WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid-electric propulsion systems

  1. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  2. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  3. Investigative Research, FMECA and PHM Modeling of Hybrid-Electric Distributed Propulsion System Architectures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  4. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  5. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  6. Analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System Designs for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    arrival of the Insight, nearly every major automotive manufacturer has released its own hybrid model. The Toyota Prius , released to the US in 2001, has...dominated the hybrid marketplace with US sales topping 1,000,000 in March 2009.17 The Prius features a power-split hybrid system enabling use of an

  7. Optimization of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems for Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    2009. [20 Blake A. Moffitt, Thomas H. Bradely , Dimitri Mavris, and David E. Perekh, "Design Space Exploration of Small-Scale PEM Fuel Cell Long...Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)," in 5th Australian Congress on Applied Mechanics (ACAM), Brisbane, Australia, 2007. [18 Thomas H. Bradely , Blake A. Moffitt...Thomas F. Fuller, Dimitri N. Mavris, and David E. Parekh, "Comparison of Design Methods for Fuel-Cell-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," Journal

  8. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  9. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  10. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  14. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  15. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  16. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Ayers, C. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Marlino, L. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Chiasson, J. N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burress, B. A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200–1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design

  17. Implementation of an Open-Loop Rule-Based Control Strategy for a Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System On a Small RPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    controlling a system. Hagen and Demuth describe the neural network controller as a function approximator [38]. In this case of a neural network, the...Martin T. Hagan and Howard B. Demuth , "Neural Networks for Control," in American Control Conference, San Diego, 1999. [39] Joseph Matthews

  18. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  19. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  20. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  1. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  2. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  3. Control system for a 373 kW, intercooled, two-spool gas turbine engine powering a hybrid electric world sports car class vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortlidge, C.C. [SatCon Technology Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    SatCon technology Corporation has completed design, fabrication, and the first round of test of a 373 kW (500 hp), two-spool, intercooled gas turbine engine with integral induction type alternators. This turbine alternator is the prime mover for a World Sports Car class hybrid electric vehicle under development by Chrysler Corporation. The complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system features the 373 kW (500 hp) turbine alternator unit, a 373 kW (500 hp) 3.25 kW-h (4.36 hp-h) flywheel, a 559 kW (750 hp) traction motor, and the propulsion system control system. This paper presents and discusses the major attributes of the control system associated with the turbine alternator unit. Also discussed is the role and operational requirements of the turbine unit as part of the complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system.

  4. Modeling of plasma in a hybrid electric propulsion for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2016-09-01

    As space flight becomes more available and reliable, space-based technology is allowing for smaller and more cost-effective satellites to be produced. Working in large swarms, many small satellites can provide additional capabilities while reducing risk. These satellites require efficient, long term propulsion for manoeuvres, orbit maintenance and de-orbiting. The high exhaust velocity and propellant efficiency of electric propulsion makes it ideally suited for low thrust missions. The two dominant types of electric propulsion, namely ion thrusters and Hall thrusters, excel in different mission types. In this work, a novel electric hybrid propulsion design is modelled to enhance understanding of key phenomena and evaluate performance. Specifically, the modelled hybrid thruster seeks to overcome issues with existing Ion and Hall thruster designs. Scaling issues and optimization of the design will be discussed and will investigate a conceptual design of a hybrid spacecraft plasma engine.

  5. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  6. Penalty for Fuel Economy - System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a quantitative point of view. It also introduces a quantitative meaning to the...internal combustion engine based vehicle and later transition of those to hybrid electric vehicles . The paper intends to drive the point that in HEV...Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric

  7. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    20  Figure 3: Experimental Torque Measurements [28] ......................................................... 20  Figure 4: Flight...off during loiter operation it could be restarted by powering the motor with the clutch engaged. The torque necessary to do this was substantial and...design the team tested the clutch configuration. It was discovered for this experiment that the clutch could withstand the torque , but the motor was

  8. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  9. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  10. Hybrid-Electric and All-Electric Rotorcraft Analysis and Tool Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort ESAero will draw upon its knowledge of hybrid-electric propulsion system design and analysis for fixed wing aircraft to investigate the...

  11. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  12. ePHM System Development, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing, Fault Tree, and FMECA Applied to and Integrated on NASA Hybrid Electric Testbeds Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  13. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  14. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  15. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  16. Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    definition we are choosing x to be aligned with the direction of flight. Thus, accounting for the possible rotation of the axes, the acceleration in...Monopropellants. In a monopropellant system, like the name suggests, there is one propellant which decomposes exothermically as it passes through a catalytic...it comes into contact with the catalyst bed. Subsequently, the ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen in an endothermic reaction lowering the

  17. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2 for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experiments under various operating conditions of inlet air temperature, air flow rates for the gas cooler side and evaporator side, and electric compressor revolution respectively. As a result, cooling performances of the tested air-conditioning system for the EDC driving mode (electricity driven compressor were better than those for the BDC driving mode (belt driven compressor. The cooling capacity and cooling COP of the tested air-conditioning system for both driving modes were over 5.0 kW and 2.0, respectively. The observed cooling performance of the tested air-conditioning system may be sufficient for the cabin cooling of hybrid electric vehicles.

  18. Simulation Propulsion System and Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    A number of new aircraft concepts have recently been proposed which tightly couple the propulsion system design and operation with the overall vehicle design and performance characteristics. These concepts include propulsion technology such as boundary layer ingestion, hybrid electric propulsion systems, distributed propulsion systems and variable cycle engines. Initial studies examining these concepts have typically used a traditional decoupled approach to aircraft design where the aerodynamics and propulsion designs are done a-priori and tabular data is used to provide inexpensive look ups to the trajectory ana-ysis. However the cost of generating the tabular data begins to grow exponentially when newer aircraft concepts require consideration of additional operational parameters such as multiple throttle settings, angle-of-attack effects on the propulsion system, or propulsion throttle setting effects on aerodynamics. This paper proposes a new modeling approach that eliminated the need to generate tabular data, instead allowing an expensive propulsion or aerodynamic analysis to be directly integrated into the trajectory analysis model and the entire design problem optimized in a fully coupled manner. The new method is demonstrated by implementing a canonical optimal control problem, the F-4 minimum time-to-climb trajectory optimization using three relatively new analysis tools: Open M-DAO, PyCycle and Pointer. Pycycle and Pointer both provide analytic derivatives and Open MDAO enables the two tools to be combined into a coupled model that can be run in an efficient parallel manner that helps to cost the increased cost of the more expensive propulsion analysis. Results generated with this model serve as a validation of the tightly coupled design method and guide future studies to examine aircraft concepts with more complex operational dependencies for the aerodynamic and propulsion models.

  19. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  20. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  1. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  2. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  3. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  4. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  5. Experimental Study on Communication Delay of Powertrain System of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to contrast and analyze the real-time performance of the powertrain system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, a mathematical model of the system delay is established under the circumstances that the transmission adopts the CAN (controller area network protocol and the TTCAN (time-triggered CAN protocol, respectively, and the interior of the controller adopts the foreground-background mode and the OSEK mode respectively. In addition, an experimental platform is developed to test communication delays of messages under 4 different implementation models. The 4 models are testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode; testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode; testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode, and testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode. The theoretical and testing results indicate that the communication delay of the OSEK mode is a little longer than the one of the foreground-background mode. Moreover, compared with the CAN protocol, the periodic message has a better real-time performance under the TTCAN protocol, while the nonperiodic message has a worse one.

  6. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  7. Physics-Based Wing Structure Design, Analysis and Weight Estimation Conceptual Design Tool for Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As HEDP systems have proven worthy of further consideration by approaching NASA's goals for N+2 and N+3 energy consumption, noise, emission and field length,...

  8. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  9. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  10. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  11. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  12. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  13. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  14. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  15. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  16. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  17. A new marine propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-shi; LIU Tao

    2003-01-01

    A new marine propulsion system is proposed . A small liquid sodium cooled reactor acts as prime mover; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are employed to convert the heat energy to electricity; superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic thruster combined with spray-water thruster works as propulsion. The configuration and characteristics of this system are described. Such a nuclear-powered propulsion system is not only free of noise, but also has high reliability and efficiency. It would be a preferable propulsion system for ships in the future.

  18. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  19. Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for a Flywheel Energy Storage System within a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming

    As an energy storage device, the flywheel has significant advantages over conventional chemical batteries, including higher energy density, higher efficiency, longer life time, and less pollution to the environment. An effective flywheel system can be attributed to its good motor/generator (M/G) design. This thesis describes the research work on the design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) as an M/G suitable for integration in a flywheel energy storage system within a large hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The operating requirements of the application include wide power and speed ranges combined with high total system efficiency. Along with presenting the design, essential issues related to PMSM design including cogging torque, iron losses and total harmonic distortion (THD) are investigated. An iterative approach combining lumped parameter analysis with 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used, and the final design is presented showing excellent performance.

  20. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  2. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  3. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  4. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  5. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  6. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS, IAA WHITE PAPER PARIS, FRANCE, MARCH 2005 Lt Col Timothy J. Lawrence U.S. Air Force Academy...YYYY) 18-03-2005 2. REPORT TYPE White Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Mar 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION...reduce radiation exposure, is to have a high energy system like a nuclear thermal rocket that can get the payload to the destination in the fastest

  7. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  8. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  9. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  10. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  11. Super-capacitors as an energy storage for fuel cell automotive hybrid electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, P.; Rael, St.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The design, implementation and testing of a purely super-capacitors energy storage system for automotive system having a fuel cell as main source are presented. The system employs a super-capacitive storage device, composed of six components (3500 F, 2.5 V, 400 A) associated in series. This device is connected to automotive 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant DC-DC converter. The control structure of the system is realised by means of analogical and digital control. The experimental results show that super-capacitors are suitable as energy storage device for fuel cell automotive electrical system. (authors)

  12. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  13. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  14. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola; Yuri Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs) was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation ...

  15. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  16. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  17. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  18. A New Propulsion System for Ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-31

    complex relationships involving ship propulsion , ship control and a host of independent problems related to hydrodynamics, structural mechanics, efficiency...namely ship configuration and ship con- trol in addition to ship propulsion . The transmission pump can 1be used for boundary layer control on the...possibly overcome the limitation and performance shortcomings of existing ship propulsion systems. Light weight propulsion systems for naval ship

  19. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  20. Helicopter Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    r " for the introduction of the gas turbine with its high horsepower output per unit weighL .nd volume, good efficiency, and its virtually unlimited...approach, plus the use of maximum continuous limits for the drive system, would virtually eliminate the pilot’s concern for exceeding time-at-power...is turbine libro . Pour cola, ii faut connaitra parfaitemont les regimes do survitossos (d~rives do r~gulation, etc...) rencontrts sur h6licopto~re en

  1. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will

  2. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  3. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  5. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  6. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  7. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  8. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  9. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  10. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  11. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs as a useful new tool for system operation and regulation from a review of recent studies and mainly considers two mainstream methods: demand response and economic dispatch. The potential of using PHEVs/EVs to coordinate renewable energy resources is also discussed in terms of accepting more renewable resources without violating the safety and the reliability of power systems or increasing the operation cost significantly.

  12. Integrated Propulsion Data System Public Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Data System's (IPDS) focus is to provide technologically-advanced philosophies of doing business at SSC that will enhance the existing operations, engineering and management strategies and provide insight and metrics to assess their daily impacts, especially as related to the Propulsion Test Directorate testing scenarios for the 21st Century.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  14. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  15. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.

  16. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  17. 串联式混合动力拖拉机驱动系设计%Design of drive system for series hybrid electric tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立友; 刘孟楠; 周志立

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the drawbacks of traditional tractors, such as complicated transmissions, inefficient transmission systems, heavy fuel consumption rates, and high exhaust gas emissions, the design method of the tractor’s series hybrid electric drive systems was put forward by calculating its plough operation rated traction. A feasible formation was given and included design methods of the electric tractive motor, weight parameters, and prime energy systems, which consist of a diesel engine and a generator of the powerful tractor’s hybrid electric drive systems. Transmission ratios of the series hybrid electric tractor drive systems were designed to follow with differences of working load rates under commonly used working conditions, while making sure of the efficiency and capacity of transmission systems. Its storage battery parameters were designed to fill the traction power requirement, which is from the changing load situation when the tractor worked under a light gear. The YTO-1804 wheeled tractor has been taken as the investigative object, its series hybrid electric drive systems have been designed by using the aforementioned method. Upon analysis of its tractive characteristics, the results conveyed that the installed tractor’s working adaptability and tractive characteristics are better when it compared with the original tractor. Output of the electric motor is suitable with the requirements of a heavy load working circumstance. The curve portrayed that the relation between the traction force and the traction power of the installed tractor could cover the original tractor’s working area. The installed tractor’s transmission is more efficient and its structure is simpler. Combined with the relevant slippage test results to analyze the installed tractor’s slippage situation, changes in slippage rate followed with changes in driving force are acceptable. Based on the analysis of the difference of equivalent fuel consumption rates between the two types of

  18. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  19. Design and Analysis of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Utilizing Motor Regenerative Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianlong; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2009-01-01

    Braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads, hybrid electric vehicle's motor regenerative torque is switched off to safeguard the normal anti-lock braking system (ABS) function. When the ABS control is terminated, the motor regenerative braking is readmitted.Aiming at avoiding permanent cycles from hydraulic anti-lock braking to motor regenerative braking, a novel electro-mechanical hybrid anti-lock braking system using fuzzy logic is designed. Different from the traditional single control structure, this system has a two-layered hierarchical structure. The first layer is responsible for harmonious adjustment or interaction between regenerative system and anti-lock braking system. The second layer is responsible for braking torque distribution and adjustment. The closed-loop simulation model is built. Control strategy and method for coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking are developed. Simulation braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads with fuzzy logic control and real vehicle braking field test are presented. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show braking performance of the vehicle is perfect, harmonious coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking function, significant amount of braking energy can be recovered and the proposed control strategy and method are effective.

  20. SEGMAG Machines for Marine Electrical Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-13

    ship propulsion drives. It encompasses the conceptual design of a 40,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, drive system for a destroyer type vessel and a 20,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, drive system for a hydrofoil type vessel. It also includes a detail design and initiated construction of a 3,000 horsepower per shaft, two shaft, prototype drive system for a land based demonstration. All three drive systems utilize gas turbines for prime movers. In addition to the main propulsion machinery designs, the auxiliaries required for the systems are also

  1. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  2. Neural Network Control of a Parallel Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    END OF PARAMETERS THAT SCALE %%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%% OTHER PARAMETERS %%%%%%%%%% "% Density and LHV of gasoline "% Reference: Thermodynamics, Cengel ...Density and LHV of gasoline % Reference: Thermodynamics, Cengel , 2002, pg. 864 fc _fuelden=753; % Density of the Fuel (g/liter) fcfuellhv=44000; % Lower

  3. Rapid Prototype Development of a Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Powered by a Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Operational RPA component v erification «OperationalActivityRealiza... Production Rediness Rev iew «OperationalActivityRealiza... Production...v erification «OperationalActivityRealiza... Production Rediness Rev iew «OperationalActivityRealiza... Production «Operati... Payload Preliminary... Database Requirements. Testing will be documented in accordance with specifics detailed in specific test plans and per pre-determined developmental

  4. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  5. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  6. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  7. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  8. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  9. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  10. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  11. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  12. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  13. New diesel-electric propulsion system topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondoin, D.; Menneron, F. [Alstom Power Conversion (France)

    2000-07-01

    The dual star winding synchronous motor (two 3 phases independent windings) supplied from a current source has now been used for numerous direct drive ship electric propulsion systems. The shaft Power of such systems ranges from a couple MW to 25 MW. Such variable speed drive technology is mature having it installed on many ships. ALSTOM has recently introduced a family of new large electric POD thrusters (functionally comparable to large out board propulsion motors driving directly the propeller) called MERMAID{sup TM}. The most powerful of such PODs were installed on the MILLENIUM cruise ships and is rated 20.1 MW. They include a dual star winding synchronous motor supplied by current source inverters operating without any motor rotor position sensor. In parallel, ALSTOM has provided a conventional electric propulsion still involving a dual star winding synchronous motor. This motor is powered from state of the art voltage source inverters: Taking advantage of the most recent Power electronic components development, the MISTRAL cruise ship (2.9 MW) is powered through inverters based on the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategy. This paper intends presenting the above technology evolutions then to marry them for the benefits of enhanced future ship electric propulsion systems. (authors)

  14. 2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  15. 2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  16. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  17. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  18. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  19. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  20. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  1. Waves from Propulsion Systems of Fast Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taatø, Søren Haugsted; Aage, Christian; Arnskov, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Waves from fast ferries have become an environmental problem of growing concern to the public. Fast ferries produce not only higher waves than conventional ships but also fundamentally different wave systems when they sail at supercritical speeds. Hitherto, ship waves have been considered as being...... generated by the ship hulls alone. Whereas this assumption may be reasonable for conventional ships with large hulls and limited propulsive power, the situation is different for fast ferries with their smaller hulls and very large installed power. A simple theoretical model and a series of model tests...... on a monohull fast ferry seem to indicate that a substantial part of the wave-making can be directly attributed to the propulsion system itself. Thus, two wave systems are created with different phases, but with similar frequency contents, which means that they merge into one system behind the ship, very...

  2. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology.......This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...

