle performance.

  1. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  2. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  3. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  4. Electro-mechanical Braking Method in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Feedback Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YU Jun-quan; LIU Zheng-yu; CHANG Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hybrid electric vehicle braking process is researched, by using variables consists of HEV speed, motor speed, and state of charge established, functions of mechanical braking force, regenerative braking force and efficiency of energy recovery are constructed, and the control goal is to maximization the energy recovery efficiency. Under the feedback control strategy, with the constrain condition of braking strength and braking stability, combining experiments in ADVISOR, in different experiments of different working conditions, we can see that in UDDS Cycle, the regenerative braking efficiency is the best. What’s more, compared with strategies in ADVISOR, strategy proposed in this paper is obviously better.

  5. Design of Engine-Generator Work Mode for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪文; 余晓江; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    From electric circuit theory view, a system model of series hybrid electric vehicle was built which uses engine-generator and battery pack as its on-board energy source in this paper. Based on the analysis for the constant power work mode and constant bus voltage work mode of engine-generator, a third work mode was put forward which combined the advantages of constant power and constant bus voltage work modes. The new work mode is reasonable to keep the battery in good working conditions and to extend its life. Also the working conditions of engine can be bettered to get low pollution and high efficiency.

  6. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  7. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  8. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  9. Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgio Rizzoni

    2005-09-30

    Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a

  10. Design study and performance analysis of 12S-14P field excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Khan, Faisal; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new structure of 12slot-14pole field excitation flux switching motor (FEFSM) as an alternative candidate of non-Permanent Magnet (PM) machine for HEV drives. Design study, performance analysis and optimization of field excitation flux switching machine with non-rare-earth magnet for hybrid electric vehicle drive applications is done. The stator of projected machine consists of iron core made of electromagnetic steels, armature coils and field excitation coils as the only field mmf source. The rotor is consisted of only stack of iron and hence, it is reliable and appropriate for high speed operation. The design target is a machine with the maximum torque, power and power density, more than 210Nm, 123kW and 3.5kW/kg, respectively, which competes with interior permanent magnet synchronous machine used in existing hybrid electric vehicle. Some design feasibility studies on FEFSM based on 2D-FEA and deterministic optimization method will be applied to design the proposed machine.

  11. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  12. Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Datong; YE Ming; LIU Zhenjun

    2007-01-01

    The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter/generator (ISG),which is varied with desired braking deceleration and vehicle speed,is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration,maximum braking force of ISG,engine braking force and state of charge (SOC) of battery.Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative braking force of ISG.To recover the vehicle's kinetic energy maximally,braking shift rules for a mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with automatic manual transmission (AMT) are brought forward and effects of transmission ratios are considered.A test-bed is built up and regenerative braking tests are carried out.The results show that power recovered by the braking shift rules is more than that recovered by the normal braking control rules.

  13. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  14. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not only inherits the merits of switched reluctance machine, such as simple salient rotor structure, high reliability and wide speed range, but also can avoid the outer rotor’s cooling problem effectively. By using an equivalent magnetic circuit model, the function of middle rotor yoke is analyzed. Electromagnetic analyses of the SRDRM are performed with analytical calculations and 2-D finite element methods, including the effects of main parameters on performance. Finally, a 4.4 kW prototype machine is designed and manufactured, and the tests are performed, which validate the proposed design method.

  15. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2 for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experiments under various operating conditions of inlet air temperature, air flow rates for the gas cooler side and evaporator side, and electric compressor revolution respectively. As a result, cooling performances of the tested air-conditioning system for the EDC driving mode (electricity driven compressor were better than those for the BDC driving mode (belt driven compressor. The cooling capacity and cooling COP of the tested air-conditioning system for both driving modes were over 5.0 kW and 2.0, respectively. The observed cooling performance of the tested air-conditioning system may be sufficient for the cabin cooling of hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  17. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahalik, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  18. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  19. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  20. OPTIMAL TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  1. Real-time optimization power-split strategy for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ChaoYing; ZHANG Cong

    2016-01-01

    Energy management strategies based on optimal control theory can achieve minimum fuel consumption for hybrid electric vehicles,but the requirement for driving cycles known in prior leads to a real-time problem.A real-time optimization power-split strategy is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control.The battery state of charge sustainability and fuel economy are ensured by designing a quadratic performance index combined with two rules.The engine power and motor power of this strategy are calculated in real-time based on current system state and command,and not related to future driving conditions.The simulation results in ADVISOR demonstrate that,under the conditions of various driving cycles,road slopes and vehicle parameters,the proposed strategy significantly improves fuel economy,which is very close to that of the optimal control based on Pontryagin's minimum principle,and greatly reduces computation complexity.

  2. MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEED GOVERNOR FOR THE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qishan; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    A speed control analysis for an in-line gasoline fueled internal combustion (IC) engine is presented for the purpose of alleviation of high frequency oscillations in engine revolutions. A dynamic cylinder-by-cylinder model is proposed, base on slider-crank mechanism, which is extended to develop a digital governor providing a high fidelity estimation of rotary speed oscillation for hybrid vehicle engines. A modified PID controller that P and I gain is placed in feedback path is also described for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) engine speed regulation. By comparison between measured and estimated signals, it is demonstrated that a good agreement has been achieved and the governor behaves an excellent damping speed ripple.

  3. Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life and driving range) and environmental indicators (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), and evaluation of an optimal relationship between the types of vehicles in the fleet. According to the comparison, hybrid and electric cars exhibit advantages over the other types. The economic efficiency and environmental impact of electric car use depends substantially on the source of the electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable energy sources, the electric car is advantageous compared to the hybrid. If electricity comes from fossil fuels, the electric car remains competitive only if the electricity is generated on board. It is shown that, if electricity is generated with an efficiency of about 50-60% by a gas turbine engine connected to a high-capacity battery and an electric motor, the electric car becomes advantageous. Implementation of fuel cells stacks and ion conductive membranes into gas turbine cycles permits electricity generation to increase to the above-mentioned level and air pollution emissions to decrease. It is concluded that the electric car with on-board electricity generation represents a significant and flexible advance in the development of efficient and ecologically benign vehicles.

  4. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  5. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  7. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  8. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  10. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  12. Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for a Flywheel Energy Storage System within a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming

    As an energy storage device, the flywheel has significant advantages over conventional chemical batteries, including higher energy density, higher efficiency, longer life time, and less pollution to the environment. An effective flywheel system can be attributed to its good motor/generator (M/G) design. This thesis describes the research work on the design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) as an M/G suitable for integration in a flywheel energy storage system within a large hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The operating requirements of the application include wide power and speed ranges combined with high total system efficiency. Along with presenting the design, essential issues related to PMSM design including cogging torque, iron losses and total harmonic distortion (THD) are investigated. An iterative approach combining lumped parameter analysis with 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used, and the final design is presented showing excellent performance.

  13. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  14. Initial position estimation strategy for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor used in hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing TIAN; Qun-tao AN; Li SUN‡; Dong-yang SUN; Jian-dong DUAN

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonlinear model for surface permanent magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) is adopted to estimate the initial rotor position for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Usually, the accuracy of initial rotor position estimation for SPMSMs relies on magnetic saturation. To verify the saturation effect, the transient finite element analysis (FEA) model is presented first. Hybrid injection of a static voltage vector (SVV) superimposed with a high-frequency rotating voltage is proposed. The magnetic polarity is roughly identified with the aid of the saturation evaluation function, based on which an estimation of the position is performed. During this procedure, a special demodulation is suggested to extract signals of iron core saturation and rotor position. A Simulink/MATLAB platform for SPMSMs at standstill is constituted, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified. The proposed method is also validated by experimental results of an SPMSM drive.

  15. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  16. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  17. Optimal Energy Management for a Complex Hybrid Electric Vehicle:Tolerating Power-loss of Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-zhi; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Yong; WU Zhi-wei

    2009-01-01

    The energy management may perform well under normal conditions, but may lead to poor behavior under abnormal situations. To tackle this problem, an optimal control strategy called rule-based equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (RECMS) is developed for a new complex hybrid electric vehicle (CHEV).It optimizes the energy efficiency and drive performance to cater for normal and power-loss operations of the tractive motor. Firstly, the strategy formulates a novel objective function based on the equivalent fuel concept.By accounting for the actual fuel cost, the equivalent fuel cost for the electric machines and virtual fuel cost for the drivability, the cost function is obtained. Furthermore, some penalty factors are presented to optimize the performance target. Finally, experiments for a practical CHEV are performed to validate a simulation model.Then simulations are carried out for both rule-based and RECMS. The results show that the optimal energy management is working well.

  18. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  19. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  20. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  1. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  2. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  3. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets.

  4. 混合动力汽车再生制动的归类及其应用%Classification and Its Application of Regenerative Braking for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖福祥; 杜家益; 张彤

    2011-01-01

    According to different braking control strategies, the regenerative braking systems of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are classified into three categories: series braking with the best braking effect, series braking with the maximum energy regeneration rate and parallel braking, which are then analyzed respectively. A control strategy is put forward based on SOC, vehicle speed and the position of braking pedal, and is applied to a typical parallel HEV. The test results show that the braking control strategy proposed can recovery more braking energy with better braking feeling on the premise of safety assurance.%按不同的制动控制策略,将混合动力汽车再生制动系统分为具有最佳制动效果的串联制动、具有最佳能最回收率的串联制动和并联制动3种类型,并分别对它们进行了分析.提出了基于SOC、车速和制动踏板位置,动态地控制冉生制动转矩的控制策略,并将其应用于一款并联混合动力汽车上.测试结果表明:所制定的制动控制策略,可在保证安伞的前提下,更多地回收制动能量,并有较好的制动感觉.

  5. Economic Scheduling of Residential Plug-In (Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maigha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plug-in (hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been widely proposed as a viable alternative to internal combustion vehicles to reduce fossil fuel emissions and dependence on petroleum. Off-peak vehicle charging is frequently proposed to reduce the stress on the electric power grid by shaping the load curve. Time of use (TOU rates have been recommended to incentivize PHEV owners to shift their charging patterns. Many utilities are not currently equipped to provide real-time use rates to their customers, but can provide two or three staggered rate levels. To date, an analysis of the optimal number of levels and rate-duration of TOU rates for a given consumer demographic versus utility generation mix has not been performed. In this paper, we propose to use the U.S. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS database as a basis to analyze typical PHEV energy requirements. We use Monte Carlo methods to model the uncertainty inherent in battery state-of-charge and trip duration. We conclude the paper with an analysis of a different TOU rate schedule proposed by a mix of U.S. utilities. We introduce a centralized scheduling strategy for PHEV charging using a genetic algorithm to accommodate the size and complexity of the optimization.

  6. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  7. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)], E-mail: dlemoine@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kammen@berkeley.edu, E-mail: aef@berkeley.edu

    2008-01-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  8. Optimization of Key Parameters of Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using DIRECT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rule-based logic threshold control strategy has been frequently used in energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to its convenience in adjusting parameters, real-time performance, stability, and robustness. However, the logic threshold control parameters cannot usually ensure the best vehicle performance at different driving cycles and conditions. For this reason, the optimization of key parameters is important to improve the fuel economy, dynamic performance, and drivability. In principle, this is a multiparameter nonlinear optimization problem. The logic threshold energy management strategy for an all-wheel-drive HEV is comprehensively analyzed and developed in this study. Seven key parameters to be optimized are extracted. The optimization model of key parameters is proposed from the perspective of fuel economy. The global optimization method, DIRECT algorithm, which has good real-time performance, low computational burden, rapid convergence, is selected to optimize the extracted key parameters globally. The results show that with the optimized parameters, the engine operates more at the high efficiency range resulting into a fuel savings of 7% compared with non-optimized parameters. The proposed method can provide guidance for calibrating the parameters of the vehicle energy management strategy from the perspective of fuel economy.

  9. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

  10. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  11. Further validation of artificial neural network-based emissions simulation models for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Nagy, Csaba; Conley, John J; Jarrett, Ronald P; Clark, Nigel N

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of hybrid electric vehicles, computer-based vehicle simulation becomes more useful to the engineer and designer trying to optimize the complex combination of control strategy, power plant, drive train, vehicle, and driving conditions. With the desire to incorporate emissions as a design criterion, researchers at West Virginia University have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The ANN models were trained on engine and exhaust emissions data collected from transient dynamometer tests of heavy-duty diesel engines then used to predict emissions based on engine speed and torque data from simulated operation of a tractor truck and hybrid electric bus. Simulated vehicle operation was performed with the ADVISOR software package. Predicted emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)]) were then compared with actual emissions data collected from chassis dynamometer tests of similar vehicles. This paper expands on previous research to include different driving cycles for the hybrid electric bus and varying weights of the conventional truck. Results showed that different hybrid control strategies had a significant effect on engine behavior (and, thus, emissions) and may affect emissions during different driving cycles. The ANN models underpredicted emissions of CO2 and NO(x) in the case of a class-8 truck but were more accurate as the truck weight increased.

  12. Modeling and Control of a Flux-Modulated Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM, comprising a double rotor machine (DRM and a permanent-magnet (PM motor, is a promising electronic-continuously variable transmission (e-CVT concept for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. By CS-PMSM, independent speed and torque control of the vehicle engine is realized without a planetary gear unit. However, the slip rings and brushes of the conventional CS-PMSM are considered a major drawback for vehicle application. In this paper, a brushless flux-modulated CS-PMSM is investigated. The operating principle and basic working modes of the CS-PMSM are discussed. Mathematical models of the CS-PMSM system are given, and joint control of the two integrated machines is proposed. As one rotor of the DRM is mechanically connected with the rotor of the PM motor, special rotor position detection and torque allocation methods are required. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink, and the feasibility of the control system is proven. Considering the complexity of the controller, a single digital signal processor (DSP is used to perform the interconnected control of dual machines instead of two separate ones, and a typical hardware implementation is proposed.

  13. Determination of the Equivalent Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the State-Constrained Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Laura V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the optimization of power management of hybrid electric vehicles, the equivalent consumption factor is often used. This parameter represents a way of penalizing the use of power from the batteries, taking into account the fuel consumption that such use eventually hides. If the problem of determining the power split between the energy sources of the vehicle that minimizes fuel consumption is stated as a non linear constrained optimal control problem, and is solved using Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP, the equivalent consumption factor may be computed from the adjoint state. Following this approach we compute the trajectory of the adjoint state in the case where state constraints are taken into account. The optimality conditions from PMP are a Boundary Value Problem (BVP, which is solved numerically using a code named PASVA4. Numerical examples are compared with dynamic programming solutions of the same problem. It is found that the adjoint state is continuous and its trajectory is described. The approach may be generalized to similar optimal control problems.

  14. Economic Value of LFC Substitution by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    There are lots of global warming countermeasures. In the power sector, nuclear power plants play an important role because they do not produce CO2 emissions during production of electricity. However, if the generation share of nuclear is too high at nighttime, it becomes difficult to keep enough capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) because nuclear power plants do not change the output (i.e., without load following operation) in Japan. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEV is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate LFC capacity in nighttime. In this study, we evaluated the economic value of charging power control by using an optimal generation planning model, and obtained the following results. Charging power control is effective in reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of economic efficiency of power system. Particularly, even in the low market share of PHEVs, the charge control has a high economic value because it substitutes nuclear power plant, base-load provider with low fuel cost, for LNG-CC, LEC provider with high fuel cost.

  15. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  16. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  18. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G. [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B. [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  19. An optimal energy management development for various configuration of plug-in and hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Montazeri-Gh; Mehdi Mahmoodi-K

    2015-01-01

    Due to soaring fuel prices and environmental concerns, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology attracts more attentions in last decade. Energy management system, configuration of HEV and traffic conditions are the main factors which affect HEV's fuel consumption, emission and performance. Therefore, optimal management of the energy components is a key element for the success of a HEV. An optimal energy management system is developed for HEV based on genetic algorithm. Then, different powertrain system component combinations effects are investigated in various driving cycles. HEV simulation results are compared for default rule-based, fuzzy and GA-fuzzy controllers by using ADVISOR. The results indicate the effectiveness of proposed optimal controller over real world driving cycles. Also, an optimal powertrain configuration to improve fuel consumption and emission efficiency is proposed for each driving condition. Finally, the effects of batteries in initial state of charge and hybridization factor are investigated on HEV performance to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption average reduction of about 14% is obtained for optimal configuration data in contrast to default configuration. Also results indicate that proposed controller has reduced emission of about 10% in various traffic conditions.

  20. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Hou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal battery size for PHEVs in Beijing is 6–8 kWh. Several additional scenarios are also analyzed: (1 10% increase in battery price or discount rate leads to an optimal battery size of 6 kWh, and 10% increase in fuel price shifts the optimal battery size to 8 kWh; (2 the longer and more dispersive daily range distribution in the U.S. increases the optimal battery size to 14 kWh; (3 the subsidy in China results in an optimal battery size of 13 kWh, while that in the U.S. results in 17 kWh, and a fuel savings rate based subsidy policy is innovatively proposed; (4 the optimal battery size with Li4Ti5O12 batteries is 2 kWh, but the TCO of Li4Ti5O12 batteries is higher than that of LiFePO4 batteries.

  1. Experimental Study on Communication Delay of Powertrain System of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to contrast and analyze the real-time performance of the powertrain system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, a mathematical model of the system delay is established under the circumstances that the transmission adopts the CAN (controller area network protocol and the TTCAN (time-triggered CAN protocol, respectively, and the interior of the controller adopts the foreground-background mode and the OSEK mode respectively. In addition, an experimental platform is developed to test communication delays of messages under 4 different implementation models. The 4 models are testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode; testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode; testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode, and testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode. The theoretical and testing results indicate that the communication delay of the OSEK mode is a little longer than the one of the foreground-background mode. Moreover, compared with the CAN protocol, the periodic message has a better real-time performance under the TTCAN protocol, while the nonperiodic message has a worse one.

  2. Torque Split Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles with an Integrated Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a torque split strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an integrated starter generator (ISG-PHEV by using fuzzy logic control. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of the internal combustion engine (ICE with the state of charge (SOC of the batteries, the torque split strategy is designed, which manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region. Taking the quantified ICE torque, the quantified SOC of the batteries, and the quantified ICE speed as inputs, and regarding the output torque demanded on the ICE as an output, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC with relevant fuzzy rules has been developed to determine the optimal torque distribution among the ICE, the ISG, and the electric motor/generator (EMG effectively. The simulation results reveal that, compared with the conventional torque control strategy which uses rule-based controller (RBC in different driving cycles, the proposed FLC improves the fuel economy of the ISG-PHEV, increases the efficiency of the ICE, and maintains batteries SOC within its operation range more availably.

  3. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  4. Ecodriving in hybrid electric vehicles--Exploring challenges for user-energy interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Arend, Matthias Georg; McIlroy, Rich C; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can help to reduce transport emissions; however, user behaviour has a significant effect on the energy savings actually achieved in everyday usage. The present research aimed to advance understanding of HEV drivers' ecodriving strategies, and the challenges for optimal user-energy interaction. We conducted interviews with 39 HEV drivers who achieved above-average fuel efficiencies. Regression analyses showed that technical system knowledge and ecodriving motivation were both important predictors for ecodriving efficiency. Qualitative data analyses showed that drivers used a plethora of ecodriving strategies and had diverse conceptualisations of HEV energy efficiency regarding aspects such as the efficiency of actively utilizing electric energy or the efficiency of different acceleration strategies. Drivers also reported several false beliefs regarding HEV energy efficiency that could impair ecodriving efforts. Results indicate that ecodriving support systems should facilitate anticipatory driving and help users locate and maintain drivetrain states of maximum efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Sara Kathryn

    The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems

  6. Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

  7. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  8. Transmission network-based energy and environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Acquaviva, Jonathan; Foster, E. J.; Zhang, K. Max

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is expected to have a significant impact on regional power systems and pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes the effects of various penetrations of PHEVs on the marginal fuel dispatch of coal, natural gas and oil, and on pollutant emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 in the New York Metropolitan Area for two battery charging scenarios in a typical summer and winter day. A model of the AC transmission network of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) region with 693 generators is used to realistically incorporate network constraints into an economic dispatch model. A data-based transportation model of approximately 1 million commuters in NYMA is used to determine battery charging pattern. Results show that for all penetrations of PHEVs network-constrained economic dispatch of generation is significantly more realistic than unconstrained cases. Coal, natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the winter, and only natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the summer. Hourly changes in emissions from transportation and power production are dominated by vehicular activity with significant overall emissions reductions for CO2 and NOx, and a slight increase for SO2. Nighttime regulated charging produces less overall emissions than unregulated charging from when vehicles arrive home for the summer and vice versa for the winter. As PHEVs are poised to link the power and transportation sectors, data-based models combining network constraints and economic dispatch have been shown to improve understanding and facilitate control of this link.

