WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid-derived species remain

  1. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic diversity guides conservation strategies among rare terrestrial orchid species when taxonomy remains uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Supple, Megan A; Aitken, Nicola C; Cantrill, David J; Borevitz, Justin O; James, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia. Four putative species were sampled from a total of 16 populations in the Victorian Volcanic Plain (VVP) bioregion and one population of a sub-alpine outgroup in south-eastern Australia. Morphological measurements were taken in situ along with leaf material for genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and microsatellite analyses. Species could not be differentiated using morphological measurements. Microsatellite and GBS markers confirmed the outgroup as distinct, but only GBS markers provided resolution of population genetic structure. The nationally endangered Diuris basaltica was indistinguishable from two related species ( D. chryseopsis and D. behrii ), while the state-protected D. gregaria showed genomic differentiation. Genomic diversity identified among the four Diuris species suggests that conservation of this taxonomically complex group will be best served by considering them as one ESU rather than separately aligned with species as currently recognized. This approach will maximize evolutionary potential among all species during increased isolation and environmental change. The methods used here can be applied generally to conserve evolutionary processes for groups where taxonomic uncertainty hinders the use of species as conservation units. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Three new species of the characid genus Cynopotamus Valenciennes, 1849, with remarks on the remaining species (Pisces, Characiformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes, Naercio A.

    1987-01-01

    Three new species of Cynopotamus Valenciennes, 1849 are described, C. gouldingi n. sp., C. juruenae n. sp. and C. tocantinensis n. sp. New diagnoses and synonymies are provided for most species of this genus as a consequence of the results from a study of recently collected specimens. A revised key

  4. Hedging Life and Pension Company Balance Sheets with Hybrid Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2009-01-01

    Life and Pension companies are facing enhanced risks of market due to dynamic interest rates and unprecedented volatility in equities, jeopardising guarantee of performance to policyholders and shareholders. Evolving statutory requirements and financial reporting standards, add to the challenges...... for these companies. This paper highlights the utility of "Hybrid Derivatives" and the new risk based solvency reporting system, know as "Traffic Light System" adopted by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority, as an answer to the challenges posed....

  5. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Scheckel, K.; Sekine, R.; Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Brunetti, G.; Naidu, R.; McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with 110m Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO 3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002–3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. - Highlights: • Biosolids silver (Ag) concentrations appear to have decreased in recent decades. • Ag 2 S dominates Ag speciation in freshly produced sludge. • Ag 2 S is also the dominant species in aged biosolids. • Upon land application biosolids will mainly contain Ag-sulfides and have low isotopic lability. - Analysis of historic and contemporary biosolids from three continents indicated decreasing wastewater silver releases, and non-labile, extremely stable silver speciation

  6. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  7. Healthy n-6/n-3 fatty acid composition from five European game meat species remains after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencak, Teresa G; Gamsjäger, Lisa; Ohrnberger, Sarah; Culbert, Nicole J; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-06-27

    Intensive farming of livestock along with recent food scandals and consumer deception have increased awareness about risks for human nutrition. In parallel, the demand for meat obtained under more natural conditions from animals that can freely forage has largely increased. Interestingly, the consumption of game meat has not become more common despite its excellent quality and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We addressed the question if game meat fatty acid composition is modified through kitchen preparation. By analysing muscle fatty acid (FA) composition (polar and total lipids) of five European game species in a raw and a processed state, we aimed to quantify the proportion of PUFA that are oxidised and hydrogenated during processing. All game meat species originated from local hunters and free-living individuals. To mimic a realistic situation a professional chef prepared the meat samples with gentle use of heat in a standardised way. Expectedly, the overall content of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined during the cooking process but the decrease size was cooking does not substantially alter its favourable fatty acid composition. Further research is needed to elucidate species-specific differences and the role of habitat quality and locomotion for tissue composition.

  8. Applying Knowledge of Species-Typical Scavenging Behavior to the Search and Recovery of Mammalian Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexandria; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

    2016-03-01

    Forensic investigations involving animal scavenging of human remains require a physical search of the scene and surrounding areas. However, there is currently no standard procedure in the U.K. for physical searches of scavenged human remains. The Winthrop and grid search methods used by police specialist searchers for scavenged remains were examined through the use of mock red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scatter scenes. Forty-two police specialist searchers from two different regions within the U.K. were divided between those briefed and not briefed with fox-typical scavenging information. Briefing searchers with scavenging information significantly affected the recovery of scattered bones (χ(2) = 11.45, df = 1, p = 0.001). Searchers briefed with scavenging information were 2.05 times more likely to recover bones. Adaptions to search methods used by searchers were evident on a regional level, such that searchers more accustom to a peri-urban to rural region recovered a higher percentage of scattered bones (58.33%, n = 84). © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Modeling the distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca) for Alaska with high accuracy: an open access role-model for predicting tree species in last remaining wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettina Ohse; Falk Huettmann; Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond; Glenn P. Juday

    2009-01-01

    Most wilderness areas still lack accurate distribution information on tree species. We met this need with a predictive GIS modeling approach, using freely available digital data and computer programs to efficiently obtain high-quality species distribution maps. Here we present a digital map with the predicted distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca...

  10. Analysing the floral elements of the lost tree of Easter Island: a morphometric comparison between the remaining ex-situ lines of the endemic extinct species Sophora toromiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, Thomas A; Espejo, Jaime; Sanzana, María-José; Benítez, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Sophora toromiro (Phil) Skottsb. is a species that has been extinct in its natural habitat Easter Island (Rapa Nui) for over 50 years. However, seed collections carried out before its extinction have allowed its persistence ex-situ in different botanical gardens and private collections around the world. The progenies of these diverse collections have been classified in different lines, most of them exhibiting high similarity as corroborated by molecular markers. In spite of this resemblance observed between the different lines, one of them (Titze) has dissimilar floral elements, thus generating doubts regarding its species classification. The floral elements (wing, standard and keel) belonging to three different S. toromiro lines and two related species were analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This method was applied in order to quantify the floral shape variation of the standard, wing, and keel between the different lines and control species. Geometric morphometrics analyses were able to distinguish the floral elements at both intra (lines) and inter-specific levels. The present results are on line with the cumulative evidence that supports the Titze line as not being a proper member of the S. toromiro species, but probably a hybridization product or even another species of the Edwardsia section. The reintroduction programs of S. toromiro should consider this information when assessing the authenticity and origin of the lines that will be used to repopulate the island.

  11. Analysing the floral elements of the lost tree of Easter Island: a morphometric comparison between the remaining ex-situ lines of the endemic extinct species Sophora toromiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Püschel

    Full Text Available Sophora toromiro (Phil Skottsb. is a species that has been extinct in its natural habitat Easter Island (Rapa Nui for over 50 years. However, seed collections carried out before its extinction have allowed its persistence ex-situ in different botanical gardens and private collections around the world. The progenies of these diverse collections have been classified in different lines, most of them exhibiting high similarity as corroborated by molecular markers. In spite of this resemblance observed between the different lines, one of them (Titze has dissimilar floral elements, thus generating doubts regarding its species classification. The floral elements (wing, standard and keel belonging to three different S. toromiro lines and two related species were analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This method was applied in order to quantify the floral shape variation of the standard, wing, and keel between the different lines and control species. Geometric morphometrics analyses were able to distinguish the floral elements at both intra (lines and inter-specific levels. The present results are on line with the cumulative evidence that supports the Titze line as not being a proper member of the S. toromiro species, but probably a hybridization product or even another species of the Edwardsia section. The reintroduction programs of S. toromiro should consider this information when assessing the authenticity and origin of the lines that will be used to repopulate the island.

  12. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  13. DNA Methylation Alterations at 5'-CCGG Sites in the Interspecific and Intraspecific Hybridizations Derived from Brassica rapa and B. napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanshan Xiong

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression that involved in the biological processes of development and differentiation in plants. To investigate the association of DNA methylation with heterosis in Brassica, a set of intraspecific hybrids in Brassica rapa and B. napus and interspecific hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus, together with parental lines, were used to monitor alterations in cytosine methylation at 5'-CCGG sites in seedlings and buds by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The methylation status of approximately a quarter of the methylation sites changed between seedlings and buds. These alterations were related closely to the genomic structure and heterozygous status among accessions. The methylation status in the majority of DNA methylation sites detected in hybrids was the same as that in at least one of the parental lines in both seedlings and buds. However, the association between patterns of cytosine methylation and heterosis varied among different traits and between tissues in hybrids of Brassica, although a few methylation loci were associated with heterosis. Our data suggest that changes in DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG sites are not associated simply with heterosis in the interspecific and intraspecific hybridizations derived from B. rapa and B. napus.

  14. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  15. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  16. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  17. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  18. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  19. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  20. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  1. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  2. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  3. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  4. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  5. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  6. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  7. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  8. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  9. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  10. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  11. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  12. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  13. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  14. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  15. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  16. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  17. Ventilator associated pneumonia caused by extensive-drug resistant Acinetobacter species: Colistin is the remaining choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hasanin

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: XDR AB-VAP is endemic in our ICU without a definite factor associated with increased risk of infection. Given that almost half of the strains are also resistant to tigecycline, colistin appears to be an appropriate first-line antimicrobial drug in critically ill patients developing VAP based on invitro results.

  18. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains energy and absorption data for XANES spectra indicated in Figure 1 of the manuscript. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  19. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...

  20. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  1. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  2. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  3. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  4. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  5. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  7. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  8. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  9. Remaining questions in the case for balanced harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Matthew G; Diekert, Florian K; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2016-01-01

    are controversial, including its call for extensive harvesting of juveniles and forage fish. Balanced harvesting also calls for targeting species and size-classes that are not currently marketable, possibly at a significant economic cost. Some have argued that this cost is outweighed by the ecological benefits......Balanced harvesting – harvesting all species and sizes in an ecosystem in proportion to their productivity – is a fisheries management strategy that has been suggested recently to increase yields, while reducing overall ecosystem impact. However, some aspects of balanced harvesting...

  10. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  12. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  13. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  14. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  15. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  16. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  17. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  18. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  19. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  20. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  1. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  2. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  3. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  4. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  5. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  6. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  7. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  8. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  9. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  10. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  11. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  14. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  15. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  16. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  17. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  18. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007ab, 2008 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006 Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977 Getz 1961 Reig 1970 Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods reconstruction of paleoenvironment documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars

  19. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007a;b, 2008; 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006; Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification; quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977; Getz 1961; Reig 1970; Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods; reconstruction of paleoenvironment; documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars when

  20. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  1. Genetic transformation of fruit trees: current status and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Genetic transformation has emerged as a powerful tool for genetic improvement of fruit trees hindered by their reproductive biology and their high levels of heterozygosity. For years, genetic engineering of fruit trees has focussed principally on enhancing disease resistance (against viruses, fungi, and bacteria), although there are few examples of field cultivation and commercial application of these transgenic plants. In addition, over the years much work has been performed to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, to induce modifications of plant growth and habit, to produce marker-free transgenic plants and to improve fruit quality by modification of genes that are crucially important in the production of specific plant components. Recently, with the release of several genome sequences, studies of functional genomics are becoming increasingly important: by modification (overexpression or silencing) of genes involved in the production of specific plant components is possible to uncover regulatory mechanisms associated with the biosynthesis and catabolism of metabolites in plants. This review focuses on the main advances, in recent years, in genetic transformation of the most important species of fruit trees, devoting particular attention to functional genomics approaches and possible future challenges of genetic engineering for these species in the post-genomic era.

  2. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  3. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  4. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  5. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  6. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  8. The first Neanderthal remains from an open-air Middle Palaeolithic site in the Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ella; Hovers, Erella; Ekshtain, Ravid; Malinski-Buller, Ariel; Agha, Nuha; Barash, Alon; Mayer, Daniella E Bar-Yosef; Benazzi, Stefano; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Levin, Lihi; Greenbaum, Noam; Mitki, Netta; Oxilia, Gregorio; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel; Soudack, Michalle; Yeshurun, Reuven; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Nir, Nadav; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Rak, Yoel; Barzilai, Omry

    2017-06-07

    The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel. The hominin remains represent three individuals: EQH1, a nondiagnostic skull fragment; EQH2, an upper right third molar (RM 3 ); and EQH3, lower limb bones of a young Neandertal male. EQH2 and EQH3 constitute the first diagnostic anatomical remains of Neandertals at an open-air site in the Levant. The optically stimulated luminescence ages suggest that Neandertals repeatedly visited 'Ein Qashish between 70 and 60 ka. The discovery of Neandertals at open-air sites during the late MP reinforces the view that Neandertals were a resilient population in the Levant shortly before Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens populated the region.

  9. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  11. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  12. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  13. Genomic and proteomic identification of Late Holocene remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biard, Vincent; Gol'din, Pavel; Gladilina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A critical challenge of the 21st century is to understand and minimise the effects of human activities on biodiversity. Cetaceans are a prime concern in biodiversity research, as many species still suffer from human impacts despite decades of management and conservation efforts. Zooarchaeology...... sequencing approach. In addition, shotgun sequencing produced several complete ancient odontocete mitogenomes and auxiliary nuclear genomic data for further exploration in a population genetic context. In contrast, both morphological identification and Sanger sequencing lacked taxonomic resolution and....../or resulted in misclassification of samples. We found that the combination of ZooMS and shotgun sequencing provides a powerful tool in zooarchaeology, and here allowed for a deeper understanding of past marine resource use and its implication for current management and conservation of Black Sea odontocetes....

  14. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  15. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  16. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  17. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  18. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  19. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  20. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  1. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  3. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  4. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  5. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  6. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  8. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  9. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  10. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  11. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  12. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  15. Determination Methods for the Exoskeletal Remains of Early Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karatajute-Talimaa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeleton, consisting of micromeric elements (odontodes and their derivatives, is characteristic of the most ancient vertebrates. Great morphological and histological variability of discrete exoskeletal microremains makes it difficult to identify them. It is necessary to study not only separate scales or tesserae, but also to get a picture of the squamation in general, because species determined from discrete elements are understood as an assemblage of morphological types. For determination of discrete exoskeletal elements, their morphology, internal structure, defined tissue types of crown and basal plate, types (way of their growth, system of vascular canals should be studied in addition changes occuring during ontogenetic development of both the dermal skeletal elements and the squamation should be taken in consideration. The material of different groups of early vertebrates (astraspids, tesakoviaspids, heterostracans, thelodonts, mongolepids, chondrichthyans and acanthodians, which were widely distributed in the Early Palaeozoic, are used as examples. Ein Hautskelett aus mikromerischen Elementen (Odontodes und davon abgeleiteten Formen ist für die meisten frühen Vertebraten kennzeichnend. Große morphologische und histologische Variabilität der einzelnen Mikroreste des Hautskeletts bereitet bei ihrer Bestimmung Schwierigkeiten. Es ist notwendig, nicht nur isolierte Schuppen und Tesserae zu untersuchen, sondern man muß sich eine Vorstellung der der gesamten Beschuppung verschaffen, da Arten bestimmt auf isoliertem Material als eine Ansammlung von morphologischen Typen verstanden werden müssen. Bei der Bestimmung isolierter Elemente des Enskeletts sollte man deren Morphologie, innere Struktur, Gewebetypen der Krone und Basalplatte, Arten des Wachstums, Anordnung der Gefäßkanäle und Veränderungen während des Wachstums des Einzelelements und der Gesamtbeschuppung berücksichtigen. Hautskelett-Elemente der verschiedenen Gruppen fr

  16. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  17. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  18. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  19. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  20. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  1. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  2. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data.

  3. Ancient Urban Ecology Reconstructed from Archaeozoological Remains of Small Mammals in the Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data. PMID:24622726

  4. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  5. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  6. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  7. Impacts of global warming on phenology of spring leaf unfolding remain stable in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Rutishauser, This; Tao, Zexing; Zhong, Shuying; Ge, Quansheng; Dai, Junhu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of spring temperature forcing on the timing of leaf unfolding of plants (temperature sensitivity, S T ) is one important indicator of how and to what degree plant species track climate change. Fu et al. (Nature 526:104-107, 2015) found that S T has significantly decreased from the 1980-1994 to the 1999-2013 period for seven mid-latitude tree species in Europe. However, long-term changes in S T over the past 60 years are still not clear. Here, using in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species, we analyze the temporal change in S T over decadal time scales extending the data series back to 1951. Our results demonstrate that S T shows no statistically significant change within shifting 30-year windows from 1951 to 2013 and remains stable between 1951-1980 and 1984-2013 (3.6 versus 3.7 days °C -1 ). This result suggests that the significant decrease in S T over the past 33 years could not be sustained when examining the trends of phenological responses in the long run. Therefore, we could not conclude that tree spring phenology advances will slow down in the future, and the S T changes in warming scenarios are still uncertain.

  8. Land, lake, and fish: Investigation of fish remains from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (paleo-Lake Hula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Irit; Biton, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    The question of whether or not pre-modern hominins were responsible for the accumulation of fish remains is discussed through analyses of remains recovered from two lacustrine facies (I-4 and I-5) from Area A of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The fish remains provide the first glimpse into the naturally accumulated fish assemblage from the fluctuating shores of a lake that had been continually exploited by early hominins some 780,000 years ago. Preliminary analysis of the remains show that thirteen of the seventeen species native to Lake Hula were identified at GBY. These represent three of the five freshwater fish families native to the lake: Cyprinidae (carps), Cichlidae (tilapini, St. Peter's fish), and Clariidae (catfish). From a taphonomical perspective, a significant difference is found between the two lithofacies (Layers I-4 and I-5) in terms of species composition, richness, diversity, and skeleton completeness. It appears that the fish remains recovered from Layer I-4 (clay) are better preserved than those from Layer I-5 (coquina). In both lithofacies, Cyprinidae are highly abundant while Cichlidae and Clariidae are rare and under-represented, especially when compared to the Lake Hula fishery report from the 1950s. All of these identified species may have contributed significantly to the diet of GBY hominins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  10. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  11. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  13. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic): a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Fernández, Marta S; Schoch, Rainer R

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago) comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian) and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic) rocks from the northern hemisphere. This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  14. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic: a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic rocks from the northern hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  15. Time Remains

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2014-01-01

    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute 'problem of time'. Under our view, duration is still regarded as relative, but te...

  16. Fish Remains from Excavations near the Riverfront at Newcastle upon Tyne, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Nicholson

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The City of Newcastle, situated some 10 miles inland on the River Tyne in north-east England, is not now an important fishing port. Most of the fresh fish marketed in the city has been landed at the nearby coastal ports of North and South Shields. Excavations at two sites behind the present Quayside in Newcastle, however, have yielded quantities of fish bones, representing a wide variety of species. This is in contrast to excavations in other parts of the city, where few fish remains have been recovered, and suggests that the quayside in Newcastle was an important centre for the fishing industry during the medieval period. It seems likely that most of the fish remains represent waste from landing and processing fish on or near the quayside. Yet, when taphonomic factors are taken into account, the limitations of using even large bone assemblages to interpret processing activities is demonstrated. As always, the need for a programme of on-site sieving to obtain representative samples of fish bone is evident.

  17. Impacts of curatorial and research practices on the preservation of fossil hominid remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Toussaint, Michel

    2017-12-30

    Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The deterioration of the body starts soon after death, continues in the sediments and only a subsample of the anatomical elements will persist and may finally be unearthed by archeologists. From their recovery onwards, fossil remains are exposed to many sources of further damage: from handling, restoration, measuring to invasive sampling. On the one hand, curators are faced with the inherent challenge of balancing their responsibility to protect fossil specimens with allowing researchers to perform specific analyses or invasive sampling detrimental to the preservation of the fossil. On the other hand, scientists may find their analyses complicated by multiple factors including taphonomy, or restoration techniques (e.g., consolidants, cleaning chemicals). We provide several historical examples illustrating the complex nature of the factors acting on fossil preservation. We discuss concerns about producing and sharing (digital) data from fossils. Finally, we also suggest and support some curatorial practices which maximize the traceability of treatments underwent by a fossil.

  18. Siphunculina quinquangula (Loew) (Diptera, Chloropidae) new to Japan: Emergence from the remains stage of pig carcass, with the implications for forensic entomology

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Oikawa, Shohei; Kanmiya, Kenkichi

    2013-01-01

    A chloropid species, Siphunculina quinquangula (Loew, 1873) is recorded for the first time from Japan. Adult flies were collected in emergence traps covered on the remains stage of an exposed pig carcass. The implications are given for S. quinquangula (Loew) in estimating postmortem periods for forensic entomology. A key to the known Japanese species of the Siphunculina is also provided

  19. Core-satellite species hypothesis and native versus exotic species in secondary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kelsey A.; Gibson, David J.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of hypotheses exist to explain species’ distributions in a landscape, but these hypotheses are not frequently utilized to explain the differences in native and exotic species distributions. The core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis predicts species occupancy will be bimodally distributed, i.e., many species will be common and many species will be rare, but does not explicitly consider exotic species distributions. The parallel dynamics (PD) hypothesis predicts that regional occurrence patterns of exotic species will be similar to native species. Together, the CSS and PD hypotheses may increase our understanding of exotic species’ distribution relative to natives. We selected an old field undergoing secondary succession to study the CSS and PD hypotheses in conjunction with each other. The ratio of exotic to native species (richness and abundance) was observed through 17 years of secondary succession. We predicted species would be bimodally distributed and that exotic:native species ratios would remain steady or decrease through time under frequent disturbance. In contrast to the CSS and PD hypotheses, native species occupancies were not bimodally distributed at the site, but exotic species were. The exotic:native species ratios for both richness (E:Nrichness) and abundance (E:Ncover) generally decreased or remained constant throughout supporting the PD hypothesis. Our results suggest exotic species exhibit metapopulation structure in old field landscapes, but that metapopulation structures of native species are disrupted, perhaps because these species are dispersal limited in the fragmented landscape.

  20. Estimation the remaining service-lifetime of wooden structure of geothermal cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar with other construction materials, wood strength is decreasing when applied by long term loading. Wooden cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was built in 1998 and it should be evaluated to avoid sudden structural failure. Evaluation conducted through several steps: wood species identification, the physical and mechanical properties testing, and estimation for remaining service-lifetime by generating mathematical models derived from creep test and reduction of cross sectional area of the wood. Identification result that the wood are redwood (Sequoia sempervirens and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii. The wood density value has degraded from the surface until 0.25 cm depth. Strength characteristics of the wood have considerably decreased, but the allowable stress for bending, tension parallel to grain, and shear were still higher than NDS2005 requirements. The allowable stress for compression parallel to grain was slightly lower than NDS, while compression perpendicular to grain was much lower. Average modulus of elasticity reduces become lower than the value stated by the code, but the minimum value of modulus of elasticity (Emin of redwood was still higher than the code value, while Emin of Douglas fir is slightly lower. Then, in accordance with those findings, the construction would not failure yet but the deformation and vibration will occur in higher rate than design planning. This research develops mathematical models for estimating the remaining service-lifetime of the wooden cooling tower structure in geothermal power plant based on the wood performance in resisting long term loading and its deterioration rate. The deterioration rate of wood member of cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd is 0.0147 cm depth per year, so equation for the residual service life estimation is σlaterσtoday=bh2(b−0.0147T(h−0.0147T2, and σlater must be lower than allowable stress.