  3. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  4. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  5. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  6. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  7. Enhanced Passive Thermal Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    relatively high critical pressure. Tusaire developed a Redlich - Kwong cubic equation of state code (following Reference 3 and 4 methods) for selecting fluid...welded heat exchangers. IMPACT/ APPLICATIONS Potential future impact for Science and/or Systems Applications is the substantial increase in underwater

  8. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  9. Review Of Laser Lightcraft Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric W.; Mead, Franklin B.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-powered "Lightcraft" systems that deliver nano-satellites to LEO have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The study was built on the extensive Lightcraft laser propulsion technology already developed by theoretical and experimental work by the AFRL's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Here we review the history and engineering-physics of the laser Lightcraft system and its propulsive performance. We will also review the effectiveness and cost of a Lightcraft vehicle powered by a high-energy laser beam. One result of this study is the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. It was discovered that energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for Earth-To-Orbit missions, and this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  10. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  11. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  12. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  13. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  14. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  15. Ares I First Stage Propulsion System Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle inevitable, the US is faced with the need to loft a reliable cost-effective, technologically viable solution to bring the nation s fleet of spacecraft back up to industry standard. It must not only support the International Space Station (ISS), it must also be capable of supporting human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA created the Constellation Program to develop a new fleet including the launch vehicles, the spacecraft, and the mission architecture to meet those objectives. The Ares First Stage Team is tasked with developing a propulsion system capable of safely, dependably and repeatedly lofting that new fleet. To minimize technical risks and development costs, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of Shuttle were used as a starting point in the design and production of a new first stage element. While the first stage will provide the foundation, the structural backbone, power, and control for launch, the new propulsive element will also provide a greater total impulse to loft a safer, more powerful, fleet of space flight vehicles. Substantial design and system upgrades were required to meet the mass and trajectory requisites of the new fleet. Noteworthy innovations and design features include new forward structures, new propellant grain geometry, a new internal insulation system, and a state-of-the art avionics system. Additional advances were in materials and composite structures development, case bond liners, and thermal protection systems. Significant progress has been made in the design, development and testing of the propulsion and avionics systems for the new first stage element. Challenges, such as those anticipated with thrust oscillation, have been better characterized, and are being effectively mitigated. The test firing of the first development motor (DM-1) was a success that validated much of the engineering development to date. Substantive data has been collected and analyzed, allowing the Ares

  16. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  17. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  18. Aircraft propulsion systems technology and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oates, Gordon C

    1989-01-01

    ... propulsion technology planned by Gordon C. Gates. Other titles: Aerothermodynamics of gas turbine and rocket propulsion (c!988); Aerothermodynamics of aircraft engine com.ponents (c!985). Includes b...

  19. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  20. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  1. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  2. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-11 Propulsion systems. Each power...

  3. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent...

  4. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling...

  5. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  7. A pulsed cathodic arc spacecraft propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P R C; Bilek, M M M; Tarrant, R N; McKenzie, D R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the use of a centre-triggered cathodic arc as a spacecraft propulsion system that uses an inert solid as a source of plasma. The cathodic vacuum arc produces almost fully ionized plasma with a high exhaust velocity (>10{sup 4} m s{sup -1}), giving a specific impulse competitive with other plasma or ion thrusters. A centre trigger design is employed that enables efficient use of cathode material and a high pulse-to-pulse repeatability. We compare three anode geometries, two pulse current profiles and two pulse durations for their effects on impulse generation, energy and cathode material usage efficiency. Impulse measurement is achieved through the use of a free-swinging pendulum target constructed from a polymer material. Measurements show that impulse is accurately controlled by varying cathode current. The cylindrical anode gave the highest energy efficiency. Cathode usage is optimized by choosing a sawtooth current profile. There is no requirement for an exhaust charge neutralization system.

  8. High Power Electric Propulsion System for NEP (systemes propulsifs electriques de forte puissance pour propulsion nucleo-electrique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-13

    1 SYSTEMES PROPULSIFS ELECTRIQUES DE FORTE PUISSANCE POUR PROPULSION NUCLEO- ELECTRIQUE HIGH POWER ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR NEP...Christophe R. KOPPEL*, Olivier DUCHEMIN*, Dominique VALENTIAN** Snecma, Groupe Safran, Division Moteurs Spatiaux, *Site de Villaroche Nord...REPORT DATE 13 JUL 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Systemes Propulsifs Electriques De Forte Puissance Pour

  9. Compact Water Jet Propulsion System for a Marine Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention is directed to an improved water jet propulsion system for a marine vehicle. The water jet propulsion system of the present invention...the vehicle hull and extending internally thereof, a water jet pump having an inlet end attached to the outlet end of the inlet duct, a motor for

  10. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  11. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  12. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  13. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  14. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  15. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  16. Multivariable speed synchronisation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, B.; Antritter, F.; Svaricek, F.; Schultalbers, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a new drivetrain configuration of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is considered and a novel model-based control design strategy is given. In particular, the control design covers the speed synchronisation task during a restart of the internal combustion engine. The proposed multivariable synchronisation strategy is based on feedforward and decoupled feedback controllers. The performance and the robustness properties of the closed-loop system are illustrated by nonlinear simulation results.

  17. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  18. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John K.

    2000-01-01

    The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play

  19. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  20. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or substantial marine pollution. These are the reasons why solutions that will prevent the ship being unable to manoeuvre during her exploitation should be implemented. Therefore, it is necessary to define a propulsion restoration model which would not depend on the primary electrical energy. The paper provides a model of the marine auxiliary system for more reliable propulsion. This includes starting, reversing and stopping of the propulsion engine. The proposed solution of reliable propulsion model based on the use of a shaft generator and an excitation engine enables the restoration of propulsion following total failure of the electrical energy primary production system, and the self-propelled ship navigation. A ship is an important factor in the Technology of Transport, and the implementation of this model increases safety, reduces downtime, and significantly decreases hazards of pollution damage.KEYWORDSreliable propulsion, failure, ship auxiliary system, control, propulsion restoration

  1. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  2. Conceptual Study of Permanent Magnet Machine Ship Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    thyristors and can be either water or air cooled. The machine-cycloconverter, many-phase or parallel three-phase connection design offers a drive system with characteristics well matched to a ship propulsion system.

  3. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Shouliang Han; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Ching Chuen Chan

    2014-01-01

    The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM) is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not onl...

  4. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  5. Design of Propulsion System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design method of propulsion systems for fuel cell vehicles complying with the 42V PowerNet standard. The method is based on field measurements during several weeks. Several cases of combining energy storage devices to a common bus voltage are investigated, and the total mass......, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system are compared. It is concluded that the number of energy storage devices and their connecting to the common bus have a significant affect of the mass, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system....

  6. A Comprehensive Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiying Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. A comprehensive overview of HEVs is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on configurations, main issues, and energy management strategies. Conclusions are discussed finally.

  7. Velocity trajectory optimization in Hybrid Electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Foster, D.L.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) enable fuel savings by re-using kinetic and potential energy that was recovered and stored in a battery during braking or driving down hill. Besides, the vehicle itself can be seen as a storage device, where kinetic energy can be stored and retrieved by changing the

  8. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  9. Electromagnetic Propulsion System for Spacecraft using Geomagnetic fields and Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Anang

    This thesis concentrates on developing an innovative method to generate thrust force for spacecraft in localized geomagnetic fields by various electromagnetic systems. The proposed electromagnetic propulsion system is an electromagnet, like normal or superconducting solenoid, having its own magnetic field which interacts with the planet's magnetic field to produce a reaction thrust force. The practicality of the system is checked by performing simulations in order the find the varying radius, velocity, and acceleration changes. The advantages, challenges, various optimization techniques, and viability of such a propulsion system in present day and future are discussed. The propulsion system such developed is comparable to modern MPD Thrusters and electric engines, and has various applications like spacecraft propulsion, orbit transfer and stationkeeping.

  10. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS): An Award Winning Propulsion System Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Laurel J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a full propulsion system simulation tool used by aerospace engineers to predict and analyze the aerothermodynamic behavior of commercial jet aircraft, military applications, and space transportation. The NPSS framework was developed to support aerospace, but other applications are already leveraging the initial capabilities, such as aviation safety, ground-based power, and alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. By using the framework and developing the necessary components, future applications that NPSS could support include nuclear power, water treatment, biomedicine, chemical processing, and marine propulsion. NPSS will dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines. It accomplishes that by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system, thus enabling engineers to "test" various design options without having to conduct costly, time-consuming real-life tests. The ultimate goal of NPSS is to create a numerical "test cell" that enables engineers to create complete engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Using NPSS, engine designers will be able to analyze different parts of the engine simultaneously, perform different types of analysis simultaneously (e.g., aerodynamic and structural), and perform analysis in a more efficient and less costly manner. NPSS will cut the development time of a new engine in half, from 10 years to 5 years. And NPSS will have a similar effect on the cost of development: new jet engines will cost about a billion dollars to develop rather than two billion. NPSS is also being applied to the development of space transportation technologies, and it is expected that similar efficiencies and cost savings will result. Advancements of NPSS in fiscal year 2001 included enhancing the NPSS Developer's Kit to easily integrate external components of varying fidelities, providing

  11. High Temperature Radiators for Electric Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VASIMR propulsion system uses a high temperature Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) radiator to reject heat from the helicon section. The current baseline radiator uses...

  12. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Stator Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many are pursuing the development of electric propulsion systems for large aircraft due to the potential of being cleaner, quieter, lighter, and more versatile than...

  13. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  14. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  15. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  16. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  18. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  19. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Laboratory

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  20. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  1. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-5 Remote propulsion-control systems. (a) Manual propulsion control. All vessels having remote propulsion control from the...

  2. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  3. Isomer Energy Source for Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rocket PBR Particle-Bed Reactor SNTP Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion TIC Triggered Isomer Core TIHE Triggered Isomer Heat...energy in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) configuration. This includes study of the current state of triggered isomer research, an investigation of 4... thermal rocket this means that heat from the reactive core must be prevented from raising the temperature of the propellant prior to its release from

  4. A control-oriented lithium-ion battery pack model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cycle-life studies and system design with consideration of health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    A crucial step towards the large-scale introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the market is to reduce the cost of its battery systems. Currently, battery cycle- and calendar-life represents one of the greatest uncertainties in the total life-cycle cost of battery systems. The field of battery aging modeling and prognosis has seen progress with respect to model-based and data-driven approaches to describe the aging of battery cells. However, in real world applications cells are interconnected and aging propagates. The propagation of aging from one cell to others exhibits itself in a reduced battery system life. This paper proposes a control-oriented battery pack model that describes the propagation of aging and its effect on the life span of battery systems. The modeling approach is such that it is able to predict pack aging, thermal, and electrical dynamics under actual PHEV operation, and includes consideration of random variability of the cells, electrical topology and thermal management. The modeling approach is based on the interaction between dynamic system models of the electrical and thermal dynamics, and dynamic models of cell aging. The system-level state-of-health (SOH) is assessed based on knowledge of individual cells SOH, pack electrical topology and voltage equalization approach.

  5. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  6. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  7. A propulsion system to start-up again the electric-powered car; Une propulsion pour relancer la voiture electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, C.

    2000-06-01

    The French car manufacturer Renault wants to put the finishing touches to the development of a less expensive, more compact and more performing electric propulsion system with a maximum integration of its components. This new propulsion system will equip the Kangoo model in November 2000. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  9. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Dubois, Arthur; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a suite of hybrid-electric propulsion technologies for aircraft. These technologies have the benefit of lower emissions, diminished noise, increased efficiency, and reduced fuel burn. These will provide lower operating costs for aircraft operators. Replacing internal combustion engines with distributed electric propulsion is a keystone of this technology suite, but presents many new problems to aircraft system designers. One of the problems is how to cool these electric motors without adding significant aerodynamic drag, cooling system weight or fan power. This paper discusses the options evaluated for cooling the motors on SCEPTOR (Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research): a project that will demonstrate Distributed Electric Propulsion technology in flight. Options for external and internal cooling, inlet and exhaust locations, ducting and adjustable cowling, and axial and centrifugal fans were evaluated. The final design was based on a trade between effectiveness, simplicity, robustness, mass and performance over a range of ground and flight operation environments.

  10. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  11. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  12. Polymer Matrix Composites for Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The Access-to-Space study identified the requirement for lightweight structures to achieve orbit with a single-stage vehicle. Thus a task was undertaken to examine the use of polymer matrix composites for propulsion components. It was determined that the effort of this task would be to extend previous efforts with polymer matrix composite feedlines and demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing large diameter feedlines with a complex shape and integral flanges, (i.e. all one piece with a 90 deg bend), and assess their performance under a cryogenic atmosphere.

  13. Study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ryuta [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This Abstract summarizes a series of presentations to the present Seminar, covering various aspects of a 1,000 kW PEFC system envisaged as propulsion system to equip a 1,500 DWT Cargo vessel, reported under the following titles: (1) Performance Evaluation of 1kW PEFC (2) Performance of Catalysts for CO Removal by Methanation Reaction (3) Development of a Selective Oxidation CO Removal Reactor for Methanol Reformate Gas (4) Experimental Investigation on a Turbine Compressor for Air Supply System of a Fuel Cell (5) Dynamic Simulator for PEFC Propulsion Plant (6) Power Feature Required for PEFC Powered Electric Propulsion Ship The purpose of this study is to identify subjects requiring further development toward the realization of a practical fuel cell system to power ships.

  14. Design and development of Propulsion System for Antitank Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mohan Reddy

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A Propulsion system is designed and developed for the third generation antitank guided missile (ATGM. It consists of a separate booster and sustainer. Booster is ahead of sustainer, having four nozzles canted to the missile axis. Sustainer discharges through a supersonic blast tube. Low smoke, high energy nitramine propellant for this propulsion system developed by the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL, Pune, has been successfully flight-tested. The booster grain is tube-in-tube configuration with end inhibition and the sustainer grain is of end burning configuration. High strength aluminium alloy, HE-15, is used for rocket motor components. Glass-phenolic composite ablative material is used for thermal protection of motors and high density graphite is used for nozzle throats. The design considerations and approach, including grain configuration, nozzle, and ignitersare briefly discussed. The propulsion system has been extensively tested in static tests and in flights, establishing the satisfactory performance of the system.

  15. Study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ryuta [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This Abstract summarizes a series of presentations to the present Seminar, covering various aspects of a 1,000 kW PEFC system envisaged as propulsion system to equip a 1,500 DWT Cargo vessel, reported under the following titles: (1) Performance Evaluation of 1kW PEFC (2) Performance of Catalysts for CO Removal by Methanation Reaction (3) Development of a Selective Oxidation CO Removal Reactor for Methanol Reformate Gas (4) Experimental Investigation on a Turbine Compressor for Air Supply System of a Fuel Cell (5) Dynamic Simulator for PEFC Propulsion Plant (6) Power Feature Required for PEFC Powered Electric Propulsion Ship The purpose of this study is to identify subjects requiring further development toward the realization of a practical fuel cell system to power ships.

  16. Matching Study on Power System for a Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR Simulation%基于ADVISOR仿真的混合动力客车动力系统匹配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严程健; 夏靖武; 崔月月

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyse the working principle of a single-axle hybrid power system, do the matching calcula-tion of key components of the powertrain, make the secondary development for the electric vehicle simulation soft-ware ADVISOR in Matlab/Simulink, insert the power system control strategy, and take a simulation analysis on the power and economy properties. The results provide references for the matching design of a hybrid electric bus power system.%分析一种单轴并联式混合动力系统的工作原理,对动力总成关键部件进行匹配计算。在Matlab/Simulink环境下,对电动汽车仿真软件ADVISOR进行二次开发,嵌入动力系统的控制策略,对整车进行动力性和经济性仿真分析,为混合动力客车动力系统的匹配设计提供参考。

  17. An N+3 Technology Level Reference Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael To-Hing

    2017-01-01

    An N+3 technology level engine, suitable as a propulsion system for an advanced single-aisle transport, was developed as a reference cycle for use in technology assessment and decision-making efforts. This reference engine serves three main purposes: it provides thermodynamic quantities at each major engine station, it provides overall propulsion system performance data for vehicle designers to use in their analyses, and it can be used for comparison against other proposed N+3 technology-level propulsion systems on an equal basis. This reference cycle is meant to represent the expected capability of gas turbine engines in the N+3 timeframe given reasonable extrapolations of technology improvements and the ability to take full advantage of those improvements.

  18. Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.

  19. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  20. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  1. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  2. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  4. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  5. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  6. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  7. Power Processing for a Conceptual Project Prometheus Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scina, Joseph E., Jr.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott S.; Hewitt, Frank; Miller, Leonard; Elbuluk, Malik; Pinero, Luis R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA has proposed a bold mission to orbit and explore the moons of Jupiter. This mission, known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would significantly increase NASA s capability to explore deep space by making use of high power electric propulsion. One electric propulsion option under study for JIMO is an ion propulsion system. An early version of an ion propulsion system was successfully used on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. One concept for an ion thruster system capable of meeting the current JIMO mission requirement would have individual thrusters that are 16 to 25 kW each and require voltages as high as 8.0 kV. The purpose of this work is to develop power processing schemes for delivering the high voltage power to the spacecraft ion thrusters based upon a three-phase AC distribution system. In addition, a proposed DC-DC converter topology is presented for an ion thruster ancillary supply based upon a DC distribution system. All specifications discussed in this paper are for design convenience and are speculative in nature.

  8. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  9. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization and Analysis of Hydrazine Monopropellant Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Adami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monopropellant propulsion systems are widely used especially for low cost attitude control or orbit correction (orbit maintenance. To optimize the total propulsion system, subsystems should be optimized. Chemical decomposition, aerothermodynamics, and structure disciplines demand different optimum condition such as tank pressure, catalyst bed length and diameter, catalyst bed pressure, and nozzle geometry. Subsystem conflicts can be solved by multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO technique with simultaneous optimization of all subsystems with respect to any criteria and limitations. In this paper, monopropellant propulsion system design algorithm is presented and the results of the proposed algorithm are validated. Then, multidisciplinary design optimization of hydrazine propulsion system is proposed. The goal of optimization can be selected as minimizing the total mass (including propellant, minimizing the propellant mass (maximizing the Isp, or minimizing the dry mass. Minimum total mass, minimum propellant mass, and minimum dry mass are derived using MDO technique. It is shown that minimum total mass, minimum dry mass, and minimum propellant mass take place in different conditions. The optimum parameters include bed-loading, inlet pressure, mass flow, nozzle geometry, catalyst bed length and diameter, propellant tank mass, specific impulse (Isp, and feeding mass which are derived using genetic algorithm (GA.

  10. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  11. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler); Chamis, Christos C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory.