  9. Energy Optimization and Fuel Economy Investigation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated with Diesel/RCCI Engines

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) architecture, which allows the engine to run c...

  10. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  11. Optimal economy-based battery degradation management dynamics for fuel-cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, François; Kelouwani, Sousso; Dubé, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses the economical dynamics of an optimized battery degradation management strategy intended for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with consideration given to low-cost technologies, such as lead-acid batteries. The optimal management algorithm described herein is based on discrete dynamic programming theory (DDP) and was designed for the purpose of PHEV battery degradation management; its operation relies on simulation models using data obtained experimentally on a physical PHEV platform. These tools are first used to define an optimal management strategy according to the economical weights of PHEV battery degradation and the secondary energy carriers spent to manage its deleterious effects. We then conduct a sensitivity study of the proposed optimization process to the fluctuating economic parameters associated with the fuel and energy costs involved in the degradation management process. Results demonstrate the influence of each parameter on the process's response, including daily total operating costs and expected battery lifetime, as well as establish boundaries for useful application of the method; in addition, they provide a case for the relevance of inexpensive battery technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, for economy-centric PHEV applications where battery degradation is a major concern.

  12. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  14. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  15. Engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle incorporating load-leveling and computer controlled energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochgraf, C.G.; Ryan, M.J.; Wiegman, H.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper identifies important engine, alternator and battery characteristics needed for determining an appropriate engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle. Examination of these characteristics indicates that a load-leveling strategy applied to the small engine will provide better fuel economy than a power-tracking scheme. An automatic energy management strategy is devised whereby a computer controller determines the engine-alternator turn-on and turn-off conditions and controls the engine-alternator autonomously. Battery state of charge is determined from battery voltage and current measurements. Experimental results of the system`s performance in a test vehicle during city driving are presented.

  16. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-05

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns.

  17. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that the seamless mode switching can be achieved. Different to the existing model predictive control (MPC methods, only one model predictive controller is needed and the clutch torque is taken as an optimized variable rather than a known parameter. Furthermore, the successful idea of model reference control (MRC is also used for reference to generate the set-point signal required by MPC. The parameter sensitivity is studied for better performance of the proposed model predictive controller. The simulation results validate that the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy has less vehicle jerk, less torque interruption, and smaller clutch frictional losses, compared with the baseline method. In addition, the sensitivity and adaptiveness of the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy are evaluated.

  18. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  19. Structure improvement and electrochemical studies of bipolar nickel metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chao; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery in bipolar design offers some advantages for its application as a power storage system for electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper deals with the structure design and electrochemical studies of bipolar Ni/MH batteries for hybrid vehicles. An improvement is applied in bipolar battery design,and such bipolar Ni/MH batteries with 5 sub-cells have been assembled and investigated. Testing results show that bipolar batteries with improved structure have better compression tolerance and cycle performance than conventional ones. In addition, the improved bipolar batteries display excellent large current discharge ability and high power density. As simulating working conditions for hybrid vehicles, the batteries show good stability during pulse cycles, which verifies the possibility of being used as a power storage device on hybrid vehicles.

  20. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  2. Study on Forward-Facing Model and Real-Time Simulation for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To shorten design period and reduce development costs, computer modeling and simulation is important for HEV design and development. In this paper, real-time simulation for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV is made to verify its fuzzy logic control strategy based on dSPACE-DS1103 development kits. The whole real-time simulation schematic is designed and the vehicle forward-facing simulation model is set up. Modeling methods for the driver, controller and vehicle (includes engine, generator, motor, battery, etc. under MATLAB/Simulink environment are discussed in detail. Driver behavior is simulated by two potentiometers and introduced into the real-time system to realize close-loop control. A real-time monitoring interface is also developed to observe the experiment results. Experiment results show that the real-time simulation platform works well and the SHEV fuzzy logic control strategy is effective.

  3. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  4. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  5. Towards a Friendly Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Pollution, Battery and Drivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Colin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a generic methodology to incorporate constraints (pollutant emission, battery health, drivability into on-line energy management strategies (EMSs for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. The integration of each constraint into the EMS, made with the Pontryagin maximum principle, shows a tradeoff between the fuel consumption and the constraint introduced. As state dynamics come into play (catalyst temperature, battery cell temperature, etc., the optimization problem becomes more complex. Simulation results are presented to highlight the contribution of this generic strategy, including constraints compared to the standard approach. These results show that it is possible to find an energy management strategy that takes into account an increasing number of constraints (drivability, pollution, aging, environment, etc.. However, taking these constraints into account increases fuel consumption (the existence of a trade-off curve. This trade-off can be sometimes difficult to find, and the tools developed in this paper should help to find an acceptable solution quickly

  6. Impact of adding artificially generated alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on their detectability by pedestrians who are blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Shik Kim, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 14 adults with visual impairments attempted to detect three different vehicles: a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with an artificially generated sound (Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians [VSP], an HEV without the VSP, and a comparable internal combustion engine (ICE vehicle. The VSP vehicle (mean +/– standard deviation [SD] = 38.3 +/– 14.8 m was detected at a significantly farther distance than the HEV (mean +/– SD = 27.5 +/– 11.5 m, t = 4.823, p < 0.001, but no significant difference existed between the VSP and ICE vehicles (mean +/– SD = 34.5 +/– 14.3 m, t = 1.787, p = 0.10. Despite the overall sound level difference between the two test sites (parking lot = 48.7 dBA, roadway = 55.1 dBA, no significant difference in detection distance between the test sites was observed, F(1, 13 = 0.025, p = 0.88. No significant interaction was found between the vehicle type and test site, F(1.31, 16.98 = 0.272, p = 0.67. The findings of the study may help us understand how adding an artificially generated sound to an HEV could affect some of the orientation and mobility tasks performed by blind pedestrians.

  7. Impact of adding artificially generated alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on their detectability by pedestrians who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 14 adults with visual impairments attempted to detect three different vehicles: a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with an artificially generated sound (Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians [VSP]), an HEV without the VSP, and a comparable internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The VSP vehicle (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 38.3 +/- 14.8 m) was detected at a significantly farther distance than the HEV (mean +/- SD = 27.5 +/- 11.5 m), t = 4.823, p < 0.001, but no significant difference existed between the VSP and ICE vehicles (mean +/- SD = 34.5 +/- 14.3 m), t = 1.787, p = 0.10. Despite the overall sound level difference between the two test sites (parking lot = 48.7 dBA, roadway = 55.1 dBA), no significant difference in detection distance between the test sites was observed, F(1, 13) = 0.025, p = 0.88. No significant interaction was found between the vehicle type and test site, F(1.31, 16.98) = 0.272, p = 0.67. The findings of the study may help us understand how adding an artificially generated sound to an HEV could affect some of the orientation and mobility tasks performed by blind pedestrians.

  8. Control system for a 373 kW, intercooled, two-spool gas turbine engine powering a hybrid electric world sports car class vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortlidge, C.C. [SatCon Technology Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    SatCon technology Corporation has completed design, fabrication, and the first round of test of a 373 kW (500 hp), two-spool, intercooled gas turbine engine with integral induction type alternators. This turbine alternator is the prime mover for a World Sports Car class hybrid electric vehicle under development by Chrysler Corporation. The complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system features the 373 kW (500 hp) turbine alternator unit, a 373 kW (500 hp) 3.25 kW-h (4.36 hp-h) flywheel, a 559 kW (750 hp) traction motor, and the propulsion system control system. This paper presents and discusses the major attributes of the control system associated with the turbine alternator unit. Also discussed is the role and operational requirements of the turbine unit as part of the complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system.

  9. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  10. Comparative Study of Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle on Energy Management for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two optimal energy management methods for parallel hybrid electric vehicles using an Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT. A control-oriented model of the powertrain and vehicle dynamics is built first. The energy management is formulated as a typical optimal control problem to trade off the fuel consumption and gear shifting frequency under admissible constraints. The Dynamic Programming (DP and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP are applied to obtain the optimal solutions. Tuning with the appropriate co-states, the PMP solution is found to be very close to that from DP. The solution for the gear shifting in PMP has an algebraic expression associated with the vehicular velocity and can be implemented more efficiently in the control algorithm. The computation time of PMP is significantly less than DP.

  11. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zehui; Zou, Yuan; Liu, Teng

    2017-01-01

    To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM) of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL) is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM) generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control.

  12. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggieri, Alison

    According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of

  13. Simulation Analysis on Driving Cycle of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle%混合动力汽车行驶工况的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东东; 程金瑞; 田源玉

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle performance is influenced by actual driving condition directly.For a hybrid electric vehicle,selection of its componemnts and formulation of control strategy are closely related to road driving cycle.Driving cycle of a vehicle is analyzed in this paper.modeling and simulation of a mini hybrid electric vehicle is comducted by using GT-DRIV.The simulation results show that the hybrid electric vehicle has obvious advantages than traditional vehicle in fuel economy.Better electric distribution will be the key point in hybrid electric vehicle design.%汽车的实际行驶条件对汽车性能具有直接影响。对于混合动力汽车,其部件的选型以及控制策略的制定都与道路行驶工况密切相关文章对汽车行驶工况做了相应的分析.利用GT—DRIVE软件对某微型混合动力汽车进行了建模与仿真仿真结果表明,在经济性方面混合动力汽车比传统汽车有明显的优势.如何更好地分配混合动力汽车功率将是混合动力汽车研究的重点.

  14. Energy Management Strategy Implementation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithm Tuned Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Panday

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce apace extraction of natural resources, to plummet the toxic emissions, and to increase the fuel economy for road transportation, hybrid vehicles are found to be promising. Hybrid vehicles use batteries and engine to propel the vehicle which minimizes dependence on liquid fuels. Battery is an important component of hybrid vehicles and is mainly characterized by its state of charge level. Here a modified state of charge estimation algorithm is applied, which includes not only coulomb counting but also open circuit voltage, weighting factor, and correction factor to track the run time state of charge efficiently. Further, presence of battery and engine together needs a prevailing power split scheme for their efficient utilization. In this paper, a fuel efficient energy management strategy for power-split hybrid electric vehicle using modified state of charge estimation method is developed. Here, the optimal values of various governing parameters are firstly computed with genetic algorithm and then fed to Pontryagin’s minimum principle to decide the threshold power at which engine is turned on. This process makes the proposed method robust and provides better chance to improve the fuel efficiency. Engine efficient operating region is identified to operate vehicle in efficient regions and reduce fuel consumption.

  15. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  16. Hybrid electric system for an Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and its energy management

    OpenAIRE

    DA FONSECA, Ramon Naiff; BIDEAUX, Eric; Gerard, Mathias; DESBOIS-RENAUDIN, Matthieu; JEANNERET, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles, (FCV) are characterized by the utilization on the same electric bus of an hydrogen fuel cell (FC) as a primary energy source and of storage elements like batterie s as a secondary source. In our project, the fuel c ell is a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), which is well adapted for transport field applications. A Lithium rechargeable battery , more specifically a LiFePO4, is used to supplement the FC over the driv ing cycle. According to the requirements of the dri ...

  17. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J.; Walkowicz, K.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2013-10-01

    This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle. The in-use field data indicates that the HEVs had around 16% better fuel economy than the conventional vehicles. Dynamometer testing also showed that the HEV generally emitted higher levels of nitric oxides than the conventional vehicle over the drive cycles, up to 77% higher on the NYComp cycle (though this may at least in part be attributed to the different engine certification levels in the vehicles tested). The conventional vehicle was found to accelerate up to freeway speeds over ten seconds faster than the HEV.

  18. STEADY-STATE AND IDLE OPTIMIZA- TION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; MAO Xiaojian; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel steady-state optimization (SSO) of internal combustion engine (ICE) strategy is proposed to maximize the efficiency of the overall powertrain for hybrid electric vehicles, in which the ICE efficiency, the efficiencies of the electric motor (EM) and the energy storage device are all explicitly taken into account. In addition, a novel idle optimization of ICE strategy is implemented to obtain the optimal idle operating point of the ICE and corresponding optimal parking generation power of the EM using the view of the novel SSO of ICE strategy. Simulations results show that potential fuel economy improvement is achieved relative to the conventional one which only optimized the ICE efficiency by the novel SSO of ICE strategy, and fuel consumption per voltage increment decreases a lot during the parking charge by the novel idle optimization of ICE strategy.

  19. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  20. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage...... devices are presented. It is concluded that not only should the energy storage devices of a FCHEV be sized by their power and energy requirements, but the battery lifetime should also be considered. Two energy-management strategies, which sufficiently divide the load power between the fuel cell stack...

  1. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO 2 Emissions and Operating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO 2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is curr...

  2. Map-Based Power-Split Strategy Design with Predictive Performance Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a map-based optimal energy management strategy is proposed to improve the consumption economy of a plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle. In the design of the maps, which provide both the torque split between engine and motor and the gear shift, not only the current vehicle speed and power demand, but also the optimality based on the predicted trajectory of vehicle dynamics are considered. To seek the optimality, the equivalent consumption, which trades off the fuel and electricity usages, is chosen as the cost function. Moreover, in order to decrease the model errors in the process of optimization conducted in the discrete time domain, the variational integrator is employed to calculate the evolution of the vehicle dynamics. To evaluate the proposed energy management strategy, the simulation results performed on a professional GT-Suit simulator are demonstrated and the comparison to a real-time optimization method is also given to show the advantage of the proposed off-line optimization approach.

  3. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  5. Design and Validation of Real-Time Optimal Control with ECMS to Minimize Energy Consumption for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS is presented in this paper, whose purpose is to achieve the total equivalent fuel consumption minimization and to maintain the battery state of charge (SOC within its operation range at all times simultaneously. Vehicle and assembly models of PHEVs are established, which provide the foundation for the following calculations. The ECMS is described in detail, in which an instantaneous cost function including the fuel energy and the electrical energy is proposed, whose emphasis is the computation of the equivalent factor. The real-time optimal control strategy is designed through regarding the minimum of the total equivalent fuel consumption as the control objective and the torque split factor as the control variable. The validation of the control strategy proposed is demonstrated both in the MATLAB/Simulink/Advisor environment and under actual transportation conditions by comparing the fuel economy, the charge sustainability, and parts performance with other three control strategies under different driving cycles including standard, actual, and real-time road conditions. Through numerical simulations and real vehicle tests, the accuracy of the approach used for the evaluation of the equivalent factor is confirmed, and the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and keeping the deviations of SOC at a low level is illustrated.

  6. Optimal Energy Management Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been recognized as one of the most promising vehicle categories nowadays due to their low fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Energy management is critical for improving the performance of PHEVs. This paper proposes an energy management approach based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The optimization objective is to minimize total energy cost (summation of oil and electricity from vehicle utilization. A main drawback of optimal strategies is that they can hardly be used in real-time control. In order to solve this problem, a rule-based strategy containing three operation modes is proposed first, and then the PSO algorithm is implemented on four threshold values in the presented rule-based strategy. The proposed strategy has been verified by the US06 driving cycle under the MATLAB/Simulink software environment. Two different driving cycles are adopted to evaluate the generalization ability of the proposed strategy. Simulation results indicate that the proposed PSO-based energy management method can achieve better energy efficiency compared with traditional blended strategies. Online control performance of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through a driver-in-the-loop real-time experiment.

  7. A Method for Identification of Driving Patterns in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on a LVQ Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving patterns exert an important influence on the fuel economy of vehicles, especially hybrid electric vehicles. This paper aims to build a method to identify driving patterns with enough accuracy and less sampling time compared than other driving pattern recognition algorithms. Firstly a driving pattern identifier based on a Learning Vector Quantization neural network is established to analyze six selected representative standard driving cycles. Micro-trip extraction and Principal Component Analysis methods are applied to ensure the magnitude and diversity of the training samples. Then via Matlab/Simulink, sample training simulation is conducted to determine the minimum neuron number of the Learning Vector Quantization neural network and, as a result, to help simplify the identifier model structure and reduce the data convergence time. Simulation results have proved the feasibility of this method, which decreases the sampling window length from about 250–300 s to 120 s with an acceptable accuracy. The driving pattern identifier is further used in an optimized co-simulation together with a parallel hybrid vehicle model and improves the fuel economy by about 8%.

  8. High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sockeel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC, and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model.

  9. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Christian-Simon, E-mail: ernst@ika.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hackbarth, Andre; Madlener, Reinhard [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), School of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lunz, Benedikt; Uwe Sauer, Dirk [Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eckstein, Lutz [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO{sub 2} emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: > Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user. > PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.> Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO{sub 2} emissions than the average conventional car.

  10. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...

  11. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...

  12. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant facto

  13. Effect of battery state of charge on fuel use and pollutant emissions of a full hybrid electric light duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, G. O.; Varella, R. A.; Gonçalves, G. A.; Farias, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    This research work focuses on evaluating the effect of battery state of charge (SOC) in the fuel consumption and gaseous pollutant emissions of a Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle, using the Vehicle Specific Power Methodology. Information on SOC, speed and engine management was obtained from the OBD interface, with additional data collected from a 5 gas analyzer and GPS receiver with barometric altimeter. Compared with average results, 40-50% battery SOC presented higher fuel consumption (57%), as well as higher CO2 (56%), CO (27%) and NOx (55.6%) emissions. For battery SOC between 50 and 60%, fuel consumption and CO2 were 9.7% higher, CO was 1.6% lower and NOx was 20.7% lower than average. For battery SOC between 60 and 70%, fuel consumption was 3.4% lower, CO2 was 3.6% lower, CO was 6.9% higher and NOx was 24.4% higher than average. For battery SOC between 70 and 80%, fuel consumption was 39.9% lower, CO2 was 38% lower, CO was 33.9% lower and NOx was 61.4% lower than average. The effect of engine OFF periods was analyzed for CO and NOx emissions. For OFF periods higher than 30 s, increases of 63% and 73% respectively were observed.

  14. Energy Optimization and Fuel Economy Investigation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated with Diesel/RCCI Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Solouk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NO x and particulate matter (PM emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV architecture, which allows the engine to run completely in the narrow RCCI mode for common driving cycles. Three different types of energy management control (EMC strategies are designed and implemented to achieve the best fuel economy. The EMC strategies encompass rule-based control (RBC, offline, and online optimal controllers, including dynamic programing (DP and model predictive control (MPC, respectively. The simulation results show a 13.1% to 14.2% fuel economy saving by using an RCCI engine over a modern spark ignition (SI engine in SHEV for different driving cycles. This fuel economy saving is reduced to 3% in comparison with a modern compression ignition (CI engine, while NO x emissions are significantly lower. Simulation results show that the RCCI engine offers more fuel economy improvement in more aggressive driving cycles (e.g., US06, compared to less aggressive driving cycles (e.g., UDDS. In addition, the MPC results show that sub-optimal fuel economy is achieved by predicting the vehicle speed profile for a time horizon of 70 s.

  15. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  16. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  17. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  18. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption.

  19. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  20. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  1. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production

  2. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs as a useful new tool for system operation and regulation from a review of recent studies and mainly considers two mainstream methods: demand response and economic dispatch. The potential of using PHEVs/EVs to coordinate renewable energy resources is also discussed in terms of accepting more renewable resources without violating the safety and the reliability of power systems or increasing the operation cost significantly.

  3. Transfer impedance simulation and measurement methods to analyse shielding behaviour of HV cables used in Electric-Vehicles and Hybrid-Electric-Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Abid; Frei, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    In the power drive system of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), High Voltage (HV) cables play a major role in evaluating the EMI of the whole system. Transfer impedance (ZT) is the most commonly used performance parameter for the HV cable. To analyse and design HV cables and connectors with better shielding effectiveness (SE), appropriate measurement and simulation methods are required. In this paper, Ground Plate Method (GPM) with improvements has been proposed to measure ZT. Use of low-frequency ferrites to avoid ground-loop effects has also been investigated. Additionally, a combination of analytical model with a circuit model has been implemented to simulate limitations (frequency response) of the test setup. Also parametrical studies using the analytical model have been performed to analyse the shielding behaviour of HV cables.