  1. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  2. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  3. Human cultural and related remains from Me Aure Cave (site WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant-Mackie, J.A.; Sand, C.; Valentin, F.; Fitzgerald, B.M.; Richer de Forges, B.

    2013-01-01

    In 1995 a small cave near Me Aure (site WMD007) on the west coast of New Caledonia, about 120 km northwest of Noumea, was excavated and found to contain mainly owl and human midden deposits. Some of the contents have already been documented and the present paper completes the study by reporting the human-related materials, including human bone fragments, pottery sherds, bones of four rodent species, and marine mollusc and crab remains. Each of these material classes are reported separately by the authors responsible for their analysis, and the results and interpretations based on each line of evidence are compared and contrasted. The human bone and pottery data suggest a temporally constrained deposit (2750-2350 BP) that has experienced stratigraphic disturbance. This result raises doubt about the un-mixed nature of the deposit emphasized in earlier publications and it urges instead the conclusion that the Me Aure stratigraphy consists mostly of a redeposited set of horizons. If this conclusion is correct, interpretations already published relying on a fixed chronology, especially about vegetation change and avifauna depletion or early aroid introduction will need to be reconsidered. The site constitutes the first in New Caledonia for which a cave deposit has now been fully analysed. (author). 36 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Soponteerakul, Ratsadakorn; Kaewkumpai, Piyatida; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Chawangwongsanukun, Rachanchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in marine mammals is still questionable. Here we investigated the prevalence of OA in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (Asian elephant, Asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, Malayan tapir, Assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). Skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bones were observed for OA lesions. The prevalence of OA was reported as number of OA lesions/total number of bones. Our results revealed that the presence of OA in marine species (dolphin and dugong) was 2.44% and 3.33%, respectively. In dolphins, the highest OA occurrence was on the left and right humeral trochlea, with 13.68% and 12.63%, respectively, while the highest number of OA lesions in dugongs was on the lumbar vertebrae (8.79%). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of OA between sexes in dolphins and dugongs was observed, but we found a significant difference (P mammals, similar to terrestrial mammals, even though their natural habitat is the ocean. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. Endangered Species Day | Endangered Species Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual Top 10 Report Protecting the Endangered Species Act Wildlife Voices Stand for Wolves Endangered Campaigns Wildlife Voices Protecting the Endangered Species Act Annual Top 10 Report Endangered Species Day Stand for Wolves Vanishing BOOK: A Wild Success The Endangered Species Act at 40 Endangered Species The

  6. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  7. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  8. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  9. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  10. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition. PMID:27293697

  11. DNA species surveillance: Monitoring bushmeat poaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA species identification has applications in such areas as forensic science, systematics, conservation genetics and agriculture. One key anthropogenic activity threatening large wildlife fauna is illegal exploitation. In Kenya, species identification of raw and processed meat products remains a constraint to effective ...

  12. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  13. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  15. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  16. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  17. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Sizzo, Hernán; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Arreola-Nava, Hilda Julieta; Terrazas, Teresa; Sánchez, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  18. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  19. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  20. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  1. Consumption of Big Game Remains by Scavengers: A Potential Risk as Regards Disease Transmission in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS, a tuberculosis (TB endemic area. We used camera trapping at 18 hunting piles on seven hunting estates. A total of eight bird and five mammal taxa were detected at the remains of hunting piles. The most frequently detected species in terms of number of gut piles visited (78% and scavenged (61% was the red fox Vulpes vulpes, followed by the griffon vulture Gyps fulvus (56% as regards both presence and scavenging and the raven Corvus corax (61 and 39% as regards presence and scavenging, respectively. We evidenced that griffon vultures accounted for most of the scavenging activity in open habitats, while facultative mammal scavengers, red fox, and wild boar Sus scrofa made the highest contribution to scavenging in vegetation-covered habitats. In the case of wild boar, the gut piles deposited during the evening and night favored higher rates of scavenging, while the opposite pattern was observed for griffons. Overall, our findings suggest that when disposing of hunting remains in areas of risk as regards disease transmission it is particularly important to consider the access that facultative mammals, and especially wild boar, have to material, while the presence of the resource needs to be safeguarded to protect specialist scavengers of conservation value. These results are of particular relevance in the case of wild boar in the current context of re-emerging TB and emerging African swine fever (ASF in Europe.

  2. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  3. Species concept and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application. Keywords: Species concept, Species limitation, Species, Taxonomy, Classification

  4. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  5. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  6. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  7. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  8. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  9. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  10. Setting maximum sustainable yield targets when yield of one species affects that of other species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Reid, David; Mackinson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    species. But how should we prioritize and identify most appropriate targets? Do we prefer to maximize by focusing on total yield in biomass across species, or are other measures targeting maximization of profits or preserving high living qualities more relevant? And how do we ensure that targets remain...

  11. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  12. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  13. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slik, J. W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, ...

  14. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  15. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  16. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available. PMID:28285509

  17. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  18. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  19. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  20. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  1. Fatal attraction: rare species in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Elena; Deves, Anne-Laure; Saint Jalmes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2009-04-07

    The exploitation of rare and endangered species can end in the species's extinction because the increased value people associate with rarity increases the economic incentive to exploit the last individuals, creating a positive feedback loop. This recently proposed concept, called the anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE), relies on the assumption that people do value rarity, but this remains to be established. Moreover, it also remains to be determined whether attraction to rarity is a trait confined to a minority of hobbyists (e.g. wildlife collectors, exotic pet owners) or characteristic of the general public. We estimated how much the general public valued rare species compared with common ones, using five different metrics related to personal investment: time spent, physical effort, unpleasantness, economic investment and risk. We surveyed the visitors of a zoo. To see the rare species, the visitors to the zoo invested more time in searching and contemplation, they were ready to expend more physical effort, they tolerated more unpleasant conditions, they were willing to pay more and, finally, they risked more to obtain (steal) a rare species. Our results provide substantial evidence of how the general public places more value on rare species, compared with common species. This confirms the AAE as an actual process, which in addition concerns a large part of the population. This has important consequences for the conservation of species that are rare now, or that could become so in the future.

  2. Anatomical study of animal remains from Phoenician-Punic amphorae found in the Santa Giusta Pond, Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Portas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the underwater excavations carried out in the Santa Giusta Pond, near Oristano, Sardinia, a significant amount of Phoenician- Punic materials was brought to light including amphorae (dating back to 7th-2nd century BC and vegetal and animal remains. All of these archaeological finds may come from Othoca, an important Phoenician- Punic city on the eastern shore of the pond, geographically corresponding with the modern-day town of Santa Giusta. Animal materials consist of more than 3000 very well-preserved remains, belonging to sheep (Ovis aries, goat (Capra hircus and cattle (Bos taurus. Bone analyses allowed reconstructing the slaughtering methods, as well as manipulation procedures carried out to preserve meat in order to be exported overseas. Although pig (Sus scrofa played an important economical role in other Sardinian Phoenician-Punic settlements, in this archaeological context this species is absent, suggesting that the meat contained in the amphorae was probably destined to other areas of the Mediterranean basin, where people did not eat pork.

  3. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  4. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  5. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  6. The potential and biological test on cloned cassava crop remains on local sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, R.; Umar, S.; Hanum, C.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at knowing the potential of cloned cassava crop remains dry matter and the impact of the feeding of the cloned cassava crop remains based complete feed on the consumption, the body weight gain, and the feed conversion of the local male sheep with the average of initial body weight of 7.75±1.75 kg. The design applied in the first stage research was random sampling method with two frames of tile and the second stage research applied Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) treatments and four (4) replicates. These treatments consisted of P1 (100% grass); P2 (50% grass, 50% complete feed pellet); P3 (100% complete feed from the raw material of cloned cassava crop remaining). Statistical tests showed that the feeding of complete feed whose raw material was from cloned cassava crop remains gave a highly significant impact on decreasing feed consumption, increasing body weight, lowering feed conversion, and increasing crude protein digestibility. The conclusion is that the cloned cassava crop remains can be used as complete sheep feed to replace green grass and can give the best result.

  7. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  8. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  10. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  11. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  12. The existence of fertile hybrids of closely related model earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Plytycz

    Full Text Available Lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei (Ea and E. fetida (Ef are simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal insemination capable of self-fertilization while the existence of hybridization of these two species was still debatable. During the present investigation fertile hybrids of Ea and Ef were detected. Virgin specimens of Ea and Ef were laboratory crossed (Ea+Ef and their progeny was doubly identified. 1 -identified by species-specific maternally derived haploid mitochondrial DNA sequences of the COI gene being either 'a' for worms hatched from Ea ova or 'f' for worms hatched from Ef ova. 2 -identified by the diploid maternal/paternal nuclear DNA sequences of 28s rRNA gene being either 'AA' for Ea, 'FF' for Ef, or AF/FA for their hybrids derived either from the 'aA' or 'fF' ova, respectively. Among offspring of Ea+Ef pairs in F1 generation there were mainly aAA and fFF earthworms resulted from the facilitated self-fertilization and some aAF hybrids from aA ova but none fFA hybrids from fF ova. In F2 generation resulting from aAF hybrids mated with aAA a new generations of aAA and aAF hybrids were noticed, while aAF hybrids mated with fFF gave fFF and both aAF and fFA hybrids. Hybrids intercrossed together produced plenty of cocoons but no hatchlings independently whether aAF+aAF or aAF+fFA were mated. These results indicated that Ea and Ef species, easy to maintain in laboratory and commonly used as convenient models in biomedicine and ecotoxicology, may also serve in studies on molecular basis of interspecific barriers and mechanisms of introgression and speciation. Hypothetically, their asymmetrical hybridization can be modified by some external factors.

  13. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  14. The memory remains: application of historical DNA for scaling biodiversity loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Few species worldwide have attracted as much attention in relation to conservation and sustainable management as Pacific salmon. Most populations have suffered significant reductions, many have disappeared, and even entire evolutionary significant units (ESUs) are believed to have been lost. Until...

  15. The initial changes of fat deposits during the decomposition of human and pig remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Stephanie J; Stuart, Barbara H; Rowe, Rebecca; Langlois, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The early stages of adipocere formation in both pig and human adipose tissue in aqueous environments have been investigated. The aims were to determine the short-term changes occurring to fat deposits during decomposition and to ascertain the suitability of pigs as models for human decomposition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from both species after immersion in distilled water for up to six months was compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Changes associated with decomposition were observed, but no adipocere was formed during the initial month of decomposition for either tissue type. Early-stage adipocere formation in pig samples during later months was detected. The variable time courses for adipose tissue decomposition were attributed to differences in the distribution of total fatty acids between species. Variations in the amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also detected between species. The study shows that differences in total fatty acid composition between species need to be considered when interpreting results from experimental decomposition studies using pigs as human body analogs.

  16. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate a...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...... on the interactions between humans and past plant communities....

  17. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  18. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  19. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  20. Dating Of Remains Of Neanderthals And Homo Sapiens From Anatolian Region By ESR-US Combined Methods Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Farkh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tried in the present study to apply the electron spin resonance method ESR combined with uranium-series method US for dating fossilized human teeth and found valuable archaeological sites such as Karain Cave in Anatolia. Karain Cave is a crucial site in a region that has yielded remains of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens our direct ancestors. The dating of these remains allowed us to trace the history since the presence of man on earth. Indeed Anatolia in Turkey is an important region of the world because it represents a passage between Africa the Middle East and Europe. Our study was conducted on faunal teeth found near human remains. The combination of ESR and US data on the teeth provides an understanding of their complex geochemical evolution and get better estimated results. Our samples were taken from the central cutting where geological layers are divided into archaeological horizons each 10 cm. The AH4 horizon of I.3 layer which represents the boundary between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic is dated to 29 4 ka by the ESR-US model. Below two horizons AH6 and AH8 in the same layer I.4 are dated respectively 40 6 and 45 7 ka using the ESR-US model. In layer II where a stalagmite floor was taken we made two U-Th dating at the base and on the top ages oscillated around 120 ka. Since human remains were collected from AH3 horizon for Homo sapiens and AH5 and AH7 horizons for the Neanderthal man so the dates obtained in AH4 AH6 and AH8 represent maximum ages. Thus they provide the disappearance of Neanderthal man between 45 and 40 ka and the appearance of Homo sapiens in 29 ka in Anatolia region. Undoubtedly there is a chronological gap between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic represented by the disappearance of Neanderthals and the appearance of sapiens and none of our results confirm the contemporaneity of these two species in this region.

  1. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  2. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  3. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  4. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... religious leaders of all Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations: (i) From whose tribal lands, at... objects; (ii) The names and appropriate methods to contact any traditional religious leaders who should be...

  5. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-07-12

    Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. A four-year-old female lizard E. macularius was evaluated due to a subcutaneous tumor in the occipito-pterional portion behind its right eye. A solid tumor beneath the skin was surgically enucleated under general anesthesia. Then, the ulcerated skin was dissected away together with the tumor. The necrotic edge of the remaining skin flap was carefully trimmed to leave as much of the pigmented portions as possible on the outskirt of the skin flap. The scar was covered with the remaining skin flap, and the uncovered lesion was protected with Vaseline containing gentamicin. The lesion was rapidly covered with regenerated dermis within a week, and the epidermis with round and well-oriented pigmented spots were almost completely restored in four months. The surgical suture of the skin flap after removal of the ulcerated margins resulted in the scar-free regeneration of the scales and the pigmented spots. And the pigmented spots of the remaining skin close to the lesion site might be a source of the regenerated spots.

  6. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  7. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  8. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  9. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  10. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys

    2014-09-01

    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  11. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  12. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  13. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  14. Editorial Forestry faces big issues to remain sustainable — a role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantation forestry remains an attractive land use, both from an economic perspective through the production of costeffective wood and from a sustainable development perspective through the generation of jobs in rural areas. The forest industry directly employs over 100 000 people and if one considers that all of plantation ...

  15. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Mexico; and Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. History and Description of the Remains Upon preparation for... Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION...-10909, February 20, 2001). The Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of...

  16. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  17. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  18. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  19. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  1. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  2. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  4. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  5. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  6. Mammalian remains from an Indian site on Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1963-01-01

    The animal remains (mostly of shells, fish, and turtles) collected by Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY at the Indian site Sint Jan II, Curaçao, in March, 1960, include a few specimens of mammals. As was the case with the Indian site Santa Cruz, on Aruba (HOOIJER, 1960), several forms are

  7. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions in a will or advanced directive... Decreased United States Citizen Or National § 72.30 Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include...

  8. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding Registered Nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between Registered Nurses' motivation for entering the profession, occupational commitment and intent to remain with an employer until retirement. Identifying and supporting nurses who are strongly committed to their profession may be the single most influential intervention in combating the nursing shortage. An understanding of the characteristics these individuals possess could lead to a decline in the high attrition rates plaguing the profession. Using a survey design, Registered Nurses enrolled at the school of nursing and/or employed at the associated university medical centre of a large, not-for-profit state university were polled in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the variables of motivation for entry and occupational commitment could indicate intent to remain. The strongest indicators of intent to remain were normative commitment and age, with a 70% average rate of correctly estimating retention. Exp(B) values for normative commitment (1·09) and age (1·07) indicated that for each one-point increase on the normative commitment scale or one-point increase in age, the odds of remaining with an employer until retirement increased by 1·1%. Transformational changes in healthcare environments and nursing schools must be made to encourage loyalty and obligation, the hallmarks of normative commitment. Retention strategies should accommodate mature nurses as well as promote normative commitment in younger nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  10. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of remaining behavior of halogen on the fabrication of MOX pellet containing Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoko; Osaka, Masahiko; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2004-11-01

    It is important to limit the content of halogen elements, namely fluorine and chlorine that are sources of making cladding material corrode, in nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of quality assurance. The halogen content should be more carefully limited in the MOX fuel containing Americium (Am-MOX), which is fabricated in the Alpha-Gamma Facility (AGF) for irradiation testing to be conducted in the experimental fast reactor JOYO, because fluorine may remain in the sintered pellets owing to a formation of AmF 3 known to have a low vapor pressure and may exceeds the limit of 25 ppm. In this study, a series of experimental determination of halogen element in Am-MOX were performed by a combination method of pyrolysis and ion-chromatography for the purpose of an evaluation of behavior of remaining halogen through the sintering process. Oxygen potential, temperature and time were changed as experimental parameters and their effects on the remaining behavior of halogen were examined. It was confirmed that good pellets, which contained small amount of halogen, could be obtained by the sintering for 3 hour at 1700degC in the oxygen potential range from -520 to -390 kJ/mol. In order to analysis of fluorine chemical form in green pellet, thermal analysis was performed. AmF 3 and PuF 3 have been confirmed to remain in the green pellet. (author)

  12. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  13. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  14. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  15. Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolina, I.; Kollias, S.; Poortvliet, M.

    2014-01-01

    Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers t...

  16. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  17. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Species diversity modulates predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Anholt, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator–prey interactions.Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity

  19. Mixed rain forest in southeastern Brazil: tree species regeneration and floristic relationships in a remaining stretch of forest near the city of Itaberá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Maciel; Ivanauskas, Natália Macedo; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Polisel, Rodrigo Trassi; Santos, Rochelle Lima Ramos dos; Miranda Neto, Aurino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, richness, and diversity of the upper and lower strata of a stretch of mixed rain forest near the city of Itaberá, in southeastern Brazil. We also investigated the differences between this conservation area and other stretches of mixed rain forest in southern and southeastern Brazil, as well as other nearby forest formations, in terms of their floristic relationships. For our survey of the upper stratum (diameter at breast height ...

  20. Introduced earthworm species exhibited unique patterns of seasonal activity and vertical distribution, and Lumbricus terrestris burrows remained usable for at least 7 years in hardwood and pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain non-destructive information on the seasonal dynamics of earthworms in northern forest soils. To overcome this, we used a Rhizotron facility to compile 7 years of data on the activity of anecic (Lumbricus terrestris) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa complex) earthworms in two contrasting soil/plant...

  1. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  3. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  4. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  5. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  6. Combined radiographic and anthropological approaches to victim identification of partially decomposed or skeletal remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, C.; O'Connor, J.E.; McNulty, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Victim identification is the priority in any scenario involving the discovery of single or multiple human remains for both humanitarian and legal reasons. Such remains may be incomplete and in various stages of decomposition. In such scenarios radiography contributes to both primary and secondary methods of identification; the comparison of ante-mortem dental radiographs to post-mortem findings is a primary identification method whereas the analysis of post-mortem skeletal radiographs to help create a biological profile and identify other individuating features is a secondary method of identification. This review will introduce and explore aspects of victim identification with a focus on the anthropological and radiography-based virtual anthropology approaches to establishing a biological profile, identifying other individuating factors and ultimately restoring an individual's identity. It will highlight the potential contribution that radiography, and radiographers, can make to the identification process and contribute to increasing awareness amongst radiographers of the value of their professional role in such investigations

  7. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  8. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  9. DNA analyses of the remains of the Prince Branciforte Barresi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, O; Martínez-Labarga, C; Favaro, M; Frezza, D; Mallegni, F

    2001-01-01

    The five skeletons found buried in the church of Militello di Catania, Sicily, were tentatively identified by morphological analysis and historical reports as the remains of Prince Branciforte Barresi, two of his children, his brother and another juvenile member of the family (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). In order to attempt to clarify the degree of relationships of the five skeletons, sex testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable segments I and II (HV1 and HV2) of control region were performed. Moreover, the 9 bp-deletion marker of region V (COII/tRNAlys) was examined. Molecular genetic analyses were consistent with historical expectations, although they did not directly demonstrate that these are in fact the remains of the Prince and his relatives, due to the impossibility of obtaining DNA from living maternal relatives of the Prince.

  10. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  11. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  12. Regulatory perspective on remaining challenges for utilization of pharmacogenomics-guided drug developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Yasuto; Ishiguro, Akihiro; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics-guided drug development has been implemented in practice in the last decade, resulting in increased labeling of drugs with pharmacogenomic information. However, there are still many challenges remaining in utilizing this process. Here, we describe such remaining challenges from the regulatory perspective, specifically focusing on sample collection, biomarker qualification, ethnic factors, codevelopment of companion diagnostics and means to provide drugs for off-target patients. To improve the situation, it is important to strengthen international harmonization and collaboration among academia, industries and regulatory agencies, followed by the establishment of an international guideline on this topic. Communication with a regulatory agency from an early stage of drug development is also a key to success.

  13. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  14. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. Case presentation: A fou...

  15. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  16. Improving the availability of trade finance in developing countries: An assessment of remaining gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Auboin, Marc

    2015-01-01

    While conditions in trade finance markets returned to normality in the main routes of trade, the structural difficulties of poor countries in accessing trade finance have not disappeared – and might have been worsened during and after the global financial crisis. In fact, there is a consistent flow of information indicating that trade finance markets have remained characterized by a greater selectivity in risk-taking and flight to “quality” customers. In that environment, the lower end of the...

  17. How magazines could remain competitive in the transition from print to digital media

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Olof

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, the world has seen a fast development in information technology. This has led to significant changes in many different industries including the media industry. The transformation is in progress and is unceasingly changing the game rules for media companies. Many magazines are struggling in the new competitive media landscape since existing business models in the print industry are hard to apply to the digital industry. In order for magazines to remain competitive they...

  18. New findings of dinosaur remains and considerations on the age of the guichon formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M; Perea, D; Veroslasky, G; Rinderknecht, A; Ubilla, M.; Leucuona, G.

    2008-01-01

    The first known dinosaur remains from the Guichon Formation are reviewed herein, demonstrating that they have a limited bio stratigraphic value. New materials (comprising abundant bones and several eggshell fragments) are described, representing the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation. The bone belong to a derived titanosaurian (Eutitanosauria) while the eggshells are refered to the oogenus Sphaerovum Mones 1980. Bio stratigraphic implications of these materials are discussed, allowing to propose a Late Cretaceous age for this unit

  19. Practices of Elementary Principals in Influencing New Teachers to Remain in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Thelma D.

    2002-01-01

    The grounded theory presented in this study describes practices elementary principals utilize in influencing new teachers to remain in education. Eleven teachers and three elementary principals from one school division in Virginia participated in this study. Interview data were collected, elementary principals were shadowed, and documents were analyzed. Thematic categories and sub categories were formed through data analysis. The grounded theory that resulted from this study is: principals wh...

  20. Beneath the surface of water. Hydraulic structures and human skeletal remains in Ancient Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Zanoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from the area of Modena, in Northern Italy, have revitalized the debate on the association between human skeletal remains and artificial hydraulic structures. In this paper, our intention is to assemble the relevant archaeological and anthropological data on the matter in order to establish whether these findings are exceptional and isolated or indicate instead a structured and specific cultural behaviour which persists through time.

  1. The privacy concerns in location based services: protection approaches and remaining challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Anahid; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growth in the developments of the Location Based Services (LBS) applications, there are still several challenges remaining. One of the most important concerns about LBS, shared by many users and service providers is the privacy. Privacy has been considered as a big threat to the adoption of LBS among many users and consequently to the growth of LBS markets. This paper discusses the privacy concerns associated with location data, and the current privacy protection approaches. It re...