  12. A Ship Propulsion System Model for Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    . The propulsion system model is presented in two versions: the first one consists of one engine and one propeller, and the othe one consists of two engines and their corresponding propellers placed in parallel in the ship. The corresponding programs are developed and are available....

  13. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin

    2000-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.

  14. Basic Characteristics of the Propulsion System in the Permanent Magnet-HTSC Hybrid Magnetic Conveyance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shunsuke; Kumano, Daiki; Goto, Yasuyuki

    The Hybrid magnetically levitated transportation system has been developed. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and the carrier with permanent magnets and high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) levitates on the rail. Repulsive force of permanent magnet is introduced to support load weight. Pinning force of the HTSC is used to support weight of the frame of the carrier and to achieve lateral stability of the carrier. In this paper, propulsion system of the conveyance system is studied. Propulsion function is installed on the carrier body. Magnetic gradient is used to get propulsion force. Propulsion force of the system is little. So propulsion rail system is introduced. Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Enough propulsion force is given. Influence of the propulsion system on the levitation and guidance system is measured. Stability of levitation and guidance system is enough even when propulsion system is operated.

  15. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  16. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Common Tool for Aerospace Propulsion Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). This simulation is initially being used to support aeropropulsion in the analysis and design of aircraft engines. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the Aviation Safety Program and Advanced Space Transportation. NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) in the NPSS Developer's Kit to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS Developer's Kit will provide the tools to develop custom components and to use the CORBA capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities will extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multifidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full life cycle of an engine.

  17. Design and Development of a 200-kW Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Kurt V.; Kloesel, Kurt J.; Lin, Yohan; Clarke, Sean; Ediger, Jacob J.; Ginn, Starr

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California) is developing a Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed (HEIST) Testbed as part of the HEIST Project, to study power management and transition complexities, modular architectures, and flight control laws for turbo-electric distributed propulsion technologies using representative hardware and piloted simulations. Capabilities are being developed to assess the flight readiness of hybrid electric and distributed electric vehicle architectures. Additionally, NASA will leverage experience gained and assets developed from HEIST to assist in flight-test proposal development, flight-test vehicle design, and evaluation of hybrid electric and distributed electric concept vehicles for flight safety. The HEIST test equipment will include three trailers supporting a distributed electric propulsion wing, a battery system and turbogenerator, dynamometers, and supporting power and communication infrastructure, all connected to the AFRC Core simulation. Plans call for 18 high performance electric motors that will be powered by batteries and the turbogenerator, and commanded by a piloted simulation. Flight control algorithms will be developed on the turbo-electric distributed propulsion system.

  18. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  19. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  20. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  1. Sizing and Costing Optimisation of a Typical Wind/PV Hybrid Electricity Generation System for a Typical Residential Building in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  2. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  3. Lightweight Propulsion Systems for Advanced Naval Ship Applications. An Executive Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    cycle gas turbines for ship propulsion . A conceptual design of an 80,000-shp helium turbine was performed and a preliminary propulsion system layout...RESULTS AND CONCLUDING REMARKS Systems Study (Part I) 1.1 For closed-cycle gas turbines to be attractive for naval ship propulsion , the heat source...for lightweight ship propulsion systems (LWSPS), their technolog- ical and economic feasibilities, and the level of efforts and time required to bring

  4. 混合电动汽车电池管理系统设计%Design of battery management system for hybrid electrical cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雪桦; 吴和生; 刘锦娟; 孙金虎; 薛小莉; 张育华

    2011-01-01

    The existed battery management system is relatively weak in the battery real-time monitoring. The real work of the battery status, fault is difficult to monitor.This paper presents a battery management system (BMS) for hy-brid\\electrical cars based on MC9S12XEP100, including hardware architecture and software development, and also analyses the principles and characteristics of battery management system. The upper computer and lower MCU software were designed, with the realization of SOC Algorithm by applications of AH metering and Kalman Filtering. Optimizing SOC calculate. Meeting the requirements of the calculation error of SOC 5%, and the end result error was 3.3%. The problem of data loss due to hardware power-down was resolved by designing calculations, with implementing the storage of data on computer. The results of simulation and tests show that the development of this system meets the design objectives.%目前已存在的电池管理系统相对薄弱,对电池实时工作状态和一些故障很难监控.设计了适用混合电动汽车上动态均衡式的电池管理系统(BMS).硬件系统采用MC9S12XEP100微控制器(MCU),通过分析电池管理系统的原理和特点,分别进行了上、下位机软件的设计,实现了安时法和Kalman两种剩余电量SOC算法的交互应用,优化了SOC估算,满足了系统估算5%以内的误差要求,实验最终结果误差为3.3%.同时解决了系统硬件掉电问题,实现上位机直接对数据的显示.测试实验表明系统达到了预期的目标.

  5. Probabilistic simulation of concurrent engineering of propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Technology readiness and the available infrastructure is assessed for timely computational simulation of concurrent engineering for propulsion systems. Results for initial coupled multidisciplinary, fabrication-process, and system simulators are presented including uncertainties inherent in various facets of engineering processes. An approach is outlined for computationally formalizing the concurrent engineering process from cradle-to-grave via discipline dedicated workstations linked with a common database.

  6. Electric Propulsion System Modeling for the Proposed Prometheus 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Dougherty, Ryan; Manzella, David

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 spacecraft would utilize nuclear electric propulsion to propel the spacecraft to its ultimate destination where it would perform its primary mission. As part of the Prometheus 1 Phase A studies, system models were developed for each of the spacecraft subsystems that were integrated into one overarching system model. The Electric Propulsion System (EPS) model was developed using data from the Prometheus 1 electric propulsion technology development efforts. This EPS model was then used to provide both performance and mass information to the Prometheus 1 system model for total system trades. Development of the EPS model is described, detailing both the performance calculations as well as its evolution over the course of Phase A through three technical baselines. Model outputs are also presented, detailing the performance of the model and its direct relationship to the Prometheus 1 technology development efforts. These EP system model outputs are also analyzed chronologically showing the response of the model development to the four technical baselines during Prometheus 1 Phase A.

  7. Options and Risk for Qualification of Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle; Daniel, Charles; Cook, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion vehicle systems envelop a wide range of propulsion alternatives including solar and nuclear, which present unique circumstances for qualification. This paper will address the alternatives for qualification of electric propulsion spacecraft systems. The approach taken will be to address the considerations for qualification at the various levels of systems definition. Additionally, for each level of qualification the system level risk implications will be developed. Also, the paper will explore the implications of analysis verses test for various levels of systems definition, while retaining the objectives of a verification program. The limitations of terrestrial testing will be explored along with the risk and implications of orbital demonstration testing. The paper will seek to develop a template for structuring of a verification program based on cost, risk and value return. A successful verification program should establish controls and define objectives of the verification compliance program. Finally the paper will seek to address the political and programmatic factors, which may impact options for system verification.

  8. EVA Metro Sedan electric-propulsion system: test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E.

    1979-09-01

    The procedure and results of the performance evaluation of the EVA Metro Sedan (car No. 1) variable speed dc chopper motor drive and its three speed automatic transmission are presented. The propulsion system for a battery powered vehicle manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Valley View, Ohio, was removed from the vehicle, mounted on the programmable electric dynamometer test facility and evaluated with the aid of a hp 3052A Data Acquisition System. Performance data for the automatic transmission, the solid state dc motor speed controller, and the dc motor in the continuous and pulsating dc power mode, as derived on the dynamometer test facility, as well as the entire propulsion system are given. This concept and the system's components were evaluated in terms of commercial applicability, maintainability, and energy utility to establish a design base for the further development of this system or similar propulsion drives. The propulsion system of the EVA Metro Sedan is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries, Type EV 106 (Exide Battery Mfg. Co.). A thyristor controlled cable form Pulsomatic Mark 10 controller, actuated by a foot throttle, controls the voltage applied to a dc series field motor, rated at 10 hp at 3800 rpm (Baldor Electric Co.). Gear speed reduction to the wheel is accomplished by the original equipment three speed automatic transmission with torque converter (Renault 12 Sedan). The brake consists of a power-assisted, hydraulic braking system with front wheel disk and rear drum. An ability to recuperate electric energy with subsequent storage in the battery power supply is not provided.

  9. Long Life 600W Hall Thruster System for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) offers the prospect for a variety of new science missions by enabling use of Hall Effect propulsion in the outer solar system,...

  10. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  11. Static tests of the propulsion system. [Propfan Test Assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, C. C.; Bartel, H. W.; Turnberg, J. E.; Graber, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced, highly-loaded, high-speed propellers, called propfans, are promising to revolutionize the transport aircraft industry by offering a 15- to 30-percent fuel savings over the most advanced turbofans without sacrificing passenger comfort or violating community noise standards. NASA Lewis Research Center and industry have been working jointly to develop the needed propfan technology. The NASA-funded Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program represents a key element of this joint program. In PTA, Lockheed-Georgia, working in concert with Hamilton Standard, Rohr Industries, Gulfstream Aerospace, and Allison, is developing a propfan propulsion system which will be mounted on the left wing of a modified Gulfstream GII aircraft and flight tested to verify the in-flight characteristics of a 9-foot diameter, single-rotation propfan. The propfan, called SR-7L, was designed and fabricated by Hamilton Standard under a separate NASA contract. Prior to flight testing, the PTA propulsion system was static tested at the Rohr Brown Field facility. In this test, propulsion system operational capability was verified and data was obtained on propfan structural response, system acoustic characteristics, and system performance. This paper reports on the results of the static tests.

  12. Design of an Electric Propulsion System for SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Arthur; van der Geest, Martin; Bevirt, JoeBen; Clarke, Sean; Christie, Robert J.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of electric propulsion systems has pushed aircraft designers towards new and potentially transformative concepts. As part of this effort, NASA is leading the SCEPTOR program which aims at designing a fully electric distributed propulsion general aviation aircraft. This article highlights critical aspects of the design of SCEPTOR's propulsion system conceived at Joby Aviation in partnership with NASA, including motor electromagnetic design and optimization as well as cooling system integration. The motor is designed with a finite element based multi-objective optimization approach. This provides insight into important design tradeoffs such as mass versus efficiency, and enables a detailed quantitative comparison between different motor topologies. Secondly, a complete design and Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the air breathing cooling system is presented. The cooling system is fully integrated into the nacelle, contains little to no moving parts and only incurs a small drag penalty. Several concepts are considered and compared over a range of operating conditions. The study presents trade-offs between various parameters such as cooling efficiency, drag, mechanical simplicity and robustness.

  13. Comparison of High-Fidelity Computational Tools for Wing Design of a Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Stoll, Alex M.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of tools, from fundamental to high order, have been used to better understand applications of distributed electric propulsion to aid the wing and propulsion system design of the Leading Edge Asynchronous Propulsion Technology (LEAPTech) project and the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Three high-fidelity, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes used during the project with results presented here are FUN3D, STAR-CCM+, and OVERFLOW. These codes employ various turbulence models to predict fully turbulent and transitional flow. Results from these codes are compared for two distributed electric propulsion configurations: the wing tested at NASA Armstrong on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck, and the wing designed for the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Results from these computational tools for the high-lift wing tested on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck and the X-57 high-lift wing presented compare reasonably well. The goal of the X-57 wing and distributed electric propulsion system design achieving or exceeding the required ?? (sub L) = 3.95 for stall speed was confirmed with all of the computational codes.

  14. OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAIN DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhengli; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    According to bench test results of fuel economy and engine emission for the real powertrain system of EQ7200HEV car, a 3-D performance map oriented quasi-linear model is developed for the configuration of the powertrain components such as internal combustion engine, traction electric motor, transmission, main retarder and energy storage unit. A genetic algorithm based on optimization procedure is proposed and applied for parametric optimization of the key components by consideration of requirements of some driving cycles. Through comparison of numerical results obtained by the genetic algorithm with those by traditional optimization methods, it is shown that the present approach is quite effective and efficient in emission reduction and fuel economy for the design of the hybrid electric car powertrain.

  15. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  16. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  17. Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing demand for improved reliability and survivability of mission-critical systems is driving the development of health monitoring and Automated Contingency...

  18. Analysis of Electric Propulsion System for Exploration of Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the outer planets has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and the New Horizons Missions. At the present time, new technologies are under study for the better use of electric propulsion system in deep space missions. In the present paper, the method of the transporting trajectory is used to study this problem. This approximated method for the flight optimization with power-limited low thrust is based on the linearization of the motion of a spacecraft near a keplerian orbit that is close to the transfer trajectory. With the goal of maximizing the mass to be delivered in Saturn, several transfers were studied using nuclear, radioisotopic and solar electric propulsion systems.

  19. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Santarius, John; Percy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  20. Vehicle Propulsion Systems Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzella, Lino

    2013-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the mathematical modeling and subsequent optimization of vehicle propulsion systems and their supervisory control algorithms. Automobiles are responsible for a substantial part of the world's consumption of primary energy, mostly fossil liquid hydrocarbons and the reduction of the fuel consumption of these vehicles has become a top priority. Increasing concerns over fossil fuel consumption and the associated environmental impacts have motivated many groups in industry and academia to propose new propulsion systems and to explore new optimization methodologies. This third edition has been prepared to include many of these developments. In the third edition, exercises are included at the end of each chapter and the solutions are available on the web.

  1. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  2. Instrumentation for propulsion systems development. [high speed fans and turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and techniques developed or used by NASA-Lewis to make steady state or dynamic measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and velocity and of the temperature, tip clearance, and vibration of the blades of high-speed fans or turbines are described. The advantages and limitations of each instrument and technique are discussed and the possibility of modifying them for use in developing various propulsion systems is suggested.

  3. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  4. Design and Test of an Economical Cold Gas Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joseph; Acosta, Jesus

    2000-01-01

    Small satellites are emerging as the preferred platform for a wide variety of earth orbit and even interplanetary missions. These spacecraft are, by their very nature, extremely limited in budget, volume, mass and power. Existing fluid propulsion options are too large, costly and complex for many small satellite applications. In an attempt to address this problem VACCO has produced an inexpensive, modular system specifically designed for the special needs of small satellites. This paper docum...

  5. Sensor Craft Control Using Drone Craft with Coulomb Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Hyunsik

    2005-01-01

    The Coulomb propulsion system has no exhaust plume impingement problem with neighboring spacecraft and does not contaminate their sensors because it requires essentially no propellant. It is suitable to close formation control on the order of dozens of meters. The Coulomb forces are internal forces of the formation and they influence all charged spacecraft at the same time. Highly nonlinear and strongly coupled equations of motion of Coulomb formation makes creating a Coulomb control method a...

  6. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  7. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Martinović; Mato Tudor; Dean Bernečić

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  8. Reciprocating Pump Systems for Space Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2004-06-10

    Small propellant pumps can reduce rocket hardware mass, while increasing chamber pressure to improve specific impulse. The maneuvering requirements for planetary ascent require an emphasis on mass, while those of orbiting spacecraft indicate that I{sub SP} should be prioritized during pump system development. Experimental efforts include initial testing with prototype lightweight components while raising pump efficiency to improve system I{sub SP}.

  9. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  10. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  11. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  12. Analysis of properties of thrust bearing in ship propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhu-Xin; Liu, Zheng-Lin

    2010-06-01

    Thrust bearing is a key component of the propulsion system of a ship. It transfers the propulsive forces from the propeller to the ship’s hull, allowing the propeller to push the ship ahead. The performance of a thrust bearing pad is critical. When the thrust bearing becomes damaged, it can cause the ship to lose power and can also affect its operational safety. For this paper, the distribution of the pressure field of a thrust pad was calculated with numerical method, applying Reynolds equation. Thrust bearing properties for loads were analyzed, given variations in outlet thickness of the pad and variations between the load and the slope of the pad. It was noticed that the distribution of pressure was uneven. As a result, increases of both the outlet thickness and the slope coefficient of the pad were able to improve load bearing capability.

  13. Internal fluid mechanics research on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brent A.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Szuch, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid mechanics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion systems. The strategies used to achieve this goal are to: (1) pursue an understanding of flow physics, surface heat transfer, and combustion via analysis and fundamental experiments, (2) incorporate improved understanding of these phenomena into verified 3-D CFD codes, and (3) utilize state-of-the-art computational technology to enhance experimental and CFD research. Presented is an overview of the ICFM program in high-speed propulsion, including work in inlets, turbomachinery, and chemical reacting flows. Ongoing efforts to integrate new computer technologies, such as parallel computing and artificial intelligence, into high-speed aeropropulsion research are described.

  14. SEPS comet rendezvous performance assessment. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of delivered payload capability for a number of selected rendezvous missions to periodic comets with launch opportunities through the years 1986-1996. These missions are chosen using a selection criteria that considers both expected scientific interest and earth-based sighting considerations. Some 22 mission opportunities are found that satisfies the selection criteria. Spacecraft performance is presented for each mission opportunity based on use of a space shuttle, a twin stage inertial-upper-stage, and a conceptual solar-electric-propulsion-system with a nominal rendezvous 50 days before comet perihelion. Additional trajectory and propulsion enhancements are investigated for several comet rendezvous missions in order to improve spacecraft performance. An indirect transfer trajectory for an Encke mission is shown to offer substantial delivered payload. In addition the use of concentrator solar arrays is considered for several of the more interesting comet missions.

  15. Efficient Hybrid Propulsion System Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    utilize real measurements and parameters within the simulation model [3,4,5]. Moreover, it is also important to build a single core control model in...ICE, engine disconnect clutch , ISG, 6-speed automatic transmission, differential, final drives at the rear axle; FMOT, 2-speed manual transmission...calculation, torque management, safety limit monitoring and fault tolerance, component/local and system/global efficiency calculations, power split

  16. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  17. The MAUS nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, Enrico [DINCE - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare e Conversioni Energetiche, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , C.so V. Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: mainardi@frascati.enea.it

    2006-06-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long-lasting, low-mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermoionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA.