  4. Environmental and energy implications of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Craig H; Sullivan, John

    2008-02-15

    We analyze the effect of charging a significant number of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) in the United States using presently available night-time spare electric capacity in the shortterm and new base-load capacity in the long term. Nationwide, there is currently ample spare night-time utility capacityto charge even a large fleet of PHEVs. Using the mix of generating plants expected to be used for PHEV charging, we find that, while driving on battery power, PHEVs compared to their conventional hybrid counterparts reduce CO2 emissions by 25% in the short term and as much as 50% in the long term. The shortterm fractional increase in demand for margin fuels such as natural gas is found to be roughly twice the fractional penetration of PHEVs into the nationwide light-duty vehicle fleet. We also compare, on an energy basis, the CO2 savings of replacing coal plants versus replacing conventional vehicles with PHEVs. The result is found to depend critically on the fuel economy of the vehicles displaced by the PHEVs.

  5. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and

  6. Optimal Line Pressure Control for an Automatic Transmission-Based Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle considering Mode Change and Gear Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimal line pressure control algorithm was proposed for the fuel economy improvement of an AT-based parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. By performing lever analysis at each gear step, the required line pressure was obtained considering the torque ratio of the friction elements. In addition, the required line pressure of the mode clutch was calculated. Based on these results, the optimal line pressure map at each gear step of the EV and HEV modes was presented. Using the line pressure map, an optimal line pressure was performed for the AT input torque and mode. To investigate the proposed line pressure control algorithm, a HEV performance simulator was developed based on the powertrain model of the target HEV, and fuel economy improvement was evaluated. Simulation results showed that as the gear step became higher, the optimal line pressure control could reduce the hydraulic power loss, which gave a 2.2% fuel economy improvement compared to the existing line pressure control for the FTP-72 mode.

  7. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  8. Multi-objective comprehensive optimization of fuel consumption and emission for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Han-bing; LIU Xiao-fei; HE Yi-tuan; PENG Zhi-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to reduce fuel consumption and emissions of a dual-clutch hybrid electric vehicle during cold start, multi-objective optimization for fuel consumption and HC/CO emission from a TWC (three-way catalytic converter) outlet is presented in this paper. DP (dynamic programming) considering dual-state variables is proposed based on the Bellman optimality principle. Both the battery SOC (state of charge) and the temperature of TWC monolith are considered in the algorithm simultaneously. In this way the global optimal control strategy and the Pareto optimal solution of multi-objective function are derived. Simulation results show that the proposed method is able to promote the TWC light-off significantly by decreasing the engine’s load and improving exhaust temperature from the outlet of the engine, in comparison with original DP considering the single battery SOC. Compared to the results achieved by rule-based control strategy, fuel economy and emission of TWC outlet for cold start are optimized comprehensively. Each indicator of Pareto solution set shows the significant improvement.

  9. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  11. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  12. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st∼5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  13. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  14. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  15. Development of Near Optimal Rule-Based Control for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Taking into Account Drivetrain Component Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanho Son

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG, bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded state. To evaluate the effect of the drivetrain losses on the operating mode control strategy, backward simulations were performed using dynamic programming (DP. DP selects the operating mode, which provides the highest efficiency for given driving conditions. It was found that the operating mode selection changes when drivetrain losses are included, depending on driving conditions. An operating mode schedule was developed with respect to the wheel power and vehicle speed, and based on the operating mode schedule, a RBC was obtained, which can be implemented in an on-line application. To evaluate the performance of the RBC, a forward simulator was constructed for the target PHEV. The simulation results show near-optimal performance of the RBC compared with dynamic-programming-based mode control in terms of the mode operation time and fuel economy. The RBC developed with drivetrain losses taken into account showed a 4%–5% improvement of the fuel economy over a similar RBC, which neglected the drivetrain losses.

  16. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Environment: An Economic Model of Load Management by Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudineh R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern regarding the consumption of fossil fuels is among the most serious challenges facing the world. As a result, utilisation of more renewable resources and promotion of a clean transport system such as the use of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs became the forefront of the new energy policies. However, the breakthrough of PHEVs in the automotive fleet increases concerns around the stability of power system and in particular, the power network. This research simulates the aggregate load profile of the UK with presence of PHEVs based upon different price scenarios. The results show that under the fixed rate and time of use programmes in the current grid, the extra load of the electric vehicles intensifies the consumption profile and also creates new critical points. Thus, there should always be excess standby capacity to satisfy peak demand even for a short period of time. On the other hand, when the consumers do not pay the price based on the actual cost of supply, those who consume less in peak hours subsidise the ones who consume more and this cross subsidy raises a regulatory issue. On the contrary, a smart grid can accommodate PHEVs without creating technical and regulatory problems. This positive consequence is the result of demand response to the real time pricing. From a technical point of view, the biggest chunk of PHEVs' load will be shifted to the late evening and the hours of minimum demand. Besides, from a welfare analysis standpoint, real time pricing creates no deadweight losses and corresponding demand response will limit the ability of suppliers to increase the spot market clearing price above its equilibrium level.

  17. The Role of Interaction Patterns with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Eco-Features for Drivers' Eco-Driving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias G; Franke, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles. Eco-driving in HEVs is particularly challenging due to the systems' dynamic energy flows. As a result, drivers are likely to show diverse eco-driving behaviors, depending on factors like knowledge and motivation. The eco-features represent an interface for the control of the systems' energy flows. A sample of 121 HEV drivers who had constantly logged their fuel consumption prior to the study participated in an online questionnaire. Drivers' interaction patterns with the eco-features were related to fuel efficiency. A common factor was identified in an exploratory factor analysis, characterizing the intensity of actively dealing with electric energy, which was also related to fuel efficiency. Driver characteristics were not related to this factor, yet they were significant predictors of fuel efficiency. From the perspective of user-energy interaction, the relationship of the aggregated factor to fuel efficiency emphasizes the central role of drivers' perception of and interaction with energy conversions in determining HEV eco-driving success. To arrive at an in-depth understanding of drivers' eco-driving behaviors that can guide interface design, authors of future research should be concerned with the psychological processes that underlie drivers' interaction patterns with eco-features.

  18. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  19. The UltraBattery-A new battery design for a new beginning in hybrid electric vehicle energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A.; Furakawa, J.; Lam, L.; Kellaway, M.

    The UltraBattery, developed by CSIRO Energy Technology in Australia, is a hybrid energy storage device which combines an asymmetric super-capacitor and a lead-acid battery in single unit cells. This takes the best from both technologies without the need for extra, expensive electronic controls. The capacitor enhances the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer during high-rate discharging and charging, thus enabling it to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The initial performance of the prototype UltraBatteries was evaluated according to the US FreedomCAR targets and was shown to meet or exceed these in terms of power, available energy, cold cranking and self-discharge set for both minimum and maximum power-assist hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other laboratory cycling tests showed a fourfold improvement over previous state-of-the-art lead-acid batteries under the RHOLAB test profile and better life than commercial nickel/metal hydride (NiMH) cells used in a Honda Insight when tested under the EUCAR HEV profile. As a result of this work, a set of twelve 12 V modules was built by The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd. in Japan and were fitted into a Honda Insight instead of the NiMH battery by Provector Ltd. The battery pack was fitted with full monitoring and control capabilities and the car was tested at Millbrook Proving Ground under a General Motors road test simulation cycle for an initial target of 50 000 miles which was extended to 100 000 miles. This was completed on 15th January 2008 without any battery problems. Furthermore, the whole test was completed without the need for any conditioning or equalisation of the battery pack.

  20. Development of Near Optimal Rule-Based Control for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Taking into Account Drivetrain Component Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Hanho Son; Hyunsoo Kim

    2016-01-01

    A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC) strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG), bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded s...

  1. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and

  2. A Fuzzy Logic Global Power Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on a Permanent Magnet Electric Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Cui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The major contribution of this paper is to propose a Fuzzy Logic Global Power Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs that are driven by the PM-EVT (PM machine—Electric Variable Transmission powertrain, such that the PM-EVT will have superior advantages over other types of powertrains, including the current Toyota Prius powertrain for series-parallel HEVs. This has been investigated throughout three aspects. The first is the optimum power splitting between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE and the PM-EVT. The second is maximizing the vehicle’s energy capture during the braking process. Finally, sustaining the State of Charge (SOC of the battery is adopted by a robust ON/OFF controller of the ICE. These goals have been accomplished by developing three fuzzy logic (FL controllers. The FL controllers are designed based on the state of charge of the battery, vehicle’s velocity, traction torque, and the vehicle’s requested power. The integration of the studied system is accomplished via the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR simulation model strategy based on the software Matlab/Simulink. The PM-EVT based HEV system with the proposed power management strategy is validated by comparing to the Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle’s performances have been analyzed throughout a combined long-trip driving cycle that represents the normal and the worst operating conditions. The simulation results show that global control system is effective to control the engine’s operating points within the highest efficiency region, exploiting of EVT machines for capturing maximum braking energy, as well as to sustain the SOC of the battery while satisfy the drive ability. The proposed control strategy for the studied HEVs sounds interesting and feasible as supported by a large amount of simulation results.

  3. Investigation of a Co-Axial Dual-Mechanical Ports Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a co-axial dual-mechanical ports flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM machine for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs is proposed and investigated, which is comprised of two conventional co-axial FSPM machines, namely one high-speed inner rotor machine and one low-speed outer rotor machine and a non-magnetic ring sandwiched in between. Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced; secondly, the control system of the proposed electronically-controlled continuously-variable transmission (E-CVT system is given; thirdly, the key design specifications of the CADMP-FSPM machine are determined based on a conventional dual-mechanical ports (DMP machine with a wound inner rotor. Fourthly, the performances of the CADMP-FSPM machine and the normal DMP machine under the same overall volume are compared, and the results indicate that the CADMP-FSPM machine has advantages over the conventional DMP machine in the elimination of brushes and slip rings, improved thermal dissipation conditions for the inner rotor, direct-driven operation, more flexible modes, lower cogging torque and torque ripple, lower total harmonic distortion (THD values of phase PM flux linkage and phase electro-motive force (EMF, higher torque output capability and is suitable for the E-CVT systems. Finally, the pros and cons of the CADMP-FSPM machine are highlighted. This paper lays a theoretical foundation for further research on CADMP-FSPM machines used for HEVs.

  4. Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Yabe, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the earlier term than that on short-term economic basis. The costs in the accelerated term are higher, but the introduction costs in the later terms are cheaper by learning curve. This paper focuses on the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The ways to derive the results on short-term economic basis and the results on long-term economic basis are shown. The result of short-term behaviors can be derived by using the iteration method in which the battery costs in every term are adjusted to the learning curve. The result of long-term behaviors can be derived by seeking to the way where the amount of battery capacity is increased. We also estimate that how much subsidy does it need to get close to results on the long-term economic basis when social behavior is on the short-term economic basis. We assume subsidy for PHEV's initial costs, which can be financed by charging fee on petroleum consumption. In that case, there is no additional cost in the system. We show that the greater the total amount of money to that subsidy is, the less the amount of both CO2 emissions and system costs.

  5. A modular function architecture for adaptive and predictive energy management in hybrid electric vehicles; Eine modulare Funktionsarchitektur fuer adaptives und vorausschauendes Energiemanagement in Hybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Andreas

    2009-10-27

    Due to the relatively low energy density of electrical energy storage devices, the control strategy of hybrid electric vehicles has to fulfil a variety of requirements in order to provide both, the availability of hybrid functions, and their efficient execution. Energy consuming functions such as electric drive or electric boost need a high amount of energy stored in the battery. On the other hand for the optimum use of the energy regeneration function a lower state of charge is preferable in order to enable storage of the kinetic energy of the vehicle in all situations, including upon deceleration from high speeds or downhill driving. These diverging requirements yield a conflict of objectives for the charging strategy of hybrid electric vehicles. This work proposes a way to overcome the restrictions on efficiency in hybrid electric vehicles without deteriorating overall driving performance by charging or discharging the traction battery, and by setting the energy management parametres according to the current and forthcoming driving situation. Specific charging and electric drive strategies are presented for various driving situations which are identified by sensors such as navigation systems, cameras or radar. Necessary sensor data fusion methods for driving situation identification are described and a modular function architecture for predictive energy management is derived that is plug-and-play compatible with a broad fleet of vehicles. In order to evaluate its potential, this work also focuses on the simulation of the energy functions and their implementation into an experimental vehicle. This allows measurements under real traffic conditions and a sensivity analysis of the main module interactions within the architecture. (orig.)

  6. Multi-objective component sizing of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain using Pareto-based natural optimization machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Chehresaz, Maryyeh; Azad, Nasser L.

    2016-03-01

    The urgent need to meet increasingly tight environmental regulations and new fuel economy requirements has motivated system science researchers and automotive engineers to take advantage of emerging computational techniques to further advance hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs. In particular, research has focused on vehicle powertrain system design optimization, to reduce the fuel consumption and total energy cost while improving the vehicle's driving performance. In this work, two different natural optimization machines, namely the synchronous self-learning Pareto strategy and the elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, are implemented for component sizing of a specific power-split PHEV platform with a Toyota plug-in Prius as the baseline vehicle. To do this, a high-fidelity model of the Toyota plug-in Prius is employed for the numerical experiments using the Autonomie simulation software. Based on the simulation results, it is demonstrated that Pareto-based algorithms can successfully optimize the design parameters of the vehicle powertrain.

  7. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  8. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will

  9. 适合于混合动力汽车新型双向DC/DC变换器研究%Study of One Bi-directional DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建明

    2011-01-01

    首先介绍了一种混合动力汽车的基本电路,然后根据要求设计了一种双向变换器,它具有高功率传输能力和最小开关应力,适合于连接超级电容器来驱动混合动力汽车.与一些典型的隔离式双向DC/DC变换器相比,该变换器具有较低的设备应力,并且可通过相移加PWM控制,采用隔离变压器的漏感作为能量传输单元和控制变量.最后,实验波形证明该变换器能较好地应用于混合动力汽车.%The paper first introduces the basic drive system of a hybrid electric vehicle.Then the selection and design of aforementioned converter are proposed. The converter has high powerflow capability and minimum device stresses that can suitably interface a super capacitor with the drive train of a hybrid electric vehicle. Furthermore ,by comparing of the main characteristics and applications with some typical isolated bi-directional DC/DC converter, the proposed converter has low device rating and can be controlled by duty cycle and phase shift. At last,the most important characteristics of this converter is to uses the transformer leakage inductance as the primary energy transfer element and control parameters, the experimental waveforms are given to demonstrate the goodness of this novel topology which is in particular for hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg; Hirsh, Richard F. [History and Science and Technology Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)], E-mail: richard@vt.edu

    2009-03-15

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition-and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world.

  11. Beyond batteries. An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Hirsh, Richard F. [History and Science and Technology Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)

    2009-03-15

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition - and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world. (author)

  12. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  13. Long-term assessment of economic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery lifetime degradation management through near optimal fuel cell load sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, François; Dubé, Yves; Kelouwani, Sousso; Jaguemont, Joris; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) energy management process that relies on the active management of the degradation of its energy carriers - in this scenario, a lithium-ion battery pack and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) - to produce a near economically-optimal vehicle operating profile over its entire useful lifetime. This solution is obtained through experimentally-supported PHEV models exploited by an optimal discrete dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm designed to efficiently process vehicle usage cycles over an extended timescale. Our results demonstrate the economic and component lifetime gains afforded by our strategy when compared with alternative rule-based PHEV energy management benchmarks.

  14. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  15. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  16. Simulating the potential effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the energy budget and tax revenues for Onondaga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Stephen B.

    My objectives were to predict the energetic effects of a large increase in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and their implications on fuel tax collections in Onondaga County. I examined two alternative taxation policies. To do so, I built a model of county energy consumption based on prorated state-level energy consumption data and census data. I used two scenarios to estimate energy consumption trends over the next 30 years and the effects of PHEV on energy use and fuel tax revenues. I found that PHEV can reduce county gasoline consumption, but they would curtail fuel tax revenues and increase residential electricity demand. A one-cent per VMT tax on PHEV users provides insufficient revenue to replace reduced fuel tax collection. A sales tax on electricity consumption generates sufficient replacement revenue at low PHEV market shares. However, at higher shares, the tax on electricity use would exceed the current county tax rate. Keywords: electricity, energy, gasoline, New York State, Onondaga County, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, transportation model, tax policy

  17. 混合动力汽车超级电容能量控制研究%Research on hybrid electric vehicle supercapacitor energy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坤华; 孙玉坤; 王富良; 项倩雯

    2015-01-01

    超级电容的高功率密度特性可作为混合动力汽车辅助电源。研究了超级电容数学模型,给出了超级电容荷电状态估计方法,在分析升降压双向直流功率电路基础上,提出了超级电容能量存储系统控制策略,在超级电容荷电状态允许范围内,该控制策略满足混合动力汽车启动、加速、制动要求,实验证明该能量存储系统能适应各种负载变换情况。%Hybrid electric vehicle can use high power density supercapacitor as auxiliary power. The maths model of supercapacitor was studied. The estimation method of state of charge of supercapacitor was given. Based on the analysis of the buck-boost converter, the control strategy of supercapacitor energy storage was proposed. At the permitted range of state of charge of supercapacitor, the control strategy can meet the needs of hybrid electric vehicle start, acceleration and brake. Experiments prove the energy storage system can adapt various changes of loads.

  18. 混合动力电动汽车混合制动技术分析%Hybrid Braking Technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞剑波; 何仁

    2013-01-01

    以提高混合动力电动汽车的制动安全性、稳定性和制动能量回收充分性为目标,介绍了混合制动系统的结构与工作原理,分析了混合制动系统的关键技术;指出目前混合制动系统的研究重点任务;探讨了混合制动技术的发展趋势.%In order to improve the safety of brake,stability and energy recovery of braking for hybrid electric vehicle,the structure and work principles of hybrid braking system are introduced.And the key techniques of hybrid braking system are also analyzed.Then the present key tasks of hybrid electric vehicle are pointed out.Finally,the future trend of hybrid braking system is discussed.

  19. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  20. A Mixed Logical Dynamical-Model Predictive Control (MLD-MPC Energy Management Control Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs can be considered as a hybrid system (HS which includes the continuous state variable, discrete event, and operation constraint. Thus, a model predictive control (MPC strategy for PHEVs based on the mixed logical dynamical (MLD model and short-term vehicle speed prediction is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of the controlled PHEV is set-up to evaluate the energy consumption using the linearized models of core power components. Then, based on the recognition of driving intention and the past vehicle speed data, a nonlinear auto-regressive (NAR neural network structure is designed to predict the vehicle speed for known driving profiles of city buses and the predicted vehicle speed is used to calculate the total required torque. Next, a MLD model is established with appropriate constraints for six possible driving modes. By solving the objective function with the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP algorithm, the optimal motor torque and the corresponding driving mode sequence within the speed prediction horizon can be obtained. Finally, the proposed energy control strategy shows substantial improvement in fuel economy in the simulation results.

  1. A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement in a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Engine on/off and Battery Charging Power Control Based on Driver Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, driving data for various types of drivers are collected using a VIDE (virtual integrated driving environment, and a driver model is developed. To represent the driver tendencies quantitatively, the DDA (degree of driver aggression is proposed based on fuzzy logic. DDA has a 0-1 value; the closer the DDA is to one, the more aggressive the driver. Using the DDA, an engine on/off and battery charging power control algorithm are developed to improve the fuel economy of a power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The engine on/off control reduces the frequent engine on/off caused by aggressive driving, whereas the battery charging power control maintains the battery state of charge (SOC by operating the engine according to the DDA. It is found that the proposed control algorithm improves fuel economy by 17.3% compared to the existing control for an aggressive driver.

  2. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  3. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  4. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Millo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is currently only partially considered by the European regulation to foster the diffusion of pHEVs. Therefore, this paper aims to assess, through numerical simulation, the real performance of a test case pHEV, the energy management system (EMS of which is targeted to the minimization of its overall CO2 emissions. The paper highlights, at the same time, the relevance of the CO2 production related to the battery recharge from the power grid. Different technologies mixes used to produce the electricity required for the battery recharge are also taken into account in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the vehicle CO2 emissions. Finally, since the operating cost still represents the main driver in orienting the customer’s choice, an alternative approach for the EMS, targeted to the minimization of this variable, is also analyzed.

  5. Modeling and Validation of Power-split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles SAE 2013-01-1470)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined ...

  6. Modeling and Validation of Power-split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles SAE 2013-01-1470)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined ...