  2. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  3. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  4. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Samuel Lysons and His Circle: Art, Science and the Remains of Roman Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ann Scott

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates the social and intellectual influences which shaped Samuel Lysons’ (1763–1819 interests in the archaeological remains of Roman Britain, and assesses the extent to which his work was innovative. While Romano-British archaeologists have long admired his achievements, there has been no detailed examination of the factors influencing the development of his interests and approach. This paper will outline how Lysons’ social networks, his genuine concern for preserving and recording Romano-British remains, his broad scholarly interests, and the support of an intellectual elite involved with the expansion of national institutions during a period characterized by intense international rivalry, resulted in his exemplary approach to the excavation and publication of the remains of Roman Britain. Scrutiny of newspaper reports, diaries, correspondence, and the previously unpublished contents of his personal library, and an examination of his publications in relation to contemporary Classical and scientific scholarship, shows how and why his work was at the forefront of archaeological scholarship in this period. The results of this study support his reputation as a founding father of Romano-British archaeology and show that both he and his associates deserve far wider recognition of their contributions to the development of archaeology as a whole.

  6. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhou Qu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

  7. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  8. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation-specific incentives and disincentives for nurse faculty to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Wong, Matthew; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this paper are to: (1) describe work characteristics that nurse faculty report encourage them to remain in or leave their academic positions; and (2) determine if there are generational differences in work characteristics selected. Nurse faculty play key roles in preparing new nurses and graduate nurses. However, educational institutions are challenged to maintain full employment in faculty positions. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey design was employed. Ontario nurse faculty were asked to select, from a list, work characteristics that entice them to remain in or leave their faculty positions. Respondent data (n = 650) were collected using mailed surveys over four months in 2011. While preferred work characteristics differed across generations, the most frequently selected incentives enticing nurse faculty to stay were having: a supportive director/dean, reasonable workloads, supportive colleagues, adequate resources, manageable class sizes and work/life balance. The most frequently selected disincentives included: unmanageable workloads, unsupportive organizations, poor work environments, exposure to bullying, belittling and other types of incivility in the workplace and having an unsupportive director/dean. This research yields new and important knowledge about work characteristics that nurse faculty report shape their decisions to remain in or leave their current employment. Certain work characteristics were rated as important among all generations. Where similarities exist, broad strategies addressing work characteristics may effectively promote nurse faculty retention. However, where generational differences exist, retention-promoting strategies should target generation-specific preferences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, T; Santos, A M P; Pinheiro, J [Institute Nacional de Recursos Biologicos (INRB), L-IPIMAR, Av. 5 de Outubro s/n 8700-305 OLHaO (Portugal); Ferreira-Bartrina, V [Centra de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada- CICESE, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana, C.P.22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: tdrago@ipimar.pt

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  11. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  14. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  15. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  16. Prevalence of remaining horizontal instability in high-grade acromioclavicular joint injuries surgically managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Reiriz, Juan Sarasquete

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of remaining horizontal instability in high-grade acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injuries surgically managed by means of four different surgical strategies and to assess its relation to the clinical outcomes and the quality of life. In this multicentric non-randomized retrospective study, 53 patients with high-grade ACJ injuries surgically managed (by means of open or arthroscopic surgery) were clinically and radiographically assessed at 24 months or more after shoulder surgery. The presence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability was evaluated by means of Alexander or axillary X-ray views. The study population was divided into two groups: patients with evidence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability and patients without evidence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability at the last follow-up visit. The relationship between remaining horizontal instability and the quality-of-life questionnaires was analyzed. 18.87% (10/53) of the Alexander or axillary X-rays views showed post-surgical remaining horizontal instability at the last follow-up visit (INSTAB-group). Results of the questionnaires were: (1) physical SF36 score (INSTAB-group 57.02 ± 3.17  and NO-INSTAB-group 57.66 ± 3.30, p = 0.583); (2) mental SF36 score (INSTAB-group 53.95 ± 3.98  and NO-INSTAB-group 55.71 ± 3.30, p = 0.150); (3) NRS for pain (INSTAB-group 1.30 ± 1.49 and NO-INSTAB-group 0.83  ± 1.08, p = 0.260); (4) DASH questionnaire (INSTAB-group 5.27 ± 5.42 and NO-INSTAB-group 3.06 ± 2.30, p = 0.049); (5) Constant score (INSTAB-group 93.4 ± 3.5 and NO-INSTAB-group 94.83  ± 4.3, p = 0.333); and Global satisfaction (INSTAB-group 8.7  ± 0.95 and NO-INSTAB-group 8.64 ± 1.03, p = 0.874). Independently of the type of procedure, post-surgical remaining horizontal instability was present in almost one-fifth of the patients, and this group of patients showed a significantly worse DASH score. The

  17. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, A.F.; Jensen, T.; Seawright, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  18. Detection of cryptic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, A F; Jensen, T; Seawright, J A [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Lab., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  20. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Smith, Melinda D.; Seabloom, Eric; Andelman, Sandy J.; Meche, Gayna; Weiher, Evan; Allain, Larry K.; Jutila, Heli; Sankaran, Mahesh; Knops, Johannes; Ritchie, Mark; Willig, Michael R.

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where

  3. The Colletotrichum dracaenophilum, C. magnum and C. orchidearum species complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Sato, T.; Alizadeh, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    Although Glomerella glycines, Colletotrichum magnum and C. orchidearum are known as causal agents of anthracnose of soybean, Cucurbitaceae and Orchidaceae, respectively, their taxonomy remains unresolved. In preliminary analyses based on ITS, strains of these species appear basal in

  4. Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles : acomparison of four deciduous species

    OpenAIRE

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Johansson, Helena; Jansson, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Many wood-dwelling beetles rely on old hollow trees. In Europe, oaks are known to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna, while less is known regarding other broad-leaved tree species. Furthermore, the extent to which saproxylic insect species have specialised on different tree species remains unknown. In this study, we sampled beetles through pitfall traps and window traps in four different tree species in a landscape with many old oaks. We recorded 242 saproxylic beetle species of w...

  5. Newly discovered Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, and their attribution to Shanidar 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Crivellaro, Federica; Farr, Lucy; Reynolds, Tim; Hunt, Chris O; Barker, Graeme

    2017-10-01

    The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries. The newly discovered bones include fragments of several vertebrae, a left hamate, part of the proximal left femur, a heavily crushed partial pelvis, and the distal half of the right tibia and fibula and associated talus and navicular. All these elements were previously missing from Shanidar 5, and morphological and metric data are consistent with the new elements belonging to this individual. A newly discovered partial left pubic symphysis indicates an age at death of 40-50 years, also consistent with the age of Shanidar 5 estimated previously. Thus, the combined evidence strongly suggests that the new finds can be attributed to Shanidar 5. Ongoing analyses of associated samples, including for sediment morphology, palynology, and dating, will therefore offer new evidence as to how this individual was deposited in the cave and permit new analyses of the skeleton itself and broader discussion of Neanderthal morphology and variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Sediment Size and Biostratinomy on the Development of Biofilms in Recent Avian Vertebrate Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann's canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling, and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  7. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  8. Compensatory changes in the function of the remaining kidney immediately after unilateral nephrectomy in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Khalil, M.; Youseif, H.

    2009-01-01

    Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation but carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual for the benefit of the recipient. Despite a number of recent studies on the renal function of long-term kidney donors, little attention has been paid to the damaging effects of compensatory hyper-filtration on renal tubular cells immediately after donor nephrectomy. The present study therefore aimed to examine the immediate changes in renal function of the remaining kidney using a sheep model of unilateral nephrectomy. We used the gamma camera-based method to measure the glomerular filtration rate and the tubular excretion values after simultaneous injection of 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate tracers. Compared were the differences in the functions between the remaining left kidney immediately after clamping the right renal pedicle and the baseline values that were measured one week before unilateral nephrectomy. After radionuclide data acquisition was completed, the right kidney was removed. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 52.3% from the baseline values (29.5±2.7 to 45.0±6.7 ml/min; n=40, p<0.001), while the mean effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) increased by 40% (225.5±27.8 to 357.8±38.94 ml/min; p<0.001), respectively. Mean filtration fraction was increased from 0.117 to 0.127 immediately after nephrectomy (p<0.001). We conclude that after unilateral nephrectomy the remaining kidney immediately compensates for the loss of a donated kidney by increasing glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. (author)

  9. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  10. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  11. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  12. PIXE analysis of remaining bromine in fumigated old manuscripts and books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Naito, M.; Enami, K.; Kasajima, H.; Takada, J.; Matsushita, R.

    1999-01-01

    Buddhist scriptures in Reeky University Library have been fumigated regularly for protecting them from vermin. Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) had been used there till 1985. In order to examine whether the chemical remains on the fumigated objects or not, paper fragments of old manuscripts and books, modern paper placed together with them, and non-fumigated ones were analyzed by PIXE. The bromine concentration of fumigated paper was more than from several tens to several hundreds times higher than non-fumigated ones. (author)

  13. Repair of human DNA in molecules that replicate or remain unreplicated following ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.

    1980-01-01

    The extent of DNA replication, the incidence of uv induced pyrimidine dimers and the repair replication observed after their excision was monitored in human fibroblasts uv irradiated with single or split uv doses. The excision repair processes were measured in molecules that remained unreplicated or in those that replicated after the latter uv irradiation. Less DNA replication was observed after a split as opposed to single uv irradiation. Furthermore, a split dose did not modify the excision parameters measured after a single irradiation, regardless of whether the DNA had replicated or not

  14. Hydrologic pulses and remaining natural vegetation in Jaú and Jacaré-Pepira watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Jozrael Henriques; Pires, José Salatiel Rodrigues; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of natural vegetation in two subwatersheds of the Tietê-Jacaré Water Resources Management Unit in São Paulo State on the pulse of their rivers. In Jacaré-Pepira Subwatershed, having higher remaining cover index, pulses were more predictable and had lower amplitude in the study period, indicating less perturbation of the water body and higher resilience of the aquatic ecosystem. Jacaré-Pepira River specific mean discharge was higher than the Q5% ...

  15. Activation and track analysis of the bone remains found in the territory of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Saidullaev, B.J.; Akhmadshaev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : As a rule bones of animals and persons, are plentiful enough in archeology monuments and are frequently also the most numerous materials. Therefore the research of components and microelements in bones can give the valuable information about age and lifestyle of prehistoric relicts on Earth. To ancient bone remains bear and archantrope concernfrom ancient settlement of Selungur located in the territory of Southern Fergana and was found out by Institute of Archaeology in Uzbekistan in 1980. Whereas in the scientific literature there is very poor information about element composition variation in bones during ground bedding

  16. An unusual discovery of human remains from the medieval church of Grevenmacher (Luxembourg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Bernd; Bis-Worch, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of burned human remains on a Christian burial ground is very rare in medieval Europe. Therefore, the discovery of a complex consisting of commingled burned and unburned human bones within the church of Grevenmacher (Luxembourg) is from special interest for anthropological as well as archaeological research. In the current paper we present methods for a comprehensive analysis for such an exceptional case connected with the question if this bone accumulation represents a form of funerary custom or if other factors lead to its composition. Thereof, two possible scenarios for the occurrence of this unusual composition were created and discussed.

  17. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  18. Trepanation and Roman medicine: a comparison of osteoarchaeological remains, material culture and written texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullo, E

    2010-06-01

    Evidence for prehistoric trepanation is limited to preserved osteoarchaeological material, namely human skulls, and the occasional discovery of surgical instruments. However, the Roman empire gave rise to an abundant and diverse range of source types, including skeletal remains, material culture and detailed medical texts, each of which harbours the potential to contribute to our understanding of trepanation during this historical period. This paper highlights the advantages and inherent biases of each of these source types, and proposes that the simultaneous analysis and integration of different types of historical evidence is essential for the study of trepanation as a surgical procedure.

  19. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  20. The host transcriptome remains unaltered during the establishment of coral-algal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Christian R; Schwarz, Jodi A; Schnetzer, Julia; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Desalvo, Michael K; Szmant, Alina M; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    Coral reefs are based on the symbiotic relationship between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. We followed gene expression of coral larvae of Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata after exposure to Symbiodinium strains that differed in their ability to establish symbioses. We show that the coral host transcriptome remains almost unchanged during infection by competent symbionts, but is massively altered by symbionts that fail to establish symbioses. Our data suggest that successful coral-algal symbioses depend mainly on the symbionts' ability to enter the host in a stealth manner rather than a more active response from the coral host.

  1. Prediction of pavement remaining service life based on repetition of load and permanent deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, R. S.; Setyawan, A.; Suprapto, M.

    2018-03-01

    One of the methods which was applied in the assessment of flexible pavement performance was mechanistic method assuming structures of road pavement to become multi-layer structure for flexible pavement, that the vehicle load working on the pavement layer under repetition with power failure worth 1 (one) unit which was assumed as evenly distributed static load, and therefore the pavement material would provide response in the form of stress, strain, and deflection. This is closely related in order to assess the structure of flexible pavement and to predict the remaining service life on the roads of Pulau Indah sta 0 + 000 to sta. 0 + 845 in Kota Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The performance appraisal indicator which was used was fatigue cracking happening bottom of the asphalt layer and permanent deformation (rutting) on the surface of subgrade. The strain estimate on the flexible pavement layer structure needs carefulness and high accuracy and therefore a software like KENPAVE which produces horizontal tensile strain of 8,802E-05 and vertical compressive strain of 2,642E-04 was used. By applying equation of The Asphalt Instituteit was obtained repetition of permit load when reaching fatigue cracking (Nf) was 16.071.516 ESAL and permanent deformation (rutting) was 14.703.867 ESAL and also it was predicted the remaining service life of pavement applied the equation of AASTHO 1993 by considering Traffic Multiplier factor (TM 1.8, TM 1.9 and TM 2.0) obtained the remaining life service due to fatigue of 5.51% in the year of 13th (TM 1.8), 7.95% in the year of12th (TM 1.9) and 3.11% (TM 2.0) in the year of 12th, also the remaining service life due to rutting of 4.69% in the year of 12th(TM 1.8), 7.79% in the year of 11th (TM 1.9), and 2.94 in the year of 11th (TM 2.0).

  2. Complex Analysis of 700-Year-Old Skeletal Remains found in an Unusual Grave: Case Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, D.; Brzobohatá, Hana; Šilerová, M.; Horák, Z.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Zedníková Malá, P.; Urbanová, V.; Dobisíková, M.; Beran, M.; Brestovanský, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2015) ISSN 2332-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : mass spectrometry * genealogical * physical anomalies * anthropological Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.omicsonline.org/ open - access /complex-analysis-of-700yearold-skeletal-remains-found-in-an-unusualgravecase-report-2332-0915-1000138.pdf

  3. Digital marketing budgets for independent hotels Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Leora Halpern; Carmichael, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. Though only a small amount of a hotel’s revenue is traditionally allocated for the marketing budget, the hotel’s success is directly reliant on how effectively that budget is utilized. Thus far in 2015, over 55% percent of hotel bookings are happening onl...

  4. Grafting on nuclear tracks using the active sites that remain after the etching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Bermudez, G. Garcia; Chappa, V.C.; Grosso, M.F. del; Fernandez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Poly(propylene) foils were irradiated with Ag ions and then chemically etched to produce samples with structured surfaces. After the etching procedure the active sites that remain on the latent track were used to graft acrylic acid. Nuclear tracks before grafting were visualised using a transmission electron microscope. The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, etching and grafting time, and were also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both measurements suggest that the acrylic acid was grafted on etched tracks using the active sites produced by the swift heavy ion beam

  5. Grafting on nuclear tracks using the active sites that remain after the etching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mazzei@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Bermudez, G. Garcia [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1653 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Chappa, V.C. [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); U. A. de Materiales, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-09-15

    Poly(propylene) foils were irradiated with Ag ions and then chemically etched to produce samples with structured surfaces. After the etching procedure the active sites that remain on the latent track were used to graft acrylic acid. Nuclear tracks before grafting were visualised using a transmission electron microscope. The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, etching and grafting time, and were also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both measurements suggest that the acrylic acid was grafted on etched tracks using the active sites produced by the swift heavy ion beam.

  6. [Assessment of the prognosis in patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Emilie; Fedder, Anette Marianne; Dyrskog, Stig Eric; Degn, Niels Sanderhoff; Hassager, Christian; Jensen, Reinhold; Kirkegaard, Hans; Weber, Sven; Hoffmann-Petersen, Joachim Torp; Larsen, Niels Heden; Strange, Ditte Gry; Sonne, Morten; Lippert, Freddy K

    2014-06-30

    In Denmark there are around 3,500 unexpected cardiac arrests (CA) out of hospital each year. There is an unknown number of CA in hospitals. The survival rate after CA outside a hospital in Denmark is 10% after 30 days. There are varying data for the neurological outcome in this group of patients. The purpose of this work is to disseminate new knowledge and to help standardizing the treatment in the group of patients who remain comatose after being resuscitated from CA. Assessment of the prognosis for a patient in this group can be made after 72 hours and a multi-modal approach to the patient is required.

  7. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    .5 l) were recovered. The aim of the work is to evaluate if water processing affects similarly all of taxa or instead, differences exists in the preservation of certain types of remains. To evaluate this, taxonomic and taphonomic analyses were carried out, including the recording of alterations...... the taxa present at the site. The results presented here warn against straightforward interpretations of wood charcoal frequencies in terms of original composition of past vegetation, and suggest that it would be advisable to use more than one recovery technique, along with recording of different types...

  8. Survival analysis to explore the characteristics of employee assistance program (EAP) referrals that remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S; Albert, W; Maynard, M; French, P

    1989-02-01

    This study examined characteristics of referrals to employee assistance programs (EAP) associated with subsequent termination of employment. As well, relationships between characteristics of the referrals and program characteristics were explored. Longitudinal data were collected at several time periods for 163 referrals to EAPs from five organizations. Survival analysis was conducted to determine which variables were associated with termination of employment. Females, cohabitating couples, and employees who worked for the organization for 5 or more years were most likely to remain employed. One interesting finding was that people with alcohol problems were significantly more likely to be formal referrals.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells were built as part of the 183-B Water Treatment Facility and are composed of 2 covered concrete reservoirs. The bulk of the water stored in the clearwells was used as process water to cool the 105-B Reactor and as a source of potable water. Residual conditions were determined to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD through an evaluation of the available process knowledge. The results of the evaluation do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also indicate that residual concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. State and municipal innovations in obesity policy: why localities remain a necessary laboratory for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda; Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City's soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints-constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments.

  11. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    in the Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil, and moderate densities of widespread species in the tropical lowlands. Contemporary climate explains well the variation in species richness for the 25% most widespread species; for the remaining 75% of species with more restricted distributions, variation can only...

  12. No novel, high penetrant gene might remain to be found in Japanese patients with unknown MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yukio; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Enya, Mayumi; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Sugano, Sumio; Inoue, Ituro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-07-01

    MODY 5 and 6 have been shown to be low-penetrant MODYs. As the genetic background of unknown MODY is assumed to be similar, a new analytical strategy is applied here to elucidate genetic predispositions to unknown MODY. We examined to find whether there are major MODY gene loci remaining to be identified using SNP linkage analysis in Japanese. Whole-exome sequencing was performed with seven families with typical MODY. Candidates for novel MODY genes were examined combined with in silico network analysis. Some peaks were found only in either parametric or non-parametric analysis; however, none of these peaks showed a LOD score greater than 3.7, which is approved to be the significance threshold of evidence for linkage. Exome sequencing revealed that three mutated genes were common among 3 families and 42 mutated genes were common in two families. Only one of these genes, MYO5A, having rare amino acid mutations p.R849Q and p.V1601G, was involved in the biological network of known MODY genes through the intermediary of the INS. Although only one promising candidate gene, MYO5A, was identified, no novel, high penetrant MODY genes might remain to be found in Japanese MODY.

  13. Why nurses chose to remain in the workforce: Portraits of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Jones, Bronwyn; Hendricks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    This study explored why nurses chose to remain in the Western Australian workforce and to develop insights into the role of resilience of nurses and to identify the key characteristics of resilience displayed by these nurses. Nursing is a stressful profession. Prolific quantitative research which measures job stress and resilience has been implemented; however, there is a dearth of qualitative studies which hear the personal narratives as to why nurses remain and thrive in a stressful workplace. Vignettes of nursing resilience reveal underlying themes of resilience where personal stories and events are presented as narrative. Portraiture recognises the inherent value of the nurses' stories giving attention to the nature of their resilience. Interpretation illuminates the portraits or verbal canvasses of the told experience, reflecting success and positivity despite disarray in healthcare settings. Eight themes were identified. The portraits highlight a sometimes imperceptible theme of resilience within nursing. Nurses are resilient; they rely on the social support of colleagues, family and friends to continue to bear their mantle of responsibility. They take pride in their work and accomplishments and give to others altruistically. They laugh, they love nursing and they keep the needs of their patients, clients, residents or students foremost. This paper describes the hallmarks of resilience demonstrated by nurses. Resilience and its relationship to coping in times of adversity are captured within the portraits presented.

  14. Enhanced tumor growth in the remaining lung after major lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Fumiho; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Junichi; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonectomy induces active growth of the remaining lung in order to compensate for lost lung tissue. We hypothesized that tumor progression is enhanced in the activated local environment. We examined the effects of mechanical strain on the activation of lung growth and tumor progression in mice. The mechanical strain imposed on the right lung after left pneumonectomy was neutralized by filling the empty space that remained after pneumonectomy with a polypropylene prosthesis. The neutralization of the strain prevented active lung growth. According to an angiogenesis array, stronger monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was found in the strain-induced growing lung. The neutralization of the strain attenuated the release of MCP-1 from the lung cells. The intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer cells resulted in the enhanced development of metastatic foci in the strain-induced growing lung, but the enhanced development was canceled by the neutralization of the strain. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages in tumors arising in the strain-induced growing lung, and that there was a relationship between the accumulation and the MCP-1 expression status. Our results suggested that mechanical lung strain, induced by pulmonary resection, triggers active lung growth, thereby creating a tumor-friendly environment. The modification of that environment, as well as the minimizing of surgical stress, may be a meaningful strategy to improve the therapeutic outcome after lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An adaptive-order particle filter for remaining useful life prediction of aviation piston pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyang LI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL not only contributes to an effective application of an aviation piston pump, but also meets the necessity of condition based maintenance (CBM. For the current RUL evaluation methods, a model-based method is inappropriate for the degradation process of an aviation piston pump due to difficulties of modeling, while a data-based method rarely presents high-accuracy prediction in a long period of time. In this work, an adaptive-order particle filter (AOPF prognostic process is proposed aiming at improving long-term prediction accuracy of RUL by combining both kinds of methods. A dynamic model is initialized by a data-driven or empirical method. When a new observation comes, the prior state distribution is approximated by a current model. The order of the current model is updated adaptively by fusing the information of the observation. Monte Carlo simulation is employed for estimating the posterior probability density function of future states of the pump’s degradation. With updating the order number adaptively, the method presents a higher precision in contrast with those of traditional methods. In a case study, the proposed AOPF method is adopted to forecast the degradation status of an aviation piston pump with experimental return oil flow data, and the analytical results show the effectiveness of the proposed AOPF method. Keywords: Adaptive prognosis, Condition based maintenance (CBM, Particle filter (PF, Piston pump, Remaining useful life (RUL

  16. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  17. Molecular genetic analysis on the remains of the Dark Countess: Revisiting the French Royal family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Walther; Berger, Cordula; Sänger, Timo; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The "Dark Counts" were a mysterious couple that appeared in the Thuringian village Eishausen in 1807. After living in self imposed solitude for 30 years the woman died and was buried under the name Sophia Botta. Her companion, who presented himself as Vavel de Versay, died in 1845 and was later identified as Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, secretary of the Dutch embassy in Paris. Their lifestyle led to speculations that she was the true princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. According to these speculations she was substituted by another young woman on a voyage from Paris to Vienna. Molecular genetic analyses were set out to test the remains attributed to the Dark Countess. Mitochondrial DNA testing brought concordant results determined in two forensic laboratories (Innsbruck, Austria and Freiburg, Germany) on parallel samples of the remains. The results were in exclusion to both, the mitochondrial lineage earlier reported for the French Royal family and the mitochondrial haplotype observed in a living descendant of the Royal family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, T [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Stone, R [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Center

    1988-12-31

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center`s transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author).