  18. The Maus nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Mainardi [DINCE - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare e Conversioni Energetiche, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , C.so V. EmanueleII, 244, 00186 Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long lasting, low mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA. (author)

  19. Waves from Propulsion Systems of Fast Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taatø, Søren Haugsted; Aage, Christian; Arnskov, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Waves from fast ferries have become an environmental problem of growing concern to the public. Fast ferries produce not only higher waves than conventional ships but also fundamentally different wave systems when they sail at supercritical speeds. Hitherto, ship waves have been considered as bein...... similar to that of the hull alone, but with higher wave amplitudes. Conventional propellers will cause increased wave heights of about 10%, whereas water jets will cause increased wave heights of 20-40% as compared to those of the naked monohull....

  20. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide-based propulsion and power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melof, Brian Matthew; Keese, David L.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Ruffner, Judith Alison; Escapule, William Rusty

    2004-04-01

    Less toxic, storable, hypergolic propellants are desired to replace nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and hydrazine in certain applications. Hydrogen peroxide is a very attractive replacement oxidizer, but finding acceptable replacement fuels is more challenging. The focus of this investigation is to find fuels that have short hypergolic ignition delays, high specific impulse, and desirable storage properties. The resulting hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination would be highly desirable for virtually any high energy-density applications such as small but powerful gas generating systems, attitude control motors, or main propulsion. These systems would be implemented on platforms ranging from guided bombs to replacement of environmentally unfriendly existing systems to manned space vehicles.

  2. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  3. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  4. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) Icing Facility Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Queito P.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, PSL is capable of simulation of in-flight icing events in a ground test facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 ft. to 40,000 ft. at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60F to +15F.

  5. Interaction between Brash Ice and Boat Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    that drive the outboard propellers are computer controlled. The motor to the propeller shaft had a 2:1 gear ratio through a belt-and- pulley ERDC TR...connected to drive gear . The same motors and gears used in the scale model outboard propulsion system were used in the waterjet intake system. The...14-1 12 Figure 11. Model’s waterjet intake system. Figure 12 shows a plan view of the motors, gears , and the Plexiglas intake. Figure 13 shows

  6. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  7. Analysis of the Space Propulsion System Problem Using RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    diego mandelli; curtis smith; cristian rabiti; andrea alfonsi

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the solution of the space propulsion problem using a PRA code currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment) is a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities. It is designed to derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures) and to perform both Monte- Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Event Tree based analysis. In order to facilitate the input/output handling, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data-mining module are available. RAVEN allows also to interface with several numerical codes such as RELAP5 and RELAP-7 and ad-hoc system simulators. For the space propulsion system problem, an ad-hoc simulator has been developed and written in python language and then interfaced to RAVEN. Such simulator fully models both deterministic (e.g., system dynamics and interactions between system components) and stochastic behaviors (i.e., failures of components/systems such as distribution lines and thrusters). Stochastic analysis is performed using random sampling based methodologies (i.e., Monte-Carlo). Such analysis is accomplished to determine both the reliability of the space propulsion system and to propagate the uncertainties associated to a specific set of parameters. As also indicated in the scope of the benchmark problem, the results generated by the stochastic analysis are used to generate risk-informed insights such as conditions under witch different strategy can be followed.

  8. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  9. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  10. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  11. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  12. A Review of Propulsion Industrial Base Studies and an Introduction to the National Institute of Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma K.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been over 40 studies that have examined the state of the industrial base and infrastructure that supports propulsion systems development in the United States. This paper offers a comprehensive, systematic review of these studies and develops conclusions and recommendations in the areas of budget, policy, sustainment, infrastructure, workforce retention and development and mission/vision and policy. The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion System (NIRPS) is a coordinated, national organization that is responding to the key issues highlighted in these studies. The paper outlines the case for NIRPS and the specific actions that the Institute is taking to address these issues.

  13. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  14. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  15. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  16. 2010 JPC Abstract: Ares I First Stage Propulsion System Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In November 2005, NASA created the Constellation Program to develop an entirely new fleet of spacecraft to include the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch vehicles. This mission architecture included the Orion capsule (which would be used to transport astronauts to low-Earth orbit and beyond), the Altair lunar lander, and an Earth departure stage. The Ares First Stage Team has made significant progress on the design of a propulsion system to meet the objectives of the Constellation Program. Work on a first stage element propulsion system capable of lofting a new fleet of spacecraft is well underway. To minimize technical risks and development costs, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of Shuttle served as a starting point in the design of a new motor that would meet the requirements of those new vehicles. This new propulsive element will provide greater total impulse utilizing a fifth segment to loft a safer, more powerful fleet of space flight vehicles. Performance requirements, basic architecture, and obsolescence issues were all factors in determining the new first stage element design and configuration. Early efforts focused on creating designs that would be capable of supporting the requisite loads and environments. While the motor casings are Shuttle legacy, because of Ares I s unique in-line configuration, the first stage will require entirely new forward structures (forward skirt, forward skirt extension, aeroshell, and frustum) and a modified systems tunnel. The use of composites facilitated a change in the geometry, which in turn afforded the ability to focus strength where it was needed without additional mass. The Ares First Stage rocket motor casting tooling was designed and built to achieve a propellant grain geometry that produces the specific required ballistic profile. The new propellant formulation is a polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN) copolymer, which has been modified to attain the desired burn rate and retain adequate tailoring

  17. Thermoeconomic Diagnosis of an Energy System for Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigthorsson, Oskar; Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A thermoeconomic diagnosis of an energy system for ship propulsion is performed. We consider a Thermo Efficiency System (TES), for a Post-Panamax class ship where the waste heat from the main engine is utilised with a waste heat recovery system consisting of a power turbine expander and a single...... pressure level steam cycle. In complex energy systems, such as the TES, it may be difficult to identify operation anomalies as the effects of an intrinsic malfunction in one component spreads through the whole energy system and induces malfunctions in other components. Exergy and thermoeconomic analyses...... are used to investigate the system with the goal of more efficient use of energy resources and in a cost-effective manner. Moreover, the respective analyses identify the components that the thermoeconomic diagnosis is focused on. The thermoeconomic diagnosis is done with the characteristic curve method...

  18. Web-Based Distributed Simulation of Aeronautical Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desheng; Follen, Gregory J.; Pavlik, William R.; Kim, Chan M.; Liu, Xianyou; Blaser, Tammy M.; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    An application was developed to allow users to run and view the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine simulations from web browsers. Simulations were performed on multiple INFORMATION POWER GRID (IPG) test beds. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was used for brokering data exchange among machines and IPG/Globus for job scheduling and remote process invocation. Web server scripting was performed by JavaServer Pages (JSP). This application has proven to be an effective and efficient way to couple heterogeneous distributed components.

  19. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  20. The Principal Aspects of Application of Detonation in Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vasil'ev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of application of detonation process in propulsion systems with impulse and continuous burning of combustible mixture are discussed. The results on propagation of detonation waves in supersonic flow are analyzed relatively to air-breathing engine. The experimental results are presented showing the basic possibility of creation of an engine with exterior detonation burning. The base results on optimization of initiation in impulse detonation engine are explained at the expense of spatial and temporal redistribution of an energy, entered into a mixture. The method and technique for construction of highly effective accelerators for deflagration to detonation transition are discussed also.

  1. Probabilistic assessment of space nuclear propulsion system nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Ball, Richard D.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    In assessing the reliability of a space nuclear propulsion system (SNPS) nozzle, uncertainties associated with the following design parameters were considered: geometry, boundary conditions, material behavior, and thermal and pressure loads. A preliminary assessment of the reliability was performed using NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress), a finite-element computer code developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The sensitivity of the nozzle reliability to the uncertainties in the random variables was quantified. With respect to the effective stress, preliminary results showed that the nozzle spatial geometry uncertainties have the most significant effect at low probabilities whereas the inner wall temperature has the most significant effect at higher probabilities.

  2. Analysis of Electric Propulsion System for Exploration of Saturn

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano; Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida Prado; Alexander Alexandrovich Sukhanov

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of the outer planets has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and the New Horizons Missions. At the present time, new technologies are under study for the better use of electric propulsion system in deep space missions. In the present paper, the method of the transporting trajectory is used to study this problem. This approximated method for the flight optimization with power-limited low thrust is based on the linearization of the motion of a spacecraft near a k...

  3. Development of a Nitrous Oxide-Based Monopropellant Propulsion System for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Tarantini, Vincent; Risi, Ben; Orr, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    As the demand for highly capable microsatellite missions continues to grow, so too does the need for small yet effective satellite technologies. One area which needs to be addressed is compact propulsion systems capable of performing on-orbit maneuvers, station keeping, and de-orbit impulses with good efficiency. Another important consideration for propulsion systems is the safety and ease in handling, integrating, and testing the propulsion system. This is particularly important for small sa...

  4. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to determine the directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions of the next three decades in the most cost-effective manner. Discussed are the mission set requirements, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost-optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system-level electric propulsion parameters. It is found that the efficiency-specific impulse characteristic generally has a more significant impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems.

  5. The Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles%混合动力汽车用混合能量存储系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志伟; 张建龙; 殷承良

    2012-01-01

    针对动力电池在混合动力汽车中频繁大功率充放电的问题,采用了电池和超级电容并用的能量存储系统,利用超级电容高功率特性来改善储能系统的性能.本文研究了电池与超级电容直接并联和主动并联两种混合能量存储系统,后者采用零电流转换软开关直流变换器来连接超级电容和电池.在Matlab Simulink平台建立零电流转换软开关直流变换器的动态模型、超级电容和电池模型,并在AVL Cruise中进行仿真.结果表明:直接并联方案不能充分发挥超级电容的能力;而主动并联方案降低了纯电动工况和制动能量回收工况下电池的峰值电流,电池端电压变化范围缩小,能量效率比单一电池的能量存储系统提高了14.92%.另外,由于采用了模糊PID控制算法,改善了动态响应性能.%In view of the problem of power batteries being frequently charged and discharged at large power in hybrid electric vehicle, the battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system ( B/UC HESS) is adopted, which takes advantage of the high power characteristics of ultra-capacitor to improve the performance of storage system. In this paper, two schemes of B/UC HESS are studied :direct battery/ultra-capacitor parallel connection and active battery/ultra-capacitor parallel connection, in which the latter uses DC-DC converter with zero current transition soft switching as interface to connect battery and ultra-capacitor. The dynamic model for the DC-DC converter and the models for battery and ultra-capacitor are set up with Matlab simulink and a simulation is conducted with AVL Cruise. The results indicate that the direct parallel scheme doesn't take full use of the capability of ultra-capacitor , while with the active parallel scheme the peak current of battery lowers in pure electric driving and regenerative braking conditions, the variation range of battery end voltage reduces, with an energy efficiency 14. 92

  6. Summary of Propulsion System Needs in Support of Project Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Lorier, Terry; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to return man to the moon and ultimately to extend manned space travel to Mars. This paper will summarize the manned space flight liquid propulsion system needs in support of Project Constellation over the next 10 years. It will include all engine needs to return man to the moon. An overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those engine needs that hav.e yet to be initiated. Project Constellation includes the components as shown Figure 1. Liquid propulsion systems supporting the manned portion of these elements include the following: the Crew Exploration Vehicle named Orion (crew module reaction control system (CMRCS), service module Orion Main Engine (OME), service module auxiliary RCS, and service module reaction control system (SMRCS)), the Crew Launch Vehicle named Ares 1 (J2X upper stage, first stage roll control system, second stage reaction control system, and the Ares I-X roll control system), the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle named Ares V (RS68B first stage booster, J-2X upper stage, roll control systems, and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (powered by the same Ares V Upper Stage J-2X), and the Lunar Lander named Altair with both descent and ascent stages (lunar orbit insertion and descent main engine, ascent main engine, and attitude control systems for both stages). In addition, there may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be speculated on as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort demonstrations and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned precursor missions.

  7. A Modular Electric Propulsion System with On-Demand Power Scaling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster (EMPT) program demonstrated a next generation propulsion system based on the purely electromagnetic generation and Lorentz...

  8. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. In an...

  9. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. Conventional...

  10. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  11. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  12. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  13. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  14. Cold Helium Gas Pressurization For Spacecraft Cryogenic Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell. Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the dry mass of a spacecraft pressurization system, helium pressurant may be stored at low temperature and high pressure to increase mass in a given tank volume. Warming this gas through an engine heat exchanger prior to tank pressurization both increases the system efficiency and simplifies the designs of intermediate hardware such as regulators, valves, etc. since the gas is no longer cryogenic. If this type of cold helium pressurization system is used in conjunction with a cryogenic propellant, though, a loss in overall system efficiency can be expected due to heat transfer from the warm ullage gas to the cryogenic propellant which results in a specific volume loss for the pressurant, interpreted as the Collapse Factor. Future spacecraft with cryogenic propellants will likely have a cold helium system, with increasing collapse factor effects as vehicle sizes decrease. To determine the collapse factor effects and overall implementation strategies for a representative design point, a cold helium system was hotfire tested on the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) in a thermal vacuum environment at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station. The ICPTA vehicle is a small lander-sized spacecraft prototype built at NASA Johnson Space Center utilizing cryogenic liquid oxygen/liquid methane propellants and cryogenic helium gas as a pressurant to operate one 2,800lbf 5:1 throttling main engine, two 28lbf Reaction Control Engines (RCE), and two 7lbf RCEs (Figure 1). This vehicle was hotfire tested at a variety of environmental conditions at NASA Plum Brook, ranging from ambient temperature/simulated high altitude, deep thermal/high altitude, and deep thermal/high vacuum conditions. A detailed summary of the vehicle design and testing campaign may be found in Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Testing, AIAA JPC 2017.

  15. Oxygen-hydrogen thrusters for Space Station auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility and technology requirements of a low-thrust, high-performance, long-life, gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) thruster were examined. Candidate engine concepts for auxiliary propulsion systems for space station applications were identified. The low-thrust engine (5 to 100 lb sub f) requires significant departure from current applications of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion technology. Selection of the thrust chamber material and cooling method needed or long life poses a major challenge. The use of a chamber material requiring a minimum amount of cooling or the incorporation of regenerative cooling were the only choices available with the potential of achieving very high performance. The design selection for the injector/igniter, the design and fabrication of a regeneratively cooled copper chamber, and the design of a high-temperature rhenium chamber were documented and the performance and heat transfer results obtained from the test program conducted at JPL using the above engine components presented. Approximately 115 engine firings were conducted in the JPL vacuum test facility, using 100:1 expansion ratio nozzles. Engine mixture ratio and fuel-film cooling percentages were parametrically investigated for each test configuration.

  16. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  17. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  18. Recovery energy from ship propulsion system based on microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanoaia, F.; Nicorescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    All shipping companies are involved in the several management programs for increasing of efficiency of transportation on the sea. Optimal transportation is one of actual tendency in the world shipbuilding which requests a lot of human resources in design development respectively in construction of the ships. One direction with very good results is to use one part of propulsion energy for electrical power generating on board with multiple technical and economical advantages. Based on this, more resources in research and design are encouraged by development projects in order to increase the efficiency of described system. Even if, power-generating plant is one of classic ship mecatronics system, it must to be continuously perfected in the way of decreasing of specific fuel consumption as well in the increasing of the friableness and endurance.

  19. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  20. Propulsion Powertrain Real-Time Simulation Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to design a propulsion powertrain real-time simulator using the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system that emulates an electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems power grid. This simulator would enable us to facilitate in-depth understanding of the system principles, to validate system model analysis and performance prediction, and to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the EAP electrical system. This paper describes how subscale electrical machines with their controllers can mimic the power components in an EAP powertrain. In particular, three powertrain emulations are presented to mimic 1) a gas turbo-=shaft engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft, 2) a motor driving a propulsive fan, and 3) a turbo-shaft engine driven fan (turbofan engine) operation. As a first step towards the demonstration, experimental dynamic characterization of the two motor drive systems, coupled by a mechanical shaft, were performed. The previously developed analytical motor models1 were then replaced with the experimental motor models to perform the real-time demonstration in the predefined flight path profiles. This technique can convert the plain motor system into a unique EAP power grid emulator that enables rapid analysis and real-time simulation performance using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL).

  1. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  2. Integrated Electrical Power Supply System for Propulsion and Service Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-16

    propellers with hydraulically controlled pitch for ship propulsion . In such arrangement of equipment, two gas turbines customarily drive each of two...availability of commercial technology presently utilized on cruise ships having service equipment loads larger than their ship propulsion loads. However...accentuated on naval combat ships wherein a larger proportion of the power is utilized for ship propulsion purposes and operational efficiency is of

  3. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  4. Nanostructured Tungsten Rhenium Components for Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Revolutionizing the space propulsion industry through innovative, relatively low-cost, manufacturing techniques is extremely needed. Specifically, advancements are...

  5. Synthetic studies on reusable propulsion system: (1) Study on the reliability design method (2) General planning of the reusable propulsion system

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Himeno, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; 倉谷 尚志; 田口 秀之; 姫野 武洋; 長谷川 卓也; 青木 宏

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the reusable and future propulsion systems are presented in this paper. Especially, focused are the high reliability design methodology for the liquid rocket engine at conceptual phase, the flight demonstration project SubLEO that is propelled by the existing propulsion system, the propellant management of the liquid propellant behavior in the fuselage tank for the reusable vehicle testing and existing rocket under the accelerated environment and the health monitoring sen...