  7. Design and Analysis of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Utilizing Motor Regenerative Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianlong; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2009-01-01

    Braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads, hybrid electric vehicle's motor regenerative torque is switched off to safeguard the normal anti-lock braking system (ABS) function. When the ABS control is terminated, the motor regenerative braking is readmitted.Aiming at avoiding permanent cycles from hydraulic anti-lock braking to motor regenerative braking, a novel electro-mechanical hybrid anti-lock braking system using fuzzy logic is designed. Different from the traditional single control structure, this system has a two-layered hierarchical structure. The first layer is responsible for harmonious adjustment or interaction between regenerative system and anti-lock braking system. The second layer is responsible for braking torque distribution and adjustment. The closed-loop simulation model is built. Control strategy and method for coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking are developed. Simulation braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads with fuzzy logic control and real vehicle braking field test are presented. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show braking performance of the vehicle is perfect, harmonious coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking function, significant amount of braking energy can be recovered and the proposed control strategy and method are effective.

  8. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Faisal H [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Webb, William E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

  9. Velocity trajectory optimization in Hybrid Electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Foster, D.L.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) enable fuel savings by re-using kinetic and potential energy that was recovered and stored in a battery during braking or driving down hill. Besides, the vehicle itself can be seen as a storage device, where kinetic energy can be stored and retrieved by changing the

  10. Modeling and Implementation of a 1 kW, Air Cooled HTPEM Fuel Cell in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael

    2008-01-01

    , was implemented in a small electrical vehicle. A dynamic model was developed using Matlab-Simulink to describe the system characteristics, select operating conditions and to size system components. Preheating of the fuel cell stack with electrical resistors was investigated and found to be an unrealistic approach...

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  12. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  13. A High-Gain Three-Port Power Converter with Fuel Cell, Battery Sources and Stacked Output for Hybrid Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel high-gain three-port power converter with fuel cell (FC, battery sources and stacked output for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV connected to a dc-microgrid. In the proposed power converter, the load power can be flexibly distributed between the input sources. Moreover, the charging or discharging of the battery storage device can be controlled effectively using the FC source. The proposed converter has several outputs in series to achieve a high-voltage output, which makes it suitable for interfacing with the HEV and dc-microgrid. On the basis of the charging and discharging states of the battery storage device, two power operation modes are defined. The proposed power converter comprises only one boost inductor integrated with a flyback transformer; the boost and flyback circuit output terminals are stacked to increase the output voltage gain and reduce the voltage stress on the power devices. This paper presents the circuit configuration, operating principle, and steady-state analysis of the proposed converter, and experiments conducted on a laboratory prototype are presented to verify its effectiveness.

  14. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  15. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  16. Assessment, design and control strategy development of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle for CSU's EcoCAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew D.

    Advanced automotive technology assessment and powertrain design are increasingly performed through modeling, simulation, and optimization. But technology assessments usually target many competing criteria making any individual optimization challenging and arbitrary. Further, independent design simulations and optimizations take considerable time to execute, and design constraints and objectives change throughout the design process. Changes in design considerations usually require re-processing of simulations and more time. In this thesis, these challenges are confronted through CSU's participation in the EcoCAR2 hybrid vehicle design competition. The complexity of the competition's design objectives leveraged development of a decision support system tool to aid in multi-criteria decision making across technologies and to perform powertrain optimization. To make the decision support system interactive, and bypass the problem of long simulation times, a new approach was taken. The result of this research is CSU's architecture selection and component sizing, which optimizes a composite objective function representing the competition score. The selected architecture is an electric vehicle with an onboard range extending hydrogen fuel cell system. The vehicle has a 145kW traction motor, 18.9kWh of lithium ion battery, a 15kW fuel cell system, and 5kg of hydrogen storage capacity. Finally, a control strategy was developed that improves the vehicles performance throughout the driving range under variable driving conditions. In conclusion, the design process used in this research is reviewed and evaluated against other common design methodologies. I conclude, through the highlighted case studies, that the approach is more comprehensive than other popular design methodologies and is likely to lead to a higher quality product. The upfront modeling work and decision support system formulation will pay off in superior and timely knowledge transfer and more informed design

  17. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors.

  18. Comprehensive Shifting Control of ISG Type Medium Hybrid Electric Vehicle with AMT%ISG型中度混合动力AMT汽车换挡综合控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶心; 秦大同; 胡明辉; 杜波; 彭志远

    2011-01-01

    在对ISG型中度混合动力AMT汽车系统效率进行优化的基础上,提出整车工作模式切换控制策略.以各工作模式下系统效率最高为目标建立ISG型中度混合动力AMT系统的经济性换挡规律.针对不同工作模式的运行特点,分别采用ISG电机或电子节气门参与动力源转速/转矩调节控制以优化AMT换挡品质.采用Matlab/Simulink仿真平台对AMT汽车的换挡综合控制进行仿真,结果表明:采用本文提出的换挡综合控制可在保证ISG型中度混合动力AMT汽车燃油经济性的同时,提高换挡品质.%Based on the system efficiency optimization of integrated starter/generator (ISG) type medium -hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) , a working mode switching control strategy of vehicle is proposed. The economy shifting rule of AMT system in ISG medium HEV is established with maximizing system efficiency in each working mode as objective. According to the operation features of different working modes, ISG motor or electronic throttle is adopted respectively to participate the speed / torque control of power source for improving AMT shifting quality. A simulation is then conducted on comprehensive shifting control of AMT with Matlab/Simulink platform. The results indicate that the comprehensive shifting control proposed can assure the fuel economy of ISG medium HEV while improve shifting quality.

  19. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua;

    2017-01-01

    . In generator driving mode, the battery bank is employed to elevate the phase voltage for fast excitation and demagnetization. In battery driving mode, the converter is reconfigured as a four-level converter, and the capacitor is used as an additional charge capacitor to produce multilevel voltage outputs......, which enhances the torque capability. The operating modes of the proposed drive are explained and the phase current and voltage are analyzed in details. The battery charging is naturally achieved by the demagnetization current in motoring mode and by the regenerative current in braking mode. Moreover......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  20. Comparison of PMAC Machines for Starter-Generator Application in a Series Hybrid-Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Jurkovic; Strangas, Elias G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of outer rotor PMAC machine candidates for starter-generator application in hybrid bus with series power train configuration. PMAC machines with interior and surface mount permanent magnets are considered and compared, although a complete analysis is only carried out for the SPM. Different design aspects such as concentrated versus distributed windings as well as interior and exterior rotor structures are evaluated. Different slot numbers per p...

  1. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  2. ISG混合动力电动汽车的转矩控制策略%Torque Control Strategy for ISG Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国红; 周挺; 杨鄂川; 欧健; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    The torque becomes the most important controllable factor for an ISG( integrated starter/generator)parallel hybrid electric vehicle of energy management strategy. Therefore,energy manage-ment must consider how to employ a torque approach. For the ISG HEV,based upon the operating modes of the hybrid power train,a fuzzy inference engine of a torque distribution controller is con-structed by using the ratio of the driver required torque to the current optimal torque of engine and the battery state-of-charge( SOC)as the inputs,and the motor torque instructions as the output. The dy-namic performance,fuel economy and battery state of charge( SOC)are simulated in the NEDC typi-cal driving cycle by vehicle simulation software ADVISOR. The simulation results indicate that,com-pared with the strategy which uses threshold parameters,the proposed strategy both improves fuel e-conomy of the vehicle and maintains SOC of the battery within its operation range more effectively in a extent.%转矩为ISG混合动力电动汽车能量管理策略中最主要的控制变量,其实质为转矩分配策略。针对ISG并联混合动力轿车,根据混合动力系统的工作模式,以需求转矩与发动机当前最佳效率转矩的比值和蓄电池荷电状态( SOC )为输入,以电机转矩指令为输出,构建了转矩分配模糊控制器。基于仿真软件ADVISOR,选用 NEDC道路循环工况进行了仿真分析。结果表明:与传统门限控制策略相比,该模糊控制器在一定程度上更有效地降低了混合动力电动汽车的燃油消耗量,并且保持电池组SOC在工作区间的平衡。

  3. 混合动力车辆--现状与发展(英文)%Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Current Status and Future Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晖

    2015-01-01

    第一辆混合动力汽车(HEV)诞生100多年了。近15年来,技术手段趋于成熟,在美国、日本和中国有很多混合动力乘用车投入使用。然而,在中国和美国,混合动力乘用车的市场份额依然很小。为使混合动力车辆更加成功,与传统内燃机车辆相比具竞争性,混合动力车就必须价格更便宜、性能更好。本文回顾了混合动力车辆的现状与发展趋势,并讨论了几种可以运行多行星齿轮排、多模式和全轮驱动的技术方案,这些技术方案将有助于实现混合动力车辆性能突破。这些方案对于将混合动力车辆技术从乘用车扩展到轻型卡车(LTs)和运动型多用途汽车(SUVs)十分重要。%The ifrst hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was built more than 100 years ago. Over the last 15 years, the technologies have matured and many hybrid passenger cars are offered in US, Japan and China. However their market shares are stil very smal in both China and in the US. To make HEVs more successful, they must become more affordable, and have better performance, so that they can become more competitive compared with the traditional powertrain vehicles that only run on international combustion engines. This paper reviews the current status, and discusses several technology concepts to enable multi-planetary gear, multi-mode and al-wheel drive operations. These concepts likely wil help to achieve the needed performance breakthrough. These concepts are especialy important to extend the HEV technologies beyond passenger cars, to light trucks (LTs) and Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs).

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-04-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

  5. Configuration Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with Dual Clutch Transmission%DCT混合动力汽车构型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 赵治国; 陈海军; 刁威振

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the advantage of the DCT technology applied in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)is introduced,and some configurations of HEV equipped with DCT are presented with a thorough analysis of its advantages and disadvantages,then qualitative analysis is made to feasibility of each configuration in terms of engineering realization,research and development cost and lead cycle.The paper lays focus on expounding two configurations with high feasibility and research value:BSG+main motor rear DCT plan has good feasibility in short term; BSG+DCT odd shift dual motor configuration is the mainstream development trend of HEV equipped with DCT.%介绍了在混合动力汽车中应用DCT技术的优势,提出了装备DCT的几种混合动力系统构型,从结构、功能等方面对各构型的优缺点进行了分析,并从工程化实现、研发成本和研发周期角度对每种构型的可行性进行定性分析.重点阐述了2种具备高可行性和研究价值的构型:BSG+主电机DCT后布置方案在短期内具有较好可行性;BSG+DCT奇数轴电机双电机结构是DCT混合动力汽车的主要发展趋势.

  6. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-07-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  7. Estimation Method of State-of-Charge For Lithium-ion Battery Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Variable Structure Extended Kalman Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong; MA Zilin; TANG Gongyou; CHEN Zheng; ZHANG Nong

    2016-01-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5%to 10%comparing with the range of 20%to 30%using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  8. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanrong Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost. Although the next-day electricity prices can be obtained in a day-ahead power market, a driving plan is not easily made in advance. Although PHEV owners can input a next-day plan into a charging system, e.g., aggregators, day-ahead, it is a very trivial task to do everyday. Moreover, the driving plan may not be very accurate. To address this problem, in this paper, we analyze energy demands according to a PHEV owner’s historical driving records and build a personalized statistic driving model. Based on the model and the electricity spot prices, a rolling optimization strategy is proposed to help make a charging decision in the current time slot. On one hand, by employing a heuristic algorithm, the schedule is made according to the situations in the following time slots. On the other hand, however, after the current time slot, the schedule will be remade according to the next tens of time slots. Hence, the schedule is made by a dynamic rolling optimization, but it only decides the charging decision in the current time slot. In this way, the fluctuation of electricity prices and driving routine are both involved in the scheduling. Moreover, it is not necessary for PHEV owners to input a day-ahead driving plan. By the optimization simulation, the results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible to help owners save charging costs and also meet requirements for driving.

  9. A control-oriented lithium-ion battery pack model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cycle-life studies and system design with consideration of health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    A crucial step towards the large-scale introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the market is to reduce the cost of its battery systems. Currently, battery cycle- and calendar-life represents one of the greatest uncertainties in the total life-cycle cost of battery systems. The field of battery aging modeling and prognosis has seen progress with respect to model-based and data-driven approaches to describe the aging of battery cells. However, in real world applications cells are interconnected and aging propagates. The propagation of aging from one cell to others exhibits itself in a reduced battery system life. This paper proposes a control-oriented battery pack model that describes the propagation of aging and its effect on the life span of battery systems. The modeling approach is such that it is able to predict pack aging, thermal, and electrical dynamics under actual PHEV operation, and includes consideration of random variability of the cells, electrical topology and thermal management. The modeling approach is based on the interaction between dynamic system models of the electrical and thermal dynamics, and dynamic models of cell aging. The system-level state-of-health (SOH) is assessed based on knowledge of individual cells SOH, pack electrical topology and voltage equalization approach.

  10. Air coditioning of passenger cars VII. Air conditioning of electrically powered vehicles and hybrid electrical-powered vehicles. Concepts, efficiency topics, methods of development, implementation of alternative refrigerants; PKW-Klimatisierung VII. Klimatisierung von E- und Hybridfahrzeugen. Konzepte, Effizienzthemen, Entwicklungsmethoden, Einfuehrung alternativer Kaeltemittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Robert (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on technical solutions, trends and current research results in terms of air conditioning for passenger cars. One topic of this book is the simulation of air conditioning of electrical-powered vehicles as well as hybrid electrical-powered vehicles. Furthermore, the tendency of development of electrical-powered vehicles and the conversion of the refrigerant R134a to R1234yf will be discussed.

  11. A States of Matter Search-Based Approach for Solving the Problem of Intelligent Power Allocation in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Valdivia-Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers have proved that the electrification of the transport sector is a key for reducing both the emissions of green-house pollutants and the dependence on oil for transportation. As a result, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (or PHEVs are receiving never before seen increased attention. Consequently, large-scale penetration of PHEVs into the market is expected to take place in the near future, however, an unattended increase in the PHEVs needs may cause several technical problems which could potentially compromise the stability of power systems. As a result of the growing necessity for addressing such issues, topics related to the optimization of PHEVs’ charging infrastructures have captured the attention of many researchers. Related to this, several state-of-the-art swarm optimization methods (such as the well-known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO or the recently proposed Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA approach have been successfully applied in the optimization of the average State of Charge (SoC, which represents one of the most important performance indicators in the context of PHEVs’ intelligent power allocation. Many of these swarm optimization methods, however, are known to be subject to several critical flaws, including premature convergence and a lack of balance between the exploration and exploitation of solutions. Such problems are usually related to the evolutionary operators employed by each of the methods on the exploration and exploitation of new solutions. In this paper, the recently proposed States of Matter Search (SMS swarm optimization method is proposed for maximizing the average State of Charge of PHEVs within a charging station. In our experiments, several different scenarios consisting on different numbers of PHEVs were considered. To test the feasibility of the proposed approach, comparative experiments were performed against other popular PHEVs’ State of Charge maximization approaches

  12. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  13. Interior heating of hybrid electric-powered vehicles. Requirement on the air conditioning of vehicles; Fahrzeug-Innenraumheizung von Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen. Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawzyniak, Markus [Behr GmbH and Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    From the electrification of a powertrain new demands on the climate result as the energy demand of the climate system (cooling and heating) directly impacts vehicle range. The climate comfort and driving safety must not fall.

  14. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  15. Multilevel Inverters for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habetler, T.G.; Peng, F.Z.; Tolbert, L.M.

    1998-10-22

    This paper presents multilevel inverters as an application for all-electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Diode-clamped inverters and cascaded H-bridge inverters, (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference (EMI) and common-mode voltage; and (3) make an EV more accessible/safer and open wiring possible for most of an EV'S power system. This paper explores the benefits and discusses control schemes of the cascade inverter for use as an EV motor drive or a parallel HEV drive and the diode-clamped inverter as a series HEV motor drive. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results show the superiority of these multilevel inverters for this new niche.

  16. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  17. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  18. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  19. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  20. 混合动力汽车燃油箱压力问题解决方案%Solution to the Pressure Problem of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛

    2015-01-01

    针对混合动力汽车在纯电动行驶模式时燃油箱压力不断升高的问题,在一些高端车型上最近采用了一种叫做压力油箱电子控制系统的新技术。本文介绍了压力油箱的结构,并深入解析了压力油箱电子控制系统的电子控制原理。%〔Abstract〕 For the rising pressure of hybrid electric vehicle in the pure electric drive mode fuel tank, a new technology called pressure tank of electronic control system is adopted in some high-end models re-cently. This article introduced the pressure tank structure, and further analyzes the pressure tank electronic control principle of electronic control system.

  1. Construction of Permanent-Magnet Electric Variable Transmissions for Hybrid Electric Vehicles%混合动力汽车用永磁式电气变速器的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远; Christophe ESPANET; Rochdi TRIGUI; Alain BOUSCAYROL; 崔淑梅

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel permanent-magnet electric variable transmission (PM-EVT) with an appropriate structure for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Such a PM-EVT is similar to the wellknown series-parallel HEV (SP-HEV) of Toyota Prius, but with more integrated functions and simpler structures, with the planetary gear also eliminated. By analyzing four possible mechanical connections and different PM positions, a simplest structure of PM-EVT was finally chosen which has one stator, one inner rotor and one outer rotor, with the stator and inner rotor having independent windings, and the PMs located on the outer rotor. The results show that different PM arrangements on the outer rotor regard the machine performances and controllabilities.%提出了一种用于混合动力汽车(HEV)动力传动系统的新型结构的永磁式电气变速器(PM-EVT)。PM—EVT是一种与Toyota Prius混合动力汽车功能相似的串并联HEY传动系统,但是功能更加集成,结构更加简单,省去了用于功率分配的行星齿轮机构。分析了PM-EVT的4种可能的机械结构组合和永磁体配置,并选择其中最简单的一种作为最终方案:具有一个外定子、一个内转子、一个外转子;外定子和内转子分别有独立的三相绕组;永磁体分布在外转子上。分析结果表明:不同的永磁体配置形式具有不同的电机性能和控制性能。

  2. 插电式四驱混合动力汽车能量管理与转矩协调控制策略%Energy management and torque coordination control for plug-in 4WD hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 辛付龙; 胡伟龙

    2014-01-01

    为克服传统比例-积分-微分(proportion integration differentiation,PID)以及模糊逻辑算法的缺陷、保障汽车经济性并改善乘员的乘坐舒适性,该文采用自适应模糊PID算法,建立了驾驶员模型。使用基于发动机输出转矩最优的能量管理控制策略,简述了驱动模式判别条件及转矩分配方法。提出1种“发动机调速+离合器模糊PID控制+发动机动态转矩查表+双电机转矩补偿控制”转矩协调控制方法,简述了模式切换步骤。在dSPACE实时仿真系统上对控制策略进行了硬件在环仿真。仿真结果表明,该控制策略在能量管理方面控制效果良好,动力部件的输出与控制策略完全吻合且平均车速误差下降37.1%。引入转矩协调之后,整车最大冲击度下降47.5%。该文的研究方法可以为制定复杂混合动力系统的控制策略提供参考。%This paper focuses on the control strategy of a plug-in 4-wheel-drive (4WD) hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). To overcome the defects of the traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) control method, an algorithm based on an adaptive fuzzy PID control method which provides better dynamic and static performances for the vehicle was adopted and a driver model was established using this algorithm. The input of the driver model was the difference between the cycle velocity and the actual output velocity of the vehicle. The output of the driver model was the required torque coefficient which reflects the driver’s intention and thus can be used to calculate the actual required torque of the driver. The PID parameters can be revised real-time according to the change of the cycle conditions, and the principle to choose theses parameters to ensure the stability of the controller was introduced as well. The domain of discourse for the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy PID controller and their membership functions were analyzed and parts of the fuzzy

  3. Validation of ADVISOR as a Simulation Tool for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using the Virginia Tech FutureCar Lumina

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Growing environmental and economic concerns have driven recent efforts to produce more fuel efficient and lower emissions vehicles. These goals are reflected by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government, industry, and educational partnership in the United States. The major goal of this partnership is to have production vehicles by 2010 to address these concerns. Ideally, these vehicles will achieve three times the current fuel economy while drastically lowering ...

  4. Develoment of Controller in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on MCU TC1766%基于TC1766的混合动力汽车整车控制器的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴甲晨; 王旭东; 吴晓刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces that a kind of hybrid control unit of hybrid electric vehicle is developed, it is based on the MCU of TC1766. The design of the hardware and EMC of functional modules are explained. Function experiments are taken in the vehicle and fuel emissions laboratory, it shows that the hybrid control unit in this paper has a good control quality and can meet requirements in vehicle dynamic quality, economy and environmental protection.%开发了一种并联式混合动力汽车的整车控制器,以英飞凌32位单片机TC1766为微控制器,阐述了各个功能模块的硬件实现以及系统电磁兼容设计,在排放实验室进行了车载整车功能和性能试验.试验表明开发的整车控制器具备良好的控制品质,可满足混合动力汽车的动力、经济和环保要求.