  19. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, T.; Stone, R.

    1988-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center's transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author)

  20. Does the presence of antagonist remaining teeth affect implant overdenture success? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, C; Baek, K W

    2010-04-01

    Many patients who need implant overdentures are not completely edentulous; they still have antagonist natural teeth or implant fixed prostheses. In such cases, however, little is known about whether existing natural teeth affect the success of implant overdentures positively or act as a complicating factor. This systematic review attempts to clarify the correlation between existing remaining teeth and the survival/success rate of maxillary and mandibular implant overdentures. An assessment of available relevant articles published in English from 1990 to 2009 was performed using an online database and a manual search in libraries. Although the opposing natural dentition was not sufficiently described in the literature, 10 articles about the mandible and 10 articles about the maxilla were selected. As there was no controlled study on the natural teeth opposing implant overdentures, this review could not reach a clear conclusion. The review did reveal a remarkably high success/survival rate for mandibular implant overdentures; maxillary implant overdentures showed a lower rate. The presence of antagonist teeth hardly seems to be a risk factor for success for mandibular implant overdentures. For maxillary implant overdentures, the existence of antagonist teeth might act negatively for implant survival, but they are certainly not a contraindication. Although a few articles stated this relationship, we could not find an apparent correlation between the remaining antagonist teeth and the success of the implant overdentures. A detailed description of the opposing dentate status and results of randomized controlled clinical trials would be required to characterize this evidence-based implant overdenture treatment.

  1. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty leads to significant biomechanical changes in the remaining rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perka Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ≤ 0.05. Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ≤ 0.002. OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ≤ 0.005, apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.

  2. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Decomposition in Different Microclimate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, K A; Watterson, J H

    2016-10-01

    The effects of decomposition microclimate on the distribution of dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletonized remains of rats acutely exposed to DXM were examined. Animals (n = 10) received DXM (75 mg/kg, i.p.), were euthanized 30 min post-dose and immediately allowed to decompose at either Site A (shaded forest microenvironment on a grass-covered soil substrate) or Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were automatically recorded 3 cm above rats at each site. Skeletal elements (vertebral columns, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were harvested, and analyzed using microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid phase extraction, and GC/MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios, and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels were compared across bones and between microclimate sites. No significant differences in DXT levels or metabolite/parent ratios were observed between sites or across bones. Only femoral DXM levels differed significantly between microclimate sites. For pooled data, microclimate was not observed to significantly affect analyte levels, nor the ratio of levels of DXT and DXM. These data suggest that microclimate conditions do not influence DXM and metabolite distribution in skeletal remains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Remaining Useful Lifetime Prognosis of Controlled Systems: A Case of Stochastically Deteriorating Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danh Ngoc Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the case of automatic controlled system which deteriorates during its operation because of components’ wear or deterioration. Depending on its specific closed-loop structure, the controlled system has the ability to compensate for disturbances affecting the actuators which can remain partially hidden. The deterioration modeling and the Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL estimation for such closed-loop dynamic system have not been addressed extensively. In this paper, we consider a controlled system with Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller. It is assumed that the actuator is subject to shocks that occur randomly in time. An integrated model is proposed to jointly describe the state of the controlled process and the actuator deterioration. Only the output of the controlled system is available to assess its health condition. By considering a Piecewise Deterministic Markov Process, the RUL of the system can be estimated by a two-step approach. In the first step referred as the “Diagnosis” step, the system state is estimated online from the available monitoring observations by using a particle filtering method. In the second step referred as the “Prognosis” step, the RUL is estimated as a conditional reliability by Monte Carlo simulation. To illustrate the approach, a simulated tank level control system is used.

  4. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-01-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps

  5. Influence of remaining fission products in low-decontaminated fuel on reactor core characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2002-07-01

    Design study of core, fuel and related fuel cycle system with low-decontaminated fuel has been performed in the framework of the feasibility study (F/S) on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. This report summarizes the influence on core characteristics of remaining fission products (FPs) in low-decontaminated fuel related to the reprocessing systems nominated in F/S phase I. For simple treatment of the remaining FPs in core neutronics calculation the representative nuclide method parameterized by the FP equivalent coefficient and the FP volume fraction was developed, which enabled an efficient evaluation procedure. As a result of the investigation on the sodium cooled fast reactor with MOX fuel designed in fiscal year 1999, it was found that the pyrochemical reprocessing with molten salt (the RIAR method) brought the largest influence. Nevertheless, it was still within the allowable range. Assuming an infinite-times recycling, the alternations in core characteristics were evaluated as follows: increment of burnup reactivity by 0.5%Δk/kk', decrement of breeding ratio by 0.04, increment of sodium void reactivity by 0.1x10 -2 Δk/kk' and decrement of Doppler constant (in absolute value) by 0.7x10 -3 Tdk/dT. (author)

  6. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recently, many farmers have converted to low-disturbance tillage land cultivation as disk or plow fields can result in water and wind erosion of soil. So, crop residue and plant crowns and roots are left to hold the soil. However, low-disturbance tillage can be a challenge to manage since the key to crop production still requires good seed-to-soil contact. Therefore, decomposition of stubble in agricultural soils in situ is an issue of the day of modern agriculture. The aim of the present study was to compare different organic and inorganic fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil. Materials and methods Field trials were conducted in Krasnodar region, Russia. To promote stubble decomposition, a biopreparation that was cultural liquid obtained during cultivation of white-rot fungi Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf Ex. Fr.) Quel. was used at the dosage of 150 ml/ha. The other tested supplements included ammonium nitrate (34 kg/ha), commercially available humate LignohumateTM (0.2 kg/ha) and combination of Lignohumate and biopreparation. Test plots were treated once after wheat harvesting. Non-treated ploughed plot was used as a blank. Soil samples were collected within 2 and 14 weeks after soil treatment. To control soil potential for stubble remains decomposition enzymatic activity is soil was determined. To perform soil analysis, stubble remains were carefully separated from soils followed by soil extraction with 0.14 M phosphate buffer pH 7.1 and analysis of the extracts for laccase and peroxidase activities [1,2]. Estimation of stubble decomposition in soil was performed by cellulose contents determination [3]. Results and discussion The obtained results demonstrated after 14 weeks of treatment increase of soil enzymatic activity due to soil supplementation was observed. Introduction of ammonium nitrate resulted in 108% of peroxidise activity as compared to blank. That value for Lignohumate variant was estimated

  7. Chemokines in teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues which in mammals can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in their sequence: CXC (α), CC (β), C and CX(3)C classes. Evolutionarily, fish can be considered as an intermediate step between species which possess only innate immunity (invertebrates) and species with a fully developed acquired immune network such as mammals. Therefore, the functionality of their different immune cell types and molecules is sometimes also intermediate between innate and acquired responses. The first chemokine gene identified in a teleost was a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chemokine designated as CK1 in 1998. Since then, many different chemokine genes have been identified in several fish species, but their role in homeostasis and immune response remains largely unknown. Extensive genomic duplication events and the fact that chemokines evolve more quickly than other immune genes, make it very difficult to establish true orthologues between fish and mammalian chemokines that would help us with the ascription of immune roles. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish, focusing mainly on which genes have been identified so far and highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation, due to the great lack of functional information available for them. As the number of chemokine genes begins to close down for some teleost species, there is an important need for functional assays that may elucidate the role of each of these molecules within the fish immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabunia, L; Vekua, A; Lordkipanidze, D; Swisher, C C; Ferring, R; Justus, A; Nioradze, M; Tvalchrelidze, M; Antón, S C; Bosinski, G; Jöris, O; Lumley, M A; Majsuradze, G; Mouskhelishvili, A

    2000-05-12

    Archaeological excavations at the site of Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia have uncovered two partial early Pleistocene hominid crania. The new fossils consist of a relatively complete cranium and a second relatively complete calvaria from the same site and stratigraphic unit that yielded a hominid mandible in 1991. In contrast with the uncertain taxonomic affinity of the mandible, the new fossils are comparable in size and morphology with Homo ergaster from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Paleontological, archaeological, geochronological, and paleomagnetic data from Dmanisi all indicate an earliest Pleistocene age of about 1.7 million years ago, supporting correlation of the new specimens with the Koobi Fora fossils. The Dmanisi fossils, in contrast with Pleistocene hominids from Western Europe and Eastern Asia, show clear African affinity and may represent the species that first migrated out of Africa.

  9. Ecto- and endoparasites in remaining population of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 in east Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Bádr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of ecto- and endoparasites of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 was made during February and March 2004. Together five species of ectoparasites and seven species of endopara- sites was found in five specimens of host. Ectoparasites: acarids Leporacarus gibbus (Pagenstecher, 1862, Psoroptes cuniculi (Delafond, 1859, and Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Mégnin, 1878, flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale, 1878, and louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny, 1842. Except of petechial haemorrhagies inside both earlobes of one rabbit neither hyperkeratosis nor scale with any degrees of hairlessness were detected. Higher incidence of flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi could be important for spreading of myxomatosis. In one rabbit abnormal damage of incisivi was found, which caused the highest documented incidence of acarids Cheyletiella parasitivorax (485 ex., fleas Spilopsyllus cuniculi (65 ex., and especially enormous amount of louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (1840 ex. This finding establish close relation between prevalence and counts of ectoparasites with health of host, because popu- lation of ectoparasites from different taxonomic groups are principally affected by effective hostęs cleanup. Handicapped hosts are not able to make clarify as effective as the healthy ones. Endoparasites: tapeworm Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 – larvae, nematods Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819 Rudolphi, 1845; Graphidium strigosum (Dujardin, 1845 Railliet and Henry, 1909, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800 Loos, 1905 and protozoa Eimeria piriformis Kotlan & Pospesch, 1934; E. media Kessel, 1929, and E. perforans (Leuckart, 1879 Sluiter & Swellengrebel, 1912. All endoparasites were found in very low or middle intensity, which does not seem to be main cause of decreasing number of wild rabbits in monitored areas.

  10. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  11. Guarantee of remaining life time. Integrity of mechanical components and control of ageing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Koenig, G.

    2012-01-01

    The life time of safety relevant systems, structures and components (SSC) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is determined by two main principles. First of all the required quality has to be produced during the design and fabrication process. This means that quality has to be produced and can't be improved by excessive inspections (Basis Safety - quality through production principle). The second one is assigned to the initial quality which has to be maintained during operation. This concerns safe operation during the total life time (life time management), safety against ageing phenomena (AM - ageing management) as well as proof of integrity (e.g. break preclusion or avoidance of fracture for SSC with high safety relevance). Initiated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi event in Japan in spring 2011 for German NPP's Long Term Operation (LTO) is out of question. In June 2011 legislation took decision to phase-out from nuclear by 2022. As a fact safe operation shall be guaranteed for the remaining life time. Within this technical framework the ageing management is a key element. Depending on the safety-relevance of the SSC under observation including preventive maintenance various tasks are required in particular to clarify the mechanisms which contribute systemspecifically to the damage of the components and systems and to define their controlling parameters which have to be monitored and checked. Appropriate continuous or discontinuous measures are to be considered in this connection. The approach to ensure a high standard of quality in operation for the remaining life time and the management of the technical and organizational aspects are demonstrated and explained. The basis for ageing management to be applied to NNPs is included in Nuclear Safety Standard 1403 which describes the ageing management procedures. For SSC with high safety relevance a verification analysis for rupture preclusion (proof of integrity, integrity concept) shall be performed (Nuclear Safety Standard 3206

  12. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  13. Species invasions on islands: searching for general patterns and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Guo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous islands worldwide are being increasingly invaded by exotic species. However, the effects of invading species on native floras remain underexplored, particularly whether island biogeography theory is applicable to native, exotic, and the newly assembled floras. Inter-group comparisons across different regions or island groups through a collection of individual...

  14. Patterns of coral species richness and reef connectivity in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Much remains to be discovered about the biodiversity of coral reefs in Malaysia, making this area a priority for coral reef research. This thesis aims to provide insights into the patterns of reef coral species richness and the degree of reef connectivity across Malaysia. For the species richness

  15. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intelligent Prognostic Framework for Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All industrial systems and machines are subjected to degradation processes, which can be related to the operating conditions. This degradation can cause unwanted stops at any time and major maintenance work sometimes. The accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL is an important challenge in condition-based maintenance. Prognostic activity allows estimating the RUL before failure occurs and triggering actions to mitigate faults in time when needed. In this study, a new smart prognostic method for photovoltaic module health degradation was developed based on two approaches to achieve more accurate predictions: online diagnosis and data-driven prognosis. This framework of forecasting integrates the strengths of real-time monitoring in the first approach and relevant vector machine in the second. The results show that the proposed method is plausible due to its good prediction of RUL and can be effectively applied to many systems for monitoring and prognostics.

  17. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  18. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the hazards and risks of practicing forensic anthropology in North America, with a focus on pathogens encountered through contact with unpreserved human remains. Since the publication of Galloway and Snodgrass' seminal paper concerning the hazards of forensic anthropology, research has provided new information about known pathogen hazards, and regulating authorities have updated recommendations for the recognition and treatment of several infections. Additionally, forensic anthropology has gained popularity, exposing an increased number of students and practitioners to these hazards. Current data suggest many occupational exposures to blood or body fluids go unreported, especially among students, highlighting the need for this discussion. For each pathogen and associated disease, this work addresses important history, reviews routes of exposure, provides an overview of symptoms and treatments, lists decontamination procedures, and presents data on postmortem viability. Personal protection and laboratory guidelines should be established and enforced in conjunction with the consideration of these data. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Health professionals and the meaning they apply to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirlene Pereira Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to investigate the meanings attributed by health professionals working in the Family Health Strategy to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships. The research is based in the method of Grounded Theory. Interviews were held between May and August 2012 with 52 professionals who work in Family Health in a city in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. It is indicated that violence is related to the threats made, to the partner‟s involvement in drug trafficking, to economic and emotional dependence, to the valuing of marriage, to the belief in female submission, and to shame. The professionals indicate the need for strategies in defense of a life free from violence for women: psycho-social support; educational activities regarding the social construction of gender; and articulation of policies based on intersectoriality.

  20. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  1. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  2. Habent sua fata libelli. Remains of Simonič-Šlebinger Family Library in Gornja Radgona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Ilich Klančnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the fate of a personal library held by two librarians and bibliographers, dr. Franc Simonič (1847-1919 and his son in law dr. Janko Šlebinger (1876-1951 at the family estate in Gornja Radgona. Today we can witness only the remains of what was once an extensive library curtailed by the owners’ migrations and their financial hardships. Besides domestic and foreign literature, the library contained plenty of journals, for example the complete bind editions of Novice, Zgodnje danice, Čas, Kres, Veda, Ljubljanski zvon; it also included valuable manuscripts, old ephemera, 17th and 18th century books and plenty of rare editions such as books from the Prekmurje region and prints written in dajnčica. It was not only the professional selection that made the library exceptional but also its appearance – bookshelves full of prime bindings.

  3. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological....... Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...... scale to determine if the archaeological remains can be preserved for centuries, decades or only a few years under different conditions. This is a challenging task as archaeological sites and materials are often heterogeneous and have been subjected to different site formation processes. This paper...

  4. Platelet-rich plasma and chronic wounds: remaining fibronectin may influence matrix remodeling and regeneration success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Deffune, Elenice

    2013-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been largely used as a therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic wounds of different etiologies. The enhanced regeneration observed after the use of platelet-rich plasma has been systematically attributed to the growth factors that are present inside platelets' granules. We hypothesize that the remaining plasma and platelet-bound fibronectin may act as a further bioactive protein in platelet-rich plasma preparations. Recent reports were analyzed and presented as direct evidences of this hypotheses. Fibronectin may directly influence the extracellular matrix remodeling during wound repair. This effect is probably through matrix metalloproteinase expression, thus exerting an extra effect on chronic wound regeneration. Physicians should be well aware of the possible fibronectin-induced effects in their future endeavors with PRP in chronic wound treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Why does the need of HEU for high flux research reactors remain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, W.

    1991-01-01

    It has shown that high performance high flux reactors need an ongoing supply of highly enriched uranium. The new fuel materials in their highly enriched version offer prospective for advanced and better neutron sources vital for the future of neutron research. This is another very attractive result of the RERTR programme. One-sided restriction would only provide marginal or no values for research. If we adopt the sometimes expressed views that high enriched RERTR developed fuel should only be made available when unique benefits to mankind could be obtained, then certainly basic research at the forefront belongs to this category. HEU would only pose theoretical difficulties, if it would remain under proper safeguards and obviously this is the way to be pursued. (orig.)

  6. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.

  7. Farmer's lung in Ireland (1983-1996) remains at a constant level.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    A prospective study was undertaken by the Departments of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the Cork University Hospital, a. to investigate the epidemiology of Farmer\\'s Lung (F.L.) in the Republic of Ireland (pop. 3.5 million), with special reference to the South Western Region of this country (pop. 536,000) and b. to assess any relationship between the prevalence\\/incidence of F.L. with climatic factors in South West Ireland, between 1983 and 1996. F.L. incidence remained constant throughout the 13 yrs studied both on a national and a regional basis. A significant relationship was also found between total rainfall each summer and F.L. incidence and prevalence over the following yr (p < 0.005) in South-West Ireland. The persistence of F.L. in Ireland at a constant level suggests that farmers\\' working environment and farm practices need to be improved.

  8. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano formation (Barremian, Patagonian Andes of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner Alexander W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, were found close to the Estancia Río Roble, along with several ammonoids that indicate a Barremian age for those strata. The specimens (MACN-SC 3617 consist of one ulna and one element tentatively identified as a portion of a wing metacarpal. The ulna shows morphological affinities with the Pteranodontoidea (sensu Kellner 1996, particularly with the members of the Anhangueridae by having a well developed ventral crest close to the proximal articulation, and is tentatively referred to this pterosaur clade. The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is therefore extended to the Barremian. The Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, an unusual condition for pterosaur fossils from that country, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.

  10. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... intense exercise is carried out in hypoxia and monitored the influence of muscle metabolism for changes in arterial variables. METHODS: On two separate days, in random order, 30 min cycling exercise was performed in either hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia at an intensity that was exhaustive in the hypoxic...

  11. What Remains on Your Mind After You Are Done?: Flexible Regulation of Knowledge Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Per H.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2011-01-01

    The accessibility of stored knowledge has been found to decline over time after activation without further stimulation. A special case is goal pursuit; goal-related knowledge remains accessible until goal completion, and then its accessibility declines rapidly. We hypothesized that after goal completion the decline in accessibility of goal-related knowledge would be especially rapid for strong promotion-focused individuals because their motivation to eagerly advance beyond the status quo would make accessibility of this knowledge an irrelevant detriment. We hypothesized an opposite effect for strongly prevention-predominant individuals because their motivation to vigilantly maintain a satisfactory state would make accessibility of this knowledge continually relevant. The results of two studies supported both these predicted moderators of accessibility change. Indeed, we found that for strongly prevention-predominant participants, knowledge accessibility actually increased over time after goal completion. We discuss how even basic cognitive mechanisms, like changes in accessibility, can be affected by general motivational concerns. PMID:21765541

  12. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...... such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. One of today's challenges in regenerative medicine is to define proper culture conditions for hESC. The natural milieu in the blastocyst may provide clues on how to improve culture conditions, and the aim of the present study was to determine...... the proteome of the blastocoel fluid and the remaining cells of bovine blastocysts. Bovine blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of oocytes retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries. The blastocoel from 195 blastocysts (1-8nL per blastocyst) were isolated by micromanipulation and analysed by nano...

  13. RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.A.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDERS, R.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beam dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful

  14. Prediction of the remaining lifetime of stainless steels under conditions of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandler, M.; Vehovar, L.; Dolecek, V.; Rotnik, U.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the lifetime of metal structures and equipment under conditions of stress corrosion is very complicated because of the complexity of this process of degradation. Recently a new method, based on the so-called corrosion elongation curves, has been found, which can be used to predict the time to failure under these conditions. By upgrading of these curves (and thus obtaining Upgraded Corrosion Elongation Curves - UCEC's) it has been possible to obtain a precise definition of the time needed for the initiation of the corrosion crack, and for its stable growth. It is upon this basis that diagrams for the prediction of remaining lifetime (DPRL's) have been developed. DPRL's can also be used to predict the values of various critical parameters which have to be achieved if a stress corrosion crack is to occur. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  15. A test of the citrate method of PMI estimation from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Christensen, Angi M

    2017-01-01

    Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply. No significant differences were found in citrate loss between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although more research is needed, citrate content appears to be a promising new approach in estimating PMI from skeletal remains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. Remaining life assessment of carbon steel boiler headers by repeated creep testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drew, M. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.drew@ansto.gov.au; Humphries, S. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Thorogood, K. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Barnett, N. [BlueScope Steel, P.O. Box 1854, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    The condition of carbon steel boiler headers that have been in service for over 25 years has been assessed periodically by NDT, dimensional measurements, replication and accelerated creep testing. Historical temperature records were limited, so estimates of effective header temperatures were made from replicas. These estimates were compared with header stub thermocouple readings. At about 280,000 service hours, samples were chain-drilled from the headers for accelerated creep testing. These test results indicated that the headers had satisfactory remaining life. Nine years after the original samples were taken, additional samples were removed from one header at 337,000 service hours. The creep rupture properties measured from the repeated tests were almost identical to the initial results. A mild degree of random, nodular graphite was found in the samples and its effect on creep properties is discussed.

  18. Introduction: From pathogenesis to therapy, deep endometriosis remains a source of controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    Deep endometriosis remains a source of controversy. A number of theories may explain its pathogenesis and many arguments support the hypothesis that genetic or epigenetic changes are a prerequisite for development of lesions into deep endometriosis. Deep endometriosis is frequently responsible for pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and/or deep dyspareunia, but can also cause obstetrical complications. Diagnosis may be improved by high-quality imaging. Therapeutic approaches are a source of contention as well. In this issue's Views and Reviews, medical and surgical strategies are discussed, and it is emphasized that treatment should be designed according to a patient's symptoms and individual needs. It is also vital that referral centers have the knowledge and experience to treat deep endometriosis medically and/or surgically. The debate must continue because emerging trends in therapy need to be followed and investigated for optimal management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  20. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. In the digital era, architectural distortion remains a challenging radiological task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, W.I.; McEntee, M.F.; Lewis, S.J.; Rawashdeh, M.A.; Georgian-Smith, D.; Heard, R.; Tapia, K.; Brennan, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare readers' performance in detecting architectural distortion (AD) compared with other breast cancer types using digital mammography. Materials and methods: Forty-one experienced breast screen readers (20 US and 21 Australian) were asked to read a single test set of 30 digitally acquired mammographic cases. Twenty cases had abnormal findings (10 with AD, 10 non-AD) and 10 cases were normal. Each reader was asked to locate and rate any abnormalities. Lesion and case-based performance was assessed. For each collection of readers (US; Australian; combined), jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC), figure of merit (FOM), and inferred receiver operating characteristic (ROC), area under curve (Az) were calculated using JAFROC v.4.1 software. Readers' sensitivity, location sensitivity, JAFROC, FOM, ROC, Az scores were compared between cases groups using Wilcoxon's signed ranked test statistics. Results: For lesion-based analysis, significantly lower location sensitivity (p=0.001) was shown on AD cases compared with non-AD cases for all reader collections. The case-based analysis demonstrated significantly lower ROC Az values (p=0.02) for the first collection of readers, and lower sensitivity for the second collection of readers (p=0.04) and all-readers collection (p=0.008), for AD compared with non-AD cases. Conclusions: The current work demonstrates that AD remains a challenging task for readers, even in the digital era. - Highlights: • Architectural Distortion interpretation remains challenging for readers even with digital acquisition. • Significantly lower location sensitivity and sensitivity values for the AD were shown.