  6. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  8. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  9. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  10. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  11. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  12. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  13. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  14. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  15. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  16. First results of PRECISE—Development of a MEMS-based monopropellant micro chemical propulsion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauer, Markus; Telitschkin, Dimitri; Gotzig, Ulrich; Batonneau, Yann; Johansson, Hakan; Ivanov, Mikhail; Palmer, Phil; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-01-01

    PRECISE focuses on the research and development of a MEMS-based monopropellant micro chemical propulsion system for highly accurate attitude control of satellites. The availability of such propulsion systems forms the basis for defining new mission concepts such as formation flying and rendezvous ma

  17. First results of PRECISE—Development of a MEMS-based monopropellant micro chemical propulsion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauer, Markus; Telitschkin, Dimitri; Gotzig, Ulrich; Batonneau, Yann; Johansson, Hakan; Ivanov, Mikhail; Palmer, Phil; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    PRECISE focuses on the research and development of a MEMS-based monopropellant micro chemical propulsion system for highly accurate attitude control of satellites. The availability of such propulsion systems forms the basis for defining new mission concepts such as formation flying and rendezvous

  18. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  19. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  20. Internal computational fluid mechanics on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bernhard H.; Benson, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The accurate calculation of three-dimensional internal flowfields for application towards aerospace propulsion systems requires computational resources available only on supercomputers. A survey is presented of three-dimensional calculations of hypersonic, transonic, and subsonic internal flowfields conducted at the Lewis Research Center. A steady state Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solution of flow in a Mach 5.0, mixed compression inlet, a Navier-Stokes solution of flow in the vicinity of a terminal shock, and a PNS solution of flow in a diffusing S-bend with vortex generators are presented and discussed. All of these calculations were performed on either the NAS Cray-2 or the Lewis Research Center Cray XMP.

  1. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Propulsion Transportation System for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Joyce, Ryan T.; Kessler, Paul D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration continues to develop and refine various transportation options to successfully field a human Mars campaign. One of these transportation options is the Hybrid Transportation System which utilizes both solar electric propulsion and chemical propulsion. The Hybrid propulsion system utilizes chemical propulsion to perform high thrust maneuvers, where the delta-V is most optimal when ap- plied to save time and to leverage the Oberth effect. It then utilizes solar electric propulsion to augment the chemical burns throughout the interplanetary trajectory. This eliminates the need for the development of two separate vehicles for crew and cargo missions. Previous studies considered single point designs of the architecture, with fixed payload mass and propulsion system performance parameters. As the architecture matures, it is inevitable that the payload mass and the performance of the propulsion system will change. It is desirable to understand how these changes will impact the in-space transportation system's mass and power requirements. This study presents an in-depth sensitivity analysis of the Hybrid crew transportation system to payload mass growth and solar electric propulsion performance. This analysis is used to identify the breakpoints of the current architecture and to inform future architecture and campaign design decisions.

  3. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  4. X-34 Main Propulsion System Design and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, R. J., Jr.; Darrow, R. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34 program is a joint industry/government program to develop, test, and operate a small, fully-reusable hypersonic flight vehicle, utilizing technologies and operating concepts applicable to future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) systems. The vehicle will be capable of Mach 8 flight to 250,000 feet altitude and will demonstrate an all composite structure, composite RP-1 tank, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Fastrac engine, and the operability of an advanced thermal protection systems. The vehicle will also be capable of carrying flight experiments. MSFC is supporting the X-34 program in three ways: Program Management, the Fastrac engine as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), and the design of the Main Propulsion System (MPS). The MPS Product Development Team (PDT) at MSFC is responsible for supplying the MPS design, analysis, and drawings to Orbital. The MPS consists of the LOX and RP-1 Fill, Drain, Feed, Vent, & Dump systems and the Helium & Nitrogen Purge, Pressurization, and Pneumatics systems. The Reaction Control System (RCS) design was done by Orbital. Orbital is the prime contractor and has responsibility for integration, procurement, and construction of all subsystems. The paper also discusses the design, operation, management, requirements, trades studies, schedule, and lessons learning with the MPS and RCS designs.

  5. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, S.; Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  6. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  7. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  8. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  9. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  10. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  11. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  12. PEFC stacks as power sources for hybrid propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O. [Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the performance of two polymeric electrolyte fuel cell systems (FCS) for hybrid power trains are presented and discussed. In particular, an experimental analysis was effected on 2.4 and 20 kW stacks with the aim to investigate the energy management issues of the two FCSs for utilization as power sources in electric power trains for scooter and minibus, respectively. The stack characterizations permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on mean power density of cells to be evaluated. The FCS efficiency was evaluated and compared for the two traction systems, individuating the optimal operative conditions for automotive application and specifying the energy losses of the auxiliary components. The efficiency of both fuel cell systems resulted higher than 40% in a wide range of loads (100-600 mA/cm{sup 2}), with maximum values close to 50%. The experimental characterization of the two power trains was carried out on dynamic test benches, able to simulate the behaviour of the two vehicles on the European R40 driving cycle. The characterization of the two propulsion systems on R40 driving cycle evidenced that the overall efficiency was not affected significantly by the hybrid configuration adopted, as the efficiency values ranged from 27 to 29% in the different procedures analyzed. (author)

  13. Beyond Electric Propulsion: Non-Propulsive Benefits of Nuclear Power for the Exploration of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1994-07-01

    In the past, most studies dealing with the benefits of space nuclear electric power systems for solar system exploration have focused on the potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) to enhance missions by increasing delivered payload, decreasing LEO mass, or reducing trip time. While important, such mission enhancements have failed to go to the heart of the concerns of the scientific community supporting interplanetary exploration. To put the matter succinctly, scientists don't buy delivered payload - they buy data returned. With nuclear power we can increase both the quantity of data returned, by enormously increasing data communication rates, and the quality of data by enabling a host of active sensing techniques otherwise impossible. These non-propulsive mission enhancement capabilities of space nuclear power have been known in principle for many years, but they have not been adequately documented. As a result, support for the development of space nuclear power by the interplanetary exploration community has been much less forceful than it might otherwise be. In this paper we shall present mission designs that take full advantage of the potential mission enhancements offered by space nuclear power systems in the 10 to 100 kWe range, not just for propulsion, but to radically improve, enrich, and expand the science return itself. Missions considered include orbiter missions to each of the outer planets. It will be shown that be using hybrid trajectories combining chemical propulsion with NEP and (in certain cases) gravity assists, that it is possible, using a Titan IV-Centaur launch vehicle, for high-powered spacecraft to be placed in orbit around each of the outer planets with electric propulsion burn times of less than 4 years. Such hybrid trajectories therefore make the outer solar-system available to near-term nuclear electric power systems. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize multi-kilowatt communication systems, similar to those now employed by

  14. Antiproton Annihilation Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    propulsion system, a nuclear thermal hydrogen propulsion system, and an antiproton annihilation propulsion system. Since hauling chemical fuel into low...greater. Section 8.4 and Appendix B contain a comparative cost study of a storable chemical fuel propulsion system, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen

  15. Unified Propulsion System to Explore Near-Earth Asteroids by a 50 kg Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Tadashi; Kasagi, Yusuke; Naoi, Taro; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Funase, Ryu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the micropropulsion system I-COUPS (Ion Thruster and COld-gas Thruster Unified Propulsion System) is proposed for 50-kg-class spacecraft to explore the deep space. The I-COUPS is a unified propulsion system of ion thrusters and cold-gas thrusters by sharing the same xenon gas system. It provides the spacecraft with high ΔV maneuver, high thrust, short time maneuver, and reaction control by eight thrusters. The total wet mass of the propulsion system is expected to 9.5 kg with 2...

  16. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.; Allen, George C.; Shipers, Larry R.; Dobranich, Dean; Ottinger, Cathy A.; Harmon, Charles D.; Fan, Wesley C.; Todosow, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  17. Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelledes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

  18. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  19. CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace proposes to perform design, fabrication, and ground test validation of a nanosat primary propulsion subsystem using non-toxic R134a propellant. Our...

  20. CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace proposes the ground test validation of a nanosat primary propulsion subsystem using non-toxic propellant with 3-axis ACS for orbit change and/or...

  1. Hierarchical robust nonlinear switching control design for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonessa, Alexander

    1999-09-01

    The desire for developing an integrated control system- design methodology for advanced propulsion systems has led to significant activity in modeling and control of flow compression systems in recent years. In this dissertation we develop a novel hierarchical switching control framework for addressing the compressor aerodynamic instabilities of rotating stall and surge. The proposed control framework accounts for the coupling between higher-order modes while explicitly addressing actuator rate saturation constraints and system modeling uncertainty. To develop a hierarchical nonlinear switching control framework, first we develop generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems for nonlinear dynamical systems wherein all regularity assumptions on the Lyapunov function and the system dynamics are removed. In particular, local and global stability theorems are given using lower semicontinuous Lyapunov functions. Furthermore, generalized invariant set theorems are derived wherein system trajectories converge to a union of largest invariant sets contained in intersections over finite intervals of the closure of generalized Lyapunov level surfaces. The proposed results provide transparent generalizations to standard Lyapunov and invariant set theorems. Using the generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems, a nonlinear control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria- dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear control strategy is developed that stabilizes a given nonlinear system by stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled subsystems. The switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized system equilibria. The proposed framework provides a

  2. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  3. A Multi-disciplinary Tool for Space Launch Systems Propulsion Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An accurate predictive capability of coupled fluid-structure interaction in propulsion system is crucial in the development of NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS)....

  4. Application of electrical propulsion for an active debris removal system: a system engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, Fabio

    2012-10-01

    One of the main challenge in the design of an active removal system for space debris is the high ΔV required both to approach space debris lying in different orbits and to de-orbit/re-orbit them. Indeed if the system does not target a number of objects during its lifetime the cost of the removal will be far too high to be considered as the basis of an economically viable business case. Using a classical chemical propulsion (CP) system, the ΔV is limited by the mass of propellant that the system can carry. This limitation is greatly reduced if electrical propulsion is considered. Electrical propulsion (EP) systems are indeed characterized by low propellant mass requirements, however this comes at the cost of higher electrical power and, typically, higher complexity and mass of the power supply system. Because of this, the use of EP systems has been, therefore, primarily limited to station keeping maneuvers. However in the recent past, the success of missions using EP as primary propulsion (e.g. GOCE, SMART-1, Artemis, Deep Spcae1, Hayabusa) makes this technology a suitable candidate for providing propulsion for an active debris removal system. This study case will provide the analysis of the possible application of electrical propulsion systems in such a context, presenting a number of possible mission profiles. This paper will start with the description of possible mission concepts and the assessment of the EP technology, comparing near-term propulsion options, that best fits the mission. A more detailed analysis follows with the relevant trade-off to define the characteristics of the final system and its size in terms of mass and power required. A survey of available space qualified EP systems will be performed with the selection of the best candidates to be used and/or developed for an active debris removal system. The results of a similar analysis performed for a classical CP system are then presented and the two options are compared in terms of total cost of

  5. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  6. Propfan test assessment propfan propulsion system static test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orourke, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    The propfan test assessment (PTA) propulsion system successfully completed over 50 hours of extensive static ground tests, including a 36 hour endurance test. All major systems performed as expected, verifying that the large-scale 2.74 m diameter propfan, engine, gearbox, controls, subsystems, and flight instrumentation will be satisfactory with minor modifications for the upcoming PTA flight tests on the GII aircraft in early 1987. A test envelope was established for static ground operation to maintain propfan blade stresses within limits for propfan rotational speeds up to 105 percent and power levels up to 3880 kW. Transient tests verified stable, predictable response of engine power and propfan speed controls. Installed engine TSFC was better than expected, probably due to the excellent inlet performance coupled with the supercharging effect of the propfan. Near- and far-field noise spectra contained three dominant components, which were dependent on power, tip speed, and direction. The components were propfan blade tones, propfan random noise, and compressor/propfan interaction noise. No significant turbine noise or combustion noise was evident.

  7. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  8. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 9; Preliminary Development Plan for an Integrated Booster Propulsion Module (BPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Angelo G.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary development plan for an integrated propulsion module (IPM) is described. The IPM, similar to the Space Transportation Main engine (STME) engine, is applicable to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) baseline vehicle. The same STME development program ground rules and time schedule were assumed for the IPM. However, the unique advantages of testing an integrated engine element, in terms of reduced number of hardware and number of system and reliability tests, compared to single standalone engine and MPTA, are highlighted. The potential ability of the IPM to meet the ALS program goals for robustness, operability and reliability is emphasized.

  9. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-06

    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  10. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  11. User-specific mobile sensing system and energy storage system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力电动汽车的特定用户移动传感器和能量存储系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍捷; 孙义和

    2012-01-01

    针对新兴混合插拔式电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)应用,已有的车用能量存储系统存在笨重和可靠性差等缺点,同时驾驶人的驾驶行为严重地影响能量存储系统的性能和使用寿命,因此有效地对特定用户驾驶行为进行分析,并对大规模混合能量存储系统进行优化设计,将为未来新兴电驱动混合动力汽车的应用与实践打下坚实基础.该文提出特定用户传感器系统框架,分析其驾驶行为对混合能量存储系统(hybrid energy storage system,HESS)如锂电池和超级电容集成的影响,并设计了一个基于大规模HESS的优化架构.它综合考虑工艺制造的差异性和实时驾驶行为的多变性等因素影响,在满足能量需求条件下优化HESS成本和使用寿命.实验结果表明:该优化架构与只采用单一锂电池作为存储资源的架构相比,在达到使用寿命年限15a前提下,混合能量存储系统的成本代价平均降低了51.3%.同时,该架构的求解速度快,有利于实际实现.%Existing in-vehicle hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are bulky and unreliable. In addition, the user-specific driving behavior substantially impacts the HESS performance and lifetime. Therefore, user-centric driving behavior analyses and energy storage system design and optimization are essential for hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a personalized mobile sensing system framework to analyze the user's driving behavior and characterize its impact on the HESS performance. An integrated hybrid energy storage system (e. g. , a Li-ion battery and an ultra-capacitor) design and optimization architecture are then given for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. This architecture statistically optimizes the HESS cost and lifetime considering variances in the HESS system due to manufacturing tolerances and user-specific use. Tests show that this HESS design and optimization

  12. The Role of Interaction Patterns with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Eco-Features for Drivers' Eco-Driving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias G; Franke, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles. Eco-driving in HEVs is particularly challenging due to the systems' dynamic energy flows. As a result, drivers are likely to show diverse eco-driving behaviors, depending on factors like knowledge and motivation. The eco-features represent an interface for the control of the systems' energy flows. A sample of 121 HEV drivers who had constantly logged their fuel consumption prior to the study participated in an online questionnaire. Drivers' interaction patterns with the eco-features were related to fuel efficiency. A common factor was identified in an exploratory factor analysis, characterizing the intensity of actively dealing with electric energy, which was also related to fuel efficiency. Driver characteristics were not related to this factor, yet they were significant predictors of fuel efficiency. From the perspective of user-energy interaction, the relationship of the aggregated factor to fuel efficiency emphasizes the central role of drivers' perception of and interaction with energy conversions in determining HEV eco-driving success. To arrive at an in-depth understanding of drivers' eco-driving behaviors that can guide interface design, authors of future research should be concerned with the psychological processes that underlie drivers' interaction patterns with eco-features.

  13. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  14. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  15. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  16. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  17. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  18. Numerical modeling of coanda effect in a novel propulsive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coanda effect (adhesion of jet flow over curved surface is fundamental characteristics of jet flow. In the present paper, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate Coanda flow over a curved surface and its application in a newly proposed Propulsive system "A.C.H.E.O.N" (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting jet Nozzle which supports thrust vectoring. The ACHEON system is presently being proposed for propelling a new V/STOL airplane in European Union. This system is based on cumulative effects of three physical effects such as (1 High speed jet mixing speeds (2 Coanda effect control by electrostatic fields (3 Coanda effect adhesion of an high speed jet to a convex surface. The performance of this nozzle can be enhanced by increasing the jet deflection angle of synthetic jet over the Coanda surface. This newly proposed nozzle has wide range of applications. It can be used in industrial sector such as plasma spray gun and for direct injection in combustion chamber to enhance the efficiency of the combustion chamber. Also, we studied the effect of Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators on A.C.H.E.O.N system. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators are active control devices for controlling boundary layer and to delay the flow separation over any convex surfaces. Computations were performed under subsonic condition. Two dimensional CFD calculations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier stokes equations (RANS. A numerical method based on finite volume formulation (FVM was used. SST k-ω model was considered to model turbulent flow inside nozzle. DBD model was used to model the plasma. Moreover, a body force treatment was devised to model the effect of plasma and its coupling with the fluid. This preliminary result shows that, the presence of plasma near Coanda surface accelerates the flow and delays the separation and enhances the efficiency of the nozzle.

  19. Design, Integration, Certification and Testing of the Orion Crew Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Heather; Coffman, Eric; May, Sarah; Freeman, Rich; Cain, George; Albright, John; Schoenberg, Rich; Delventhal, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module Propulsion Reaction Control System is currently complete and ready for flight as part of the Orion program's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1). As part of the first article design, build, test, and integration effort, several key lessons learned have been noted and are planned for incorporation into the next build of the system. This paper provides an overview of those lessons learned and a status on the Orion propulsion system progress to date.

  20. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. O' Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  1. Energy and Exergy Efficiency Analysis of Sealing Steam Condenser in Propulsion System of LNG Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Medica-Viola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In ship propulsion systems today diesel engines are dominant, but steam propulsion systems prevail in one type of ships and that are LNG carriers. Such steam propulsion systems consist of many different components. One interesting component of these systems is sealing steam condenser analysed in this paper. Measurements of all necessary operating parameters for analysed sealing steam condenser were performed during the ship exploitation and they were used for calculating the energy and exergy efficiency of this device. Except the displayed movement of both efficiencies the reasons for those changes and proposals for possible improvements were presented. Also, it was displayed all operating parameters of sealing steam condenser that has an impact on its performance and efficiency. During the ship exploitation, improvements related to the sealing steam condenser efficiency are hard to expect because improvements would cause an increase in the steam propulsion system operating costs.

  2. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated.