  5. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  6. A Kind of Design and Optimization of Gear Ratio for Hybrid Electric Vehicle%一种混合动力电动汽车速比设计与优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雨霏; 陈辛波

    2012-01-01

    针对一种PHEV混合动力电动汽车,在动力源功率一定并且需要保证整车动力性要求的前提下,对其传动系速比进行合理的设计与优化.仿真结果表明,可以通过调整速比与电机的最大扭矩,满足车辆动力性要求,达到减小电机体积及改善整车安装性能的目的;同时还可降低离合器的滑磨功损失,提高离合器使用寿命.%For a PHEV hybrid electric vehicle, we design and optimize the gear ratio reasonably when the engine power is unchanged as well as the motor power. In this way, we can guarantee the dynamic performance of the vehicle. The simulation results show that the vehicle can meet the dynamic performance requirements by adjusting the gear ratio and the maximal torque of the motor. Also we can downsize the motor volume to make the installation of the motor much more convenient. Meanwhile, the slipping frictional power of clutch can be reduced through the optimization of gear ratio so that the service life of clutch can be extended.

  7. Shifting Process Control of AMT Based on Virtual Clutch Technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicle%基于“虚拟离合器”的混合动力车辆AMT换挡过程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文臣; 胡宇辉; 于会龙; 席军强; 陈慧岩

    2014-01-01

    Automatic mechanical transmission(AMT) is the core plant of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric system, whose acceleration, economy, lifetime and reliability largely depend on the rapid, accurate control of AMT’s shifting process. The shifting process control of AMT based on virtual clutch technology is proposed and above all, the five sequential process of the mentioned method are expounded in detail, in which the primary control problems of every stage are put forward. According to the system’s structure, the dynamic model considering the driving shaft’s torsional vibration in the drivetrain is built up and the approximate mathematical model of the transmitted torque in AMT that can be used in shifting process control is deduced. This model is validated in trial that it can control the torque transmitted in AMT and weaken the oscillation of the output shaft’s rotate speed after shifting into neutral gear. Vehicle trial shows that virtual clutch technology aimed at zero torque transmitted in transmission is able to apply on the shifting process control of AMT. The application of this technology can realize the gear shift of AMT without clutch manipulation, effectively decrease the time of power interrupt during shifting process, reduce the oscillation of vehicle speed and improve the shifting quality of AMT system.%自动机械变速器(Automaticmechanicaltransmission,AMT)是单轴并联混合动力系统中的核心部件,对其换挡过程的快速、精确控制直接决定着混合动力系统的加速性、经济性、使用寿命以及可靠性。一种基于“虚拟离合器”技术的混合动力系统AMT换挡过程控制方法可以充分保证其性能。该方法的五个时序进行详细论述,并分别提出各个阶段的核心控制问题。基于该单轴并联混合动力系统的结构特点,建立以考虑传动系统中驱动轴扭转振动特性的动力学模型,在此基础上,推导出可用于换挡过程控制

  8. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  9. A Study on Sound Quality Evaluation Method for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Focusing on Subjective Annoyance%着眼于主观烦扰度的混合动力汽车声品质评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫愁; 陈吉清; 兰凤崇

    2015-01-01

    A sound quality subjective evaluation is conducted on nine noise samples recorded from a hybrid electric vehicle under different driving conditions by using paired comparison method. Then both regression analysis method and neural fuzzy logic algorithm are adopted to create a subjective annoyance prediction model based on psy-choacoustic parameters. Finally an evaluation standard of sound quality grade is established. The evaluation method proposed can quickly evaluate the sound quality, shorten the development cycle and improve the comfort perform-ance of vehicles.%采用成对比较法对某混合动力汽车在不同行驶工况下录制的9段噪声,进行主观声品质评价。接着分别采用回归分析法和神经模糊逻辑算法建立了基于心理声学参数的主观烦扰度预测模型。最后建立了声品质等级评价标准。所提出的评价方法可实现汽车声品质快速评价,缩短产品开发周期,提高汽车舒适性能。

  10. 并联式混合动力汽车动力合成装置的参数关系%The Power Synthesizer's Parameter Relations of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白钰枝; 崔亚辉

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vchicle(HEV )recives more and more attention as a tranition vehicle type from fuel oil locimotive to electric car. In the entire transmission route of HEV, the Differential Gear Chain is relatively independent of the other link, but certain parameter relations are followed. This thesis discusses the parameter relationship in aspect of rotational speed output characteristic and torque output characteristic,and the results can be helpful for the establishment of the design standard and for vehicle control.%混合动力汽车(HEV)作为燃油机车向电动车过渡的车型目前受到越来越多的关注.在HEV的整个传动路线中,作为动力合成装置的差动轮系和传动系统中的其它环节系统是相对独立的,但它们之间遵循一定的参数匹配关系.本文从转速输出特性和转矩输出特性两方面对参数特性进行了讨论,从而得到差动轮系作为动力合成装置使用时的参数关系,对HEV的参数选取提供了理论依据.

  11. Real-time immune-inspired optimum state-of-charge trajectory estimation using upcoming route information preview and neural networks for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles fuel economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Azad, Nasser L.

    2015-06-01

    The main proposition of the current investigation is to develop a computational intelligence-based framework which can be used for the real-time estimation of optimum battery state-of-charge (SOC) trajectory in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The estimated SOC trajectory can be then employed for an intelligent power management to significantly improve the fuel economy of the vehicle. The devised intelligent SOC trajectory builder takes advantage of the upcoming route information preview to achieve the lowest possible total cost of electricity and fossil fuel. To reduce the complexity of real-time optimization, the authors propose an immune system-based clustering approach which allows categorizing the route information into a predefined number of segments. The intelligent real-time optimizer is also inspired on the basis of interactions in biological immune systems, and is called artificial immune algorithm (AIA). The objective function of the optimizer is derived from a computationally efficient artificial neural network (ANN) which is trained by a database obtained from a high-fidelity model of the vehicle built in the Autonomie software. The simulation results demonstrate that the integration of immune inspired clustering tool, AIA and ANN, will result in a powerful framework which can generate a near global optimum SOC trajectory for the baseline vehicle, that is, the Toyota Prius PHEV. The outcomes of the current investigation prove that by taking advantage of intelligent approaches, it is possible to design a computationally efficient and powerful SOC trajectory builder for the intelligent power management of PHEVs.

  12. Study on energy management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle based on monkey algo-rithm%基于猴群算法的混合动力汽车能量管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申彩英; 高韬

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles(HEV)are usually powered by two different energy sources. It is important to split the instantaneous power between the two energy sources in order to minimize fuel consumption, while the vehicle per-forms a given driving cycle. Mathematical models of vehicle are nonlinear and under restraint in practice, in combination with theory of Monkey Algorithm(MA), energy management strategy based on MA is presented. Simulation results dem-onstrate that MA has a good global search capability and can get the optimum solution quickly with small population size. Thus it can realize low fuel consumption.%混合动力汽车通常由两种不同的动力源驱动,对于驾驶员需求,如何分配动力源的输出,使得整个循环的耗油量达到最小是混合动力系统控制表示法需要解决的问题。实际汽车中各部件模型是非线性的,而且受到约束,结合猴群算法理论,提出了基于猴群算法的能量管理策略。对505及NEDC等标准工况进行了仿真,结果表明,猴群算法用很小的猴群就可以很快收敛到全局最优解,寻优能力强,可以实现低油耗。

  13. Study on the Engaging Process of Saving Energy Clutch in ISG Hybrid Electric Vehicle%ISG型混合动力汽车节能离合器的接合过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彤; 樊军; 董平

    2011-01-01

    The basic structure of ISG hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and the function of saving energy clutch were introduced. Based on the dynamics analysis of the clutch engaging process, the formula of jerk degree was deduced. Analyzing the 4 phases of the clutch engaging process, the control principle of the clutch engagement speed was summed up. This method was applied to study Jinga-ng HEV. It is proven that changing the clutch engagement speed can reduce the degree of jerk.%介绍ISG型混合动力汽车的基本结构和节能离合器的功能.对接台过程进行动力学分析,得出节能离合器冲击度的计算公式.根据节能离合器接合特性,总结了接合速度的控制原则.通过金刚混合动力汽车的试验证明:降低节能离合器的接合速度,能够减小离合器接合时的冲击度,降低该混合动力汽车在工况转换时的冲击.

  14. Development Process Analysis Structure of the Lightweight Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%轻型插入式混合动力电动汽车整车构造研发过程浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 闫君杰

    2015-01-01

    Development of today's automotive industry is facing two major problems of environmental protection and energy ,electric vehicles have the advantage of energy‐saving ,emission reduction ,so the research is the development of energy‐efficient electric vehicles the main direction of environmentally friendly vehicles .Hybrid electric vehicle is an electric car ,which combines the advantages of traditional internal combustion engine and electric motor ,to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions purposes . This paper describes the results of the actual development process Axon60 like cars and what they have learned .Axon60 regenerated using lightweight carbon fiber structure ,multi-fuel engine and a motor , to achieve better than 100mpg statutory drive cycle fuel economy and lower than CO2 50g/km of .Be‐cause lightweight aerodynamic design and efficient powertrain ,using 2kWh battery electric car can travel 10 miles alone .Construction vehicle development process through the car for China Light Plug -in hy‐brid vehicle test laid a solid foundation .%当今汽车工业的发展面临环保和能源两大问题,电动汽车具有节能、减排的优势,因此电动汽车的研究是开发节能环保型汽车的主攻方向。混合动力电动汽车是电动汽车的一种,它结合了传统内燃机和电动机的优势,达到了提高燃油经济性和降低排放的目的。Axon60采用轻型再生碳纤维结构,多种燃料引擎及一台电机,实现优于法定传动循环超过100mpg的燃料经济性和低于50g/km的CO2。由于轻型空气动力设计和高效动力系,使用2kWh电池组该车能够仅凭电力行驶10英里。通过该车的整车构造研发过程,为我国轻型插电式混合动力汽车的实车试验奠定了基础。

  15. Performance Analysis of Ultra Capacitor Hybrid Electric Vehicles Drive System%超级电容式混合动力汽车驱动特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    百合提努尔

    2014-01-01

    本文是在建立实验模型的基础上,利用MATLAB仿真软件进行计算超级电容式混合动力汽车驱动特性数据,并从功率的角度在混合动力汽车实验台上测试获取的数据与计算数据相吻合。实验证明:在特定驾驶工况下获得的特性曲线,说明了影响混合动力驱动工况的各类因素,如车重等,同时表明了仿真软件计算出的特性曲线,为混合动力汽车各种工况下研究驱动特性提供依据。%Based on the establishment of experimental model, the data of ultra capacitor hybrid vehicle drive characteristics were calculated using MATLAB simulation software. Experiments showed that:in certain driving conditions, the characteristic curve illustrated a variety of factors that affect the working conditions of the hybrid drive, such as vehicle weight, etc., and showed the characteristic curve of hybrid vehicles under various conditions, which could provide basis for research on drive characteristics.

  16. 混合动力车辆无离合器操作换档动态协调控制方法%Dynamic coordinated control method of gear shifting without clutch operation for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 王庆年; 王鹏宇; 曾小华

    2014-01-01

    In order to decrease gear shifting impact,shorten gear shifting time and improve vehicle accelerating performance,a dynamic coordinated control method of gear shifting without clutch operation for hybrid electric vehicle was proposed based on dual-motor hybrid electric powertrain. The driven motor of automatic transmission input shaft was controlled to fast realize rotate speed synchronization in gear shifting process without clutch operation so as to shorten gear shifting time.The driven motor of automatic transmission output shaft was controlled to prevent clutch from over wearing because of frequent separation and combination,and the continuous torque output of driving system was achieved by using motor torque on the output shaft of transmission to reduce the impact degree in gear shifting.Test result shows that vehicle driving force keeps stable in gear shifting because of the dynamic coordinated control method.Compared with the traditional gear shifting method, clutch impact degree reduces by about 60%, and vehicle accelerating performances improve by 5. 53% and 5.94% under 0-50 and 0-60 km·h-1 accelerating conditions,respectively.1 tab,19 figs,18 refs.%为减小混合动力车辆换档过程中产生的冲击,缩短换档时间与提高车辆的加速性能,基于一种双电机混合动力系统构型,提出了无离合器操作的换档协调控制方法。通过控制自动变速器输入轴处的电机,实现无离合器操作换档过程中变速器输入轴的转速快速同步,缩短换档时间。为了防止离合器频繁分离与结合导致过度的磨损,控制自动变速器输出轴处的电机,在换档过程中通过驱动力补偿来保证整个系统的转矩输出连续,减小换档过程的冲击度。试验结果表明:应用无离合器操作换档协调控制方法能够确保车辆在换档过程中驱动力的连续输出,与传统的换档方式相比,冲击度降低了约60%,车辆在0~50 km·h-1与0

  17. Control Strategy on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Regenerative Braking%插电式混合动力汽车再生制动控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘闪闪; 韩震; 业德明; 乔曌

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative braking control strategy directly influenced fuel economy of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A style of a control strategy based on ideal braking force is proposed in this paper. This strategy can ensure braking stability, at the meantime reclaim the braking energy as much as possible. And the control strategy model of regenerative brake system is built based on Simulink. The control strategy model is imbedded in Cruise and simulated. The simulation results show that compared with PHEV with no braking energy recovery and traditional vehicles fuel economy is improved and the control strategy of regenerative braking system are proved to be appropriate.%由于再生制动控制策略直接影响了插电式混合动力汽车(PHEV)的经济性,文章提出了一种基于理想制动力分配的再生制动控制策略,这种策略能在保证制动稳定性的同时,尽可能多地回收制动能量,在Simulink平台上建立再生制动控制策略模型,并嵌入到Cruise软件中进行仿真。仿真结果表明,此模型相比没有制动能量回收的PHEV和传统汽车,都有效地提高了经济性,验证了再生制动控制策略的合理性。

  18. 超轻度混合动力汽车动力转换控制策略%Control strategy on power conversion of the super-mild hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯俊; 郭家田

    2011-01-01

    The control strategy on power conversion that the engine keeps on working along the optimal economy curve or the motor running in a higher efficiency is elaborated in this paper. With the throttle position and the battery's SOC state to determine the working state of the two power source, the power conversion fuzzy control of the super-mild hybrid electric vehicles is designed. And the overall vehicle control and simulation model is built. In the end the control of engine starting, speed regulation is discussed, which makes the quick and smooth clutch combination.%讨论以发动机最佳燃油经济性或电动机最佳效率为控制目标的动力转换控制策略,以油门踏板位置及蓄电池SOC状态为输入变量,设计了混合动力汽车动力转换模糊控制器,建立了整车控制仿真模型。文中阐述了由电机切换到发动机工作时发动机的起动、调速控制,以及离合器快速平稳地结合的过程。仿真结果表明:对转换车速的门限值控制模糊化能够使转换车速更加符合驾驶员对动力性的要求。

  19. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  20. 混合动力电动汽车转矩管理控制策略设计%Designing of Torque Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄怀天

    2014-01-01

    混合动力汽车的出现在一定程度上缓解了能源危机和环境问题。控制策略作为混合动力汽车的核心技术,对动力性和燃油经济性的实现起到至关重要的作用。主要研究模糊逻辑控制策略的制定及基于 Advisor 的仿真。提出了将总需求转矩和电池荷电状态划分为更多模糊子集以得到更细的模糊规则的方法。通过比较仿真结果验证了细分的模糊逻辑控制策略对提高动力性和燃油经济性的积极作用。%The emergence of hybrid vehicles,to a certain extent,ease the energy crisis and environmental problems. As the core technology of hybrid vehicles,control strategy plays a crucial role for the realization of the power performance and fuel e-conomy. The main content of the article is the fuzzy logic control strategy design and stimulations based on Advisor,presents that dividing the aggregate torque demand and the battery charged state into more fuzzy subset to pour more fine method of fuzz-y rules. The stimulant results verify the subdivision of the fuzzy logic control strategy is positive to improve power performance and fuel economy.

  1. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  2. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  3. 四驱混合动力轿车分布式卡尔曼车速估计%Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on Distributed Kalman Filter for Four Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 杨杰; 吴枭威

    2015-01-01

    The driving mode of hybrid electric car can be two-wheel or four-wheel drive. The speed estimation designed for a specific driving mode can hardly achieve high estimated accuracy in all modes. Focus on the changeable driving mode, a kind of distributed Kalman filter with two levels is proposed, by means of utilize vehicle sensors signals, the driving torque of rear in-wheel motors and the torque of front driving wheels at the given gear state. Considering the strongly nonlinear of the model, UKF is adopted to design the filter, and to improve the filter’s robustness on modeling error and signal noise, measurement noise mean and covariance is self-adaptive. Firstly, based on UniTire Model and recursive equation of slip rate, the sub-filter is developed; secondly, based on the vehicle Kinematics model, the master-filter can be developed; at last, in consideration of different driving modes, a more accurate velocity estimation is obtained by fusing information from each sub-filters. With the help of Carsim and Simulink, the simulation platform about four wheel drive hybrid electric car is developed, and the proposed speed estimation algorithm is tested on this platform under the pure electric drive mode and the hybrid drive mode. The results show that the proposed algorithm has not only high precision, but also strong robustness on modeling error, measurement noise and the changeable driving mode.%四驱混合动力轿车存在两轮/四轮多种驱动模式,针对某一驱动模式所设计的车速估计算法难以满足其他模式下车速估计的精度。考虑车辆不同驱动模式,利用车载传感器信号、后轮毂电机转矩信息以及既定档位下前轮转矩信息,提出两级分布式卡尔曼车速估计方法。考虑模型的强非线性,采用无味卡尔曼滤波(Unscented Kalman filter,UKF)算法设计主/子滤波器。同时为了提高UKF算法对模型误差、信号干扰的鲁棒性,实现了量测噪声均值和方

  4. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging on Power Distribution Network%插电式混合电动汽车充电对配电网的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫鑫; 林涛; 苏秉华

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) will greatly affect on distribution network. A charging model is established to analyze the affect of PHEV charging on distribution network and a coordinated charging strategy to mitigate the affect of PHEV charging on distribution network is proposed. The probability distribution of two key random factors influencing PHEV charging is analyzed and taking random factors into account a probabilistic model of PHEV charging load, whose charging power varies with charging curve, is built. There are different affections on distribution network while PHEV is charged by free charging mode or load valley charging mode, for this reason, a coordinated charging strategy, in which random factors are taken into account and the minimized load variance is taken as objective function, is put forward. Taking IEEE 40-bus radial distribution system as the case and through the simulation based on Matlab, the affects of the charging of different number of PHEV on load curve, network loss and nodal voltage deviation of distribution network under three kind of charging modes are analyzed. Analysis results show that adopting the proposed coordinated charging strategy the network loss and nodal voltage deviation can be reduced and the affects on PHEV charging on distribution network can be effectively mitigated.%插电式混合电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)的快速发展将对配电网产生重要影响.在此背景下,建立了用于分析PHEV充电对配电网影响的充电负荷模型,提出了用于改善PHEV充电对配电网影响的优化充电策略.分析了影响PHEV充电的2个关键随机因素的概率分布,并计及随机因素,建立了充电功率按照充电曲线变化的PHEV充电负荷的概率模型.PHEV采用自由充电方式和负荷低谷充电方式时对配电网有不同程度的影响,为此提出了考虑随机因素,以负荷方差最小化为目

  5. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  6. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  7. ISG混合动力汽车制动力动态协调控制策略研究%The Research On Braking Force Dynamic Coordinated Control Strategy of ISG Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清纯; 颜景斌; 王旭东

    2011-01-01

    The essay analyzes the energy feedback the insufficient of efficiency feedback for braking process in hybrid electric vehicle. With ISG technology of medium hybrid cars as platform, through the analysis of front and rear wheels of hybrid car brake force distribution and frictional braking force and regenerative braking force distribution, dynamic coordination regenerative braking control strategy model, which is based on the safety and efficient braking energy recovery is established. It simulated analysis and correction on different conditions. Simulation results show that compared with the original traditional model, the dynamic braking force coordination control strategies improves the efficiency of the braking energy recovery.%本文针对混合动力汽车的制动过程能量回馈效率不足进行分析.以ISG技术的中度混合动力汽车为平台,通过分析混合动力汽车前、后轮制动力分配以及摩擦制动力和再生制动力的合理分配,建立了基于制动安全性和高效制动能量回收的动态协调再生制动控制策略模型,并在不同的路况下进行仿真分析和修正.仿真结果表明,制动力动态协调控制策略与原有传统模型相比提高了制动能量回收的效率.

