WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid zone dynamics

  1. Origin and cross-century dynamics of an avian hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rozo, Andrea; Tenorio, Elkin A; Carling, Matthew D; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Characterizations of the dynamics of hybrid zones in space and time can give insights about traits and processes important in population divergence and speciation. We characterized a hybrid zone between tanagers in the genus Ramphocelus (Aves, Thraupidae) located in southwestern Colombia. We evaluated whether this hybrid zone originated as a result of secondary contact or of primary differentiation, and described its dynamics across time using spatial analyses of molecular, morphological, and coloration data in combination with paleodistribution modeling. Models of potential historical distributions based on climatic data and genetic signatures of demographic expansion suggested that the hybrid zone likely originated following secondary contact between populations that expanded their ranges out of isolated areas in the Quaternary. Concordant patterns of variation in phenotypic characters across the hybrid zone and its narrow extent are suggestive of a tension zone, maintained by a balance between dispersal and selection against hybrids. Estimates of phenotypic cline parameters obtained using specimens collected over nearly a century revealed that, in recent decades, the zone appears to have moved to the east and to higher elevations, and may have become narrower. Genetic variation was not clearly structured along the hybrid zone, but comparisons between historical and contemporary specimens suggested that temporal changes in its genetic makeup may also have occurred. Our data suggest that the hybrid zone likey resulted from secondary contact between populations. The observed changes in the hybrid zone may be a result of sexual selection, asymmetric gene flow, or environmental change.

  2. The Dynamics of Two Hybrid Zones in Appalachian Salamanders of the Genus Plethodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson G. Hairston; R. Haven Wiley; Charles K. Smith; Kenneth A. Kneidel

    1992-01-01

    Two zones of intergradation between populations of Plethodon have been studied for 18 and 20 years, respectively. The data consist of systematic scores of colors, made at least twice annually. Near Heintooga Overlook in the Balsam Mountains (Great Smoky Mountains National Park), the salamanders' cheeks are gray. Proceeding north toward the...

  3. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  4. Oscillation of an anuran hybrid zone: morphological evidence spanning 50 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Roy

    Full Text Available The hybrid zone between the primarily forest-dwelling American toad, Anaxyrus americanus, and the prairie-adapted Canadian toad, A. hemiophrys, in southeastern Manitoba is known to have shifted its position during the past 50 years. Hybrid zones are areas of interbreeding between species and their movement across a landscape should reflect their underlying dynamics and environmental change. However, empirical demonstrations of hybrid zone movements over long periods of time are rare. This hybrid zone is dominated by individuals of intermediate morphology and genetic composition. We sought to determine if it had continued to move and if that movement was associated with shifts in habitat, as predicted.We used variation in the toads' most diagnostic morphological feature, the separation between their interorbital cranial crests, to determine the geographic position of the hybrid zone center at four times between 1960 and 2009 using maximum likelihood methods. The hybrid zone center moved west by 38 km over 19 years and then east again by 10 km over the succeeding 29 years. The position of the hybrid zone did not track either the direction or the magnitude of movement of the forest-prairie habitat transition over the same time period.This is the first reported evidence of oscillation in the position of a hybrid zone. The back and forth movement indicates that neither species maintains a selective advantage over the other in the long term. However, the movement of the hybrid zone was not bounded by the breadth of the habitat transition. Its oscillation suggests that the hybrid zone is better described as being elastically tethered to the habitat transition.

  5. Estimating the location and shape of hybrid zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedj, Benjamin; Guillot, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new model to make use of georeferenced genetic data for inferring the location and shape of a hybrid zone. The model output includes the posterior distribution of a parameter that quantifies the width of the hybrid zone. The model proposed is implemented in the GUI and command‐line v...

  6. Hybrid dynamics for currency modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Theodosopoulos, Ted; Trifunovic, Alex

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple hybrid dynamical model as a tool to investigate behavioral strategies based on trend following. The multiplicative symbolic dynamics are generated using a lognormal diffusion model for the at-the-money implied volatility term structure. Thus, are model exploits information from derivative markets to obtain qualititative properties of the return distribution for the underlier. We apply our model to the JPY-USD exchange rate and the corresponding 1mo., 3mo., 6mo. and 1yr. im...