  3. Analysis of brake condition and parameter matching of hybrid energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力车制动工况分析与储能装置参数匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟达; 王言子; 项昌乐; 刘辉

    2014-01-01

    为提高混合动力系统整体性能,实现高效能量回收,分析某重型越野车辆驾驶循环工况中制动过程的功率与能量分布,从制动能量回收率与电机参数出发讨论对储能装置的性能要求。提出电池组-超级电容复合储能装置的参数匹配方法,针对21 t级试验样车混合动力系统进行实例计算,论证锂离子电池组与超级电容组成的复合储能装置的性能。实例计算与道路试验结果表明:匹配的复合储能装置符合车辆整体性能与制动能量回收的要求,体积、重量满足总体设计约束;匹配超级电容后,储能装置的瞬时功率能力大幅提升,可显著提高车辆的制动能力和制动能量回收率。%According to the driving cycle of heavy off-road vehicles, the brake power and energy permutation is analyzed, and the performance requirement for the hybrid energy storage system( HESS) is achieved based on the brake energy recovery rate and motor parameters. The parameter matching method for the HESS is proposed and by which the instance calculation for the hybrid propulsion system of 21 tons class vehicles is carried out, and the performance of the HESS with Li-ion cells and ultra capacitors is discussed too. The instance calculation and the test results indicate that the designed HESS can meet the requirement of the total performance of the HEV and the brake energy recovery, the volume and weight answer for the restriction of the top design of the HEV. The designed HESS with ultra capacitors can increase the transient power volume greatly and the brake performance and the brake energy recovery rate are enhanced remarkably.

  4. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Using Additive Manufacturing to Print a CubeSat Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are increasingly being utilized for missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellites CubeSat unit (1U) defined as 10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm. Have been built up to 6U sizes. CubeSats are typically built up from commercially available off-the-shelf components, but have limited capabilities. By using additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities (such as propulsion), can be built into a system. This effort is part of STMD Small Satellite program Printing the Complete CubeSat. Interest in propulsion concepts for CubeSats is rapidly gaining interest-Numerous concepts exist for CubeSat scale propulsion concepts. The focus of this effort is how to incorporate into structure using additive manufacturing. End-use of propulsion system dictates which type of system to develop-Pulse-mode RCS would require different system than a delta-V orbital maneuvering system. Team chose an RCS system based on available propulsion systems and feasibility of printing using a materials extrusion process. Initially investigated a cold-gas propulsion system for RCS applications-Materials extrusion process did not permit adequate sealing of part to make this a functional approach.

  6. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. The Design and Integration of a Distributed Fan Propulsion System within a Split-Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A baseline propulsion system has been designed as a starting point in a previous SBIR effort for this project which consists of two turboshaft engines, a generator...

  8. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For electric propulsion systems for large aircraft it is desirable to have very light weight electric motors. Cryogenic motors offer much lighter weight than...

  9. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of lightweight, non-eroding nozzle materials for use in propulsion systems. Lightweight structures are...

  10. ADAPTIVE FAULT DETECTION ON LIQUID PROPULSION SYSTEMS WITH VIRTUAL SENSORS: ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prior to the launch of STS-119 NASA had completed a study of an issue in the flow control valve (FCV) in the Main Propulsion System of the Space Shuttle using an...

  11. Vehicle-Level Oxygen/Methane Propulsion System Hotfire Testing at Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Melcher, J. C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Desai, Pooja; Werlink, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    A prototype integrated liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system was hot-fire tested at a variety of simulated altitude and thermal conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station In-Space Propulsion Thermal Vacuum Chamber (formerly B2). This test campaign served two purposes: 1) Characterize the performance of the Plum Brook facility in vacuum accumulator mode and 2) Collect the unique data set of an integrated LOX/Methane propulsion system operating in high altitude and thermal vacuum environments (a first). Data from this propulsion system prototype could inform the design of future spacecraft in-space propulsion systems, including landers. The test vehicle for this campaign was the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), which was constructed for this project using assets from the former Morpheus Project rebuilt and outfitted with additional new hardware. The ICPTA utilizes one 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf and two 7 lbf reaction control engines mounted in two pods, four 48-inch propellant tanks (two each for liquid oxygen and liquid methane), and a cold helium system for propellant tank pressurization. Several hundred sensors on the ICPTA and many more in the test cell collected data to characterize the operation of the vehicle and facility. Multiple notable experiments were performed during this test campaign, many for the first time, including pressure-fed cryogenic reaction control system characterization over a wide range of conditions, coil-on-plug ignition system demonstration at the vehicle level, integrated main engine/RCS operation, and a non-intrusive propellant mass gauging system. The test data includes water-hammer and thermal heat leak data critical to validating models for use in future vehicle design activities. This successful test campaign demonstrated the performance of the updated Plum Brook In-Space Propulsion thermal vacuum chamber and incrementally advanced the state of LOX/Methane propulsion

  12. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  13. Sensor Fault Masking of a Ship Propulsion System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, N. Eva; Thavamani, Shuda; Zhang, Youmin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on fault-tolerant control of a ship propulsion benchmark (Izadi-Zamanabadi and Blanke, 999), which uses estimated or virtual measurements as feedback variables. The estimator operates on a self-adjustable design model so that its outputs can be made immune...... that are captured in the estimator's design model can be tolerated without the need for any recon¯guration actions. Simulations for the ship propulsion benchmark show that, with additional sensors added as described, satisfactory fault-tolerance is achieved under two additive sensor faults, an incipient fault...

  14. Sensor Fault Masking of a Ship Propulsion System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, N.E.; Thavamani, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on fault-tolerant control of a ship propulsion benchmark (Izadi-Zamanabadi and Blanke, 1999), which uses estimated or virtual measurements as feedback variables. The estimator operates on a selfadjustable design model so that its outputs can be made immune...... that are captured in the estimator's design model can be tolerated without the need for any reconfiguration actions. Simulations for the ship propulsion benchmark show that, with additional sensors added as described, satisfactory fault-tolerance is achieved under two additive sensor faults, an incipient fault...

  15. Development of an Intelligent Monitoring and Control System for a Heterogeneous Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Lewandowski, Henry; Homer, Patrick T.; Schlichting, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) project is exploring the use of computer simulation to facilitate the design of new jet engines. Several key issues raised in this research are being examined in an NPSS-related research project: zooming, monitoring and control, and support for heterogeneity. The design of a simulation executive that addresses each of these issues is described. In this work, the strategy of zooming, which allows codes that model at different levels of fidelity to be integrated within a single simulation, is applied to the fan component of a turbofan propulsion system. A prototype monitoring and control system has been designed for this simulation to support experimentation with expert system techniques for active control of the simulation. An interconnection system provides a transparent means of connecting the heterogeneous systems that comprise the prototype.

  16. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  17. High Frequency Model of Electrified Railway Propulsion System for EMC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    A model of the electrified railway propulsion system working in a wide frequency range is studied in this thesis. The high frequency modeling is the first stage to study and predict the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems in the electrified railway propulsion system, which are safety and reliability issues of high concern. Modeling methods and models for the line converter, motor power supply module, and the traction motor are developed. These models can work individually or be combi...

  18. METHODOLOGY OF THE HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEM (DMP & DEP FOR TRIMARAN TYPE FAST PATROL BOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Widyandari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are lot of research done to develop a patrol boat, from the modification of hull model until propulsion system equipment. For example the model ship type AMV (Advanced Marine Vehicle was developed starting from the Catamaran, Trimaran and  Pentamaran model. Everything is aimed at obtaining the ship design that has the speed and stability. In addition to achieving high-speed vessel must be equipped with propulsion (Main Power is great, that means the main engine dimensions, auxiliary equipments and fuel tanks is too large. Many Limitations of space on the ship's engine room trimaran vessel is the main obstacle in designing propulsion system. Beside that Patrol boat should have many missions speed, so propulsion system should be designed at that conditions.   Hybrid propulsion is a combination of Diesel Mechanical Propulsion (DMP with Diesel Electric Propulsion (DEP. DMP system is connected directly to the propeller shaft (or through a reduction-gear. DMP has provide more efficiency rate of 95%. While DEP is only able to provide efficiency by 85% - 89% is slightly lower than DMP, but the DEP offers many advantages such as simplicity and suitability in the rotational speed settings, control systems, engine power production Redundancy, Flexibility in the design of equipments layout in engine rooms, noise, vibration and fuel consumption efficiency which affects the lower pollution.   Design of Hybrid Propulsion system can be satisfied and achieved the Power requirements and optimally at all speed condition of patrol boat. Therefore the author made using modeling Maxsurf-11.12 software and carried out various optimization of the choice of main engine, propeller and system conditions for fast patrol boat cruise. 

  19. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) Data Book. Volume 8; Integrated Booster Propulsion Module (BPM) Engine Start Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Victoria R.

    1992-01-01

    A fluid-dynamic, digital-transient computer model of an integrated, parallel propulsion system was developed for the CDC mainframe and the SUN workstation computers. Since all STME component designs were used for the integrated system, computer subroutines were written characterizing the performance and geometry of all the components used in the system, including the manifolds. Three transient analysis reports were completed. The first report evaluated the feasibility of integrated engine systems in regards to the start and cutoff transient behavior. The second report evaluated turbopump out and combined thrust chamber/turbopump out conditions. The third report presented sensitivity study results in staggered gas generator spin start and in pump performance characteristics.

  20. Engine Systems Ownership Cost Reduction - Aircraft Propulsion Subsystems Integration (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    INCO 792 (Radiographic Film). 97 S--I- Teledyne CAE Report No. 1467 ENVELOPE~~IE OFREWAFLC k1806ýý i-- -IS-RGONO NEFNDDT vigue4.2.93. Poder Meal Dic...34, Volume II, 1 August 1956, by members of the Compressor and Turbine Research Division - Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. 15. Deleted. 1 Deleted. 17

  1. Unsteady Motions in Combustion Chambers for Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    6 - 28 RTO-AG-AVT-039 rockets carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the 1950s and 1960s. A companion paper by Landsbaum, Kuby ...E.M. (1959) Fluid Mechanics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Landsbaum, E., Kuby , W.C. and Spaid, F.W. (1960) \\Experimental Investigations of Unstable

  2. RTG Waste Heat System for the Cassini Propulsion Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, V.; Stultz, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal design for the propulsion module subsystem (PMS), and presents the results from the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) waste heat thermal test, and it summarizes the adjustment techniques and their relative effectiveness; it also shows the resulting predicted PMS flight temperatures relative to the requirements.

  3. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  4. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  5. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 2012 Annual Report: A Year of Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma Kiele

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) maintains and advances U.S. leadership in all aspects of rocket propulsion for defense, civil, and commercial uses. The Institute's creation is in response to widely acknowledged concerns about the U.S. rocket propulsion base dating back more than a decade. U.S. leadership in rocket and missile propulsion is threatened by long-term industry downsizing, a shortage of new solid and liquid propulsion programs, limited ability to attract and retain fresh talent, and discretionary federal budget pressures. Numerous trade and independent studies cite erosion of this capability as a threat to national security and the U.S. economy resulting in a loss of global competitiveness for the U.S. propulsion industry. This report covers the period between May 2011 and December 2012, which includes the creation and transition to operations of NIRPS. All subsequent reports will be annual. The year 2012 has been an eventful one for NIRPS. In its first full year, the new team overcame many obstacles and explored opportunities to ensure the institute has a firm foundation for the future. NIRPS is now an active organization making contributions to the development, sustainment, and strategy of the rocket propulsion industry in the United States. This report describes the actions taken by the NIRPS team to determine the strategy, organizational structure, and goals of the Institute. It also highlights key accomplishments, collaborations with other organizations, and the strategic framework for the Institute.

  6. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  7. Design of Engine-Generator Work Mode for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪文; 余晓江; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    From electric circuit theory view, a system model of series hybrid electric vehicle was built which uses engine-generator and battery pack as its on-board energy source in this paper. Based on the analysis for the constant power work mode and constant bus voltage work mode of engine-generator, a third work mode was put forward which combined the advantages of constant power and constant bus voltage work modes. The new work mode is reasonable to keep the battery in good working conditions and to extend its life. Also the working conditions of engine can be bettered to get low pollution and high efficiency.

  8. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  9. Development of Novel Bipolar Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 史鹏飞; 张森

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of bipolar Ni/MH batteries. After optimizing the parameters of bipolar plates by adjusting electrode thickness and modifying the capacity ratio of two adjacent electrodes of a single cell, some bipolar Ni/MH stacks with a voltage of 6 V were assembled and examined. Electrochemical testing results showed that the bipolar battery has excellent high rate discharge and recharge characteristics, satisfying pulse discharge performance even in a low state of charge (SOC). Moreover, the battery showed good stability during pulse cycles as simulating hybrid electric vehicle working conditions. It would be a promising alternative for power storage system in hybrid electxic vehicles.

  10. Lunar soft landing with minimum-mass propulsion system using H2O2/kerosene bipropellant rocket system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yongjun; Kwon, Sejin

    2014-06-01

    Minimum-mass propulsion specifications using a H2O2/kerosene bipropellant rocket system for a small lunar lander were derived. A multivariable optimization was conducted with propulsion specifications and propellant consumptions obtained by solving optimal control problems for a lunar soft landing. In this paper, the optimal specifications, trajectory, and mass budget are presented.

  11. Oxygen/hydrogen Space Station propulsion system concept definition for IOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, J. M.; Meisl, C. J.; Glass, J. F.; Tu, W.-H.; Ebert, S. J.; Evans, S. A.; Jones, L. W.; Campbell, H.

    1986-01-01

    The potential for the reduction in propulsion system life cycle costs through the use of on-board water electrolysis to generate oxygen and hydrogen propellants, as well as the potential advantages of improved system safety and contamination impact, led to a study to evaluate candidate oxygen-/hydrogen-based propulsion systems. In this study a representative set of propulsion system requirements were compiled and candidate oxygen/hydrogen-based propulsion systems synthesized. These candidate concepts were screened and a systems evaluation was performed on the remaining eight candidate concepts. Detailed system schematics were prepared. Operational design conditions were determined and system weight, volume, energy requirements, and costs were calculated. Evaluation results indicated that the oxygen/hydrogen propulsion systems can provide simple, low cost, and viable systems for the IOC Space Station. Based on these data, a relative concept evaluation was conducted using as selection criteria reliability, safety, cost, technical risk, contamination, operational utility, growth potential, and integration potential. Top ranked candidate systems were recommended to NASA/MSFC for consideration for the IOC Space Station.

  12. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  13. Dual-fuel versus single-fuel propulsion systems for AMLS applications. [Advanced Manned Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Talay, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of using a computerized preliminary design system to integrate propulsion systems examined as a part of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) and Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) studies with reference vehicle concepts from the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study are presented. The major trade study presented is an analysis of the effect of using a single fuel for both stages of two-stage AMLS reference vehicles as opposed to using a separate fuel for the boosters. Other trade studies presented examine the effect of varying relevant engine parameters in an attempt to optimize the reference engines for use with the AMLS launch vehicles. In each propulsion trade discussed, special attention is given to the major vehicle performance and operational issues involved.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) Data Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nohpill; Reagan, Shawn; Franks, Greg; Jones, William G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical approaches to evaluating performance of Spacecraft On-Board Computing systems, thereby ultimately achieving a reliable spacecraft data communications systems. The sensitivity analysis approach of memory system on the ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) as a part of its data communication system will be investigated. Also, general issues and possible approaches to reliable Spacecraft On-Board Interconnection Network and Processor Array will be shown. The performance issues of a spacecraft on-board computing systems such as sensitivity, throughput, delay and reliability will be introduced and discussed.

  15. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  16. Brief review on plasma propulsion with neutralizer-free systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2016-06-01

    Electric space propulsion is an intensively developing field addressing new demands and challenges for long-term spacecraft operation. Many novel plasma propulsion concepts aim to find new acceleration principles, use alternative propellants, upscale or downscale thrusters for large thrust or for very small spacecrafts etc. In this work we review the neutralizer-free concepts, where both positive and negative particles are extracted and accelerated from plasmas. We can divide these concepts into three main categories, defined by their acceleration principle: (i) neutral beam generation, (ii) plasma acceleration/expansion and (iii) bipolar beam acceleration. We describe the basic physical principles and evaluate the main advantages and drawbacks in view of general space applications. We also present here further detail on a recent concept where RF voltages are used to accelerate quasi-simultaneously positive ions and electrons from the same source.

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  18. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  20. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  2. 基于遗传算法的混合动力汽车动力总成悬置系统的优化设计研究%Optimization design for powertrain mounting system of a hybrid electric vehicle via genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟超; 王良模; 殷召平; 叶进; 吴海啸

    2015-01-01

    A method to optimize a powertrain mounting system was developed to improve the vibration isolation performance of the mounting system for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle.The optimization was based on the genetic algorithm by taking 6-DOF energy decoupling of the powertrain mounting system and the reasonable allocation of the natural frequencies as the objectives,and taking the stiffnesses of 5 mounting points as the design variables.This method was applied to deal with the shaking of steering wheel for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle in its idling process.The results of dynamic simulation verified the effectiveness of the method.Furthermore,it was shown that compared to the sequential quadratic programming (SQP),the genetic algorithm overcomes its shortcoming of converging to local optimal solution, the decoupling features of the mounting system obtained from the optimization are better and reliable.%为了提高并联式混合动力汽车动力总成五点悬置系统的隔振性能,建立了动力总成五点悬置的动力学模型,以动力总成六自由度能量解耦与固有频率的合理分配为优化目标,五个悬置点的各向刚度为设计变量,采用遗传算法对悬置系统进行优化。应用上述方法对某并联式柴电混合动力汽车悬置系统进行了优化,动力学仿真与实车试验结果表明,悬置优化后消除了整车怠速工况时方向盘抖动,验证了所提方法的合理性。同时,遗传算法克服了序列二次型规划算法(SQP)易收敛于局部最优解的缺点,得到的悬置系统解耦性能优良,优化结果稳定可靠。

  3. Waterhammer Transient Simulation and Model Anchoring for the Robotic Lunar Lander Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, William B.; Trinh, Huu P.; Reynolds, Michael E.; Sharp, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer transients have the potential to adversely impact propulsion system design if not properly addressed. Waterhammer can potentially lead to system plumbing, and component damage. Multi-thruster propulsion systems also develop constructive/destructive wave interference which becomes difficult to predict without detailed models. Therefore, it is important to sufficiently characterize propulsion system waterhammer in order to develop a robust design with minimal impact to other systems. A risk reduction activity was performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a tool for estimating waterhammer through the use of anchored simulation for the Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) propulsion system design. Testing was performed to simulate waterhammer surges due to rapid valve closure and consisted of twenty-two series of waterhammer tests, resulting in more than 300 valve actuations. These tests were performed using different valve actuation schemes and three system pressures. Data from the valve characterization tests were used to anchor the models that employed MSCSoftware.EASY5 v.2010 to model transient fluid phenomena by using transient forms of mass and energy conservation. The anchoring process was performed by comparing initial model results to experimental data and then iterating the model input to match the simulation results with the experimental data. The models provide good correlation with experimental results, supporting the use of EASY5 as a tool to model fluid transients and provide a baseline for future RLL system modeling. This paper addresses tasks performed during the waterhammer risk reduction activity for the RLL propulsion system. The problem of waterhammer simulation anchoring as applied to the RLL system is discussed with results from the corresponding experimental valve tests. Important factors for waterhammer mitigation are discussed along with potential design impacts to the RLL propulsion system.