  2. Reconstruction of sub-surface archaeological remains from magnetic data using neural computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescoby, D. J.; Cawley, G. C.; Chroston, P. N.

    2003-04-01

    The remains of a former Roman colonial settlement, once part of the classical city of Butrint in southern Albania have been the subject of a high resolution magnetic survey using a caesium-vapour magnetometer. The survey revealed the surviving remains of an extensive planned settlement and a number of outlying buildings, today buried beneath over 0.5 m of alluvial deposits. The aim of the current research is to derive a sub-surface model from the magnetic survey measurements, allowing an enhanced archaeological interpretation of the data. Neural computing techniques are used to perform the non-linear mapping between magnetic data and corresponding sub-surface model parameters. The adoption of neural computing paradigms potentially holds several advantages over other modelling techniques, allowing fast solutions for complex data, while having a high tolerance to noise. A multi-layer perceptron network with a feed-forward architecture is trained to estimate the shape and burial depth of wall foundations using a series of representative models as training data. Parameters used to forward model the training data sets are derived from a number of trial trench excavations targeted over features identified by the magnetic survey. The training of the network was optimized by first applying it to synthetic test data of known source parameters. Pre-processing of the network input data, including the use of a rotationally invariant transform, enhanced network performance and the efficiency of the training data. The approach provides good results when applied to real magnetic data, accurately predicting the depths and layout of wall foundations within the former settlement, verified by subsequent excavation. The resulting sub-surface model is derived from the averaged outputs of a ‘committee’ of five networks, trained with individualized training sets. Fuzzy logic inference has also been used to combine individual network outputs through correlation with data from a second

  3. The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E

    2009-11-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the international and the national level, an overview which necessarily has to be limited to some of the developments as a result of the implementation of the CRC. The first part of this paper will be devoted to the impact the CRC had and still has on the setting and development of the international agenda for the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of children. Special attention will given to developments, achievements, and remaining challenges at the international level with regard to protection of children in armed conflict; prevention and the protection of children from sexual exploitation; and from all forms of violence. This will include some information on the impact of these international developments and actions at the national level, for example, in the area of legislation. The second part will focus on the impact at the national level. Given the wide scope of the CRC this part will be limited to some of the General Measures of Implementation (law reform, national programmes, and independent monitoring) and the General Principles (non-discrimination, best interest, right to be heard) of the CRC. This will be based on reports of States on the implementation of the CRC submitted to the CRC Committee and the Concluding Observations of this Committee and on a number of studies. The conclusion will provide remarks on poverty as one of the major remaining challenges for the implementation of children's rights.

  4. Hypertensive emergencies remain a clinical problem and are associated with high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubsanthisuk, Weranuj; Wongsurin, Unticha; Buranakitjaroen, Peera

    2010-01-01

    We suspect that hypertensive emergencies remain a clinical problem and data on their long-term prognosis are lacking. This study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, management, and outcome of hypertensive emergencies in this era, in which hypertension treatment is more effective than in the past. We reviewed the medical records of patients with hypertensive emergencies admitted to the medical wards of Siriraj Hospital in 2003 and collected data on their characteristic, management, investigations, and follow-ups through 31 December 2007. There were 184 patients included. Hypertension has been previously diagnosed in 89% of cases. Nearly half also had diabetes mellitus and around a quarter had chronic kidney failure. Mean +/- SD of blood pressure at presentation was 205.96 +/- 21.36/114.60 +/- 20.59 mmHg. Cardiac complications and stroke accounted for 71% and 23% of all target organ damage, respectively. Intravenous nitroglycerine and furosemide were most frequently prescribed. Additional investigations to search for the causes of hypertension were performed in only 55 cases. The average hospital stay was 9.8 days. The in-hospital mortality rate was 15%. Some 26% of patients were lost to follow-up and another 20% died later. Only 19% of patients had regular follow-ups until the end of 2007 and remained on an average of 2.4 antihypertensive drugs. Hypertensive emergencies are usually found in patients with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus or kidney failure. Recommended investigations usually failed to identify the cause of hypertension. The mortality rate of these patients was extremely high while their adherence to treatment was extremely poor.

  5. The cochlear implant and possibilities for narrowing the remaining gaps between prosthetic and normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake S. Wilson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cochlear implant has become the standard of care for severe or worse losses in hearing and indeed has produced the first substantial restoration of a lost or absent human sense using a medical intervention. However, the devices are not perfect and many efforts to narrow the remaining gaps between prosthetic and normal hearing are underway. Objective: To assess the present status of cochlear implants and to describe possibilities for improving them. Results: The present-day devices work well in quiet conditions for the great majority of users. However, not all users have high levels of speech reception in quiet and nearly all users struggle with speech reception in typically noisy acoustic environments. In addition, perception of sounds more complex than speech, such as most music, is generally poor unless residual hearing at low frequencies can be stimulated acoustically in conjunction with the electrical stimuli provided by the implant. Possibilities for improving the present devices include increasing the spatial specificity of neural excitation by reducing masking effects or with new stimulus modes; prudent pruning of interfering or otherwise detrimental electrodes from the stimulation map; a further relaxation in the criteria for implant candidacy, based on recent evidence from persons with high levels of residual hearing and to allow many more people to benefit from cochlear implants; and “top down” or “brain centric” approaches to implant designs and applications. Conclusions: Progress in the development of the cochlear implant and related treatments has been remarkable but room remains for improvements. The future looks bright as there are multiple promising possibilities for improvements and many talented teams are pursuing them. Keywords: Auditory prosthesis, Cochlear implant, Cochlear prosthesis, Deafness, Neural prosthesis

  6. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  7. Chapter 16: Species Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zargaran

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... rarefaction method was recorded in Pardanan, with 28 oak gall wasps species. Furthermore, the highest amount of Gini-Simpson and Shannon entropy index were recorded in Sardasht, while the highest evenness was recorded in Shalmash. Differences in the local distribution of oak species, especially.

  8. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  9. Support your local species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stärk, Johanna

    Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...

  10. Spatial Complementarity and the Coexistence of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P.; Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric — ecological pressure — we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each

  11. Design and construction of "synthetic species".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreno

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is an area of biological research that combines science and engineering. Here, I merge the principles of synthetic biology and regulatory evolution to create a new species with a minimal set of known elements. Using preexisting transgenes and recessive mutations of Drosophila melanogaster, a transgenic population arises with small eyes and a different venation pattern that fulfils the criteria of a new species according to Mayr's Biological Species Concept. The population described here is the first transgenic organism that cannot hybridize with the original wild type population but remains fertile when crossed with other identical transgenic animals. I therefore propose the term "synthetic species" to distinguish it from "natural species", not only because it has been created by genetic manipulation, but also because it may never be able to survive outside the laboratory environment. The use of genetic engineering to design artificial species barriers could help us understand natural speciation and may have practical applications. For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity.

  12. Ñuagapua (Chaco, Bolivia): Evidence for the latest occurrence of megafauna in association with human remains in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, Mauro; Della Fazia, Jacopo; Paredes Rios, Freddy; Tito, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    Quebrada (stream) Ñuagapua, which is located in the Bolivian Chaco in the Andean foothill generates an alluvial fan many kilometres in length. Three major lithostratigraphic units characterise the sedimentary sequence in this region. The lower and upper parts are formed from predominantly sandy sediments that demonstrate rapid growth of the alluvial fan, associated with an intense erosion of barren slopes. The intermediate unit consists of forest soil that seals deep channels containing bones together with a forest association. The remains of a wooden plank, dated 140 yr BP, were found at the top of this soil, which laterally contains charcoals, ash layers and large charred trunks, sometimes in growth positions. Roots localised in this layer also sustain a number of very large still living trees. These findings are evidence of a recent phase of alluvial fan sedimentation resulting from slope erosion activated by forest clearing. The Chaco has been intensively settled for agricultural and pastoral purposes since the 18th century. The lower unit contains a hearth, scattered burnt bones, flint flakes and ceramic artefacts. Radiometric dating indicates a middle Holocene human occupation, between ca. 7.79 and 6.65 ka cal yr BP. We suggest that the sedimentary unit is associated with intense soil erosion processes triggered by early Neolithic deforestation. A sandy layer of the lower unit, slightly above the archaeological remains, contains transported bones of megafaunal elements that apparently represent the South American latest occurrence of some extinct taxa. The mammal association is highly heterogeneous, containing species living in aquatic, forest, prairie and savannah environments from a very specific layer that represents the almost simultaneous burial of animals killed slightly up-valley. This anomalous association is probably the result of human impact as opening the forest favoured the introduction of open environment fauna that had previously survived on

  13. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  14. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  15. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  16. The Incidence of Postconcussion Syndrome Remains Stable Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen M; Crawford, Susan; Brooks, Brian L; Turley, Brenda; Mikrogianakis, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Improving our knowledge about the natural history and persistence of symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury is a vital step in improving the provision of health care to children with postconcussion syndrome. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the incidence and persistence of symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury and (2) ascertain whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), symptom criteria for postconcussion syndrome in adults are appropriate for use in children. A tertiary care pediatric emergency department was the setting for this study. This was a prospective observational follow-up cohort study of children (ages 2 to 18 years) with mild traumatic brain injury. Data were collected in person during the acute presentation, and subsequent follow-up was performed by telephone at 7-10 days and 1, 2, and 3 months postinjury. Postconcussion Symptom Inventory for parents and children was used. The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome were explored using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 467 children (62.5% boys, median age 12.04, range 2.34-18.0) with mild traumatic brain injury participated. The median time until symptom resolution was 29.0 days (95% confidence intervals: 26.09-31.91). Three months after injury, 11.8% of children with mild traumatic brain injury remained symptomatic. Receiver operating curve characteristic analysis of the postconcussion syndrome criteria successfully classified symptomatic participants at three months postinjury; the adolescent receiver operating characteristic curve was excellent with the area under the curve being 0.928 (P children presenting to the emergency room with a mild traumatic brain injury remain symptomatic at 3 months postinjury. This is the first study to demonstrate stable incidence rates of postconcussion syndrome in children and that modified DSM-IV criteria can be used to successfully classify

  17. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously 1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  18. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  19. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs. In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of aeroengine. Secondly, the effect of SV decisions on risk and service level (SL is analyzed, and an optimization of the aeroengine SV decisions based on RUL and stochastic repair time is performed to carry out JIT manner with the requirement of safety and SL. Finally, a case study considering two CFM-56 aeroengines is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that predictive accuracy of RUL with SSM is higher than with linear regression, and the process of SV decisions is simple and feasible for airlines to improve the inventory management level of their aeroengines.

  20. Excess abdominal adiposity remains correlated with altered lipid concentrations in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L; Katz, L D; Nadel, E R

    1999-04-01

    To determine associations between overall adiposity, absolute and relative abdominal adiposity, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data. Subjects were 21 healthy, untrained older women (71 +/- 1 y) entering a randomized, controlled aerobic training program. Overall adiposity was assessed by anthropometry and the body mass index (BMI=kg/m2). Absolute and relative abdominal adiposity was determined by computed tomography (CT) and circumference measures. Fasting serum lipid concentrations of total-, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C) and triglycerides (TGs) were determined by standard enzymatic procedures. Compared to the measures of overall adiposity, we observed much stronger correlations between measures more specific to absolute or relative abdominal adiposity and lipid concentrations. Visceral fat area was the strongest correlate of HDL-C (r = -0.75; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.86; P correlated with TGs (r = 0.54; P HDL-C (r= -0.69; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.75; P adiposity remains an important correlate of lipid metabolism, even in healthy older women of normal weight. Thus, overall obesity is not a necessary condition for the correlation between excess abdominal fat and metabolic risk among postmenopausal women.

  1. Nuclear fuel market: Supplies remaining stable and secured in the mean range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, U.; Dibbert, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Installation of additional power plant will keep the demand for uranium at a level allowing a constant uranium production during the next few years to come, although production will have to be kept lower than demand, as inventories have to be cut in order to achieve a favourable price structure. Prospects on a mean-term basis show that natural uranium supplies are ensured, at favourable purchaser prices. Concluded contracts for new nuclear power plant indicate a better plant capacity utilization in uranium production to be attainable by the 1990s. Conversion capacity, however, is expected to remain as excessive as presently for quite a long period still, although reprocessing produces increasing amounts of recovered uranium to be converted. The capacity for uranium separative work is favourable for the customers. Existing and projected production facilities already today ensure safe supplies beyond the turn of the millenium, under conditions by far better in terms of long-term competing energy sources. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Lemonade from lemons: the taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D C; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Roberts, Lindsey G

    2013-09-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of the taphonomic changes produced by passing over skeletonized remains (n = 4, Sus scrofa) with three common lawn mowers. Two skeletons were mowed over with a riding lawn mower set at multiple blade heights (10.16, 7.62, 5.08 cm) and one each with a rotary mower (9.53, 6.35 cm) and a mulching mower (6.35 cm). Results show that different types of common lawn mowers will produce different patterns of bone dispersal and fragmentation rates. Overall, skeletal elements projecting upward from the surface frequently exhibited a sheared morphology characterized by a smooth, flat, cut surface (7.0-7.6% of elements). The push mowers yielded a higher frequency of undamaged bone than the riding mower (54.8-61.2% vs. 17.7%), and the riding mower created more catastrophic damage to skeletal elements. Additionally, each mower produced a distinct dispersal pattern of skeletal fragments. The dispersal patterns have been identified as "bull's-eye" (riding), circular (mulching), and discontinuous rectangle (rotary). © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

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    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  4. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

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    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  5. Accurate bearing remaining useful life prediction based on Weibull distribution and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Jaouher; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Saidi, Lotfi; Malinowski, Simon; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of critical assets is an important challenge in condition based maintenance to improve reliability and decrease machine's breakdown and maintenance's cost. Bearing is one of the most important components in industries which need to be monitored and the user should predict its RUL. The challenge of this study is to propose an original feature able to evaluate the health state of bearings and to estimate their RUL by Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) techniques. In this paper, the proposed method is based on the data-driven prognostic approach. The combination of Simplified Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map (SFAM) neural network and Weibull distribution (WD) is explored. WD is used just in the training phase to fit measurement and to avoid areas of fluctuation in the time domain. SFAM training process is based on fitted measurements at present and previous inspection time points as input. However, the SFAM testing process is based on real measurements at present and previous inspections. Thanks to the fuzzy learning process, SFAM has an important ability and a good performance to learn nonlinear time series. As output, seven classes are defined; healthy bearing and six states for bearing degradation. In order to find the optimal RUL prediction, a smoothing phase is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reliably predict the RUL of rolling element bearings (REBs) based on vibration signals. The proposed prediction approach can be applied to prognostic other various mechanical assets.

  6. β-Tricalcium Phosphate Interferes with the Assessment of Crystallinity in Burned Skeletal Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Piga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of burned remains is a highly complex process, and a better insight can be gained with advanced technologies. The main goal of this paper is to apply X-ray diffraction, partially supported by infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy to determine changes in burned human bones and teeth in terms of mineral phase transformations. Samples of 36 bones and 12 teeth were heated at 1050°C and afterwards subjected to XRD and ATR-IR. The crystallinity index was calculated for every sample. A quantitative evaluation of phases was documented by using the Rietveld approach. In addition to bioapatite, the following mineralogical phases were found in the bone: β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP (Ca3(PO42, lime (CaO, portlandite (Ca(OH2, calcite (CaCO3, and buchwaldite (NaCaPO4. In the case of bone, besides bioapatite, only the first two mineralogical phases and magnesium oxide were present. We also observed that the formation of β-TCP affects the phosphate peaks used for CI calculation. Therefore, caution is needed when its occurrence and evaluation are carried out. This is an important warning for tracking heat-induced changes in human bone, in terms of physicochemical properties related to structure, which is expected to impact in forensic, bioanthropological, and archaeological contexts.

  7. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  8. The hippocampus remains activated over the long term for the retrieval of truly episodic memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Harand

    Full Text Available The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail. Hippocampal activation decreased over time for initially episodic, later semantic memories, but remained stable for consistently episodic ones, at least in its posterior part. For both types of memories, neocortical activations were observed at both delays, notably in the ventromedial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These activations may reflect a gradual reorganization of memory traces within neural networks. Our data indicate maintenance and strengthening of hippocampal and cortico-cortical connections in the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memories over time, in line with the Multiple Trace theory (Nadel and Moscovitch, 1997. At variance, memories becoming semantic over time consolidate through strengthening of cortico-cortical connections and progressive disengagement of the hippocampus.

  9. Remaining uncertainties in predicting long-term performance of nuclear waste glass from experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1994-01-01

    The current knowledge on the glass dissolution mechanism and the representation of glass dissolution concepts within overall repository performance assessment models are briefly summarized and uncertainties related to mechanism, radionuclide chemistry and parameters are discussed. Understanding of the major glass dissolution processes has been significantly increased in recent years. Long-term glass stability is related to the long-term maintenance of silica saturated conditions. The behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass has not been sufficiently and results do no yet allow meaningful predictions. Conserving long-term predictions of glass matrix dissolution as upper limit for radionuclide release can be made with sufficient confidence, however these estimations generally result in a situation where the barrier function of the glass is masked by the efficiency of the geologic barrier. Realistic long-term predictions may show that the borosilicate waste glass contributes to overall repository safety to a much larger extent than indicated by overconservatism. Today realistic predictions remain highly uncertain and much more research work is necessary. In particular, the long-term rate under silica saturated conditions needs to be understood and the behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass deserves more systematic investigations

  10. Norepinephrine remains increased in the six-minute walking test after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the neurohormonal activity in heart transplant recipients and compare it with that in heart failure patients and healthy subjects during rest and just after a 6-minute walking test. INTRODUCTION: Despite the improvements in quality of life and survival provided by heart transplantation, the neurohormonal profile is poorly described. METHODS: Twenty heart transplantation (18 men, 49±11 years and 8.5±3.3 years after transplantation, 11 heart failure (8 men, 43±10 years, and 7 healthy subjects (5 men 39±8 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected immediately before and during the last minute of the exercise. RESULTS: During rest, patients' norepinephrine plasma level (659±225 pg/mL was higher in heart transplant recipients (463±167 pg/mL and heathy subjects (512±132, p<0.05. Heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level was not different than that of healthy subjects. Just after the 6-minute walking test, the heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level (1248±692 pg/mL was not different from that of heart failure patients (1174±653 pg/mL. Both these groups had a higher level than healthy subjects had (545±95 pg/mL, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Neurohormonal activity remains increased after the 6-minute walking test after heart transplantation.

  11. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  12. The Associations between Yelp Online Reviews and Vape Shops Closing or Remaining Open One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Vape shops are popular brick-and-mortar stores that sell e-cigarette products but are not understood well. Previous analysis of Yelp reviews of vape shops located in various ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California in 2014 identified characteristics of vape shop as delineated by consumers. In this study, we assessed the associations between these characteristics and vape shops going out of business in 2015. Content analysis of Yelp reviews of 72 vape shops in 2014 identified 1) general characteristics of the reviews/reviewers, 2) vape shop, staff, and marketing attributes, 3) physical environment, and 4) health claims. In 2015, in-person visits confirmed that 22% of these vape shops closed permanently. We analyzed whether characteristics/attributes identified in 2014 associated with stores remaining open (n = 56) or permanently closing (n = 16) in 2015. Univariate findings showed that open vape shops relative to closed shops had greater 1) number of reviews, 2) rebuilds/fixings, 3) ratings of staff attributes as "helpful/patient/respectful," and 4) report of the physical environment as "bar type." Bar type vape shops and those with rebuilding/fixing capabilities were associated with staying open, suggesting the popularity of these attributes. Yelp consumer reviews is a useful research tool to identify consumer-determined important sustaining attributes of vape shops and may be used to identify aspects of enduring shops that need regulations.

  13. The Associations between Yelp Online Reviews and Vape Shops Closing or Remaining Open One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Vape shops are popular brick-and-mortar stores that sell e-cigarette products but are not understood well. Previous analysis of Yelp reviews of vape shops located in various ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California in 2014 identified characteristics of vape shop as delineated by consumers. In this study, we assessed the associations between these characteristics and vape shops going out of business in 2015. METHODS Content analysis of Yelp reviews of 72 vape shops in 2014 identified 1) general characteristics of the reviews/reviewers, 2) vape shop, staff, and marketing attributes, 3) physical environment, and 4) health claims. In 2015, in-person visits confirmed that 22% of these vape shops closed permanently. We analyzed whether characteristics/attributes identified in 2014 associated with stores remaining open (n = 56) or permanently closing (n = 16) in 2015. RESULTS Univariate findings showed that open vape shops relative to closed shops had greater 1) number of reviews, 2) rebuilds/fixings, 3) ratings of staff attributes as “helpful/patient/respectful,” and 4) report of the physical environment as “bar type.” CONCLUSIONS Bar type vape shops and those with rebuilding/fixing capabilities were associated with staying open, suggesting the popularity of these attributes. Yelp consumer reviews is a useful research tool to identify consumer-determined important sustaining attributes of vape shops and may be used to identify aspects of enduring shops that need regulations. PMID:29057379

  14. Lung Abscess Remains a Life-Threatening Condition in Pediatrics – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirteș Ioana Raluca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary abscess or lung abscess is a lung infection which destroys the lung parenchyma leading to cavitations and central necrosis in localised areas formed by thick-walled purulent material. It can be primary or secondary. Lung abscesses can occur at any age, but it seems that paediatric pulmonary abscess morbidity is lower than in adults. We present the case of a one year and 5-month-old male child admitted to our clinic for fever, loss of appetite and an overall altered general status. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, anaemia, thrombocytosis, low serum iron concentration and increased lactate dehydrogenase level. Despite wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy, the patient’s progress remained poor after seven days of treatment and a CT scan established the diagnosis of a large lung abscess. Despite changing the antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention was eventually needed. There was a slow but steady improvment and eventually, the patient was discharged after approximately five weeks.

  15. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  16. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants' responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful.