  7. Dynamics and control of hybrid mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, G.A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Fradkov, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The papers in this edited volume aim to provide a better understanding of the dynamics and control of a large class of hybrid dynamical systems that are described by different models in different state space domains. They not only cover important aspects and tools for hybrid systems analysis and

  8. Cosmological dynamics of a hybrid chameleon scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, Kourosh; Rashidi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a hybrid scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter and models a chameleon cosmology. By introducing an effective potential, we study the dependence of the effective potential's minimum and hybrid chameleon field's masses to the local matter density. In a dynamical system technique, we analyze the phase space of this two-field chameleon model, find its fixed points and study their stability. We show that the hybrid chameleon domination solution is a stable attractor...

  9. Auroral-zone plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the USAF S3-3 charged particle data and electric field observations has provided extensive quantitative understanding of the auroral particle acceleration process. The results of an effort to use energetic charged particle observations to probe the altitude profile of auroral electric potential structures by applying adiabatic mapping theory are presented here. In situ energetic charged particle measurements differ from local electric field observations in that charged particles execute dynamic trajectories along the magnetic field lines and retain information on the spatial electric potential distribution in their velocity space distribution function. Although a unique determination of the potential distribution is not possible, basic differences between local or non-local acceleration are readily apparent in the particle observations. Together, the charged particle and electric field measurements have enabled us to form a reasonable picture of the auroral ''inverted-V'' structure which can then be applied to study the nonadiabatic processes that occur in these strong acceleration regions, such as energy scattering of ion and electron beams. Specifically, this study shows that a large scale auroral electric field exists at all times in the evening sector with an altitude distribution that is fairly unstructured at altitudes near and above one earth radius. Significant parallel potential drop is not observed below about 4000 kilometers altitude. At times, however, a substantial portion of the potential drop appears to lie in the low altitude region (4000-10,000 km)

  10. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  11. Genetic conflict outweighs heterogametic incompatibility in the mouse hybrid zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufková Petra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mus musculus musculus/M. m. domesticus contact zone in Europe is characterised by sharp frequency discontinuities for sex chromosome markers at the centre of wider clines in allozyme frequencies. Results We identify a triangular area (approximately 330 km2 where the musculus Y chromosome introgresses across this front for up to 22 km into domesticus territory. Introgression of the Y chromosome is accompanied by a perturbation of the census sex ratio: the sex ratio is significantly female biased in musculus localities and domesticus localities lacking Y chromosome introgression. In contrast, where the musculus Y is detected in domesticus localities, the sex ratio is close to parity, and significantly different from both classes of female biased localities. The geographic position of an abrupt cline in an X chromosome marker, and autosomal clines centred on the same position, seem unaffected by the musculus Y introgression. Conclusion We conclude that sex ratio distortion is playing a role in the geographic separation of speciation genes in this section of the mouse hybrid zone. We suggest that clines for genes involved in sex-ratio distortion have escaped from the centre of the mouse hybrid zone, causing a decay in the barrier to gene flow between the two house mouse taxa.

  12. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  13. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  14. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  15. Investigation of (n,γ) reaction in hybrid reactor zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the fluids were composed with increased mole fractions of a mixture of molten salt: heavy metals 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. In this study, the effect on conversion of each isotope ({sup 238-242}Pu) in spent fuel grade plutonium by (n,γ) reactions was investigated in liquid first wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. Beryllium (Be) is the neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. The Be zone used was 3 cm thick. 9Cr2WVT, a ferritic steel, is used as structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent versions of the MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0.

  16. Investigation of (n,γ) reaction in hybrid reactor zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenay, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the fluids were composed with increased mole fractions of a mixture of molten salt: heavy metals 99-95 % Li 20 Sn 80 - 1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li 20 Sn 80 - 1-5 % SFG-PuF 4 , 99-95 % Li 20 Sn 80 - 1-5 % SFG-PuO 2 . In this study, the effect on conversion of each isotope ( 238-242 Pu) in spent fuel grade plutonium by (n,γ) reactions was investigated in liquid first wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. Beryllium (Be) is the neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. The Be zone used was 3 cm thick. 9Cr2WVT, a ferritic steel, is used as structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent versions of the MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0.