  4. Research on Propeller Dynamic Load Simulation System of Electric Propulsion Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui; SHEN Ai-di; CHU Jian-xin

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic marine propeller simulation system was developed,which is utilized for meeting the experimental requirement of theory research and engineering design of marine electric propulsion system.By applying an actual ship parameter and its accurate propeller J'~KT' and J'~Kp' curve data,functional experiments based on the simulation system were carried out.The experiment results showed that the system can correctly emulate the propeller characteristics,produce the dynamic and steady performances of the propeller under different navigation modes,and present actual load torque for electric propulsion motor.

  5. Status of a digital integrated propulsion/flight control system for the YF-12 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reukauf, P. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Holzman, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center is engaged in a program with the YF-12 airplane to study the control of interactions between the airplane and the propulsion system. The existing analog air data computer, autothrottle, autopilot, and inlet control system are to be converted to digital systems by using a general purpose airborne computer and interface unit. First, the existing control laws will be programmed in the digital computer and flight tested. Then new control laws are to be derived from a dynamic propulsion model and a total force and moment aerodynamic model to integrate the systems. These control laws are to be verified in a real time simulation and flight tested.

  6. An evaluation of oxygen-hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the space station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the space station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the space station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level space station studies.

  7. An evaluation of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the Space Station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the Space Station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the Space Station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level Space Station studies.

  8. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  9. Development of the MicroThrust Breadboard: A Miniaturized Electric Propulsion System for Nanosatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Tata Nardini, Flavia; Sanders, Berry; Straathof, Michiel; Ataman, Caglar; Richard, Muriel; Shea, Herbert; Rangsten, Pelle; Salaverri, Ana; Ryan, Charles; Stark, John; Visée, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, the MicroThrust (MT) consortium consisting of EPFL, Nanospace, QMUL, SystematIC, and TNO has been working on the development of a MEMS based electric propulsion system. Since 2010, the work has been performed as part of the European Union’s FP7 programme with the goal to design, build and test an engineering model of such a system. The engineering model shall show that this propulsion system can fit in a nano-satellite in terms of mass, volume and power consumption, while giving t...

  10. Case Study on the Unavailability of a Ship Propulsion System under Aging Effects and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadatsugi Okazaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unavailability of a ship propulsion system under aging effects and proper maintenance is estimated using GO-FLOW. GO-FLOW is an effective software tool for the unavailability analysis of complex systems. Aging effects are incorporated into GO-FLOW using a time-dependent technique and assuming a linear aging model. The results show that the aging effects and improper maintenance can potentially increase the frequency of accidents due to a malfunction of the propulsion system by a factor of three.

  11. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not only inherits the merits of switched reluctance machine, such as simple salient rotor structure, high reliability and wide speed range, but also can avoid the outer rotor’s cooling problem effectively. By using an equivalent magnetic circuit model, the function of middle rotor yoke is analyzed. Electromagnetic analyses of the SRDRM are performed with analytical calculations and 2-D finite element methods, including the effects of main parameters on performance. Finally, a 4.4 kW prototype machine is designed and manufactured, and the tests are performed, which validate the proposed design method.

  12. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahamed Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the converter in continuous conduction mode, thereby significantly reducing input current harmonics. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while an experimental digital control system is used to implement the new control strategy. A detailed converter operation, analysis and control strategy are presented along with simulation and experimental results for universal ac input voltage (100–240V to 380V dc output at up to 3.0 kW load and a power factor greater than 0.98. Experimental results show the advantages and flexibilities of the new control method for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging application.

  13. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  14. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  15. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  16. Double Resonant Topology for 72V Battery Charger used in a Hybrid Electric Locomotive - Study and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    BUTTERBACH, S; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; Lallemand, R; Coquery, G.; JEUNESSE, A; EVAIN, Y; AUBIN, PH

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the study, adaptation and experimental validation of a 9kW lead-acid battery charger used to feed the 72VDC bus inside the hybrid electric locomotive demonstrator in the frame of the French research project PLATHEE. The topology of the charger is based on a high frequency double resonant series-parallel circuit which allows soft switching, losses minimization, reduction of passive component weight and facilitates system integration. Specific charging and floating modes we...

  17. Manned mars mission enhancements using Pratt & Whitney escort combined propulsion and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Russell; Feller, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the cost implications to manned Mars missions when a nuclear thermal combined propulsion and power unit is used for main propulsion and mission power. The paper uses a series of mission opportunities during the NASA DRM focus period and looks at how a NTR (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) can be used to increase the Mars mission payload delivery capability and mission flexibility across the entire mission spectrum. In propulsive mode, a nuclear reactor is used to heat hot hydrogen, which is expanded through a converging/diverging nozzle to generate thrust. Heat pickup in the nozzle and the radial beryllium reflectors is used to drive the turbomachinery in the ESCORT expander cycle. In electrical mode, the reactor is used to heat a mixture of helium and xenon to drive a closed-loop Brayton cycle in order to generate electrical energy. A Mars transportation system integrated performance methodology was developed to assess the sensitivity to weight, thrust and impulse to the Mars conjunction class mission requirements. Propellant tanks, propulsion system mass, shielding, and Brayton cycle power conversion unit requirements were included in this evaluation. This paper examines how the design characteristics of the ESCORT derivative propulsion and power system affect the mission payload capability and the earth launch vehicle design requirements. The same reactor design is also used for Mars surface power reactor, delivered as payload by the ESCORT derivative powered Mars transfer stage. Trade curves of mission mass and payload are presented.

  18. An integral solar power and propulsion system concept for commercial space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, P.T.S. [California International Power Associates, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An integral space power concept deriving both the electrical and propulsion power from a common high-temperature heat source module offers superior performance capabilities over conventional chemical upper-stage propulsion with separate solar photovoltaic power systems. This hybrid system concept is based on a high efficiency solar concentrator-heated propulsion and a high temperature thermionic technology derived from the proven Solar Energy Thermionics (SET) or the advanced Hydrogen Thermo-ElectroChemical Conversion (HYTEC) for electrical power generation. The thermal hydrogen propulsion technology is derived from the NERVA rocket program. The integral system is capable of long-life power operation at an efficiency of at least twice the conventional photovoltaic approach. Because of anticipated high conversion efficiency of the HYTEC, the electrical power output can be increased several folds using the similarly sized solar concentrator. The propulsion module is capable of high specific impulse during the orbital transfer thrusting. The same module is also usable for long-term orbit management applications. The resulting savings in propellant and power generator equipment enable the use of new generation of low-cost launchers for many commercial satellite applications.

  19. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  20. Design and development of a propulsion system for a cubesat - Based on solid propellant cool gas generator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackemann, N.J.; Sanders, H.M.; Vliet, L.D. van

    2006-01-01

    Orbital manoeuvring is the next challenge in the development of cubesats. In this study a propulsion system for a cubesat with the main purpose of providing orbit manoeuvring and formation flying has been designed. This propulsion system is basically a cold gas system but it does not use a pressuris

  1. Design and development of a propulsion system for a cubesat - Based on solid propellant cool gas generator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackemann, N.J.; Sanders, H.M.; Vliet, L.D. van

    2006-01-01

    Orbital manoeuvring is the next challenge in the development of cubesats. In this study a propulsion system for a cubesat with the main purpose of providing orbit manoeuvring and formation flying has been designed. This propulsion system is basically a cold gas system but it does not use a pressuris

  2. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  3. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  4. The Design and Construction of a Battery Electric Vehicle Propulsion System - High Performance Electric Kart Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Mark; Alahakoon, Sanath

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an electric propulsion system designed specifically to meet the performance specification for a competition racing kart application. The paper presents the procedure for the engineering design, construction and testing of the electric powertrain of the vehicle. High performance electric Go-Kart is not an established technology within Australia. It is expected that this work will provide design guidelines for a high performance electric propulsion system with the capability of forming the basis of a competitive electric kart racing formula for Australian conditions.

  5. The impact of integrated water management on the Space Station propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The water usage of elements in the Space Station integrated water system (IWS) is discussed, and the parameters affecting the overall water balance and the water-electrolysis propulsion-system requirements are considered. With nominal IWS operating characteristics, extra logistic water resupply (LWR) is found to be unnecessary in the satisfaction of the nominal propulsion requirements. With the consideration of all possible operating characteristics, LWR will not be required in 65.5 percent of the cases, and for 17.9 percent of the cases LWR can be eliminated by controlling the stay time of theShuttle Orbiter orbiter.

  6. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  7. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  8. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2015-04-01

    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  9. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  10. Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, R.

    2004-11-01

    Next Generation Electric Propulsion (NGEP) technology development tasks are working towards advancing solar-powered electric propulsion systems and components to levels ready for transition to flight systems. Current tasks within NGEP include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), Carbon Based Ion Optics (CBIO), NSTAR Extended Life Test (ELT) and low-power Hall Effect thrusters. The growing number of solar electric propulsion options provides reduced cost and flexibility to capture a wide range of Solar System exploration missions. Benefits of electric propulsion systems over state-of-the-art chemical systems include increased launch windows, which reduce mission risk; increased deliverable payload mass for more science; and a reduction in launch vehicle size-- all of which increase the opportunities for New Frontiers and Discovery class missions. The Dawn Discovery mission makes use of electric propulsion for sequential rendezvous with two large asteroids (Vesta then Ceres), something not possible using chemical propulsion. NEXT components and thruster system under development have NSTAR heritage with significant increases in maximum power and Isp along with deep throttling capability to accommodate changes in input power over the mission trajectory. NEXT will produce engineering model system components that will be validated (through qualification-level and integrated system testing) and ready for transition to flight system development. NEXT offers Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration and outer-planet missions a larger deliverable payload mass and a smaller launch vehicle size. CBIO addresses the need to further extend ion thruster lifetime by using low erosion carbon-based materials. Testing of 30-cm Carbon-Carbon and Pyrolytic graphite grids using a lab model NSTAR thruster are complete. In addition, JPL completed a 1000 hr. life test on 30-cm Carbon-Carbon grids. The NSTAR ELT was a life time qualification test started in 1999 with a goal of 88 kg

  11. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  12. Thrust distribution for attitude control in a variable thrust propulsion system with four ACS nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeerang; Lee, Wonsuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Lee, Hosung

    2017-04-01

    A thrust distribution approach is proposed in this paper for a variable thrust solid propulsion system with an attitude control system (ACS) that uses a reduced number of nozzles for a three-axis attitude maneuver. Although a conventional variable thrust solid propulsion system needs six ACS nozzles, this paper proposes a thrust system with four ACS nozzles to reduce the complexity and mass of the system. The performance of the new system was analyzed with numerical simulations, and the results show that the performance of the system with four ACS nozzles was similar to the original system while the mass of the whole system was simultaneously reduced. Moreover, a feasibility analysis was performed to determine whether a thrust system with three ACS nozzles is possible.

  13. 一种船舶可逆混合电力推进系统仿真研究%Research and Simulation of Two Way Reversible Power Generation Hybrid Electric Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 殷非; 王森; 吴国栋; 石磊

    2015-01-01

    针对京杭大运河中运营的双燃料绿色动力船舶在低速推进运行时综合效率较低的情况,提出一种船舶双向可逆混合电力推进方案,可以有效减少机组的燃耗率和提高双燃料的替代率.设计了基于直接转矩控制方法的发电控制器和推进控制器.最后采用Simulink仿真整个系统运行,获得系统启动、加减速和平稳运行的波形,验证了系统的可行性.

  14. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  15. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  16. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  17. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  18. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  19. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  20. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Scott W.; Riehl, John P.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The successes of the Cassini/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The discovery of active water vapor plumes erupting from the tiger stripes on the moon Enceladus has drawn the attention of the space science community. The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is well suited to future missions to the Saturn system. NEXT is used within the inner solar system, in combination with a Venus or Earth gravity assist, to establish a fast transfer to the Saturn system. The NEXT system elements are accommodated in a separable Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) module, or are integrated into the main spacecraft bus, depending on the mission architecture and performance requirements. This paper defines a range of NEXT system configurations, from two to four thrusters, and the Saturn system performance capability provided. Delivered mass is assessed parametrically over total trip time to Saturn. Launch vehicle options, gravity assist options, and input power level are addressed to determine performance sensitivities. A simple two-thruster NEXT system, launched on an Atlas 551, can deliver a spacecraft mass of over 2400 kg on a transfer to Saturn. Similarly, a four-thruster system, launched on a Delta 4050 Heavy, delivers more than 4000 kg spacecraft mass. A SEP module conceptual design, for a two thruster string, 17 kW solar array, configuration is characterized.

  1. Aerospace propulsion products; high-quality rocket ignition systems for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zon, N.; Nevinskaia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace Propulsion Products is the leading European company in designing and producing rocket ignition systems and spinoff products. One of their directors, Edwin Vermeulen, gave us an insight on the company and its future. He states that “whatever rocket technology is needed, we have the

  2. Fourth international symposium on automotive propulsion systems. Volume I. [Eighteen papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A pre-conference draft is given (in five volumes) of the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Automotive Propulsion Systems, held April 18-22, 1977, in Washington, D.C. Volume I contains eighteen papers; a separate abstract was prepared for each for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  3. Improvements on cool gas generators and their application in space propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, H.M.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Vandeberg, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cool Gas Generators are an innovative means to store gas which can be used in propulsion and pressurization systems but also for inflatable structures and terrestrial applications. In Cool Gas Generators, the gas is stored chemically, without pressure or leakage and with a long life time without mai

  4. A methodology for fostering commercialization of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, P. A.; Musial, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale behind, and a proposed approach for, application of government assistance to accelerate the process of moving a new electric vehicle propulsion system product from technological readiness to profitable marketplace acceptance and utilization are described. Emphasis is on strategy, applicable incentives, and an implementation process.

  5. Ship Propulsion System as a Benchmark for Fault-Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. The paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for development of new ideas and comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is development of efficient FDI algorithms, the other is analysis and implementation...

  6. Aerospace propulsion products; high-quality rocket ignition systems for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zon, N.; Nevinskaia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace Propulsion Products is the leading European company in designing and producing rocket ignition systems and spinoff products. One of their directors, Edwin Vermeulen, gave us an insight on the company and its future. He states that “whatever rocket technology is needed, we have the technolo

  7. 混合动力电动汽车能量及驱动系统的关键控制问题研究进展%Research progress on key control problems arising from the energy and driving system of the hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承慧; 李珂; 崔纳新; 邢国靖; 吴剑; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    Faced with great pressure in energy and environment,the hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) has become an important development trend of the automobile industry.The HEV is remarkably different from traditional vehicles,and puts more requirements and dependencies on the control system,due to its unique and complicated energy and driving systems.Such a system can be formulated as a class of hybrid switching dynamic system with high uncertainty and strong nonlinearity,and the performance of optimization and control strategy is closely linked with the economy,reliability,safety and the comfort of the HEV.However,there are still many challenges in designing a controller for the energy and driving system of the HEV.Fortunately,modern control theory and technology provide key methods to overcome these technical bottlenecks in energy and driving system of the HEV.From the viewpoint of system and control science,this paper profoundly and comprehensively summarized some key scientific and technical issues and their development,such as the energy management strategy of the HEV energy and driving systems,the state estimation of the HEV traction battery,and the optimal control of the HEV driving system etc.Finally,the challenges and development tendency of the optimal control technologies and theories on the HEV energy and driving systems were also pointed out.%面对能源和环境的巨大压力,混合动力汽车(hybrid electric vehicle,HEV)已成为汽车工业发展的重要方向。混合动力电动汽车与传统汽车有很大不同,具有独特而又复杂的能量及驱动系统,故对控制系统的要求更高和依赖性更强。该系统可以归结为一类具有高度不确定性和强非线性的混杂切换动态系统,其优化控制策略的优劣直接影响车辆的经济性、可靠性、安全性和舒适性。然而混合动力电动汽车能量及驱动系统的控制器设计却面临众多挑战,现代控制理论和技术则是解决这一技术

  8. OPTIMAL TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  9. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  10. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  11. Mixing of Supersonic Jets in a RBCC Strutjet Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, S.; Hawk, Clark W.; Bakker, P. G.; Parkinson, D.; Turner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during take-off and low speed flight. A scale model of the Strutjet device was built and tested to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strut exit plane in simulated sea level take-off conditions. The Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic method has been employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point where the two jets meet, is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0 (the original design point), 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter at 8 locations downstream of the rocket nozzle exit. The results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the strut to a distance of about 18 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream (18"). These images show the turbine exhaust to be confined until a short distance downstream. The expansion into the ingested air is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and 1.5 and shows that mixing with this air would likely begin at a distance of 2" downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Of the pressure ratios tested in this research, 2.0 is the best value for delaying the mixing at the operating conditions considered.

  12. Modelling the Dynamics of Ships with Different Propulsion Systems for Control Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierusz Witold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different propulsion systems are analyzed from point of view of future control applications. The traditional one consists of a pushing single screw propeller and a blade rudder. The other system is based on pod (pods: pulling or pushing ones. The equations describing forces and moments generated in both systems, are presented. Exemplary results of a simulation in comparison to the real-time experiments for two ships are also shown.