  17. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  18. Paleomagnetic dates of hominid remains from Yuanmou, China, and other Asian sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakaya, Hideo; Urabe, Atsushi; Saegusa, Haruo; Shunrong, Xue; Jiyun, Yin; Xuepin, Ji

    2002-07-01

    Two hominid upper central incisors found in the Yuanmou Basin in southwest China in 1965 have affinities with Homo erectus fossils from Zhoukoudian, but exhibit primitive features. The Yuanmou hominid remains are alleged to be coeval with or older than African specimens dated at about 1.8 m.y.a. Recent age refinements of geomagnetic short reversal events and excursions permit assigning the Yuanmou hominid-bearing bed to the early Brunhes chron (about 0.7 m.y.a.). Magnetochronological assessments confirm that the Lantian calotte which has been dated to about 1.2 m.y.a., is the oldest reliable evidence for the emergence of Homo in eastern Asia as well as China, and that hominid fossils from Sangiran and Mojokerto, Java, do not exceed 1.1 Ma in age. These results refute the view that the genus Homo migrated into eastern Asia in the late Pliocene or the earliest Pleistocene. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  20. A new creep-strain-replica method for evaluating the remaining life time of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    To realise a safe and economic operation of older power- or chemical plants a strategy for maintenance is necessary, which makes it possible to operate a component or the plant longer than 300,000 operating hours, this also for the situation that the mode of operation has changed meanwhile. In Germany a realistic evaluation of the remaining life-time is done by comparing the actual calculated test data of a component with the code TRD 301 and TRD 508 and additional non-destructive tests or other codes like ASME, Sec. II, BS 5500, AFCEN (1985). According to many boundary conditions, the calculated data are inaccurate and the measuring of creep-strain at temperatures of about 600 o C with capacitive strain-gauges very expensive. Description of the approach of the problems: spotwelding of two gauges to the surface of a component (in a defined distance), forming a gap, producing of replica of the gap after certain operating hours at shut-down conditions by trained personal, evaluation of the replica to gain the amount of creep-strain using a scanning electron microscope, assessment of the creep-strain data. (Author)

  1. Does the centre of mass remain stable during complex human postural equilibrium tasks in weightlessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Paul; Pozzo, Thierry

    In normal gravity conditions the execution of voluntary movement involves the displacement of body segments as well as the maintenance of a stable reference value for equilibrium control. It has been suggested that centre of mass (CM) projection within the supporting base (BS) is the stabilised reference for voluntary action, and is conserved in weightlessness. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CM is stabilised during whole body reaching movements executed in weightlessness. The reaching task was conducted by two cosmonauts aboard the Russian orbital station MIR, during the Franco-Russian mission ALTAIR, 1993. Movements of reflective markers were recorded using a videocamera, successive images being reconstructed by computer every 40ms. The position of the CM, ankle joint torques and shank and thigh angles were computed for each subject pre- in- and post-flight using a 7-link mathematical model. Results showed that both cosmonauts adopted a backward leaning posture prior to reaching movements. Inflight, the CM was displaced throughout values in the horizontal axis three times those of pre-flight measures. In addition, ankle dorsi flexor torques inflight increased to values double those of pre- and post-flight tests. This study concluded that CM displacements do not remain stable during complex postural equilibrium tasks executed in weightlessness. Furthermore, in the absence of gravity, subjects changed their strategy for producing ankle torque during spaceflight from a forward to a backward leaning posture.

  2. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D. Flouris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  3. Cancer in adolescents and young adults: Who remains at risk of poor social functioning over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2017-07-15

    The objective of the current study was to examine social functioning among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) within the first 2 years after a cancer diagnosis and compare their scores with population norms and identify trajectories of social functioning over time and its correlates. A multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted among 215 AYA patients with cancer aged 14 to 39 years. A total of 141 patients completed a self-report measure of social functioning within the first 4 months of diagnosis and again at 12 months and 24 months later. AYA patients with cancer were found to have significantly worse social functioning scores around the time of diagnosis (52.0 vs 85.1; Pcancer who had consistently low social functioning were more often off treatment at the time of follow-up, reported more physical symptoms and higher levels of distress at baseline and follow-up, and perceived less social support at baseline compared with the other 3 groups. Although improved over time, social functioning still was found to be compromised 24 months after the primary diagnosis. Nearly one-third of these patients remain at risk of poor social functioning. Reducing physical symptoms and psychological distress and enhancing social support by interventions during the period after treatment may potentially help these young survivors to better reintegrate into society. Cancer 2017;123:2743-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Remaining useful life prediction based on the Wiener process for an aviation axial piston pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An aviation hydraulic axial piston pump’s degradation from comprehensive wear is a typical gradual failure model. Accurate wear prediction is difficult as random and uncertain characteristics must be factored into the estimation. The internal wear status of the axial piston pump is characterized by the return oil flow based on fault mechanism analysis of the main frictional pairs in the pump. The performance degradation model is described by the Wiener process to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of the pump. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE is performed by utilizing the expectation maximization (EM algorithm to estimate the initial parameters of the Wiener process while recursive estimation is conducted utilizing the Kalman filter method to estimate the drift coefficient of the Wiener process. The RUL of the pump is then calculated according to the performance degradation model based on the Wiener process. Experimental results indicate that the return oil flow is a suitable characteristic for reflecting the internal wear status of the axial piston pump, and thus the Wiener process-based method may effectively predicate the RUL of the pump.

  5. Atazanavir intracellular concentrations remain stable during pregnancy in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focà, Emanuele; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonito, Andrea; Simiele, Marco; Domenighini, Elisabetta; D'Avolio, Antonio; Quiros Roldan, Eugenia; Trentini, Laura; Casari, Salvatore; Di Perri, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Bonora, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Atazanavir (300 mg) boosted by ritonavir (100 mg) is the preferred third drug in pregnancy. However, there is still discordance on atazanavir dose increase during the third trimester. To evaluate plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir concentrations in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after delivery. This was an observational study. HIV-infected pregnant patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine had been prospectively enrolled after having signed a written informed consent form. Plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir Ctrough (24 ± 3 h after drug intake) were measured at each visit during the first, second and third trimesters and post-partum using validated HPLC-MS and HPLC-photodiode array methods (with direct evaluation of cellular volume). Data are described as median (IQR) and compared through non-parametric tests. Twenty-five patients were enrolled; at baseline, the median age was 32 years (27-35). All patients had plasma HIV RNA  0.05). This is the first demonstration that intracellular atazanavir exposure remains unchanged during pregnancy supporting the standard 300/100 mg atazanavir/ritonavir dosing throughout pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Remaining in Workforce – Employment Barriers for People with Disabilities in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Östlund

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Participation in the workforce is lower among people with disabilities worldwide. In this study we explore how people with disabilities perceive their inclusion in working life. Twenty women and men were interviewed. The sample comprises a group of working people experiencing different kinds of physical and sensory disabilities. The employment barriers found were related to accessibility, cooperation among welfare agencies, technical aids and welfare services. We named them as follows: the environmental participation barrier, the jungle of devices, the catch 22 situations, and, the inflexibility of welfare services. According to our interpretation these external barriers hinder people with disabilities from engaging in work and civic life to the extent that they want. Most interviewees in our sample were well-educated and successfully employed, nevertheless they all had experienced barriers in relation to remaining in work. Although the intentions in Sweden and most welfare states is to include people with disabilities in working life there are several obstacles in implementation of this intention.

  7. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín D. Ezcurra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  8. Brachial plexus palsy and shoulder dystocia: obstetric risk factors remain elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G; Korst, Lisa M; Miller, David A; Lee, Richard H

    2013-04-01

    Shoulder dystocia (SD) and brachial plexus palsy (BPP) are complications of childbirth that can result in significant long-term sequelae. The purpose of the present study was to analyze risk factors in cases of SD and BPP. We performed a retrospective study of laboring women who delivered a singleton, term, live-born infant at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center from 1995 to 2004. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze risk factors among SD cases with and without BPP. Of the 13,998 deliveries that met inclusion criteria, 221 (1.6%) had SD. Of these, 42 (19.0%) had BPP. After testing for association with multiple potential risk factors, including maternal demographic variables, diabetes, hypertension, prior cesarean delivery, uterine abnormalities, induction of labor, prolonged second stage (adjusted by parity and epidural use), assisted vaginal delivery, and neonatal birth weight, no statistical association of BPP with any specific risk factor was identified. In the present study, we were unable to identify any reliable risk factors for BPP among deliveries with or without SD. SD and BPP remain unpredictable complications of childbirth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Postinfarction Ventricular Septal Rupture – A Rare Complication Remains Challenge for Cardiac Surgical Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Rohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of post infarction ventricular septal rupture (PIVSR is decreasing in the last years due to aggressive treatment of myocardial infarction with early percutaneous coronary interventions. As a consequence patients with PIVSR are referred to surgery more often with significant heart failure. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of these on the operative results and to identify the risk factors of operative mortality. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with the PIVSR admitted to our center from November 2004 to February 2012 was performed. Variables were analyzed using two-dimensional correspondence analysis. There were 25 patients (12 males and 13 females with mean age 70.2 years (47–82 operated on; 17 (68% presented with anterior and 8 (32% with posterior PIVSR. Eighteen patients (72% had acute heart failure, 13 (52% presented with cardiogenic shock. Before surgery, intraaortic balloon pump (IABP had 20 (80% patients; in 4 (16% a ventricular assist device was used, either Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO or centrifugal pumps as biventricular assist. Operative mortality was 40% (10 pts.. Four patients (12% had small non-significant recurrent shunt on postoperative echocardiography. Although majority of patients with PIVSR have significant heart failure prior to surgery the operative mortality remains comparable to older studies. Predictors of perioperative death were concomitant surgical reconstruction of the left ventricle, renal impairment before operation, male gender, history of coronary artery disease, PIVSR location posterior, and shock at surgery.

  10. Commentary: Recommendations and remaining questions for health care leadership training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for optimizing cost, access, and quality in health care. Creating a pipeline of effective health care leaders requires developing leadership competencies that differ from the usual criteria of clinical and scientific excellence by which physicians have traditionally been promoted to leadership positions. Specific competencies that differentiate effective leaders from average leaders, especially emotional intelligence and its component abilities, are essential for effective leadership.Adopting a long-standing practice from successful corporations, some health care institutions, medical societies, and business schools now offer leadership programs that address these differentiating leadership competencies. The author draws on experience with such programs through the Cleveland Clinic Academy to provide recommendations for health care leadership training and to identify unanswered questions about such programs.The author recommends that such training should be broadly available to all health care leadership communities (i.e., nurses, administrators, and physicians). A progressive curriculum, starting with foundational concepts and extending to coaching and feedback opportunities through experiential learning, recognizes the challenge of becoming an effective leader and the long time line needed to do so. Linking leadership courses to continuing medical education and to graduate credit opportunities is appealing to participants. Other recommendations focus on the importance of current leaders' involvement in nominating emerging leaders for participation, embedding leadership development discussions in faculty's professional reviews, and blending discussion of frameworks and theory with practical, experiential lessons. The author identifies questions about the benefits of formal health care leadership training that remain to be answered.

  11. Ancient remains and the first peopling of the Americas: Reassessing the Hoyo Negro skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Soledad; Bortolini, Maria C; Bonatto, Sandro L; Hünemeier, Tábita; Santos, Fabrício R; González-José, Rolando

    2015-11-01

    A noticeably well-preserved ∼12.500 years-old skeleton from the Hoyo Negro cave, Yucatán, México, was recently reported, along with its archaeological, genetic and skeletal characteristics. Based exclusively on an anatomical description of the skull (HN5/48), Chatters and colleagues stated that this specimen can be assigned to a set of ancient remains that differ from modern Native Americans, the so called "Paleoamericans". Here, we aim to further explore the morphological affinities of this specimen with a set of comparative cranial samples covering ancient and modern periods from Asia and the Americas. Images published in the original article were analyzed using geometric morphometrics methods. Shape variables were used to perform Principal Component and Discriminant analysis against the reference samples. Even thought the Principal Component Analysis suggests that the Hoyo Negro skull falls in a subregion of the morphospace occupied by both "Paleoamericans" and some modern Native Americans, the Discriminant analyses suggest greater affinity with a modern Native American sample. These results reinforce the idea that the original population that first occupied the New World carried high levels of within-group variation, which we have suggested previously on a synthetic model for the settlement of the Americas. Our results also highlight the importance of developing formal classificatory test before deriving settlement hypothesis purely based on macroscopic descriptions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  13. Social class, politics, and the spirit level: why income inequality remains unexplained and unsolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Rai, Nanky; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2012-01-01

    Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's latest book, The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Best for Everyone, has caught the attention of academics and policymakers and stimulated debate across the left-right political spectrum. Interest in income inequality has remained unabated since the publication of Wilkinson's previous volume, Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. While both books detail the negative health effects of income inequality, The Spirit Level expands the scope of its argument to also include social issues. The book, however, deals extensively with the explanation of how income inequality affects individual health. Little attention is given to political and economic explanations on how income inequality is generated in the first place. The volume ends with political solutions that carefully avoid state interventions such as limiting the private sector's role in the production of goods and services (e.g., non-profit sector, employee-ownership schemes). Although well-intentioned, these alternatives are insufficient to significantly reduce the health inequalities generated by contemporary capitalism in wealthy countries, let alone around the world.

  14. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  16. Why does fertility remain high among certain UK-born ethnic minority women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Kulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown high total fertility among certain UK-born ethnic minorities, but the reasons behind their high fertility have remained far from clear. Some researchers attribute their elevated fertility levels to cultural factors, whereas others argue that high fertility is the consequence of their poor education and labour market prospects. Objective: This study investigates fertility among the descendants of immigrants in the UK and examines the determinants of high fertility among certain ethnic minority groups. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply multivariate event history analysis. Results: The analysis shows, first, that relatively high second-, third-, and fourth-birth rates are responsible for the elevated total fertility among certain UK-born minorities, especially women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. There is little variation in the first-birth rates among natives and immigrant descendants. Second, although fertility differences between ethnic minorities and native British women slightly decrease once religiosity and number of siblings are controlled for, significant differences persist. We conclude that cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic groups in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be only minor. Contribution: Cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic minorities in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be negligible.

  17. Microscopic Void Detection for Predicting Remaining Life in Electric Cable Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, David A.; Avila, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable method of testing for remaining life in electric cable insulation has continued to elude the nuclear industry as it seeks to extend the life and license of its nuclear stations. Until recently, a trendable, measurable electrical property has not been found, and unexpected cable failures continue to be reported. Most reliable approaches to date rely on monitoring mechanical properties, which are assumed to degrade faster than the insulation's electrical properties. This paper introduces a promising technique based on void characterization, which is dependent on an electrical property related to dielectric strength. A relationship between insulation void characteristics (size and density) and the onset of partial discharge is known to exist. A similar relationship can be shown between void characteristics and unacceptable leakage currents (another typical cable failure criterion). For low-voltage cables, it is believed void content can be correlated to mechanical property degradation.This paper will report on an approach for using void information, research results showing the existence of trendable void characteristics in commonly used electric insulation materials, and techniques for detecting the voids (both laboratory- and field-based techniques). Acoustical microscopy was found to be potentially more suitable than conventional ultrasound for nondestructive in situ detection and monitoring of void characteristics in jacketed multiconductor insulation while ignoring the jacket. Also, optical and scanning electron microscope techniques will play an essential role in establishing the database necessary for continued development and implementation of this promising technique

  18. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor R. Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential amino acids (EAA consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals.

  19. Remaining useful life prediction based on noisy condition monitoring signals using constrained Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Junbo; Zhou, Shiyu; Sankavaram, Chaitanya; Du, Xinyu; Zhang, Yilu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical prognostic method to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual units based on noisy condition monitoring signals is proposed. The prediction accuracy of existing data-driven prognostic methods depends on the capability of accurately modeling the evolution of condition monitoring (CM) signals. Therefore, it is inevitable that the RUL prediction accuracy depends on the amount of random noise in CM signals. When signals are contaminated by a large amount of random noise, RUL prediction even becomes infeasible in some cases. To mitigate this issue, a robust RUL prediction method based on constrained Kalman filter is proposed. The proposed method models the CM signals subject to a set of inequality constraints so that satisfactory prediction accuracy can be achieved regardless of the noise level of signal evolution. The advantageous features of the proposed RUL prediction method is demonstrated by both numerical study and case study with real world data from automotive lead-acid batteries. - Highlights: • A computationally efficient constrained Kalman filter is proposed. • Proposed filter is integrated into an online failure prognosis framework. • A set of proper constraints significantly improves the failure prediction accuracy. • Promising results are reported in the application of battery failure prognosis.

  20. Remaining Useful Life Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Gaussian Processes Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Wang, Pengchong; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Zhou, Yatong; Xie, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of Lithium-ion batteries is closely related to the capacity degeneration trajectories. Due to the self-charging and the capacity regeneration, the trajectories have the property of multimodality. Traditional prediction models such as the support vector machines (SVM) or the Gaussian Process regression (GPR) cannot accurately characterize this multimodality. This paper proposes a novel RUL prediction method based on the Gaussian Process Mixture (GPM). It can process multimodality by fitting different segments of trajectories with different GPR models separately, such that the tiny differences among these segments can be revealed. The method is demonstrated to be effective for prediction by the excellent predictive result of the experiments on the two commercial and chargeable Type 1850 Lithium-ion batteries, provided by NASA. The performance comparison among the models illustrates that the GPM is more accurate than the SVM and the GPR. In addition, GPM can yield the predictive confidence interval, which makes the prediction more reliable than that of traditional models. PMID:27632176

  1. A naive Bayes model for robust remaining useful life prediction of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Selina S.Y.; Xing, Yinjiao; Tsui, Kwok L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Robustness of RUL predictions for lithium-ion batteries is analyzed quantitatively. • RUL predictions of the same battery over cycle life are evaluated. • RUL predictions of batteries over different operating conditions are evaluated. • Naive Bayes (NB) is proposed for predictions under constant discharge environments. • Its robustness and accuracy are compared with that of support vector machine (SVM). - Abstract: Online state-of-health (SoH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is a critical problem in battery health management. This paper studies the modeling of battery degradation under different usage conditions and ambient temperatures, which is seldom considered in the literature. Li-ion battery RUL prediction under constant operating conditions at different values of ambient temperature and discharge current are considered. A naive Bayes (NB) model is proposed for RUL prediction of batteries under different operating conditions. It is shown in this analysis that under constant discharge environments, the RUL of Li-ion batteries can be predicted with the NB method, irrespective of the exact values of the operating conditions. The case study shows that the NB generates stable and competitive prediction performance over that of the support vector machine (SVM). This also suggests that, while it is well known that the environmental conditions have big impact on the degradation trend, it is the changes in operating conditions of a Li-ion battery over cycle life that makes the Li-ion battery degradation and RUL prediction even more difficult

  2. Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Borsutzky, Sabine; Steingass, Hans-P; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, working memory, basic executive functions, language, general knowledge, and visual-spatial abilities. Surveys with caregivers and medical records provided information about current and previous disease-related parameters, drinking history, additional pathologies, as well as psychosocial and cognitive therapy within the two-year period. At both sessions, the majority of the KS patients' results were inferior to those of normal subjects. Comparing T1 and T2 revealed no significant decline in any of the investigated functions. Instead, general knowledge, visual long-term memory, and verbal fluency improved slightly after two years, though they still remained within pathological range. Comparing most improved and most deteriorated patients, better outcome occurred more frequently in men than women and was associated with higher premorbid education and fewer detoxifications in the past. In this sample of detoxified KS patients there was no indication of accelerated cognitive decline or onset of dementia-like symptoms over two years.

  3. Remaining dischargeable time prediction for lithium-ion batteries using unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Wei, Jingwen; Chen, Zonghai; Sun, Han; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the range anxiety, one of the important strategies is to accurately predict the range or dischargeable time of the battery system. To accurately predict the remaining dischargeable time (RDT) of a battery, a RDT prediction framework based on accurate battery modeling and state estimation is presented in this paper. Firstly, a simplified linearized equivalent-circuit-model is developed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of a battery. Then, an online recursive least-square-algorithm method and unscented-Kalman-filter are employed to estimate the system matrices and SOC at every prediction point. Besides, a discrete wavelet transform technique is employed to capture the statistical information of past dynamics of input currents, which are utilized to predict the future battery currents. Finally, the RDT can be predicted based on the battery model, SOC estimation results and predicted future battery currents. The performance of the proposed methodology has been verified by a lithium-ion battery cell. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide an accurate SOC and parameter estimation and the predicted RDT can solve the range anxiety issues.

  4. Hospital financial performance in the recent recession and implications for institutions that remain financially weak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Fareed, Naleef; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-05-01

    The recent recession had a profound effect on all sectors of the US economy, including health care. We examined how private hospitals fared through the recession and considered how changes in their financial health may affect their ability to respond to future industry challenges. We categorized 2,971 private short-term general medical or surgical hospitals (both nonprofit and for-profit) according to their pre-recession financial health and safety-net status, and we examined their operational status changes and operating and total financial margins during 2006-11. We found that hospitals that were financially weak before the recession remained so during and after the recession. The total margins of nonprofit hospitals (both safety-net and other institutions) declined in 2008 but returned to their pre-recession levels by 2011. The recession did not create additional fiscal pressure on hospitals that were previously financially weak or in safety-net roles. However, both groups continue to have notable financial deficiencies that could limit their abilities to meet the growing demands on the industry.

  5. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in the Dormaa Municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-02-21

    The paper presents a quantitative investigation on the national health insurance scheme (nhis) in dormaa municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured? Since its implementation has been a little over a decade now. The aim is to identify the obstacles to enrollment by the public which would enable policy direction to ensure that all residents are registered with the scheme. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July, 2013. Both purposive and simple random sampling technique were used to select 210 respondents and data obtained through self-administered and face-to-face interviews guided by structured questionnaire. chi square (X2) test of independence was adopted to show the association between socioeconomic and demographic features and membership. Findings from the research suggest that residents' decision to enrol have significant associated with gender, education, number of children, place of residence, employment and income. It was also observed that membership is highly affected by premium level. The discussion of the findings and recommendations offered, if incorporated into the policy guideline of NHIS could maintain and at the same time increase enrollment level which would guarantee quality, accessible and affordable basic health care protection for the good people of Ghana.

  6. Anammox-based technologies for nitrogen removal: Advances in process start-up and remaining issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based process has been recognized as efficient, cost-effective and low energy alternative to the conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than one hundred full-scale anammox plants have been installed and operated for treatment of NH4(+)-rich wastewater streams around the world, and the number is increasing rapidly. Since the discovery of anammox process, extensive researches have been done to develop various anammox-based technologies. However, there are still some challenges in practical application of anammox-based treatment process at full-scale, e.g., longer start-up period, limited application to mainstream municipal wastewater and poor effluent water quality. This paper aimed to summarize recent status of application of anammox process and researches on technological development for solving these remaining problems. In addition, an integrated system of anammox-based process and microbial fuel cell is proposed for sustainable and energy-positive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method and device for forecasting remaining lifetime for material constituting light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Nakada, Kiyotomo; Shimanuki, Sei; Kida, Toshitaka; Fuse, Motomasa; Shigenaka, Naoto; Kuniya, Jiro; Izumiya, Masakiyo; Hattori, Shigeo; Saito, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure vessel of a light water type reactor comprises a crack development sensor at the inside and a crack development monitor at the outside to monitor the development of cracks detected by the crack progress sensor. In addition, the reactor also comprises, at the outside thereof, a dissolved oxygen meter, a dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and a conductivity meter for reactor water. A computer is connected, on line, to the crack development monitor, the dissolved oxygen meter, the dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and the conductivity meter. A crack development rate measured by the crack development monitor, as well as the dissolved oxygen concentration, the dissolved peroxide hydrogen concentration and the conductivity of reactor water measured at the outside of the reactor by the dissolved oxygen meter, the dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and the conductivity meter are inputted to the computer. The computer calculates the effective dissolved oxygen concentration for each portion of the plant based on these measured values. Further, the period of time till the crack reaches a predetermined limit value is calculated based on the measured values. Then, the period of time is displayed as a remaining life time of the materials due to stress corrosion crackings. (I.N.)