  17. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  18. Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming with Stochastic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Jonathan; Parker, Jeffrey; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Differential dynamic programming (DDP) has been demonstrated as a viable approach to low-thrust trajectory optimization, namely with the recent success of NASAs Dawn mission. The Dawn trajectory was designed with the DDP-based Static Dynamic Optimal Control algorithm used in the Mystic software. Another recently developed method, Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming (HDDP) is a variant of the standard DDP formulation that leverages both first-order and second-order state transition matrices in addition to nonlinear programming (NLP) techniques. Areas of improvement over standard DDP include constraint handling, convergence properties, continuous dynamics, and multi-phase capability. DDP is a gradient based method and will converge to a solution nearby an initial guess. In this study, monotonic basin hopping (MBH) is employed as a stochastic search method to overcome this limitation, by augmenting the HDDP algorithm for a wider search of the solution space.

  19. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  20. Structure of herbivore communities in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecklen, William J; Spellenberg, Richard

    1990-11-01

    We examined patterns of density and species diversity for leaf-mining Lepidopterans and gall-forming Hymenopterans in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones: Quercus depressipes x Q. rugosa and Q. emoryi x Q. coccolobifolia. In both species complexes, hybrid hosts typically supported significantly lower densities and species diversity of parasites than did parental types. This contradicts the findings of Whitham (1989) that suggested that hybrid hosts may act as parasite sinks both in ecological and evolutionary time. We discuss features of hybrid zones that are likely to influence patterns of herbivory.

  1. Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russias New Generation Warfare and Implications for the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Threats 21 Laws and Cultural Norms as a Weapons System : When operating in the gray zone, aggressors try to use... Operational Phases 26 Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats 4 Abstract The gray zone is an operating environment in...Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats 6 Criminal Organizations and Networks,

  2. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stolzenberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone.A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002 and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie. Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage.Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  3. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-06-18

    Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  4. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples - many more than have been previously identified - only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along...

  5. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...

  6. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  7. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  8. Filtering in Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Rasmus Orum; Wheeler, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    We implement a 2-time slice dynamic Bayesian network (2T-DBN) framework and make a 1-D state estimation simulation, an extension of the experiment in (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000) and compare different filtering techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally that inference in a complex hybrid DBN is possible by simulating fault detection in a watertank system, an extension of the experiment in (Koller & Lerner, 2000) using a hybrid 2T-DBN. In both experiments, we perform approximate inference using standard filtering techniques, Monte Carlo methods and combinations of these. In the watertank simulation, we also demonstrate the use of 'non-strict' Rao-Blackwellisation. We show that the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and UKF in a particle filtering framework outperform the generic particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and EKF in a particle filtering framework with respect to accuracy in terms of estimation RMSE and sensitivity with respect to choice of network structure. Especially we demonstrate the superiority of UKF in a PF framework when our beliefs of how data was generated are wrong. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of data noise in the watertank simulation using UKF and PFUKD and show that the algorithms are more sensitive to changes in the measurement noise level that the process noise level. Theory and implementation is based on (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000).

  9. Dynamics of the solar transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Time-resolved profiles of the 1548-A C IV line arising from the solar transition region are analyzed in order to determine whether the 300-sec oscillations characteristic of the photosphere and chromosphere penetrate into the transition zone and to measure the rms amplitude of transition-zone disturbances as well as their dependence on solar activity. The rms velocity amplitude is used to set limits on the mechanical energy flux available for solar heating. A power-spectrum analysis indicates that acoustic waves appear to have been detected in the transition zone, that at least one case of a strong 200- to 300-sec oscillation was observed, but that strong periodicities are not found on the average in either the intensity or the velocity field. It is suggested that the rms velocity that may be attributed to directly observable wave motion is between 3 and 7 km/s, depending on whether the individual emission elements seen in rocket spectra are coherent or independent in phase.