  13. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingestion Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Brennan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will examine potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion system with a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment will be used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry will be made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.3% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  14. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Brennan T.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Schmitz, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2 deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.4% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from Boundary-Layer Ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  15. First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goksel, Berkant

    2016-01-01

    A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area ratios (50-150 kN/m2) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power could be provided by future compact plasma fu...

  16. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. Sensorless torque control scheme of induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Cheng SHAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the sensorless torque robust tracking problem of the induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)applications is addressed.Because motor parameter variations in HEV applications are larger than in industrial drive system,the conventional field-oriented control(FOC)provides poor performance.Therefore,a new robust PI-based extension of the FOC controller and a speed-flux observer based on sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed in order to Improve the overall performance.Simulation results show that the proposed sensorless torque control scheme is robust with respect to motor parameter variations and loading disturbances.In addition,the operating flux of the motor is chosen optimally to minimize the consumption of electric energy,which results in a significant reduction in energy losses shown by simulations.

  18. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  19. Real-time optimization power-split strategy for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ChaoYing; ZHANG Cong

    2016-01-01

    Energy management strategies based on optimal control theory can achieve minimum fuel consumption for hybrid electric vehicles,but the requirement for driving cycles known in prior leads to a real-time problem.A real-time optimization power-split strategy is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control.The battery state of charge sustainability and fuel economy are ensured by designing a quadratic performance index combined with two rules.The engine power and motor power of this strategy are calculated in real-time based on current system state and command,and not related to future driving conditions.The simulation results in ADVISOR demonstrate that,under the conditions of various driving cycles,road slopes and vehicle parameters,the proposed strategy significantly improves fuel economy,which is very close to that of the optimal control based on Pontryagin's minimum principle,and greatly reduces computation complexity.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC URBAN BUSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuanjun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    A novel parallel hybrid electrical urban bus (PHEUB) configuration consisting of an extra one-way clutch and an automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) is taken as the study subject. An energy management strategy combining a logic threshold approach and an instantaneous optimization algorithm is proposed for the investigated PHEUB. The objective of the energy management strategy is to achieve acceptable vehicle performance and drivability requirements while simultaneously maximizing the engine fuel consumption and maintaining the battery state of charge in its operation range at all times. Under the environment of Matlab/Simulink, a computer simulation model for the PHEUB is constructed by using the model building method combining theoretical analysis and bench test data. Simulation and experiment results for China Typical Bus Driving Schedule at Urban District (CTBDS_UD) are obtained, and the results indicate that the proposed control strategy not only controls the hybrid system efficiently but also improves the fuel economy significantly.

  1. Computer controlled operation of a two-engine xenon ion propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a computer control system for a two-engine xenon ion propulsion module is described. The computer system controls all aspects of the propulsion module operation including: start-up, steady-state operation, throttling and shutdown of the engines; start-up, operation and shutdown of the central neutralizer subsystem; control of the gimbal system for each engine; and operation of the valves in the propellant storage and distribution system. The most important engine control algorithms are described in detail. These control algorithms provide flexibility in the operation and throttling of ion engines which has never before been possible. This flexibility is made possible in large part through the use of flow controllers which maintain the total flow rate of propellant into the engine at the proper level. Data demonstrating the throttle capabilities of the engine and control system are presented.

  2. NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Replacement Effort for Oxygen System Cleaner - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt Burns, H.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.; Farner, Bruce R.; Ross, H. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid oxygen are extremely reactive materials used in bipropellant propulsion systems. Both flight and ground oxygen systems require a high level of cleanliness to support engine performance, testing, and prevent mishaps. Solvents used to clean and verify the cleanliness of oxygen systems and supporting test hardware must be compatible with the system's materials of construction and effective at removing or reducing expected contaminants to an acceptable level. This paper will define the philosophy and test approach used for evaluating replacement solvents for the current Marshall Space Flight Center/Stennis Space Center baseline HCFC-225 material that will no longer be available for purchase after 2014. MSFC/SSC applications in cleaning / sampling oxygen propulsion components, support equipment, and test system were reviewed then candidate replacement cleaners and test methods selected. All of these factors as well as testing results will be discussed.

  3. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of

  4. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  5. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  6. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  7. Design and testing of the U.S. Space Station Freedom primary propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.; Chilcot, Kimberly J.

    1992-07-01

    The primary propulsion system (PPS) for the Space Station Freedom is discussed in terms of salient design characteristics and key testing procedures. The rocket engine modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, and their designs are illustrated showing the mounting structures, thruster solenoid valves, and thrust chambers. The propellant tank assembly for storing gaseous N pressurant and hydrazine propellant is described as are the system avionics, thruster solenoid valves, and latching isolation valves. PPS testing conducted on the development systems includes the use of a propulsion-module development unit, a development test article, and system qualification testing. Specific test articles include functional heaters, mass/thermal simulated components, flight-quality structures, and software control operations.

  8. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  9. AIRBOAT NOISE REDUCTION AND IMPELLER DESIGN FOR WATER JET PROPULSION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    quieter than the original wooden propeller. The second part of the report concerns the design of impellers for use in water jet propulsion system for...shallow draft boats. The impellers in a commercial water jet system used by the Army did not perform as anticipated. The report describes the design of a new impeller and guide vanes to replace those in the commercial unit.

  10. Flow Control and Measurement in Electric Propulsion Systems: Towards an AIAA Reference Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    capillary radius, m A, B = fit coefficients C = proportional constant Co = orifice coefficient cp = specific heat capacity, J/kg K F = thrust...not yield knowledge of the actual xenon consumption rate. The xenon feed system used on the NASA Deep Space 1 (DS1) and Dawn spacecraft is an example...Interest for Electric Propulsion Systems.1,2,3,4 Noble Gases Other Nonmetals Compounds Helium (He) Hydrogen (H2) Ammonia (NH3) Neon (Ne) Nitrogen (N2

  11. About the propulsion system of a kayak and of Basiliscus Basiliscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieves, A.; de las Nieves, F. J.

    1998-09-01

    The propulsion system governing the motion of a kayak is studied, comparing it with the observed motion of the Central American reptile Basiliscus Basiliscus. The physical background under which both systems move is described. Special attention is paid to the way the applied forces are transmitted yielding the motion, as well as to the flow patterns that are generated. A brief description of the mechanics of kayaking is also given.

  12. Status of a Power Processor for the Prometheus-1 Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Hill, Gerald M.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott; Griebeler, Elmer; Hewitt, Frank; Scina, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies for nuclear electric propulsion for proposed deep space missions in support of the Exploration initiative under Project Prometheus. Electrical power produced by the combination of a fission-based power source and a Brayton power conversion and distribution system is used by a high specific impulse ion propulsion system to propel the spaceship. The ion propulsion system include the thruster, power processor and propellant feed system. A power processor technology development effort was initiated under Project Prometheus to develop high performance and lightweight power-processing technologies suitable for the application. This effort faces multiple challenges including developing radiation hardened power modules and converters with very high power capability and efficiency to minimize the impact on the power conversion and distribution system as well as the heat rejection system. This paper documents the design and test results of the first version of the beam supply, the design of a second version of the beam supply and the design and test results of the ancillary supplies.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow

  14. Propulsion System and Mission Design of AMSAT P5-A Mars Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, M.; Riehle, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ham radio operators group AMSAT is currently preparing studies about the feasibility of developing a low cost mission to mars. The probe, called P5-A shall be mainly based on the design of the amateur radio satellite P3-D, launched in November 2000 atop Ariane 507. The satellite design team of AMSAT is lead by the German subsidiary of this international organisation and is supported by ASTRIUM in Lampolshausen, Germany. The support of ASTRIUM may encompass the delivery of major propulsion system components like the bi-propellant Apogee Engine, as already done for former AMSAT projects. Further on propulsion system experts from ASTRIUM have offered support to AMSAT during the design process and during critical satellite operations (e.g. fuelling on launch site). The present paper describes the mission design and the general layout of the P5-A mars probe with strong emphasise on the propulsion system. Probe Design Communication and development of the corresponding techniques is the main field of activities of the amateur radio operators. Thus the main payload of the probe will be an extensive and sophisticated communication equipment. Other organisations even have shown interest to use this mars probe as data relay for their own missions. To save costs, the design of the recently developed satellite P3-D shall be used as far as possible. One side of the hexagonal shaped structure of the satellite will be occupied by a dish antenna to establish from mars orbit a high data download rate of 50,000 bits/sec at the frequency of 10.5 GHz. As counterpart on ground the 20 m Cassegrain-reflector of Bochum University will be used. Due to the fixed antenna the probe has to be 3- axis stabilised. Therefore the use of magnetic wheels in conjunction with thrusters is foreseen. The paper will describe the propulsion system layout and design. For impulsive manoeuvres the ASTRIUM built 400N Apogee Engine is foreseen. For interplanetary corrections or thrust phases the use of an

  15. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  16. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  17. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  18. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  19. Power Split Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric System Stratégie de séparation des flux de puissance pour un système électrique hybride à pile à combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The power management of a hybrid system composed of a fuel cell, a battery and a DC/DC power converter is developed. A decoupled control strategy is proposed, aimed at balancing the power flow between the stack and the battery and avoiding electrochemical damage due to low oxygen concentration in the fuel cell cathode. The controller is composed of two components. The first controller regulates the compressor, and as a consequence the oxygen supplied to the cathode, via a classic Proportional-Integral controller. The second controller optimally manages the current demanded by the fuel cell and battery via a linear-quadratic control strategy acting on the converter. An Extended Kalman Filter is also designed in order to estimate the battery State of Charge. The closed-loop performance was tested in simulation using a 310th-order system model. Ce papier illustre une stratégie de gestion de puissance pour un système hybride composé d’une pile à combustible, d’une batterie et d’un convertisseur DC/DC. Dans le but d’équilibrer les flux de puissance entre la pile à combustible et la batterie et d’éviter les dégâts causés par une dépression d’oxygène dans le cathode de la pile, un contrôleur découplé est proposé. Ce contrôleur se compose de deux parties. La première, un régulateur proportionnel-intégral, commande le compresseur et, par conséquent, le flux d’oxygène fourni au cathode. La deuxième, un régulateur linéaire-quadratique, gère le courant demandé par la pile à combustible et la batterie. Pour estimer l’état de charge de la batterie, un filtre de Kalman étendu a aussi été conçu. Les performances de la stratégie ont été analysées en simulation avec un modèle de batterie du 310e ordre.

  20. Highlights of NASA's Special ETO Program Planning Workshop on rocket-based combined-cycle propulsion system technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA workshop on rocket-based combined-cycle propulsion technologies is described emphasizing the development of a starting point for earth-to-orbit (ETO) rocket technologies. The tutorial is designed with attention given to the combined development of aeronautical airbreathing propulsion and space rocket propulsion. The format, agenda, and group deliberations for the tutorial are described, and group deliberations include: (1) mission and space transportation infrastructure; (2) vehicle-integrated propulsion systems; (3) development operations, facilities, and human resource needs; and (4) spaceflight fleet applications and operations. Although incomplete the workshop elevates the subject of combined-cycle hypersonic propulsion and develops a common set of priniciples regarding the development of these technologies.

  1. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  2. Molecular absorption cryogenic cooler for liquid hydrogen propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G. A.; Jones, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A light weight, long life molecular absorption cryogenic cooler (MACC) system is described which can use low temperature waste heat to provide cooling for liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for interplanetary spacecraft. Detailed tradeoff studies were made to evaluate the refrigeration system component interactions in order to minimize the mass of the spacecraft cooler system. Based on this analysis a refrigerator system mass of 31 kg is required to provide the .48 watts of cooling required by a 2.3 meter diameter liquid hydrogen tank.

  3. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  4. REFINED MODEL OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR SPACE MINI-VEHICLES WITH LASER PROPULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  5. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  6. Engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle incorporating load-leveling and computer controlled energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochgraf, C.G.; Ryan, M.J.; Wiegman, H.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper identifies important engine, alternator and battery characteristics needed for determining an appropriate engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle. Examination of these characteristics indicates that a load-leveling strategy applied to the small engine will provide better fuel economy than a power-tracking scheme. An automatic energy management strategy is devised whereby a computer controller determines the engine-alternator turn-on and turn-off conditions and controls the engine-alternator autonomously. Battery state of charge is determined from battery voltage and current measurements. Experimental results of the system`s performance in a test vehicle during city driving are presented.

  7. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  8. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  9. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  10. An Empirical Study of Overlapping Rotor Interference for a Small Unmanned Aircraft Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Brazinskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research into full-sized helicopter overlapping propulsion systems involves co-axial setups (fully overlapped. Partially overlapping rotor setups (tandem, multirotor have received less attention, and empirical data produced over the years is limited. The increase in demand for compact small unmanned aircraft has exposed the need for empirical investigations of overlapping propulsion systems at a small scale (Reynolds Number < 250,000. Rotor-to-rotor interference at the static state in various overlapping propulsion system configurations was empirically measured using off the shelf T-Motor 16 inch × 5.4 inch rotors. A purpose-built test rig was manufactured allowing various overlapping rotor configurations to be tested. First, single rotor data was gathered, then performance measurements were taken at different thrust and tip speeds on a range of overlap configurations. The studies were conducted in a system torque balance mode. Overlapping rotor performance was compared to an isolated dual rotor propulsion system revealing interference factors which were compared to the momentum theory. Tests revealed that in the co-axial torque-balanced propulsion system the upper rotor outperforms the lower rotor at axial separation ratios between 0.05 and 0.85. Additionally, in the same region, thrust sharing between the two rotors changed by 21%; the upper rotor produced more thrust than the lower rotor at all times. Peak performance was recorded as a 22% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was greater than 0.25. The performance of a co-axial torque-balanced system reached a 27% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was equal to 0.05. The co-axial system swirl recovery effect was recorded to have a 4% efficiency gain in the axial separation ratio region between 0.05 and 0.85. The smallest efficiency loss (3% was recorded when the rotor separation ratio was between 0.95 and 1 (axial separation ratio was kept at 0

  11. Propulsion System Development for the CanX-4 and CanX-5 Dual Nanosatellite Formation Flying Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Benjamin Walter

    The Canadian Nanosatellite Advanced Propulsion System is a liquefied cold-gas thruster system that provides propulsive capabilities to CanX-4/-5, the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment 4 and 5. With a launch date of early 2014, CanX-4/-5's primary mission objective is to demonstrate precise autonomous formation flight of nanosatellites in low Earth orbit. The high-level CanX-4/-5 mission and system architecture is described. The final design and assembly of the propulsion system is presented along with the lessons learned. A high-level test plan provides a roadmap of the testing required to qualify the propulsion system for flight. The setup and execution of these tests, as well as the analyses of the results found therein, are discussed in detail.

  12. Ship Propulsion System as a Benchmark for Fault-Tolerant Control

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control combines fault detection and isolation techniques with supervisory control to achieve autonomous accommodation of faults before they develop into failures. While fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods have matured during the past decade the extension to fault-tolerant control is a fairly new area. The paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for development of new ideas and comparison of methods. The benchmark has t...

  13. A Cold Gas Micro-Propulsion System for CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joseph; Coste, Keith; Williamson, Dave; Gloyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Potential civilian and government users have expressed a strong interest in CubeSat class satellites for military, scientific and commercial purposes. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL), using DARPA funding, have contracted with The Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California to develop a CubeSat class spacecraft called the MEMS PicoSat Inspector (MEPSI). In turn, AFRL and Aerospace Corporation selected VACCO to provide a Micro-Propulsion System (MiPS) for MEPSI. This paper d...

  14. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  15. Pulsed Fission-Fusion (PuFF) Propulsion System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-ignited fusion systems have been operational – in weapon form – since the 1950’s. Leveraging insights gained from the weapons physics...

  16. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil ...be used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  17. 3D Modelling of a Vectored Water Jet-Based Multi-Propeller Propulsion System for a Spherical Underwater Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved modelling method for a water jet-based multi-propeller propulsion system. In our previous work, the modelling experiments were only carried out in 2D planes, whose experimental results had poor agreement when we wanted to control the propulsive forces in 3D space directly. This research extends the 2D modelling described in the authors' previous work into 3D space. By doing this, the model could include 3D space information, which is more useful than that of 2D space. The effective propulsive forces and moments in 3D space can be obtained directly by synthesizing the propulsive vectors of propellers. For this purpose, a novel experimental mechanism was developed to achieve the proposed 3D modelling. This mechanism was designed with the mass distribution centred for the robot. By installing a six-axis load-cell sensor at the equivalent mass centre, we obtained the direct propulsive effect of the system for the robot. Also, in this paper, the orientation surface and propulsive surfaces are developed to provide the 3D information of the propulsive system. Experiments for each propeller were first carried out to establish the models. Then, further experiments were carried out with all of the propellers working together to validate the models. Finally, we compared the various experimental results with the simulation data. The utility of this modelling method is discussed at length.

  18. 3D Modelling of a Vectored Water Jet-Based Multi-Propeller Propulsion System for a Spherical Underwater Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved modelling method for a water jet‐based multi‐propeller propulsion system. In our previous work, the modelling experiments were only carried out in 2D planes, whose experimental results had poor agreement when we wanted to control the propulsive forces in 3D space directly. This research extends the 2D modelling described in the authors’ previous work into 3D space. By doing this, the model could include 3D space information, which is more useful than that of 2D space. The effective propulsive forces and moments in 3D space can be obtained directly by synthesizing the propulsive vectors of propellers. For this purpose, a novel experimental mechanism was developed to achieve the proposed 3D modelling. This mechanism was designed with the mass distribution centred for the robot. By installing a six‐axis load‐cell sensor at the equivalent mass centre, we obtained the direct propulsive effect of the system for the robot. Also, in this paper, the orientation surface and propulsive surfaces are developed to provide the 3D information of the propulsive system. Experiments for each propeller were first carried out to establish the models. Then, further experiments were carried out with all of the propellers working together to validate the models. Finally, we compared the various experimental results with the simulation data. The utility of this modelling method is discussed at length.

  19. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  20. The Rationale/Benefits of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion for NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.