  8. Remaining useful life prediction based on variation coefficient consistency test of a Wiener process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-cost equipment is often reused after maintenance, and whether the information before the maintenance can be used for the Remaining Useful Life (RUL prediction after the maintenance is directly determined by the consistency of the degradation pattern before and after the maintenance. Aiming at this problem, an RUL prediction method based on the consistency test of a Wiener process is proposed. Firstly, the parameters of the Wiener process estimated by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE are proved to be biased, and a modified unbiased estimation method is proposed and verified by derivation and simulations. Then, the h statistic is constructed according to the reciprocal of the variation coefficient of the Wiener process, and the sampling distribution is derived. Meanwhile, a universal method for the consistency test is proposed based on the sampling distribution theorem, which is verified by simulation data and classical crack degradation data. Finally, based on the consistency test of the degradation model, a weighted fusion RUL prediction method is presented for the fuel pump of an airplane, and the validity of the presented method is verified by accurate computation results of real data, which provides a theoretical and practical guidance for engineers to predict the RUL of equipment after maintenance.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Time Remaining Display on the Computer-based Emergency Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryono, T. J.; Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the important thing in the mitigation of accidents in nuclear power plant accidents is time management. The accidents should be resolved as soon as possible in order to prevent the core melting and the release of radioactive material to the environment. In this case, operators should follow the emergency operating procedure related with the accident, in step by step order and in allowable time. Nowadays, the advanced main control rooms are equipped with computer-based procedures (CBPs) which is make it easier for operators to do their tasks of monitoring and controlling the reactor. However, most of the CBPs do not include the time remaining display feature which informs operators of time available for them to execute procedure steps and warns them if the they reach the time limit. Furthermore, the feature will increase the awareness of operators about their current situation in the procedure. This paper investigates this issue. The simplified of emergency operating procedure (EOP) of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident of PWR plant is applied. In addition, the sequence of actions on each step of the procedure is modelled using multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and influenced propagation rule. The prediction of action time on each step is acquired based on similar case accidents and the Support Vector Regression. The derived time will be processed and then displayed on a CBP user interface.

  10. Ensemble of data-driven prognostic algorithms for robust prediction of remaining useful life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chao; Youn, Byeng D.; Wang Pingfeng; Taek Yoon, Joung

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics aims at determining whether a failure of an engineered system (e.g., a nuclear power plant) is impending and estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) before the failure occurs. The traditional data-driven prognostic approach is to construct multiple candidate algorithms using a training data set, evaluate their respective performance using a testing data set, and select the one with the best performance while discarding all the others. This approach has three shortcomings: (i) the selected standalone algorithm may not be robust; (ii) it wastes the resources for constructing the algorithms that are discarded; (iii) it requires the testing data in addition to the training data. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes an ensemble data-driven prognostic approach which combines multiple member algorithms with a weighted-sum formulation. Three weighting schemes, namely the accuracy-based weighting, diversity-based weighting and optimization-based weighting, are proposed to determine the weights of member algorithms. The k-fold cross validation (CV) is employed to estimate the prediction error required by the weighting schemes. The results obtained from three case studies suggest that the ensemble approach with any weighting scheme gives more accurate RUL predictions compared to any sole algorithm when member algorithms producing diverse RUL predictions have comparable prediction accuracy and that the optimization-based weighting scheme gives the best overall performance among the three weighting schemes.

  11. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  12. Extragastric Helicobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...

  13. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  14. Not in wilderness: African vulture strongholds remain in areas with high human density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granadeiro, José Pedro; Monteiro, Hamilton; Nuno, Ana; Lecoq, Miguel; Cardoso, Paulo; Regalla, Aissa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Vultures constitute an important functional group in many ecosystems, providing crucial ecosystem services both in natural and humanized environments. These scavengers are facing massive declines worldwide, but in several African countries virtually nothing is known on populations’ status and threats, hampering the development of adequate conservation strategies. In Guinea-Bissau, globally important populations of Hooded Necrosyrtes monachus and African white-backed vultures Gyps africanus were recently reported. Using the country as a study area, we aim to characterize human-vulture interactions in West Africa applying a multidisciplinary approach. We assessed the status and distribution of vulture populations using data from 1711 km of roadside transects, examined predictors of their distribution, and produced a nationwide population estimate for the Hooded Vulture, using an innovative method based on the relationship between the size of human population in settlements and vulture numbers. We conducted 47 stakeholder interviews to assess perceived roles played by vultures, and to investigate potential anthropogenic threats. Hooded vultures were strongly associated with high human population densities, whereas no relation was found between African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures and any of the tested predictors, which included cattle density, precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, among others. We estimate a national population of 43347 Hooded vultures, the largest population reported in the species range. Respondents were generally aware of the services provided by vultures, especially waste and carcass removal, including in urban areas. Hunting for witchcraft and traditional medicine was the most frequently recognised threat, while poisoning was ranked as having the highest impact. We hypothesise that poisoning-related mortality may be affecting African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures’ distribution and explain their scarcity

  15. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Favaro

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4% improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA, which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place.

  16. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  17. Review: Allee effects in social species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Elena; Luque, Gloria M; Gregory, Stephen D; Wenzel, John W; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Berec, Ludek; Courchamp, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. The benefits of aggregation of conspecific individuals are central to Allee effects, which have led to the widely held assumption that social species are more prone to Allee effects. Robust evidence for this assumption, however, remains rare. Furthermore, previous research on Allee effects has failed to adequately address the consequences of the different levels of organisation within social species' populations. Here, we review available evidence of Allee effects and model the role of demographic and behavioural factors that may combine to dampen or strengthen Allee effects in social species. We use examples across various species with contrasting social structure, including carnivores, bats, primates and eusocial insects. Building on this, we provide a conceptual framework that allows for the integration of different Allee effects in social species. Social species are characterised by nested levels of organisation. The benefits of cooperation, measured by mean individual fitness, can be observed at both the population and group levels, giving rise to "population level" and "group level" Allee effects respectively. We also speculate on the possibility of a third level, reporting per capita benefits for different individuals within a group (e.g. castes in social insects). We show that group size heterogeneity and intergroup interactions affect the strength of population-level demographic Allee effects. Populations with higher group size heterogeneity and in which individual social groups cooperate demonstrate the weakest Allee effects and may thus provide an explanation for why extinctions due to Allee effects are rare in social species. More adequately accounting for Allee effects in social species will improve our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary implications of cooperation in social species. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British

  18. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  19. The species in primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Biologists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries all bandied about the term "species," but very rarely actually said what they meant by it. Often, however, one can get inside their thinking by piecing together some of their remarks. One of the most nearly explicit-appropriately, for the man who wrote a book called The Origin of Species - was Charles Darwin: "Practically, when a naturalist can unite two forms together by others having intermediate characters, he treats the one as a variety of the other… He later translated this into evolutionary terms: "Hereafter, we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected"(1:484-5.) Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  1. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  2. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  3. Migration Dilemmas of Islanders: Commuting Leading to Migration or Remaining at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2001-09-01

    shopping, visiting doctors, as well as visiting relatives and friends. Depopulation of the islands in the Šibenik costal area has had an effect on reducing the size of the category of commuters, commuting pupils and commuting employees. The islands are more and more becoming a peripheral area, and the islanders see the absence of the young population as a particular problem. Commuting pupils are facing dilemmas regarding the decision to leave the islands or remain on them, with both alternatives at present having equal weight. The desire to remain on the islands is somewhat stronger among secondary school pupils, in comparison to elementary school pupils, and somewhat stronger among female pupils than among male pupils. Commuting of (especially young island populations has a tendency to develop into out-migration, which could have a further negative effect on the socio-demographic situation and, if the trend is not changed, could threaten the perspectives of local island communities. Factors influencing continued residence on the islands pertain to the sphere of economics, as well as to ecological valorisation of the islands. Tourism is the most attractive economic activity, although agriculture is also becoming more and more attractive, especially olive-growing as a traditional island activity. Transportation links do not constitute a major push factor leading to the decision to leave. However, in the given context this concerns the islands nearest the mainland, which are often better linked to the mainland centre (Šibenik than are suburban areas on the mainland itself.

  4. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Violent video game effects remain a societal concern: Reply to Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2017-07-01

    A large meta-analysis by Anderson et al. (2010) found that violent video games increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior and decreased empathic feelings and helping behavior. Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017) reanalyzed the data of Anderson et al. (2010) using newer publication bias methods (i.e., precision-effect test, precision-effect estimate with standard error, p-uniform, p-curve). Based on their reanalysis, Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder concluded that experimental studies examining the effect of violent video games on aggressive affect and aggressive behavior may be contaminated by publication bias, and these effects are very small when corrected for publication bias. However, the newer methods Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder used may not be the most appropriate. Because publication bias is a potential a problem in any scientific domain, we used a comprehensive sensitivity analysis battery to examine the influence of publication bias and outliers on the experimental effects reported by Anderson et al. We used best meta-analytic practices and the triangulation approach to locate the likely position of the true mean effect size estimates. Using this methodological approach, we found that the combined adverse effects of outliers and publication bias was less severe than what Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder found for publication bias alone. Moreover, the obtained mean effects using recommended methods and practices were not very small in size. The results of the methods used by Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder tended to not converge well with the results of the methods we used, indicating potentially poor performance. We therefore conclude that violent video game effects should remain a societal concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. How can health remain central post-2015 in a sustainable development paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Buse, Kent; Brolan, Claire E; Ooms, Gorik

    2014-04-03

    In two years, the uncompleted tasks of the Millennium Development Goals will be merged with the agenda articulated in the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. This process will seek to integrate economic development (including the elimination of extreme poverty), social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance into a combined sustainable development agenda. The first phase of consultation for the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals reached completion in the May 2013 report to the Secretary-General of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Health did well out of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) process, but the global context and framing of the new agenda is substantially different, and health advocates cannot automatically assume the same prominence. This paper argues that to remain central to continuing negotiations and the future implementation, four strategic shifts are urgently required. Advocates need to reframe health from the poverty reduction focus of the MDGs to embrace the social sustainability paradigm that underpins the new goals. Second, health advocates need to speak--and listen--to the whole sustainable development agenda, and assert health in every theme and every relevant policy, something that is not yet happening in current thematic debates. Third, we need to construct goals that will be truly "universal", that will engage every nation--a significant re-orientation from the focus on low-income countries of the MDGs. And finally, health advocates need to overtly explore what global governance structures will be needed to finance and implement these universal Sustainable Development Goals.

  7. Recent Successes and Remaining Challenges in Predicting Phosphorus Loading to Surface Waters at Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.; Metson, G.; Beusen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication and associated effects such as harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Effectively addressing this challenge requires understanding geographic and temporal distribution of aquatic P loading, knowledge of major controls on P loading, and the relative importance of various potential P sources. The Global (N)utrient (E)xport from (W)ater(S)heds) NEWS model and recent improvements and extensions of this modeling system can be used to generate this understanding. This presentation will focus on insights global NEWS models grant into past, present, and potential future P sources and sinks, with a focus on the world's large rivers. Early results suggest: 1) that while aquatic P loading is globally dominated by particulate forms, dissolved P can be locally dominant; 2) that P loading has increased substantially at the global scale, but unevenly between world regions, with hotspots in South and East Asia; 3) that P loading is likely to continue to increase globally, but decrease in certain regions that are actively pursuing proactive P management; and 4) that point sources, especially in urban centers, play an important (even dominant) role in determining loads of dissolved inorganic P. Despite these insights, substantial unexplained variance remains when model predictions and measurements are compared at global and regional scales, for example within the U.S. Disagreements between model predictions and measurements suggest opportunities for model improvement. In particular, explicit inclusion of soil characteristics and the concept of temporal P legacies in future iterations of NEWS (and other) models may help improve correspondence between models and measurements.

  8. The Friction Coefficient of Shoulder Joints Remains Remarkably Low Over 24 h of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K.; Durney, Krista M.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Six human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean ± standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  9. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  10. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  11. Selective conservatism in the management of thoracic trauma remains appropriate in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-04-01

    Selective conservatism for thoracic trauma is well established but the emergence of new technologies may cause management strategies to continue to evolve. A retrospective study was conducted on thoracic trauma patients managed in a single institution in South Africa over a 4-year period to determine the appropriateness of our current policy of selective conservatism. A total of 1,239 patients were included in the study; 112 required an emergency thoracotomy, 125 were admitted for observation and 1,002 required a tube thoracostomy (TT). Ninety-one per cent of the patients were male and the median age was 24 years. Seventy-five per cent of the cases were penetrating trauma and the remaining were blunt trauma. The indications for TT were pneumothorax (PTX) (n=382, 38%), haemothorax (HTX) (n=300, 30%) and haemopneumothorax (HPTX) (n=320, 32%). A total of 13% (127/1,002) of all chest x-rays (CXR) following tube removal demonstrated residual pathologies that precluded immediate discharge: 32 (8%) in Group A (PTX), 44 (15%) in Group B (HTX) and 51 (16%) in Group C (HPTX). All 32 patients in Group A were simply observed and did not require further intervention. In Group B, 17 patients required repeat TTs and 27 required video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for clearance of residual HTX. Twenty-nine patients in Group C required repeat TTs and twenty-two required VATS. The vast majority of patients with thoracic trauma can be managed conservatively with TT alone. Residual pathology appeared to be lowest in patients with a PTX, which seldom requires treatment, while only a minority of patients required repeat TTs or VATS for a retained HTX. Selective conservatism is still appropriate in the current era in a developing world setting.

  12. REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SATISHKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.

  13. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  14. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  15. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae.

  16. Theory of superconductivity. II. Excited Cooper pairs. Why does sodium remain normal down to 0 K?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a generalized BCS Hamiltonian in which the interaction strengths (V 11 , V 22 , V 12 ) among and between electron (12) and hole (2) Cooper pairs are differentiated, the thermodynamic properties of a type-I superconductor below the critical temperature T c are investigated. An expression for the ground-state energy, W - W 0 , relative to the unperturbed Block system is obtained. The usual BCS formulas are obtained in the limits: (all) V jl = V 0 , N 1 (0) = N 2 (0). Any excitations generated through the BCS interaction Hamiltonian containing V jl must involve Cooper pairs of antiparallel spins and nearly opposite momenta. The nonzero momentum or excited Cooper pairs below T c are shown to have an excitation energy band minimum lower than the quasi-electrons, which were regarded as the elementary excitations in the original BCS theory. The energy gap var-epsilon g (T) defined relative to excited and zero-momentum Copper pairs (when V jl > 0) decreases from var-epsilon g (0) to 0 as the temperature T is raised from 0 to T c . If electrons only are available as in a monovalent metal like sodium (V 12 = 0), the energy constant Δ 1 is finite but the energy gap vanishes identically for all T. In agreement with the BCS theory, the present theory predicts that a pure nonmagnetic metal in any dimensions should have a Cooper-pair ground state whose energy is lower than that of the Bloch ground state. Additionally it predicts that a monovalent metal should remain normal down to 0 K, and that there should be no strictly one-dimensional superconductor

  17. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  18. The Influence of Negative Emotion on Cognitive and Emotional Control Remains Intact in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Zinchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control. In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of negative emotion on cognitive and emotional conflict processing in groups of younger adults (mean age = 25.2 years and older adults (69.4 years. Participants viewed short video clips and either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict or their emotional valence (emotional conflict, while the visual facial information was congruent or incongruent. Results show that negative emotion modulates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing in younger and older adults as indicated in reduced response times and/or enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs. In emotional conflict processing, we observed a valence-specific N100 ERP component in both age groups. In cognitive conflict processing, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the N100 responses in both age groups, and a main effect of congruence in the P200 and N200. Thus, the influence of emotion on conflict processing remains intact in aging, despite a marked decline in cognitive control. Older adults may prioritize emotional wellbeing and preserve the role of emotion in cognitive and emotional control.

  19. [Palliative care after neonatal intensive care: Contributions of Leonetti Law and remaining challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P; Dillenseger, L; Cojean, N; Escande, B; Zores, C; Astruc, D

    2017-02-01

    The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology. This is why it appears important to discuss the perceived benefits and the persistent difficulties related to the implementation of the Leonetti law in neonatology. Collegiality in the decision-making processes as well as withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatments that were already present in the practices of many centers has been stipulated within a legal framework and promoted in clinical practice. It has brought serenity within perinatal nursing and medical teams. It has helped them face the always-difficult end-of-life situations with parents and deal with decision-making processes in an intense emotional climate. However, new questions inherent to the law have appeared. The most important ones concern the withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration, the time pressure in the management of the decision-making process, and the management of the duration of palliative care. Challenges remain in addressing various persistent ethical dilemmas such as the possible survival of newborns with significant brain lesions detected after the period of life-sustaining treatments that have allowed their survival. The new law carried by Mr. Clayes and Mr. Léonetti should provide answers to some of these ethical issues, but it would probably not solve all of them. Copyright

  20. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  1. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown - a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Jacques; McCambridge, Jim; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale are disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content; exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness. Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications were searched for original research or review on active ingredients (components or mechanisms) of face-to-face BIs [and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing (BMI)] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among patients in the emergency room, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such. Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  2. Remaining life prediction of I and C cables for reliability assessment of NPP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Fernandes, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A framework for time dependent reliability prediction of I and C cables for use in PSA of NPP has been developed using stress–strength interference theory. ► The proposed methodology has been illustrated with the accelerated thermal aging data on a typical XLPE cable. ► The behavior of insulation resistance when the degradation process is linear or exponential has also been modeled. ► The reliability index or probability of failure obtained from this approach can be used in system reliability evaluation to account for cable aging for PSA of NPP. - Abstract: Instrumentation and control (I and C) cables are one of the most important components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because they provide power to safety-related equipment and also to transmit signals to and from various controllers to perform safety operations. I and C cables in NPP are subjected to a variety of aging and degradation stressors that can produce immediate degradation or aging-related mechanisms causing the degradation of cable components over time. Although, there exits several life estimation techniques, currently there is no any standard methodology or an approach toward estimating the time dependent reliability of I and C cables that can be directly used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop an approach to estimate and confirm the continued acceptable margin in cable insulation life over time subjected to aging. This paper presents a framework based on the structural reliability theory to quantify the life time of I and C cable subjecting to thermal aging. Since cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables are extensively being used in Indian NPPs, the remaining life time evaluations have been carried out for a typical XLPE cable. However, the methodology can be extended to other cables such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), etc.

  3. The Aesthetic Surgery Literature: Do Plastic Surgeons Remain at the Cutting Edge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Roisin T; Zins, James E; Morrison, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    The aesthetic surgery arena has become a competitive marketplace. Recognition as an authority in aesthetic surgery remains a powerful marketing tool for plastic surgeons, but have significant inroads been made by other specialties? The aims of this study were to analyze publication trends relating to the top five most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures, and to assess the origins (i.e., source specialty, authorship, institutions, and countries) of published aesthetic surgical research. Based on the seventeenth annual multispecialty data set provided by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the top five most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures were selected. A temporal analysis of publication and citation rates, source institution and country, publishing journal, funding agency trends, and level of evidence was undertaken from 1970 to 2013. Using the search criteria, 7762 articles were identified. There was an 8.8-fold increase in publication volume when the first decade (n = 375) was compared with the last decade (n = 3326). Over the past four decades, 52.2 percent of publications (n = 4053 of 7762) originated from plastic surgery research institutions, with varying contributions from other specialties. Competition was greatest in relation to authorship of blepharoplasty- and rhinoplasty-related publications. Although plastic surgeons continue to maintain a center-stage presence in terms of authorship of aesthetic surgical literature, significant contributions are now made by other specialties. Plastic surgeons must continue to foster high-quality, peer-reviewed research and innovations to maintain their visibility as leaders in the aesthetic surgery literature and sustain a competitive advantage in aesthetic surgery practice.

  4. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Tilja I; Robroek, Suzan J; Plat, Jan F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Burdorf, Alex

    2011-08-01

    Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. The study population consisted of 10,542 workers in 49 different companies in the Netherlands in 2005-2009. Productivity loss at work was defined on a 10-point scale by asking how much work was actually performed during regular hours on the last regular workday when compared with normal. Independent variables in the logistic regression analysis were individual characteristics, work-related factors, and the work ability index. Additive interactions between work-related factors and decreased work ability were evaluated by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of productivity loss at work were 2.03 (1.85-2.22), 3.50 (3.10-3.95), and 5.54 (4.37-7.03) for a good, moderate, and poor work ability, compared with an excellent work ability (reference group). Productivity loss at work was associated with lack of job control, poor skill discretion, and high work demands. There was a significant interaction between decreased work ability and lack of job control (RERI = 0.63 95% CI 0.11-1.16) with productivity loss at work. The negative effects on work performance of decreased work ability may be partly counterbalanced by increased job control. This suggests that interventions among workers with (chronic) disease that cause a decreased work ability should include enlargement of possibilities to plan and pace their own activities at work.

  5. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; Botting, Neil; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-07-09

    An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

  7. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

  8. Physical activity according to sex in the argar culture. An approach based on the human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.

    Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.