  8. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  9. Development and applications of GREET 2.7 -- The Transportation Vehicle-CycleModel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Wu, Y.

    2006-12-20

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a vehicle-cycle module for the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been cited extensively and contains data on fuel cycles and vehicle operations. The vehicle-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The current model includes six vehicles--a conventional material and a lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems: internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.

  10. 插电式并联混合动力汽车再生制动控制策略%Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking for Plug-in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽宇; 杨英; 王新超; 吕明

    2016-01-01

    再生制动是混合动力汽车区别于传统汽车的技术特点,是提高车辆燃油经济性的重要措施之一。以一种轴间力矩耦合的插电式并联混合动力汽车为研究对象,从再生制动分配算法的影响因素入手,提出了一种带有模糊控制的混合动力汽车再生制动能量管理策略。所设计的控制策略主要针对两个层面的控制决策,顶层是轴间制动力矩的分配决策,底层是再生制动电机所在的后轴力矩在摩擦制动与再生制动之间的分配决策。采用多种典型车辆行驶工况对所提出的模糊控制策略进行仿真研究。结果表明,所提出的模糊控制策略能够明显改善车辆的能量回收效果,与传统理想制动力分配曲线控制策略相比,能量回收最多可提高23��44%。%Different from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles ( HEVs) have regenerative braking capability to improve fuel economy. Taking a plug-in parallel HEV with axles torque coupling as the research object, the influences of regenerative braking were analyzed. A regenerative braking control strategy using fuzzy control was then proposed. The presented strategy was to make two-layers control decision. The braking torque was allocated between the front axle and rear axle in the top layer, while the algorithm in bottom layer split the rear axle braking torque between mechanical braking and electric braking. The strategy was evaluated in a simulation study using several typical driving cycles. The results show that the as-proposed fuzzy control strategy can significantly improve the effect of energy recovery up to 23��44% , compared with that of the traditional ideal braking force distribution curve strategy.

  11. Development of CAN Network Monitoring Platform for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Virtual Instrument%基于虚拟仪器的混合动力汽车CAN网络监控平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秋萍; 陈笃红; 邵斌

    2012-01-01

    Connected via twisted pair,the engine controller, motor controller, vehicle controller,battery management unit and instrument display controller constituted CAN communication network. The PC connected with CAN bus via the PXI - 8464 interface card, which could get the real-time parameters of each controller and modify the inner data of them. The CAN network monitoring platform for hybrid electric vehicle was developed by graphical programming language LabVIEW9.0. The monitoring platform has the function of real-time parameters displaying, command giving, data saving and interactive human-computer interface, and fully satisfy the requirements of CAN network monitoring for HEV. The experimental results show that the system has high reliability, simple operation, timely data processing, and greatly improved the test rig efficiency.%将混合动力汽车的发动机控制器、电机控制器、整车控制器、电池管理单元和仪表显示控制器通过双绞线相连,构成CAN通讯网络,上位机通过PXI-8464接口卡接到CAN总线上,实时读取各控制器的参数及修改控制器中的数据.采用图形化编程语言LabVIEW 9.0开发了混合动力汽车CAN网络监控平台,此平台具有参数实时显示、指令发送、数据保存等功能和良好的人机交互式界面,满足了混合动力汽车CAN网络监控的各种需求.试验表明:系统操作简单明了,数据处理及时可靠,极大地改善了台架性能试验的工作效率.

  12. The hybrid electric solution [electric road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkinson, R. [Nelco Systems Ltd., Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-04-01

    US President Bill Clinton`s initiative for the American family car sets the target that, in 2003, cars will run for 100 miles on one US gallon of unleaded gasoline. The objectives are reduced fuel consumption, reduced imported oil dependency, and reduced pollution to improve air quality. (author)

  13. Torsional vibration analysis of planetary hybrid electric vehicle driveline%行星排式混合动力汽车传动系扭转振动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海生; 张彤; 马智涛; 王瑞平

    2013-01-01

    Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) are important factors with which to evaluate a vehicle. The automotive industry pays more and more attention to NVH to meet the growing comfort expectation of customers. Therefore, the noise and vibration analysis of the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is significantly meaningful. In order to investigate the torsional vibration behavior of a planetary power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the MEEBS hybrid driveline was studied by the dynamic equation. The compound planetary gear set in this HEV consists of a ring, a carrier, a small sun gear 1, a big sun gear 2, three short planets, and three long planets. All the short and long planets are mounted on the carrier. The compound planetary gear set has two rows. The first planetary row is made up of sun gear 1, short planets, and the ring, while the second planetary row consists of sun gear 2, short planets, long planets, and the ring. The planetary rows share the carrier and the ring. The short planet and corresponding long planet engage with each other. The sun gear 1 and sun gear 2 are connected to electrical motors E1 and E2, respectively. Both motors are permanent magnetic synchronous machines. The carrier was connected to the engine through a torsional damper. All of the system output torque was exported to the ring, and then to the wheels through the reducer, differential, and halfshafts. Compared with the traditional Ravingneaux gear set, the power-split system can increase the lever efficiency of the second row to reduce the requirement power of E2, leading to decreased system cost. Compared with the traditional Ravingneaux gear set, the power-split system can increase the lever efficiency of the second row to reduce the requirement power of E2, leading to decreased system cost. In order to realize the optimizing control in electric-only mode and make the engine work in the optimum working zone, the power-split system also has two brakes to lock the carrier and S1

  14. Energy management control strategy and optimization for plug-in 4WD hybrid electric vehicle%插电式四驱混合动力汽车能量管理控制策略及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 辛付龙; 陈朋; 王金波

    2015-01-01

    为精确计算驾驶员请求转矩,克服模糊逻辑及模糊比例-积分-微分(proportion integration differentiation,PID)需要先验知识的固有缺陷,该文提出利用径向基函数(radial basis function,RBF)神经网络拟合转矩识别系数。考虑到动力部件的瞬态特性,建立了各动力部件及传动系统的动力学模型,制定了基于规则的控制策略并描述了各驱动模式的成立条件及其动力学方程。为减少程序运行时间,提出修正动态规划(correctional dynamic programming,CDP)算法对控制策略进行全局优化。搭建硬件在环试验台架,对控制策略进行了试验。试验结果表明,基于规则和修正动态规划的控制策略均能实现良好的控制效果。引入转矩识别后,车速误差明显减小,燃油经济性提高了4.54%。采用修正动态规划后,燃油经济性进一步提高了14.04%。该文研究方法可以为制定复杂混合动力系统控制策略提供理论依据。%For a plug-in four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (4WD PHEV), there are 3 power components which can work independently or cooperatively. Therefore, it has many work modes and the energy management control is relatively complicated. As the calculation of the torque request of the driver by the gas pedal travel only is not precise and that method can’t reflect the driver’s intention, especially the intensity of the acceleration, thus rendering bad power performances and fuel consumption. And to overcome the inherent defects of fuzzy logic and fuzzy PID (proportion integration differentiation) that they relied on prior knowledge to set the parameters and it was difficult to realize good control effect, it was put forward in this paper that the torque identification coefficient could be obtained through RBF (radial basis function) neural network, whose inputs were the gas pedal travel and its change rate, and the output was the torque

  15. 插电式混合动力汽车换挡规律及转矩分配策略%Shifting Schedule and Torque Distribution Strategy for the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟斌; 陈全世; 田光宇; 吴光强; 秦大同

    2013-01-01

    提出插电式混合动力汽车自动变速器的换挡规律设计方法,以及发动机和电动机之间的转矩分配策略.该策略通过对变速器挡位、发动机输出转矩和电动机输出转矩的调节,可使发动机沿着最佳燃油经济性曲线运行、电动机工作于高效率区,并且确保蓄电池组的充放电电流限制在额定容量的两倍以内:实现自动变速器、发动机、电动机和电池的集成最优控制.利用仿真分析方法,对控制策略的性能进行仿真测试,测试结果表明该方法可使每个部件均工作于理想状态,提高车辆在城市工况行驶时的燃油经济性.%A shift schedule for automatic transmission of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle(PHEV),and a torque distribution strategy between engine and motor are devised.By adjusting the gear of the automatic transmission and the output torque of the engine and motor,the control strategy allows the engine run along the best fuel economy curve,electric motors work in the high efficiency area,and ensure the charge or discharge current of the battery are less than twice the rated capacity.Therefore,the integrated optimal control for automatic transmission,engine,motor and battery is realized.The performance of the control strategy is tested by the PHEV simulation model,the simulation results show that this method guarantees each component can work in the optimal state and can improve the fuel economy when PHEV drove in the city cycle.

  16. Reliability optimal design of B-pillar for a hybrid electric vehicle in side impact%某混合动力汽车侧面碰撞中B柱可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立波; 刘衡; 武和全

    2016-01-01

    对某混合动力汽车侧面碰撞B柱进行可靠性优化设计。设计中,结合试验设计理论、响应面模型、可靠性优化设计,基于产品质量工程,以中国新车评价规程(C-NCAP)和美国新车评价规程(US-NCAP)的侧面碰撞试验法规为基础,结合国内外交通事故调查统计数据。选取对汽车侧面碰撞安全性有重要影响的B柱内板、外板和加强板的壁厚和内板、外板材料屈服强度为设计变量。结果表明:在满足碰撞角度在-30°~30°和碰撞速度在40~60 km/h的混合动力汽车B柱耐撞性和可靠性要求条件下,90%、95%可靠性优化设计分别使得B柱质量降低了11.86%和10.34%。%A reliability optimization design was done for a B-pilar of a hybrid electric vehicle in side impact. The design combined using of experiments, the response surface models, the reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method based on the product quality engineering, according to the side impact test regulations of the China New Car Assessment Program (C-NCAP) and the United States New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP), and using the statistics from domestic and international trafifc accident investigation. The design variables were considered choosing the dimensions (such as thicknesses) and the materials (such as yield strengths) of the inner panel, the outer panel and the reinforcing plate, which play a major role in the safety performance in side impact crashes. The results show that this design makes the B-pilar mass decrease 11.86% and 10.34% respectively with the reliabilities of 90% and 95% with the impact angle in -30°~30° and impact velocity in 40~60 km/h.

  17. ISG型混合动力汽车粒子群优化模糊控制研究%Research on Particle Swarm Optimization Fuzzy Control for ISG Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓刚; 王旭东; 孙金磊; 崔明琦

    2011-01-01

    In the process of controlling the energy distribution of ISG hybrid vehicle, lower precision and limited adaptive capability were caused by using the traditional fuzzy control strategy. A novel particle swarm optimization fuzzy control strategy was proposed. By using particle swarm algorithm, the membership function was optimized based on the control model built by the traditional fuzzy logic. The fuzzy controller parameters that real-time traced by the optimized membership function with environment and load changing was realized.The simulation result shows that this method is able to reduce the change of battery SOC and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric system compared with using Insight control strategy and the traditional fuzzy control strategy. The experimental result proves that the battery SOC can be controlled within a reasonable scope with this method.%针对ISG型混合动力汽车能量分配的控制过程,应用传统的模糊控制存在精度不高、自适应能力有限等问题.提出一种粒子群优化模糊控制的方法.在应用传统模糊逻辑建立控制模型基础上,利用粒子群算法对模糊控制中的隶属度函数进行优化,实现了优化的隶属度函数随环境变化以及负载变化实时跟踪模糊控制器的参数变化.仿真结果表明,与Insight控制策略和传统模糊控制策略相比,该方法能够降低电池组SOC变化,同时提高混合动力系统的燃油经济性.试验结果验证使用该方法能够在一定程度上将电池SOC控制在比较合理的范围.

  18. 基于V2X的混合动力汽车分层能量管理及优化%Hierarchical energy management and optimization of hybrid electric vehicles based on V2X

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 林如宁; 辛付龙

    2016-01-01

    The control systems of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which greatly affect their power performances, fuel economy and emissions are nonlinear, multi-variable, time-varying, and not differentiable, and they are the key objectives and the most difficult parts for HEVs. One of the most popular concerns about HEVs is the realization of real-time control. Researchers have come up with multiple architectures about the optimization of the energy management control of HEVs, and the most commonly used algorithms are dynamic programming (DP), equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), Pontryagin’s minimum strategy (PMP), as well as some algorithms developed from them. In order to achieve the optimal solutions with DP, a given route or velocity profile is required, which is yet normally impossible. Therefore, some researchers come up with the method of model predictive control (MPC) to obtain the predicted driving cycle, so that the need of prior-knowledge can be met. As the combination of DP and ECMS is time-consuming, some researchers finally find ECMS and PMP can be alternatives to achieve global optimal solutions or approximate to them. However, these methods mentioned above cannot realize real-time control, even though many efforts have been done to develop more time-efficient algorithms, and the controlled objects were simplified in different degrees and some details were ignored, such as driver’s intention, road conditions, signal lights and mutual effects among vehicles under real driving environment. With the development of intelligent traffic system (ITS), the real-time control based on vehicle connection becomes possible. In the connected vehicle environment, vehicles can communicate with each other and with traffic infrastructure, and they can also share their position and velocity information within the vehicle group with the help of the technologies of dedicated short range communication (DSRC), radio frequency identification devices (RFID

  19. 采用多模式变速器单电机混合电动汽车的分析与仿真%Analysis and simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle using a multi-mode transmission and a single electric machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福堂; 陈俐; 殷承良

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-mode transmission (MMT) for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using a single electric machine (EM) and validates its performance. The MMT uses two planetary gear sets and four clutches to combine an engine and an EM with the vehicle, with the EM operated as a motor or a generator. This HEV realizes five power flow modes, which are developed into sixteen operation modes, including various driving, braking, and charging while parking modes. Fuel economy simulations of the vehicle were performed in Chinese General Driving Cycle, Japan Urban and Highway Cycle, New Europe Driving Cycle, and Federal Test Procedure 72, respectively. Comparable simulations were obtained with a benchmark vehicle which has a planetary gear set, two EMs and no clutch. The results indicate the application potential of the proposed single EM HEV, as the proposed HEV does not use extra electric machines and extra power electronics.%设计了一种采用多模式变速器(MMT)的单电机混合动力汽车,并进行了性能验证。该汽车采用了双行星排、4个离合器耦合发动机和电机动力的变速器,该电机可作为电动机或发电机运行。实现5种不同的能量流模式,含16种工作模式,包括不同的驱动模式、制动模式及停车发电模式。在中国典型驾驶循环(CGDC)、日本市区及高速循环(JUHC)、新欧洲循环(NEDC)及美国联邦测试程序72(FTP72)等工况下,进行了该汽车油耗的仿真。与采用双行星排无离合器结构的典型双电机混合动力汽车进行了对比模拟。相比,结果显示:该汽车的油耗具有可比性。因不使用额外的电机及其电力电子元件,该汽车具有应用潜力。

  20. 混合动力汽车匀速下坡再生制动模型预测控制%Model Predictive Control of Regenerative Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Cruising Downhill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒红; 潘文军; 袁景敏; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    基于车载导航系统(GPS/CIS等)所提供的未来一段预测路线上的汽车运行状态信息,建立中度混合动力汽车再生制动能量回收的全局优化动态规划模型;采用模型预测控制方法,将动态规划的全局优化控制策略转化成预测视距内的局部优化算法,实现滚动优化控制;为解决动态规划中的维数灾问题,确定了电池荷电状态和温度的可达区域;对模型预测控制策略、全局优化控制策略和瞬时优化控制策略进行了计算比较,在不同坡度、不同坡长的匀速下坡工况下的仿真表明:模型预测算法的计算效率显著高于全局优化策略的;应用模型预测控制策略的再生制动能量回收效率明显高于瞬时优化控制策略的,相比全局优化策略的降低不到1.31%,且采用档位提示的模型预测控制策略能量回收效果更好.%Based on the driving states of vehicles built by GPS/GIS on board in the future predictive route, a global optimal dynamic programming model of regenerative braking energy recovery for a medium hybrid electric vehicle was established. In order to realize a receding horizon optimal control, the global optimal dynamic programming algorithm was converted into a local optimal algorithm within prediction horizon using the model predictive control method. To overcome the curse of dimensionality of dynamic programming, the reachable ranges of SOC and temperature for battery were determined. The calculation comparison among the control strategies of model prediction, global optimization and instantaneous optimization was carried out. The simulation under the conditions of different gradients and slope lengths, and cruising downhill was performed.The results show that ( 1 ) the computational efficiency of model predictive control strategy is higher than that of global optimal control strategy; (2) energy recovery efficiency of regenerative braking of model predictive control strategy is greater than

  1. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  2. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...

  3. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  4. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  5. The Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles%混合动力汽车用混合能量存储系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志伟; 张建龙; 殷承良

    2012-01-01

    针对动力电池在混合动力汽车中频繁大功率充放电的问题,采用了电池和超级电容并用的能量存储系统,利用超级电容高功率特性来改善储能系统的性能.本文研究了电池与超级电容直接并联和主动并联两种混合能量存储系统,后者采用零电流转换软开关直流变换器来连接超级电容和电池.在Matlab Simulink平台建立零电流转换软开关直流变换器的动态模型、超级电容和电池模型,并在AVL Cruise中进行仿真.结果表明:直接并联方案不能充分发挥超级电容的能力;而主动并联方案降低了纯电动工况和制动能量回收工况下电池的峰值电流,电池端电压变化范围缩小,能量效率比单一电池的能量存储系统提高了14.92%.另外,由于采用了模糊PID控制算法,改善了动态响应性能.%In view of the problem of power batteries being frequently charged and discharged at large power in hybrid electric vehicle, the battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system ( B/UC HESS) is adopted, which takes advantage of the high power characteristics of ultra-capacitor to improve the performance of storage system. In this paper, two schemes of B/UC HESS are studied :direct battery/ultra-capacitor parallel connection and active battery/ultra-capacitor parallel connection, in which the latter uses DC-DC converter with zero current transition soft switching as interface to connect battery and ultra-capacitor. The dynamic model for the DC-DC converter and the models for battery and ultra-capacitor are set up with Matlab simulink and a simulation is conducted with AVL Cruise. The results indicate that the direct parallel scheme doesn't take full use of the capability of ultra-capacitor , while with the active parallel scheme the peak current of battery lowers in pure electric driving and regenerative braking conditions, the variation range of battery end voltage reduces, with an energy efficiency 14. 92

  6. 混合动力汽车下坡辅助电-液复合制动控制方法%Electro-hydraulic brake control method for hybrid electric vehicle during process of downhill assist control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云武; 罗禹贡; 李克强; 陈龙

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve vehicle safety and fuel economy of the whole control system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), this paper presents an electro-hydraulic braking control method for the downhill auxiliary braking process. First, through the analysis of the downhill auxiliary braking process and dynamic change of the braking torque, the appropriate time for electro-hydraulic braking and the distribution principle of the braking torque are proposed. Experiment platform and typical control signals are adopted to test the electronic vacuum brake, of which the results illustrate that the braking torque of the electronic vacuum brake is sufficiently large to finish the braking process. However, if the target pressure is low (for example, below 0.15 MPa), the respond of electronic vacuum brake to the pressure is also slow. Increasing target pressure can slove the problem of start-up delay and the response time of the brake. Besides, response errors appearing in the control process of the electronic vacuum brake cannot be eliminated as well. On the contrary, the drive motor has high response speed and high control precision though the maximum driving/braking torque is limited. This provides the possibility of combining the advantages of both devices. Thus, based on the response data of electric vehicle drive motor, the complementarity of braking capacity and response characteristics of the electro-hydraulic system is specifically analyzed and the control inclination of the electro-hydraulic system is obtained. Then, the distribution principle of the downhill auxiliary braking torque is established, which can maximize the breaking torque of the motor in the prerequisite of assuring the total breaking torque. Based on the blending control framework of forward feed and feedback, the hydraulic system response under low pressure is realized using the proposed minimum pressure maintaining method. Meanwhile, by increasing the objective start-up pressure, time delay of the

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  8. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    bases.) Qualifying advanced propulsion vehicles for this initiative are battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), hybrid...hydraulic vehicles (HHV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The AVPI integrates use of renewable energy at

  9. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  10. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  11. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  12. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  13. User-specific mobile sensing system and energy storage system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力电动汽车的特定用户移动传感器和能量存储系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍捷; 孙义和

    2012-01-01

    针对新兴混合插拔式电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)应用,已有的车用能量存储系统存在笨重和可靠性差等缺点,同时驾驶人的驾驶行为严重地影响能量存储系统的性能和使用寿命,因此有效地对特定用户驾驶行为进行分析,并对大规模混合能量存储系统进行优化设计,将为未来新兴电驱动混合动力汽车的应用与实践打下坚实基础.该文提出特定用户传感器系统框架,分析其驾驶行为对混合能量存储系统(hybrid energy storage system,HESS)如锂电池和超级电容集成的影响,并设计了一个基于大规模HESS的优化架构.它综合考虑工艺制造的差异性和实时驾驶行为的多变性等因素影响,在满足能量需求条件下优化HESS成本和使用寿命.实验结果表明:该优化架构与只采用单一锂电池作为存储资源的架构相比,在达到使用寿命年限15a前提下,混合能量存储系统的成本代价平均降低了51.3%.同时,该架构的求解速度快,有利于实际实现.%Existing in-vehicle hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are bulky and unreliable. In addition, the user-specific driving behavior substantially impacts the HESS performance and lifetime. Therefore, user-centric driving behavior analyses and energy storage system design and optimization are essential for hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a personalized mobile sensing system framework to analyze the user's driving behavior and characterize its impact on the HESS performance. An integrated hybrid energy storage system (e. g. , a Li-ion battery and an ultra-capacitor) design and optimization architecture are then given for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. This architecture statistically optimizes the HESS cost and lifetime considering variances in the HESS system due to manufacturing tolerances and user-specific use. Tests show that this HESS design and optimization

  14. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Ayers, C. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Marlino, L. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Chiasson, J. N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burress, B. A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200–1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  16. EV/HEV二次锂电池的热模拟%Thermal Modeling of Secondary Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 彭元亭; 管琤

    2004-01-01

    本文讲述一种使用相变材料(PCM)的新型热处理系统,并已研制出PcM-基系统样机.虽然PCM-基系统特别适用于多数普通的商业锂离子电池,但是在此之前它还从未用于锂离子电池和电池包的测试.这里描述的热处理系统是为EV/HEV设计的,具有不需引入移动成分而提供有效的热处理的巨大潜力,从而能使EV/HEV电池性能无需复杂的设计和额外的费用的情况下(需要空气和液体循环冷却系统)得到改善.