  10. HTTR plant dynamic simulation using a hybrid computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Junya; Suzuki, Katsuo; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Koichi; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Nakagawa, Shigeaki.

    1990-01-01

    A plant dynamic simulation of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor has been made using a new-type hybrid computer. This report describes a dynamic simulation model of HTTR, a hybrid simulation method for SIMSTAR and some results obtained from dynamics analysis of HTTR simulation. It concludes that the hybrid plant simulation is useful for on-line simulation on account of its capability of computation at high speed, compared with that of all digital computer simulation. With sufficient accuracy, 40 times faster computation than real time was reached only by changing an analog time scale for HTTR simulation. (author)

  11. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  12. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M LeBoldus

    Full Text Available Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis and (or to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis. We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined] zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal

  13. Tangled trios? Characterizing a hybrid zone in Castilleja (Orobanchaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika l. Hersch-Green; Richard. Cronn

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization are exceedingly important processes because both influence the ecological envelope and evolutionary trajectory of land plants. These processes are frequently invoked for Castilleja (Indian paintbrushes) as contributors to morphological and genetic novelty and as complicating factors in species delimitations. Here...

  14. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Benmansour, K.; Boucherit, M. S.; Tadjine, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  17. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  18. Simulation Based Exploration of Critical Zone Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of high-resolution measurements of topographic and (vertical) vegetation features using areal LiDAR are enabling us to resolve micro-scale ( 1m) landscape structural characteristics over large areas. Availability of hyperspectral measurements is further augmenting these LiDAR data by enabling the biogeochemical characterization of vegetation and soils at unprecedented spatial resolutions ( 1-10m). Such data have opened up novel opportunities for modeling Critical Zone processes and exploring questions that were not possible before. We show how an integrated 3-D model at 1m grid resolution can enable us to resolve micro-topographic and ecological dynamics and their control on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes over large areas. We address the computational challenge of such detailed modeling by exploiting hybrid CPU and GPU computing technologies. We show results of moisture, biogeochemical, and vegetation dynamics from studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) in the Midwestern United States.

  19. Dynamics of the solar transition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, E.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of time-resolved C IV line profiles arising from the solar transition zone. Objectives were twofold: to determine whether the 300 s photospheric oscillations penetrate to the transition zone, and to measure the rms velocity disturbance amplitude and its dependence upon solar activity. The data set consisted of 44 times sequences of 50 min average duration and included samples from study experiments of both active and quiet regions of the disk. Power-spectrum analysis of the time series of intensity and line position measurements showed at least one example of a well-developed 300 s oscillation. There was no evidence, however, for 300 s peaks in the average power spectra either in the quiet network or in active regions.The rms velocities were found to be about 2.3 km s - 1 in active regions and 5.7 km s -1 in quiet regions. The suggested average value, allowing for the substantial statistical noise contribution to the quiet Sun data, is about 3 km s -1 . The inferred energy flux, assuming energy transport by acoustic waves, is at most 1.6 x 10 4 ergs cm -2 s -1 for spatial scales greater than 15,000 km and periods in the range 100--1800 s. The acoustic-wave hypothesis apparently fails by at least one order of magnitude to provide the 2--6 x 10 5 ergs cm -2 s -1 thought to be required to replace coronal energy losses. The data are, however, consistent with heating mechanisms based on energy transport by magnetohydrodynamic waves

  20. Differential pollinator effectiveness and importance in a milkweed (Asclepias, Apocynaceae) hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Edge, Andrea; Steel, Anna; O'Quinn, Robin L; Fishbein, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Exceptions to the ideal of complete reproductive isolation between species are commonly encountered in diverse plant, animal, and fungal groups, but often the causative ecological processes are poorly understood. In flowering plants, the outcome of hybridization depends in part on the effectiveness of pollinators in interspecific pollen transport. In the Asclepias exaltata and A. syriaca (Apocynaceae) hybrid zone in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, extensive introgression has been documented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the extent of pollinator overlap among A. exaltata, A. syriaca, and their hybrids and (2) identify the insect taxa responsible for hybridization and introgression. We observed focal plants of parental species and hybrids to measure visitation rate, visit duration, and per-visit pollinia removal and deposition, and we calculated pollinator effectiveness and importance. Visitation rates varied significantly between the 2 yr of the study. Overall, Apis mellifera, Bombus sp., and Epargyreus clarus were the most important pollinators. However, Bombus sp. was the only visitor that was observed to both remove and insert pollinia for both parent species as well as hybrids. We conclude that Bombus may be a key agent of hybridization and introgression in these sympatric milkweed populations, and hybrids are neither preferred nor selected against by pollinators. Thus, we have identified a potential mechanism for how hybrids act as bridges to gene flow between A. exaltata and A. syriaca. These results provide insights into the breakdown of prezygotic isolating mechanisms.