  9. Method for estimating capacity and predicting remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Tamirisa, Prabhakar; Gorka, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction. • A state projection scheme is derived for capacity estimation. • The Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used for the RUL prediction. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the capacity of Li-ion battery and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) throughout the whole life-time. This paper presents an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction of Li-ion battery used in implantable medical devices. A state projection scheme from the author’s previous study is used for the capacity estimation. Then, based on the capacity estimates, the Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used to project the capacity fade to the end-of-service (EOS) value (or the failure limit) for the RUL prediction. Results of 10 years’ continuous cycling test on Li-ion prismatic cells in the lab suggest that the proposed method achieves good accuracy in the capacity estimation and captures the uncertainty in the RUL prediction. Post-explant weekly cycling data obtained from field cells with 4–7 implant years further verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the capacity estimation

  10. Selective conservatism in the management of thoracic trauma remains appropriate in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, GV; Clarke, DL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Selective conservatism for thoracic trauma is well established but the emergence of new technologies may cause management strategies to continue to evolve. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on thoracic trauma patients managed in a single institution in South Africa over a 4-year period to determine the appropriateness of our current policy of selective conservatism. Results A total of 1,239 patients were included in the study; 112 required an emergency thoracotomy, 125 were admitted for observation and 1,002 required a tube thoracostomy (TT). Ninety-one per cent of the patients were male and the median age was 24 years. Seventy-five per cent of the cases were penetrating trauma and the remaining were blunt trauma. The indications for TT were pneumothorax (PTX) (n=382, 38%), haemothorax (HTX) (n=300, 30%) and haemopneumothorax (HPTX) (n=320, 32%). A total of 13% (127/1,002) of all chest x-rays (CXR) following tube removal demonstrated residual pathologies that precluded immediate discharge: 32 (8%) in Group A (PTX), 44 (15%) in Group B (HTX) and 51 (16%) in Group C (HPTX). All 32 patients in Group A were simply observed and did not require further intervention. In Group B, 17 patients required repeat TTs and 27 required video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for clearance of residual HTX. Twenty-nine patients in Group C required repeat TTs and twenty-two required VATS. Conclusions The vast majority of patients with thoracic trauma can be managed conservatively with TT alone. Residual pathology appeared to be lowest in patients with a PTX, which seldom requires treatment, while only a minority of patients required repeat TTs or VATS for a retained HTX. Selective conservatism is still appropriate in the current era in a developing world setting. PMID:26263809

  11. Tracing partners of patients with syphilis infection remains challenging: experience of Geneva Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Girard-Strohbach, Martine; Toutous-Trellu, Laurence

    2017-10-01

    Syphilis has been reinstated on the list of notifiable diseases in Switzerland since 2006 and the active management of sexual partners is encouraged to avoid reinfection. However, contact tracing has yielded unsatisfactory results and the incidence of syphilis remains important, especially in high-risk populations. The aim of this study was to compare the proportions of notified sexual partners of patients diagnosed with syphilis by the laboratories of Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) with those diagnosed in private laboratories (non-HUG) and to assess the risk factors for no notification to sexual partners. All syphilis cases notified to the Office of the Surgeon General in Geneva (Switzerland) between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were analysed. The proportions of partner notification (PN) between HUG and non-HUG laboratories were compared by Chi square test and the main risk factors for no notification to sexual partners were assessed by binomial log-linear regression. Among a total of 720 notifications reported, 244 cases were diagnosed with contagious syphilis stages and 263 with non-contagious stages (i.e. successfully treated patients with or late latent cases). Overall, PN was higher among contagious than non-contagious cases (58.4% versus 31.0%; p = 0.030) and it was significantly higher in the non-HUG compared to the HUG group (75.9% versus 50.0%, respectively; p 45 years (RR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.76) and if the patient had received treatment for syphilis (RR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.38-2.66). Our results illustrate the difficulty of contact tracing in syphilis infection and the necessity to improve this crucial part of sexually transmitted infection management.

  12. The 2006 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, use computers for the storage and processing of information relating to their business or services, their employees and their customers. A large proportion of families and individuals in their homes now also use personal computers and, both intentionally and inadvertently, often store on those computers personal information. It is clear that most organisations and individuals continue to be unaware of the information that may be stored on the hard disks that the computers contain, and have not considered what may happen to the information after the disposal of the equipment.In 2005, joint research was carried out by the University of Glamorgan in Wales and Edith Cowan University in Australia to determine whether second hand computer disks that were purchased from a number of sources still contained any information or whether the information had been effectively erased. The research revealed that, for the majority of the disks that were examined, the information had not been effectively removed and as a result, both organisations and individuals were potentially exposed to a range of potential crimes.  It is worthy of note that in the disposal of this equipment, the organisations involved had failed to meet their statutory, regulatory and legal obligations.This paper describes a second research project that was carried out in 2006 which repeated the research carried out the previous year and also extended the scope of the research to include additional countries.  The methodology used was the same as that in the previous year and the disks that were used for the research were again supplied blind by a third party. The research involved the forensic imaging of the disks which was followed by an analysis of the disks to determine what information remained and whether it could be easily recovered using publicly available tools and techniques.

  13. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  14. Optic nerve sheath diameter remains constant during robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Verdonck

    Full Text Available During robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP, a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (CO2PP is applied and the patient is placed in a head-down position. Intracranial pressure (ICP is expected to acutely increase under these conditions. A non-invasive method, the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD measurement, may warn us that the mechanism of protective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shifts becomes exhausted.After obtaining IRB approval and written informed consent, ONSD was measured by ocular ultrasound in 20 ASA I-II patients at various stages of the RALRP procedure: baseline awake, after induction, after applying the CO2PP, during head-down position, after resuming the supine position, in the postoperative anaesthesia care unit, and on day one postoperatively. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was calculated as the mean arterial (MAP minus central venous pressure (CVP.The ONSD did not change during head-down position, although the CVP increased from 4.2(2.5 mm Hg to 27.6(3.8 mm Hg. The CPP was decreased 70 min after assuming the head-down position until 15 min after resuming the supine position, but remained above 60 mm Hg at all times.Even though ICP has been documented to increase during CO2PP and head-down positioning, we did not find any changes in ONSD during head-down position. These results indicate that intracranial blood volume does not increase up to a point that CSF migration as a compensation mechanism becomes exhausted, suggesting any increases in ICP are likely to be small.

  15. suPAR remains uninfluenced by surgery in septic patients with bloodstream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabensteiner, Jasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical trauma induces activation of the immune system and may cause an increase of inflammatory biomarkers tested postoperatively in septic patients treated for bloodstream infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of surgical interventions on the novel sepsis biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and to compare results with those of routine laboratory parameters CRP, PCT, and IL-6 in patients with culture-proven bloodstream infection. Forty-six adult patients with positive blood culture undergoing minor or major surgical intervention were investigated, 12 blood culture positive patients served as control group. Blood was collected 24 hours before and after surgical intervention for determination of the sepsis biomarkers suPAR, CRP, PCT, and IL-6. Within the surgical study cohort, a non-significant increase of suPAR, CRP, and PCT was observed postoperatively ( 0.642; 0.773; 0.087. In contrast, a slight decrease of IL-6 ( 0.599 was observed. A significant correlation was calculated for the pre- and postoperative difference of CRP ( 0.028 and PCT and type of surgical intervention received: after minor surgical intervention only PCT decreased significantly (<0.001, while after major surgical interventions no significant differences were observed for all biomarkers evaluated. In the control group, a significant decrease of CRP ( 0.005 and PCT ( 0.005 was observed. In patients treated adequately for bloodstream infections, postoperative suPAR levels remained uninfluenced of the surgical trauma and might therefore be a reliable parameter for postoperative infectious monitoring. After minor surgical intervention, PCT seems to be the most reliable parameter.

  16. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  17. Staying in nursing: what factors determine whether nurses intend to remain employed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Matthew R; Tourangeau, Ann E

    2012-07-01

    To test a model of eight thematic determinants of whether nurses intend to remain in nursing roles. Despite the dramatic increase in the supply of nurses in England over the past decade, a combination of the economic downturn, funding constraints and more generally an ageing nursing population means that healthcare organizations are likely to encounter long-term problems in the recruitment and retention of nursing staff. Survey. Data were collected from a large staff survey conducted in the National Health Service in England between September-December 2009. A multi-level model was tested using MPlus statistical software on a sub-sample of 16,707 nurses drawn from 167 healthcare organizations. Findings were generally supportive of the proposed model. Nurses who reported being psychologically engaged with their jobs reported a lower intention to leave their current job. The perceived availability of developmental opportunities, being able to achieve a good work-life balance and whether nurses' encountered work pressures were also influencing factors on their turnover intentions. However, relationships formed with colleagues and patients displayed comparatively small relationships with turnover intentions. The focus at the local level needs to be on promoting employee engagement by equipping staff with the resources (physical and monetary) and control to enable them to perform their tasks to standards they aspire to and creating a work environment where staff are fully involved in the wider running of their organizations, communicating to staff that patient care is important and the top priority of the organization. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ownership and use of mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants and other hand held devices is now ubiquitous both for home and business use. The majority of these devices have a high initial cost, a relatively short period before they become obsolescent and a relatively low second hand value.  As a result of this, when the devices are replaced, there are indications that they tend to be discarded.  As technology has continued to develop, it has led to an increasing diversity in the number and type of devices that are available, and the processing power and the storage capacity of the digital storage in the device. All organisations, whether in the public or private sector increasingly use hand held devices that contain digital media for the storage of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Similarly, individual private users increasingly use hand held devices containing digital media for the storage of information relating to their private lives.The research revealed that a significant number of organisations and private users are ignorant or misinformed about the volume and type of information that is stored on the hand held devices and the media on which it is stored.  It is apparent that they have either not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or those with criminal intent.This main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the volume and type of information that may remain on hand held devices that are offered for sale on the second hand market.  A second aim of the research was to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information that remains on the devices fell into the wrong hands.  The study examined a number of hand held devices that had been obtained from sources in the UK and Australia that ranged from internet auction sites, to private sales and commercial

  19. Sub specie aeternitatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».

  20. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  1. Ancient genomics in India: Clarifying the maternal origins of 160-year-old human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Bandyopadhyay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing DNA from archaeological remains has opened up new possibilities for furthering our understanding of the origins and evolutionary history of modern humans [1]. However, most ancient DNA (aDNA studies, thus far, have focused on ancient samples obtained from permafrozen and temperate regions, where preservation conditions are better suited for long-term DNA survival. Consequently, this has left a void in aDNA research in tropical regions such as South Asia. The primary aims of the present study were to (a test the feasibility of extracting DNA from historical samples (~160 years old from northern India, and (b correlate obtained mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA signatures with geographical origins of the individuals, as reported in historical records. A total of 30 molars were subjected to DNA extractions and Illumina indexed library preparation. All laboratory work was performed following strict aDNA standards in the clean laboratory at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad. Complete mtDNA genomes were targeted from all 30 samples following the DNA hybridization method outlined in Maricic et al., 2010 [2]. Captured libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform (100 bp paired-end mode at MedGenome Inc., Bangalore. Obtained sequences were trimmed for residual adapters using AdapterRemoval and mapped to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS using BWA. HaploGrep2 [3] was used to assign mtDNA haplogroups to each sample. We successfully obtained endogenous mtDNA sequences from all 30 samples, as confirmed by typical aDNA damage (cytosine deamination on the ends of DNA molecules. Coverage and depth of sequencing were in the range of 91-99.5% and 6X-371X, respectively. To ascertain the maternal origins of the individuals, mtDNA haplogroups of our samples were compared to a database compiled from published mtDNA sequences from modern South Asian individuals. Based on this, we were able to confirm northern

  2. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

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    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  3. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  4. Hydrologic pulses and remaining natural vegetation in Jaú and Jacaré-Pepira watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozrael Henriques Rezende

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of natural vegetation in two subwatersheds of the Tietê-Jacaré Water Resources Management Unit in São Paulo State on the pulse of their rivers. In Jacaré-Pepira Subwatershed, having higher remaining cover index, pulses were more predictable and had lower amplitude in the study period, indicating less perturbation of the water body and higher resilience of the aquatic ecosystem. Jacaré-Pepira River specific mean discharge was higher than the Q5% calculated through the Hydrologic Regionalization Method for São Paulo State, whereas Jaú River mean discharge was lower than Q5%. The minimum discharge recorded for Jacaré-Pepira River was higher than Q7.10 and equal to Q95%, whereas for Jaú River this value was practically equal to Q7,10 and lower than Q95%..Este trabalho discute a influência da cobertura vegetal natural remanescente de duas sub-bacias hidrográficas, localizadas na Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos Tietê - Jacaré, estado de São Paulo, no pulso dos rios de cada uma delas. A sub-bacia hidrográfica do rio Jacaré-Pepira, com maior índice de cobertura remanescente, apresentou pulsos mais previsíveis e de menor amplitude no período estudado, indicando menor perturbação do corpo hídrico e maior resiliência do ecossistema aquático. Constatou-se que a vazão média específica do rio Jacaré-Pepira no período foi maior que a Q5% calculada pelo método de Regionalização Hidrológica do Estado de São Paulo, enquanto que para o rio Jaú a vazão média foi menor que a respectiva Q5%. A vazão mínima registrada no período para o rio Jacaré-Pepira foi maior que a Q7,10 e igual a Q95%. e para o rio Jaú a vazão mínima registrada no período foi praticamente igual a Q7,10 e menor que Q95%.

  5. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  6. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  7. DEEP HANGING WALL TRAPS-THE REMAINING PROMISSING TARGETS FOR OIL EXPLORATION IN THE NIGER DELTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oton, S.W

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the most dominant types of Hydrocarbon types found in the petroliferous Niger Delta are the classical rollover anticlinical traps 'I of oil exploration in the delta, these easy-to-find rollover structures are getting exhausted. They are most numerous at shallow depths in the younger delta front sedimentary sequence. Generally, during this primary oil exploration stage, oil and gas exploration have been concentrated in the shallow depths where they are easy to reach, easy to explore and easy to produce. This means that the present and future exploration campaigns in the Niger Delta should be directed towards other types of hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms that have been mapped in the delta. Many exploration models have been used and oil has been found in at least nine types of traps in the Niger Delta. The contrary (or anitithetic) fault model was used at the close of the last century. This model is so called because the controlling antithetic fault has a regional dip contrary to the structure-building growth fault with which it is associated. These faults, which are widespread in the Niger Delta, are easy to map especially on the Petro geological model. In this period, several promising hydrocarbon accumulations trapped against antithetic faults were discovered and tested. These hydrocarbon targets also seem fully explored and exhausted now. Recently, from modern high resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic data a lot of good prospects have been mapped and drilled in the deep horizon. In the last few years, a lot of unexplored oil have been discovered and tested in the deep horizons. They are mostly in hanging wall traps, at depth below 4,000 meters. This shows that most of the remaining undiscovered hydrocarbons in the Niger Delta may well be in these deep hanging wall traps between 4,000 and close to 5,600 meters. A definite search for deep-seated hanging wall traps is therefore recommended in a bid to find more new reservoirs and thereby increase the

  8. Specialist training in Fiji: Why do graduates migrate, and why do they remain? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usher Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialist training was established in the late 1990s at the Fiji School of Medicine. Losses of graduates to overseas migration and to the local private sector prompted us to explore the reasons for these losses from the Fiji public workforce. Methods Data were collected on the whereabouts and highest educational attainments of the 66 Fiji doctors who had undertaken specialist training to at least the diploma level between 1997 and 2004. Semistructured interviews focusing on career decisions were carried out with 36 of these doctors, who were purposively sampled to include overseas migrants, temporary overseas trainees, local private practitioners and public sector doctors. Results 120 doctors undertook specialist training to at least the diploma level between 1997 and 2004; 66 of the graduates were Fiji citizens or permanent residents; 54 originated from other countries in the region. Among Fiji graduates, 42 completed a diploma and 24 had either completed (21 or were enrolled (3 in a master's programme. Thirty-two (48.5% were working in the public sectors, four (6.0% were temporarily training overseas, 30.3% had migrated overseas and the remainder were mostly in local private practice. Indo-Fijian ethnicity and non-completion of full specialist training were associated with lower retention in the public sectors, while gender had little impact. Decisions to leave the public sectors were complex, with concerns about political instability and family welfare predominating for overseas migrants, while working conditions not conducive to family life or frustrations with career progression predominated for local private practitioners. Doctors remaining in the public sectors reported many satisfying aspects to their work despite frustrations, though 40% had seriously considered resigning from the public service and 60% were unhappy with their career progression. Conclusion Overall, this study provides some support for the view that

  9. A WELL PRESERVED SKELETON OF THE FOSSIL SHARK COSMOPOLITODUS HASTALIS FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF PERU, FEATURING FISH REMAINS AS FOSSILIZED STOMACH CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO COLLARETA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the preservation of the poorly mineralized skeleton of sharks and the preservation of stomach contents are rarely observed in the fossil record. Here we report on a partial skeleton of a lamniform shark, including portions of the visceral arches and the anterior segment of the vertebral column, collected from the late Miocene beds of the Pisco Formation exposed at Cerro Yesera (Ica Desert, South Peru. Based on the morphology of the preserved teeth, this specimen was determined as a juvenile of the extinct lamnid species Cosmopolitodus hastalis. The shark skeleton includes remains of fish (featuring a pilchard determined as Sardinops sp. cf. S. sagax in the abdominal region. These fish remains are interpreted herein as the fossilized stomach contents of the shark. For the first time, piscivory is demonstrated in a juvenile individual of Cosmopolitodus hastalis. This result is consistent with the current knowledge about the feeding habits of immature individuals of extant lamniform shark species (including Carcharodon carcharias and Isurus oxyrinchus. Our report further outlines the fundamental role of schooling pilchards in the late Miocene trophic chains of the highly productive coastal waters off present South Peru. Moreover, the find of this well preserved shark skeleton strengthens the qualification of the Pisco Formation as a Fossil-Lagerstätte, and emphasizes the role of early mineralization processes in cases of exceptional preservation.

  10. Nuclear Power Remains Important Energy Option for Many Countries, IAEA Ministerial Conference Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power remains an important option for many countries to improve energy security, provide energy for development and fight climate change, the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century concluded today. Participants also emphasised the importance of nuclear safety in the future growth of nuclear power, noting that nuclear safety has been strengthened worldwide following the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Conference was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and hosted by the Government of the Russian Federation through the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM. Sergei Kirienko, Director General of the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM, said: ''The Conference has achieved its main goal: to confirm that nuclear energy is an important part of the world's energy-mix. The innovative character of this type of energy provides us with sustainable development in the future. The closed nuclear fuel cycle and fusion may open for humanity absolutely new horizons. The Conference underlined the leading role of the IAEA in promoting the peaceful use of nuclear power and provision of the non-proliferation regime. Russia as a co-founder of the IAEA will always support its efforts to develop and expand safety and security standards all over the world.'' ''I believe we can look ahead with confidence and optimism to the future of nuclear power in the 21st century,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, ''effective steps have been taken to make nuclear power plants safer everywhere,'' he stressed. ''Nuclear power will make a significant and growing contribution to sustainable development in the coming decades. The IAEA is committed to ensuring that the

  11. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Płytycz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

  12. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  13. Global representation of threatened amphibians ex situ is bolstered by non-traditional institutions, but gaps remain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biega, A; Greenberg, D.A.; Mooers, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    priority by testing how eight variables relating to extinction risk – International Union for the Conservation of Nature status, habitat specialization, obligate stream breeding, geographic range size, body size and island, high-altitude and tropical endemism – vary between amphibian species held in zoos...... greater overall extinction risk in the near future. We strongly encourage zoos to continue increasing their holdings of amphibian species, but to pay greater attention to these species of particular conservation concern....

  14. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part I: the situation and efforts to change it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    This 1st part of the discussion of the poverty in Bangladesh reviews efforts on the part of individuals, donor agencies, and the government to alleviate poverty, and some goals of the new Third Five Year Plan. More than 3/4 of the people of Bangladesh live in poverty or close to it, according to development and economic criteria. Bangladesh society has hardly any parallel in the world if viewed from the perspective of its capacity, like a biological species, to adapt to an ecological niche and then reproduce to fill that niche. This defines success in biological terms. The Bangladesh society that developed was highly in tune with the natural environment of the rice growing plains. Social organization, kinship, settlement pattern, economic transactions, beliefs systems, and reproductive biology all developed in close symbiosis with the land. From a humanitarian perspective, Bangladesh is also highly successful. The human interaction, the expressive culture, the fullness of life, and the verbal arts all are more fully expressed than in many cultures. By "development" criteria, Bangladesh appears highly unsuccessful. Per capita income is about $130 a year. Bangladesh ranks very low in such indices as literacy, housing, roads, health services, infant survival, loan recovery, exportable goods, and control of the population growth rate. There is no question but that individuals usually are well aware if their situation is precarious, and they take rational action to improve their security; the government and private agencies have a multitude of programs aimed at alleviating poverty. For Bangladesh as a whole, domestic savings in 1984-85 was 8%, and during the Second Five Year Plan the rate of domestic savings increased faster than was expected, compared with income. Almost all the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), many bilateral donor agencies, and huge segments of government target their efforts to the poor and the small farmers. There are over 150 NGOs of

  15. Safety regulation of geological disposal of radioactive waste: progress since Cordoba and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    Claudio Pescatore, Deputy Division Head (NEA) presented a paper, the purpose of which was to recall where we stood at the time of the Cordoba Workshop (1997) on the regulation of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste, to review developments since then, to present the key existing issues, and reflect on the remaining challenges and possible responses. The overview study on progress in regulation for geological disposal since the Cordoba workshop [NEA/RWMC/RF(2008)6], provides a good list of references regarding the first two issues. The presentation of the existing issues takes advantage of the synthesis of the responses to a questionnaire completed by the regulatory organisations in preparation for this workshop. It warns regulators and implementers that international work to date seems to have created an expectation in the mind of the public and in some organisations that nothing less than a guarantee by the regulator is needed of maintaining current levels of protection of both individuals and populations practically forever, regardless of the impracticality of this. This expectation needs to be replaced with a carefully and clearly explained understanding of the choices involved in dealing with long-lived radioactive waste against a background of our responsibilities to both current and future generations and our practical capacity to deliver them. Concerning the current major challenges faced in regulation, the paper comes back to the issue of the 'guarantee' by the regulator and it observes that there is no doubt that there is a willingness to do the best to comply with the principle of protection and that we are broadly convinced that current concepts for geological disposal, supported by multiple lines of reasoning and application of best available techniques (BAT) will meet that principle. However, we do not have the capacity to prove or guarantee this, nor do we believe that it is possible in practice. Although we are advised that it is neither

  16. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    14 of the 18 countries - and pluralities in the remaining four countries - believes that the risk of terrorist acts involving radioactive materials and nuclear facilities is high because of insufficient protection. A majority of 54 percent across all countries surveyed believe the risk of nuclear terrorism to be high, while three in ten (28%) say that the risk is low; 3) People appreciate the value of nuclear technology. When asked to consider the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, people in all but three countries are most supportive, by far, of medical applications, followed by electricity generation. Across the 18 countries surveyed, respondents are most likely to choose the use of nuclear technology to treat human diseases as their preferred application (39%). This is followed by electricity generation (26%); 4) Stressing the climate benefits of nuclear energy positively influences one in ten people to be more supportive of expanding the role of nuclear power in the world, but there is still a general reluctance to build more nuclear plants; 5) Awareness of the IAEA among the general population is generally low. However, one in four citizens across the 18 countries surveyed say that they have heard or read 'a lot' or 'some' about the agency, with higher awareness in Asia and the Middle East. The full report, Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA - Final Report from 18 Countries, is being released today by the IAEA in Vienna. The countries surveyed included: Argentina, Australia, Cameroon, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United States. (IAEA)

  17. Ames-2016 line lists for 13 isotopologues of CO2: Updates, consistency, and remaining issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang (黄新川), Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Freedman, Richard S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2017-12-01

    . Comparison at 4000 K suggests that the Ames-4000 K 12C16O2 line list is reliable and consistent within the current cutoffs of J ≤ 150 and E‧ ≤ 24,000 cm-1, but intensity contributions involving higher energy levels should not be omitted and future computations need to be converged up to at least 32,000 cm-1 or higher. The remaining issues are discussed regarding the source of energy level discrepancies, intensity underestimations by ∼50% for some weak bands, etc. and also future work.

  18. An Estimate Of The Number Of Tropical Tree Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between similar to 40,000 and similar to 53,000...

  19. New combinations for two coronate polyp species (Atorellidae and Nausithoidae, Coronatae, Scyphozoa, Cnidaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandini, A.C.; Jarms, G.

    2005-01-01

    Within the order Coronatae, six valid species remain known only by their polyp stage. The inability to relate them to any medusae genera of the group is a problem that remains to be solved in the order. With the examination of type specimens, we reassign the species Stephanoscyphistoma sibogae and

  20. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, P.K.; Varshney, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2±6.8 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2±4.9 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made