  17. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  18. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    fuel burn reduction can be achieved; however, this also proves to be detrimental in terms of vehicular efficiency. The potential in block fuel reduction diminishes with increasing design range - especially for low battery gravimetric specific energies. In addition, the narrow shape of the fuselage represents a volumetric constraint for the storage of the battery and typical cargo. It was concluded that the short-range/regional market segment would be the most suited for the application of such concepts. Concerning the influence of HP,USE on flight technique optimization, an increasing HP,USE was found to have a tendency of decreasing the optimum flight speed and altitude. Further investigation of more synergistic design and integration of the hybrid-electric motive power system needs to be conducted in order to explore the full benefit of such technologies.

  19. 基于遗传算法的混合动力汽车动力总成悬置系统的优化设计研究%Optimization design for powertrain mounting system of a hybrid electric vehicle via genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟超; 王良模; 殷召平; 叶进; 吴海啸

    2015-01-01

    A method to optimize a powertrain mounting system was developed to improve the vibration isolation performance of the mounting system for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle.The optimization was based on the genetic algorithm by taking 6-DOF energy decoupling of the powertrain mounting system and the reasonable allocation of the natural frequencies as the objectives,and taking the stiffnesses of 5 mounting points as the design variables.This method was applied to deal with the shaking of steering wheel for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle in its idling process.The results of dynamic simulation verified the effectiveness of the method.Furthermore,it was shown that compared to the sequential quadratic programming (SQP),the genetic algorithm overcomes its shortcoming of converging to local optimal solution, the decoupling features of the mounting system obtained from the optimization are better and reliable.%为了提高并联式混合动力汽车动力总成五点悬置系统的隔振性能,建立了动力总成五点悬置的动力学模型,以动力总成六自由度能量解耦与固有频率的合理分配为优化目标,五个悬置点的各向刚度为设计变量,采用遗传算法对悬置系统进行优化。应用上述方法对某并联式柴电混合动力汽车悬置系统进行了优化,动力学仿真与实车试验结果表明,悬置优化后消除了整车怠速工况时方向盘抖动,验证了所提方法的合理性。同时,遗传算法克服了序列二次型规划算法(SQP)易收敛于局部最优解的缺点,得到的悬置系统解耦性能优良,优化结果稳定可靠。

  20. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  1. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2014-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students in mechanical and automotive engineering. The contents in this book are presented at a theoretical-practical level. It explains vehicle dynamics concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics, most notably steering, handling, ride, and related components. This book also: Illustrates all key concepts with examples Includes exercises for each chapter Covers front, rear, and four wheel steering systems, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different steering schemes Includes an emphasis on design throughout the text, which provides a practical, hands-on approach

  2. 混合动力汽车发动机转矩突变过程动态协调控制%Dynamic Coordinated Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Process of Engine Torque Abrupt Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 罗禹贡; 张娜; 李克强

    2014-01-01

    In view of the problem of the increase of transient fuel consumption in hard acceleration of elec-tric hybrid vehicle ( HEV) caused by mixture enrichment, a dynamic coordinated control scheme for the process of engine torque abrupt change of HEV based on torque dynamic compensation in this paper. An engine torque control strategy is designed based on torque changing rate limitation to avoid the increase of transient fuel consumption dur-ing the sudden change of engine torque, while ensuring the power performance of vehicle in acceleration process. The results of real vehicle test indicate that the dynamic coordinated control scheme proposed not only reduce the transient fuel consumption of engine during acceleration but also enhance the power performance of vehicle.%针对混合动力汽车急加速时由于混合气瞬间加浓引起动态油耗增加的问题,本文中提出了基于转矩动态补偿的混合动力汽车发动机转矩突变过程动态协调控制方法。设计了基于转矩变化率限制的发动机转矩控制策略,避免了发动机转矩突变过程中动态油耗的增加,同时保证了加速过程中整车的动力性。实车试验结果表明,提出的动态协调控制方法不仅降低了加速过程中发动机的动态油耗,同时提高了整车动力性。

  3. 燃料电池混合动力车整车能量管理研究%Research of energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪秋婷; 肖铎; 戚伟

    2012-01-01

    The vehicle energy management strategy was optimized according to the characteristics of fuel cell hybrid vehicle system. In our study, a real-time power control algorithm for hybrid system based on fuzzy-control theory was proposed. The variables of this algorithm were set as follows: the state of charge of lithium-ion battery and the vehicle power demand were set as input variables, while the provided power of fuel cell, provided power of lithium-ion battery and the recovery power of braking energy was set as the output variables. This new method was applied to the hardware platform to obtain the simulation results, and a vehicle controller prototype was designed. The experimental results and the test results of the prototype indicate that: the new algorithm can make the vehicle power efficiency up to 50% or more, while make the fuel cell and the lithium-ion batteries work in the best condition.%针对燃料电池混合动力系统的特点对整车能量管理策略进行优化,将锂离子电池的荷电状态、整车需求功率作为输入变量,将燃料电池提供的功率、锂离子电池提供的功率和制动能量回收功率作为输出变量,提出了基于模糊控制的混合动力系统能量实时控制算法,并将新算法应用于硬件平台进行仿真与实现,同时设计出基于模糊算法的燃料电池混合动力系统整车控制器样机.算法仿真及装载该控制器的样车道路行驶试验结果表明:该控制器使整车效率达到50%以上,在提高整车燃料利用率的同时使燃料电池、锂离子电池工作在最佳状态.

  4. Intelligent Approaches in Improving In-vehicle Network Architecture and Minimizing Power Consumption in Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    include washing machines , rice cookers, image processing applications , anti-lock brake controls , and steering controls . In general, fuzzy logic...its cognitive information to other in-vehicle network systems. In [58] a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Hybrid Electric Vehicle is proposed to maximize...provided to describe what is meant by ―optimal torque value‖. All the 121 rules in this fuzzy logic controller are static and have no flexibility to

  5. Drivability improvements for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle using robust controls%基于鲁棒控制的一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性改善方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu ZHANG; Cun-lei WANG; Yong ZHANG; Jun-yi LIANG; Cheng-liang YIN

    2014-01-01

    For a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, during mode transitions (especially the transition from electric drive mode to engine/parallel drive mode, which requires the clutch engagement), the drivability of the vehicle will be signifi-cantly affected by a clutch torque induced disturbance, driveline oscillations and jerks which can occur without adequate controls. To improve vehicle drivability during mode transitions for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, two controllers are proposed. The first controller is the engine-side controller for engine cranking/starting and speed synchronization. The second controller is the motor-side controller for achieving a smooth mode transition with reduced driveline oscillations and jerks under the clutch torque induced disturbance and system uncertainties. The controllers are all composed of a feed-forward control and a robust feedback control. The robust controllers are designed by using the mu synthesis method. In the design process, control-oriented system models that take account of various parameter uncertainties and un-modeled dynamics are used. The results of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.%研究目的:改善一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性能。  创新要点:1.建立面向控制器设计的系统模型,并且考虑系统参数的不确定性和CAN通讯延迟;2.设计基于mu综合的鲁棒控制器,减小了模式切换时车辆的冲击度,改善车辆的驾驶性能。  研究方法:1.将发动机端和电机端的控制解耦,并对其进行单独的控制设计(图5、8);2.发动机端控制主要用于发动机调速,电机端控制主要用于补偿离合器转矩对传动系造成的干扰;3.控制器设计时采用前馈控制和鲁棒控制结合的方法。  重要结论:通过采用鲁棒控制,使得一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性得

  6. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  7. Research of Braking Force Distribution and Energy Recovery Control Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle%混合动力电动汽车制动力分配及能量回收控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金宇华; 张庭芳; 刘建春

    2011-01-01

    Braking energy recovery is one of resource of HEV great advantage over traditional vehicles. Through regenerative braking, kinetic energy in the course of braking can be transformed to electricity energy into battery which can be utilized again when driving, so the vehicle energy efficiency is improved. So it's necessary to research on how to coordinate and control the assignment proportion between friction brake and regenerative brake, and try to recycle braking energy as much as possible under the precondition that brake security is ensured, and then the secondary development of regenerative braking control strategy module in simulation software ADVISOR is carried out.%制动能量回收是混合动力汽车相对于传统燃油汽车的巨大节能优势来源之一.利用再生制动,可以将制动过程中的动能转化为电能储存到电池当中,以备驱动时使用,提高整车的能量利用率.深入研究了如何协调控制摩擦制动和再生制动之间的分配比例,在保证制动稳定性前提下,尽可能多地回收制动能量,并对ADVISOR中再生制动控制策略模块进行二次开发.

  8. 面向公交客车应用的插电式混合动力实时优化策略研究%Research on City-bus Application-oriented Real-time Optimal Energy Management Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 焦晓红; 李亮; 游思雄; 颜丙杰; 马兹林

    2015-01-01

    插电式混合动力汽车随着电功率比的逐渐提升实现了机电耦合系统的能量深度混合.然而在应对复杂瞬变的城市公交工况时,如何通过设计实时高效的能量管理策略实现插电式混合动力客车全工况能量消耗最优已成为学术界的研究热点.考虑城市公交工况路况信息对能量分配的影响以及同轴并联式系统构型的自身特点,提出等效坡道在线估计及相应的电池荷电状态(State of charge, SOC)轨线修正方法,在此基础上利用等效油耗最小策略(Equivalent consumption minimization strategy, ECMS)设计一种实时优化能量管理策略,将整条公交线路的能量需求进行合理分配,另外对发动机起停的约束条件保证了发动机的合理高效运行.仿真结果表明所提出的实时优化能量管理策略与实际中应用的规则策略相比,对整车燃油经济性的提升更为显著,且可以更好地匹配公交工况与动力系统构型.实车试验结果也验证了所提出方法的有效性.因此所提出方法为基于优化理论的实车控制策略应用提供了理论依据.%With the gradual increase of the electric power ratio, the energy hybridization might be implemented in the electromechanical coupling system of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. But for the complicated and transient driving conditions of city bus, how to minimize the energy consumption within the driving cycle through designing the real-time energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus(PHEB) might be the research focus in theacademia. Considering the characteristics of the driving condition of city bus and the single-shaft parallel hybrid powertrain, an equivalent grade estimation method and the relevant battery state of charge(SOC) correction approach are proposed, and then based on the above two approaches, the energy in one city bus route might be optimally distributed by the employed equivalent consumption minimization

  9. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  10. Analysis of brake condition and parameter matching of hybrid energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力车制动工况分析与储能装置参数匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟达; 王言子; 项昌乐; 刘辉

    2014-01-01

    为提高混合动力系统整体性能,实现高效能量回收,分析某重型越野车辆驾驶循环工况中制动过程的功率与能量分布,从制动能量回收率与电机参数出发讨论对储能装置的性能要求。提出电池组-超级电容复合储能装置的参数匹配方法,针对21 t级试验样车混合动力系统进行实例计算,论证锂离子电池组与超级电容组成的复合储能装置的性能。实例计算与道路试验结果表明:匹配的复合储能装置符合车辆整体性能与制动能量回收的要求,体积、重量满足总体设计约束;匹配超级电容后,储能装置的瞬时功率能力大幅提升,可显著提高车辆的制动能力和制动能量回收率。%According to the driving cycle of heavy off-road vehicles, the brake power and energy permutation is analyzed, and the performance requirement for the hybrid energy storage system( HESS) is achieved based on the brake energy recovery rate and motor parameters. The parameter matching method for the HESS is proposed and by which the instance calculation for the hybrid propulsion system of 21 tons class vehicles is carried out, and the performance of the HESS with Li-ion cells and ultra capacitors is discussed too. The instance calculation and the test results indicate that the designed HESS can meet the requirement of the total performance of the HEV and the brake energy recovery, the volume and weight answer for the restriction of the top design of the HEV. The designed HESS with ultra capacitors can increase the transient power volume greatly and the brake performance and the brake energy recovery rate are enhanced remarkably.

  11. 混合动力电动汽车能量及驱动系统的关键控制问题研究进展%Research progress on key control problems arising from the energy and driving system of the hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承慧; 李珂; 崔纳新; 邢国靖; 吴剑; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    Faced with great pressure in energy and environment,the hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) has become an important development trend of the automobile industry.The HEV is remarkably different from traditional vehicles,and puts more requirements and dependencies on the control system,due to its unique and complicated energy and driving systems.Such a system can be formulated as a class of hybrid switching dynamic system with high uncertainty and strong nonlinearity,and the performance of optimization and control strategy is closely linked with the economy,reliability,safety and the comfort of the HEV.However,there are still many challenges in designing a controller for the energy and driving system of the HEV.Fortunately,modern control theory and technology provide key methods to overcome these technical bottlenecks in energy and driving system of the HEV.From the viewpoint of system and control science,this paper profoundly and comprehensively summarized some key scientific and technical issues and their development,such as the energy management strategy of the HEV energy and driving systems,the state estimation of the HEV traction battery,and the optimal control of the HEV driving system etc.Finally,the challenges and development tendency of the optimal control technologies and theories on the HEV energy and driving systems were also pointed out.%面对能源和环境的巨大压力,混合动力汽车(hybrid electric vehicle,HEV)已成为汽车工业发展的重要方向。混合动力电动汽车与传统汽车有很大不同,具有独特而又复杂的能量及驱动系统,故对控制系统的要求更高和依赖性更强。该系统可以归结为一类具有高度不确定性和强非线性的混杂切换动态系统,其优化控制策略的优劣直接影响车辆的经济性、可靠性、安全性和舒适性。然而混合动力电动汽车能量及驱动系统的控制器设计却面临众多挑战,现代控制理论和技术则是解决这一技术

  12. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  13. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  14. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  15. Optimizing Study on Structural Design with Synergic Electric Power Supply and Parameter Matching of Hybrid Electric Vehicle%混合动力客车复合电源结构设计与参数匹配优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Synergic electric supply power (SESP)system with high efficiency, economy and long-life is very important for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)to play the advantages of energy saving and environmental protection. Based on the systematic analysis of battery, super capacitor and DC/DC converter features and the thought of“storing energy and compensation the loss”,this paper designed the structural model of SESP,researched the matching about results various combinations of SESP,and determined the parameter matching of battery and capacitor.The experimental results proved that the experimental model of SESP can satisfy the requirement of the HEV.%搭载高效、经济和长寿命复合电源系统是城市混合动力客车发挥节能、环保优势的关键。文章在系统分析蓄电池、超级电容器和DC/DC转换器特性的基础上,在“削峰填谷”思想的指导下,设计了复合电源结构模型,通过对复合电源各种组合匹配效果的对比研究,确定了电池和电容的参数匹配情形。实验结果表明,复合电源实验架构能够满足混合动力客车的动力要求。

  16. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  17. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  18. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  19. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  20. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  1. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  2. TTCAN在混合动力电动汽车上应用的研究%Application of TTCAN of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 张广斌; 方凯

    2008-01-01

    针对网络协议在混合动力电动汽车中的重要性,研究了TTCAN协议的应用.介绍了TTCAN网络的系统结构和系统矩阵,重点说明了多能源模块的功能、数据格式及软硬件设计,并对装车试验进行了分析和总结.研究结果验证了多能源模块设计的正确性,也表明TTCAN网络是适应目前混合动力电动汽车要求的.

  3. 配电系统中电动汽车与可再生能源的随机协同调度%Stochastic Optimization Dispatching of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Coordination with Renewable Generation in Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵斌; 赵俊华; 文福拴; 薛禹胜; 辛建波

    2012-01-01

    电动汽车和可再生能源发电的快速发展为电力系统的安全和经济运行带来了新的挑战。在此背景下,构建了能够计及可入网混合动力电动汽车(PHEV)和风电、光伏发电系统出力不确定性的随机协同优化调度模型。首先,分析了PHEV的行驶耗电和随机充放电行为。之后,在假设风速服从Rayleigh分布、光照服从Beta分布的前提下,导出了风电机组和光伏发电系统出力的期望、方差及二阶原点矩的表达式。在此基础上,发展了以平抑可再生能源出力波动为目标的电力系统随机协同优化调度模型,并应用交叉熵算法进行求解。最后,以33节点配电系统为例说明了所提出的随机协同优化调度模型的基本特征。%The rapid development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs) and renewable generation brings new challenges to the secure and economic operation of power systems.A stochastic optimization based dispatching model,capable of accommodating uncertain outputs of PHEVs and renewable generation,is developed.The probability distributions of energy consumption and charging/discharging behaviors of PHEVs are first studied.The probability distributions of the wind and photovoltaic generation outputs are derived assuming that the wind speed follows the Rayleigh distribution and solar irradiance follows the Beta distribution.The mathematical expectations,second order expectations and variances of the power outputs of wind and photovoltaic generation are derived analytically.On this basis,a stochastic optimization dispatching model with the objective of reducing the fluctuations of renewable generation outputs is finally established.The well-established cross-entropy method is employed to solve this optimization problem.The feasibility and efficiency of the dispatching model and the cross-entropy method are demonstrated by a 33-bus distribution system.

  4. 计及发动机冷热效应的插电式混合动力汽车最优控制策略研究%Research on the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Optimal Control Strategy Considering Engine Cold Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾育平; 秦大同; 杨官龙; 姚明尧

    2015-01-01

    为了缩短发动机的冷机工作时间,降低发动机的油耗和排放,以计及发动机冷热效应的燃油消耗最小为目标函数,依据庞特里亚金极小值原理建立了Hamilton函数,对目标泛函进行求解,获得了计及发动机冷热效应的最优控制策略,并将该控制策略分别与CD-CS模式控制策略和忽略发动机冷热效应的最优控制策略进行了比较.研究结果表明:计及发动机冷热效应的最优控制策略与CD-CS模式控制策略相比可使整车百公里油耗降低9.64%;与忽略发动机冷热效应的最优控制策略相比,可使整车百公里油耗降低2.34%,使三元催化器的起燃时间缩短21.3%;该策略可使插电式混合动力汽车具有更好的燃油经济性和排放性.%In order to shorten engine's cold working time and reduce engine's fuel consumption and emission,with the minimum engine fuel consumption considering engine cold effect as objective function,Hamilton function was established based on Pontryagin's minimum principle,and the optimal control strategy considering engine cold effect was obtained after solving the objective function.Then this control strategy was compared with CD-CS mode control strategy and the optimal control strategy without considering engine cold effect respectively.The results show that in contrast to CDCS mode control strategy,the presented optimal control strategy makes fuel consumption per 100 kilometers reduce 9.64%.In contrast to the optimal control strategy without considering engine cold effect,the presented optimal control strategy makes fuel consumption per 100 kilometers reduce 2.34% and the light-off time of three-way catalytic converter shorten 21.3%.The control strategy makes the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle have better fuel economy and emission performance.