  1. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and migration in a fence lizard hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Leaché

    Full Text Available A hybrid zone between two species of lizards in the genus Sceloporus (S. cowlesi and S. tristichus on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona provides a unique opportunity to study the processes of lineage divergence and merging. This hybrid zone involves complex interactions between 2 morphologically and ecologically divergent subspecies, 3 chromosomal groups, and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA clades. The spatial patterns of divergence between morphology, chromosomes and mtDNA are discordant, and determining which of these character types (if any reflects the underlying population-level lineages that are of interest has remained impeded by character conflict. The focus of this study is to estimate the number of populations interacting in the hybrid zone using multi-locus nuclear data, and to then estimate the migration rates and divergence time between the inferred populations. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and gene flow were obtained from 12 anonymous nuclear loci sequenced for 93 specimens of Sceloporus. Population structure estimates support two populations, and this result is robust to changes to the prior probability distribution used in the Bayesian analysis and the use of spatially-explicit or non-spatial models. A coalescent analysis of population divergence suggests that gene flow is high between the two populations, and that the timing of divergence is restricted to the Pleistocene. The hybrid zone is more accurately described as involving two populations belonging to S. tristichus, and the presence of S. cowlesi mtDNA haplotypes in the hybrid zone is an anomaly resulting from mitochondrial introgression.

  2. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  4. Dynamical baryogenesis through complex hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, D; MartInez, C; Urena-Lopez, L A

    2008-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry [1

  5. Dynamical baryogenesis through complex hybrid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepine, D; MartInez, C; Urena-Lopez, L A [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)], E-mail: delepine@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: crmtz@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: lurena@fisica.ugto.mx

    2008-06-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry [1].

  6. Characterisation of the joining zone of serially arranged hybrid semi-finished components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Chugreev, A.; Matthias, T.

    2018-05-01

    Forming of already joined semi-finished products is an innovative approach to manufacture components which are well-adapted to external loads. This approach results in an economically and ecologically improved production by the targeted use of high-quality materials in component areas, which undergo high stresses. One possible production method for hybrid semi-finished products is friction welding. This welding method allows for the production of hybrid semi-finished products made of aluminium and steel as well as steel and steel. In this paper, the thermomechanical tensile and shear stresses causing a failure of the joined zone are experimentally determined through tension tests. These tests are performed with specimens whose joint zones are aligned with different angles to the load direction.

  7. Dynamical Baryogenesis in Complex Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vev of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations

  8. Measures of linkage disequilibrium among neighbouring SNPs indicate asymmetries across the house mouse hybrid zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, L.; Luzynski, K.; Pool, J. E.; Janoušek, V.; Dufková, Petra; Vyskočilová, Martina; Teeter, K. C.; Nachman, M. W.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 14 (2011), s. 2985-3000 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB0746560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : house mouse * hybrid zones * linkage disequilibrium * SNP markers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2011

  9. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  10. Root activity and soil feeding zones of some Bajra hybrids (Pennisetum typhoids Stapf.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriniwas

    1980-01-01

    Root activity and soil feeding zones of five bajra hybrids (Hybrid D-356, HB-3, HB-4, HB-1 and Bil-3B) were determined under natural field conditions by placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate enclosed in gelatinous capsules at different soil locations around the plant. Percent root activity varied significantly from one depth to another and it decreased with increase in depths and lateral distances. More than 44 percent of the root activity occurred in a soil feeding zone consisting of 0-15 cm depth having double of this much lateral distance. Percent root activity in HB-3 and HB-4 was almost found identical both horizontally and vertically. Hybrid D-356 and HB-1 approximated more than 38 percent root activity in a soil feeding zone of 0-15 cm in depth and 0-10 cm in lateral distance. 32 P placement in capsules appeared to hold promise over Hall's technique since it overcomes the differences caused by disturbance of the feeding activity of roots at the point of 32 P injection into the soil. (author)