  5. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, “NMOG” shall mean non-methane hydrocarbons. (iii) NMOG standards for... this section at 50 °F, according to the procedure specified in § 86.1773. Hybrid electric, natural gas... the applicable reactivity adjustment factor, TLEV, LEV, or ULEV natural gas vehicles shall...

  7. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  8. Calendar Ageing of LiFePO4/C Batteries in the Second Life Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery second life usage might be an interesting solution for certain applications and it can bring not only environmental benefits but also e.g. lower electric vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles total cost of ownership. However, the electrical performance and performance degradation...

  9. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  10. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology.......This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...

  11. Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Lotfifard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicle (EV technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. On the other hand, EVs have the potential to support the grid under various conditions. This paper studies possible potential and applications of Vehicle to Grid (V2G services, including active power services, which discharge the EV batteries, and power quality services, which do not engage the battery or require only small amounts of battery charge. The advantages and disadvantages of each service and the likelihood that a given service will be effective and beneficial for the grid in the future are discussed. Further, the infrastructure cost, duration, and value of V2G services are compared qualitatively.

  12. Feasibility assessment of remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of end of vehicle application lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Foster

    2014-06-01

    -ion batteries will exist to support remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling involves estimating a lower bound for the number of such batteries. Based on a variety of forecasts for electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle production, a distribution of life for use in a vehicle, and the percent recoverable for further use, three projections of the number of end of vehicle applications batteries for the time period 2010 to 2050 are developed. The lower bound is then the minimum of these three forecasts. Multiple forecasts based on multiple sources of information are used to help reduce uncertainty associated with finding the lower bound, which is particularly important given the short time such vehicles have been in use.Findings: The number of lithium-ion batteries becoming available annually for remanufacturing, recycling and repurposing is likely to exceed 3,000,000 between 2029 and 2032 as well as reaching 50% of new vehicle demand between 2020 and 2033. Thus, a sufficient number of batteries will be available. Cost benefit analysis shows that remanufacturing is economically feasible, saving approximately 40% over new battery use. Repurposing is likewise economically feasible if research and development costs for new applications are less than $82.65 per kWh for upper bound sales price of $150.00 per kWh. For a lower bound in R&D expenses of $50 per kWh, the lowest economic sales price is $114.05 per kWh. Recycling becomes economically feasible only if the price of lithium salts increases to $98.60 per kg due to a shortage of new lithium, which is possible but perhaps not likely, with increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries.Research limitations/implications: The demand for lithium-ion batteries for vehicle applications through 2050 has a high degree of uncertainty. Repurposing applications are currently not fully developed and recycling processes are still evolving. There is a high degree of uncertainty associated with the cost-benefit analysis

  13. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  14. Research on the Control Strategy and Optimization of Energy Management System of Hybrid Energy Storage in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle%一种混合动力汽车复合电源能量管理系统控制策略与优化设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 孙玉坤

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:To the power allocation problems of battery and ultracapacitor (UC) of hybrid energy storage (HES) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), we proposed an adaptive filter power splitting (AFPS) control strategy. At the same time, the parameters of AFPS had been optimized so as to the UC was mainly responsible for the peak power of the load power and battery assumed the average power. UC cut the peak and valley current of battery, and the charging and discharging process of battery had been optimized. Re-developed the HES and AFPS under Matlab/ADVISOR simulation environment, and used the CVX toolbox to achieve the optimization of AFPS. At the same time, the experimental platform had been established with the experimental study being achieved. The simulation and experimental results indicate that AFPS realizes the power allocation of battery and UC in reason, and the optimization method enhances the utilization of UC to minimize the magnitude and fluctuation of battery current effectively, so battery has been protected.%针对混合动力汽车复合电源能量管理系统中蓄电池和超级电容器的功率合理分配问题,提出一种自适应滤波器功率分配控制策略,同时对该控制策略参数进行优化设计研究,使得超级电容器主要承担负载需求功率中的峰值功率,蓄电池则承担平均功率,从而达到超级电容器对蓄电池的“削峰填谷”,优化蓄电池充放电过程。在Matlab/ADVISOR仿真环境下,对混合动力汽车复合电源及自适应滤波器功率分流控制策略进行二次开发,采用CVX工具箱实现控制策略的优化设计,同时搭建了复合电源系统的试验平台,并进行了相应试验研究。仿真和试验结果表明,自适应滤波器功率分流控制策略实现了蓄电池和超级电容器功率的合理分配,优化方法提高了超级电容器的利用率,有效地降低了蓄电池电流的幅值和波动范围,进而保护了蓄电池。

  15. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  16. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  17. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  18. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  19. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  1. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  2. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC URBAN BUSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuanjun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    A novel parallel hybrid electrical urban bus (PHEUB) configuration consisting of an extra one-way clutch and an automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) is taken as the study subject. An energy management strategy combining a logic threshold approach and an instantaneous optimization algorithm is proposed for the investigated PHEUB. The objective of the energy management strategy is to achieve acceptable vehicle performance and drivability requirements while simultaneously maximizing the engine fuel consumption and maintaining the battery state of charge in its operation range at all times. Under the environment of Matlab/Simulink, a computer simulation model for the PHEUB is constructed by using the model building method combining theoretical analysis and bench test data. Simulation and experiment results for China Typical Bus Driving Schedule at Urban District (CTBDS_UD) are obtained, and the results indicate that the proposed control strategy not only controls the hybrid system efficiently but also improves the fuel economy significantly.

  4. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  5. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  6. Intelligent Energy Management for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Role of ITS Infrastructure in Vehicle Electrification Gestion énergétique intelligente pour véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables : rôle de l’infrastructure de systèmes de transport intelligents (STI dans l’électrification des véhicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marano V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The desire to reduce carbon emissions due to transportation sources has led over the past decade to the development of new propulsion technologies, focused on vehicle electrification (including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. These propulsion technologies, along with advances in telecommunication and computing power, have the potential of making passenger and commercial vehicles more energy efficient and environment friendly. In particular, energy management algorithms are an integral part of plug-in vehicles and are very important for achieving the performance benefits. The optimal performance of energy management algorithms depends strongly on the ability to forecast energy demand from the vehicle. Information available about environment (temperature, humidity, wind, road grade, etc. and traffic (traffic density, traffic lights, etc., is very important in operating a vehicle at optimal efficiency. This article outlines some current technologies that can help achieving this optimum efficiency goal. In addition to information available from telematic and geographical information systems, knowledge of projected vehicle charging demand on the power grid is necessary to build an intelligent energy management controller for future plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The impact of charging millions of vehicles from the power grid could be significant, in the form of increased loading of power plants, transmission and distribution lines, emissions and economics (information are given and discussed for the US case. Therefore, this effect should be considered in an intelligent way by controlling/scheduling the charging through a communication based distributed control. Le désir de réduire les émissions de carbone issues des sources de transport a conduit durant la dernière décennie au développement de nouvelles technologies de propulsion, axées sur l’électrification des véhicules (comprenant les véhicules

  7. The role of nanotechnology in the development of battery materials for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Zonghai; Ma, Zifeng; Pan, Feng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-12-01

    A significant amount of battery research and development is underway, both in academia and industry, to meet the demand for electric vehicle applications. When it comes to designing and fabricating electrode materials, nanotechnology-based approaches have demonstrated numerous benefits for improved energy and power density, cyclability and safety. In this Review, we offer an overview of nanostructured materials that are either already commercialized or close to commercialization for hybrid electric vehicle applications, as well as those under development with the potential to meet the requirements for long-range electric vehicles.

  8. The role of nanotechnology in the development of battery materials for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Zonghai; Ma, Zifeng; Pan, Feng; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-12-06

    A significant amount of battery research and development is underway, both in academia and industry, to meet the demand for electric vehicle applications. When it comes to designing and fabricating electrode materials, nanotechnology-based approaches have demonstrated numerous benefits for improved energy and power density, cyclability and safety. In this Review, we offer an overview of nanostructured materials that are either already commercialized or close to commercialization for hybrid electric vehicle applications, as well as those under development with the potential to meet the requirements for long-range electric vehicles.

  9. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  10. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  11. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  12. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  13. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  14. Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on PEST Analysis Method——BYD PHEV as an Example%基于类PEST分析法的插电式混合动力汽车的分析——以比亚迪PHEV为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪军

    2015-01-01

    The analysis and comparison of the use of traditional fuel vehicles and plug-in hybrid in the political and legal, economic, social and technical aspects of, pure electric vehicles and total cost of ownership by building plug-in hybrids cost model, taking into account prices of gasoline and electricity price factor changes, analyze the strengths and plug-in hybrid of economic weakness. The results show that the plug-in hybrid with a plurality of different applications on the wider economy.%首先简要分析了基于类PEST分析法的插电式混合动力汽车发展的政治和法律环境、经济环境、社会环境、技术环境,然后通过建立插电式混合动力汽车成本计算模型,分析了插电式混合动力汽车应用的经济优势,旨在为该类型新能源汽车的快速发展奠定坚实的基础.

  15. Current hybrid-electric powertrain architectures:Applying empirical design data to life cycle assessment and whole-life cost analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Timothy W; Burgess, Stuart C; Herrmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of hybrid-electric powertrain technology has disrupted the automotive industry, causing significant powertrain design divergence. As this radical powertrain innovation matures, will hybrid vehicles dominate the future automotive market and does this represent a positive shift in the environmental impact of the industry? The answer to this question is sought within this paper. It seeks to take advantage of the position that the industry has reached, replacing previous t...

  16. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IN CADASTRAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manyoky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial. However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  17. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  18. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  19. RFID-based vehicle positioning and its applications in connected vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Ni, Daiheng; Li, Keqiang

    2014-03-04

    This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control.

  20. Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-06-11

    Energy storage for stationary use is gaining traction both at the grid scale and distributed level. As renewable energy generation increases, energy storage is needed to compensate for the volatility of renewable over various time scales. This requires energy storage that is tailored for various energy to power (E/P) ratios. Other applications for energy storage include peak shaving, time shifting, load leveling, VAR control, frequency regulation, spinning reserves and other ancillary applications. While the need for energy storage for stationary applications is obvious, the regulations that determine the economic value of adding storage are at various stages of development. This has created a reluctance on the part of energy storage manufacturers to develop a suite of storage systems that can address the myriad of applications associated with stationary applications. Deployment of battery energy storage systems in the transportation sector is ahead of the curve with respect to the stationary space. Batteries, along with battery management systems (BMS) have been deployed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). HEVs have now been deployed for 12 years, while PHEVs for 8 and EVs for 4 years. Some of the batteries are approaching end of life within the vehicle, and are ready to be taken off for recycling and disposal. Performance within a vehicle is non-negotiable in terms of miles traveled per charge, resulting in the batteries retaining a significant portion of their life. For stationary applications, the remaining energy and power of the battery can still be used by grouping together a few of these batteries. This enables getting the most of these batteries, while ensuring that performance is not compromised in either the automotive or stationary applications. This work summarizes the opportunities for such re-purposing of automotive batteries, along with the advantages and limitations

  1. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  2. Electric vehicle machines and drives design, analysis and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K

    2015-01-01

    A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

  3. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most important and challenging optimization problems in the field of Operations Research. It was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser (1959) and defined as the problem of designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve...... a given set of customers. The VRP is a computationally hard combinatorial problem and has been intensively studied by numerous researchers in the last fifty years. Due to the significant economic benefit that can be achieved by optimizing the routing problems in practice, more and more attention has been...... given to various extensions of the VRP that arise in real life. These extensions are often called Rich Vehicle Routing Problems (RVRPs). In contrast to the research of classical VRP that focuses on the idealized models with unrealistic assumptions, the research of RVRPs considers those complicated...

  4. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  5. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  7. Labview Application For A Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Paladine Vieira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction of a vehicle driven by electric motors and that is automated, that is, that can move anywhere without human intervention. The control was done using the software Labview, with data acquisition and generation of control signs. The vehicle has an infrared sensors system that indicates the existence of an obstacle ahead the vehicle, informing it that it should stop and bypass the obstacle. The program is the responsible for the engine control, making it possible for the prototype to run and bypass the objects that block its way. The possibility of remote-controlling a vehicle is very important is risky situations for human beings, for example in radioactive places. The main advantage of this system is the total flexibility for making alterations in the control software, without being necessary to touch the physical part of the prototype. The conclusion of this work is that the system is efficient and able to move in a room with objects without touching them.

  8. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  9. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  10. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  11. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  12. Development of HFF6120G03SHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus%HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少凯

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车整车的开发和驱动控制系统的设计,以及整车动力电池组布置技术方案.%The author briefly introduces the whole vehicle development, drive control system design and the vehicle power battery layout scheme of HFF6120G03SHEV plug-in hybrid electric bus.

  13. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  14. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  15. Different energy management strategies of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors for vehicular applications

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEGRE, Anne-Laure; Trigui, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The energy storage is a key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a right size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors seems to be an appropriate device to fulfill these constraints. The objective of the paper is to propose different energy management strategies of HESS using batteries and supercapacitors. Four elabor...

  16. Different energy management strategies of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors for vehicular applications

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEGRE, Anne-Laure; TRIGUI, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The energy storage is a key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a right size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors seems to be an appropriate device to fulfill these constraints. The objective of the paper is to propose different energy management strategies of HESS using batteries and supercapacitors. Four elabor...

  17. Hybrid-Electric and All-Electric Rotorcraft Analysis and Tool Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort ESAero will draw upon its knowledge of hybrid-electric propulsion system design and analysis for fixed wing aircraft to investigate the...

  18. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  19. Investigative Research, FMECA and PHM Modeling of Hybrid-Electric Distributed Propulsion System Architectures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  20. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  1. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  2. Application of Harmony Search to Vehicle Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong W.  Geem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenon-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm, harmony search, imitating music improvisation process, is introduced and applied to vehicle routing problem, then compared with one of the popular evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm. The harmony search algorithm conceptualized a group of musicians together trying to search for better state of harmony. This algorithm was applied to a test traffic network composed of one bus depot, one school and ten bus stops with demand by commuting students. This school bus routing example is a multi-objective problem to minimize both the number of operating buses and the total travel time of all buses while satisfying bus capacity and time window constraints. Harmony search could find good solution within the reasonable amount of time and computation.

  3. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Wood, Clément Rames, Matteo Muratori, Sesha Raghavan, and Marc Melaina

    2017-09-15

    This report addresses the fundamental question of how much plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure—also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—is needed in the United States to support both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  4. Depth perception camera for autonomous vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp

    2013-05-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. Since it provides numeric information of the distance from the camera to all points in its field of view it is ideally suited for autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. This eliminates the LIDAR conventionally used for range measurements. The light arriving at a pixel through a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light from all other object points cancels. Thus, the lens selects the point on the object who's range is to be determined. The range measurement is accomplished by short light guides at each pixel. The light guides contain a p - n junction and a pair of contacts along its length. They, too, contain light sensing elements along the length. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel.

  5. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, B. M.; Chebil, J.; Albatsh, F.; Faris, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment.

  6. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  7. Application of Professional Software in Vehicle Engineering Electronic Control Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-bin; JIN Ke

    2016-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitation of vehicle engineering professional laboratory personnel and facilities, some of them is commonly used auxiliary software in the professional field for design, calculation and research, including characteristics of software, application scope and methods are presented in this paper. Through these industries aided software powerful calculation, analysis functions and convenient visualization means, for the virtual simulation experiment, it can help to clearly illustrate the concept, deepen students′understanding level of vehicle professional course, improve the enthusiasm of the students, improve the ability of autonomous learning and improve students' thinking ability and practice ability, and can effectively train high⁃quality professionals with good quality.

  8. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... lubricant, compared to the reference lubricant, was dependent on the driving pattern -the lubricant was the main contributor to the soluble organic fraction of the particulates emitted, only biodiesel gave a contribution from the fuel -a slightly higher fuel consumption and NOx emission was noticed...

  9. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  10. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  11. Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2002-10-08

    The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

  12. A New Buck-Boost Converter for a Hybrid-Electric Drive Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mašek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work on the laboratory working stand for a hybrid-electric drive located in laboratory T2:H1-26.The basic idea is to operate the combustion engine in its optimal regime. In this regime the engine has the highest efficiency and minimal smoke exhaust. This optimal regime is only a small portion of its operation area. Because the engine has to operate in this area, it is necessary to add a new converter to the hybrid-electric stand. The new converter must be allowed to buck and boost and must operate as a current source in this regime. 

  13. An Unmanned Tracked Vehicle for Snow Research Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight robotic vehicles can be designed for over-snow mobility to carry out a variety of snow and glacier related studies like carrying out GPR survey of cracks & crevasses over ice crusts that cannot support foot travel, for collecting snow samples and carrying out sub-surface experiments with penetrometers on terrain that are dangerous for human, GPS mapping of avalanche debris etc. Sinkage, resistance to snow compaction, loss of traction and ingestion of snow into the driving system are some of the challenges that an unmanned lightweight tracked vehicle faces in snowbound terrain. In present work, a lightweight and unmanned remotely operated vehicle (ROV is conceptualized and developed as a technological solution. In this paper design and features of this vehicle, named HimBot, are presented along with the results obtained from tests carried over snow at Solang Nullah field observatory of SASE in February 2013. The outcome of this work will help in developing an optimized design of an ROV for over snow mobility for a variety of applications.

  14. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part I. Performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications performed during the latter part of FY76 and FY76T by the Special Studies Group of the LLL Physics Department for the Office of Naval Research is reported. Smart water-traversing limbed remotely navigated vehicles are interesting because: they are the only viable small vehicle usable in high sea states; they are small and work on the ocean surface, they are much harder to detect than any other conventional craft; they have no human pilot, are capable of high-g evasion, and will continue to operate after direct hits that would have crippled a human crew; they have the prospect of providing surface platforms possessing unprecedented speed and maneuverability; unlike manned information-gathering craft, they impose almost no penalty for missions in excess of 10 hours (no need to rotate shifts of crewmen, no food/lavatory requirements, etc.) and, in their ''loitering mode'', waterbugs could perhaps perform their missions for days to weeks; they are cheap enough to use for one-way missions; they are mass-producible; they are inherently reliable--almost impossible to sink and, in the event of in-use failure, the vehicle will not be destroyed; they maximally exploit continuing technological asymmetries between the U.S. and its potential opponents; and they are economically highly cost-effective for a wide spectrum of Navy missions. (TFD)

  15. Open Issues in Supervisory Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Unified Approach Using Optimal Control Methods Questions ouvertes sur la supervision énergétique des véhicules hybrides électriques : une approche unifiée par la théorie de la commande optimale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrao L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy management of hybrid propulsion systems is considered, presenting new issues that extend the energy management role beyond the standard torque splitting to maximize system efficiency. The new issues include additional optimization criteria, constraints and relevant dynamics to deal with. New optimization criteria in addition the sole fuel consumption minimization include engine-out pollutant emissions and battery aging. State constraints are modified to account for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Moreover, specific supervisory control problems are recognized to need additional state variables. The latter comprise: engine and catalyst temperature to deal with engine warm-up effects on fuel consumption and after-catalyst emissions; thermal dynamics of heat recovery systems (Rankine or Thermo-Electric Generators, TEGs; and battery temperature, which influences battery performance and aging. It is shown that all these control problems can be treated in an unified fashion by extending the well-known ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy, which is an implementation of Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP as formulated by optimal control theory. Extended definitions of the Hamiltonian function and Lagrange multipliers are introduced. Optimization runs performed off line are reported. Results show the benefits of the proposed unified approach and enlighten some first online implementation issues. Cet article a pour objet la gestion optimale de l’énergie pour un système de propulsion hybride. Le problème traditionnel de répartition de la puissance est modifié avec des nouveaux objectifs d’optimisation et des nouvelles contraintes. Les nouveaux objectifs d’optimisation incluent les émissions de polluants et le vieillissement de la batterie. Les contraintes sont modifiées pour prendre en compte des batteries à recharge externe (hybrides plug-in. De plus, des problèmes spécifiques sont traités avec une modélisation plus d

  16. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...

  17. Transient Analysis of a Bldc Starter/generatorsystem Used in Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinli; Shi, Yan; Liang, Anbo; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Qian

    The brushless DC motor used in ISAD of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles is introduced in this paper. Magnet field distribution and static characteristic of permanent magnet brushless DC motor are calculated by finite element methods.

  18. 77 FR 50969 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... coordination with California, automobile manufacturers face a single set of national emissions standards that...-in hybrid electric vehicle conversions; and to adopt the national GHG emissions standards framework...

  19. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  20. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.