  11. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  12. Predicting Freeway Work Zone Delays and Costs with a Hybrid Machine-Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid machine-learning model, integrating an artificial neural network (ANN and a support vector machine (SVM model, is developed to predict spatiotemporal delays, subject to road geometry, number of lane closures, and work zone duration in different periods of a day and in the days of a week. The model is very user friendly, allowing the least inputs from the users. With that the delays caused by a work zone on any location of a New Jersey freeway can be predicted. To this end, tremendous amounts of data from different sources were collected to establish the relationship between the model inputs and outputs. A comparative analysis was conducted, and results indicate that the proposed model outperforms others in terms of the least root mean square error (RMSE. The proposed hybrid model can be used to calculate contractor penalty in terms of cost overruns as well as incentive reward schedule in case of early work competition. Additionally, it can assist work zone planners in determining the best start and end times of a work zone for developing and evaluating traffic mitigation and management plans.

  13. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Storage and loss modulus values increased after treatments with simultaneous decrease in tan values. Roystonea regia and glass fibres were used together with varying proportions as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to study the hybridization effect on dynamic mechanical properties. Storage and loss modulus values ...

  14. Distortion of symmetrical introgression in a hybrid zone: evidence for locus-specific selection and uni-directional range expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannesen, J.; Johannesen, B.; Baran, I.; Rizvan-Tunc, M.; Kiefer, A.; Veith, M.K.H.

    2006-01-01

    The fate of species integrity upon natural hybridization depends on the interaction between selection and dispersal. The relative significance of these processes may be studied in the initial phase of contact before selection and gene flow reach equilibrium. Here we study a hybrid zone of two

  15. Chromosomal rearrangements and gene flow over time in an inter-specific hybrid zone of the Sorex araneus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannic, G; Basset, P; Hausser, J

    2009-06-01

    Most hybrid zones have existed for hundreds or thousands of years but have generally been observed for only a short time period. Studies extending over periods long enough to track evolutionary changes in the zones or assess the ultimate outcome of hybridization are scarce. Here, we describe the evolution over time of the level of genetic isolation between two karyotypically different species of shrews (Sorex araneus and Sorex antinorii) at a hybrid zone located in the Swiss Alps. We first evaluated hybrid zone movement by contrasting patterns of gene flow and changes in cline parameters (centre and width) using 24 microsatellite loci, between two periods separated by 10 years apart. Additionally, we tested the role of chromosomal rearrangements on gene flow by analysing microsatellite loci located on both rearranged and common chromosomes to both species. We did not detect any movement of the hybrid zone during the period analysed, suggesting that the zone is a typical tension zone. However, the gene flow was significantly lower among the rearranged than the common chromosomes for the second period, whereas the difference was only marginally significant for the first period. This further supports the role of chromosomal rearrangements on gene flow between these taxa.

  16. Hybrid Semantics of Stochastic Programs with Dynamic Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Policriti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We begin by reviewing a technique to approximate the dynamics of stochastic programs --written in a stochastic process algebra-- by a hybrid system, suitable to capture a mixed discrete/continuous evolution. In a nutshell, the discrete dynamics is kept stochastic while the continuous evolution is given in terms of ODEs, and the overall technique, therefore, naturally associates a Piecewise Deterministic Markov Process with a stochastic program. The specific contribution in this work consists in an increase of the flexibility of the translation scheme, obtained by allowing a dynamic reconfiguration of the degree of discreteness/continuity of the semantics. We also discuss the relationships of this approach with other hybrid simulation strategies for biochemical systems.

  17. The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein regulates the abcission zone competence to respond to ethylene signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein (THyPRP) gene was specifically expressed in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) flower abscission zone (FAZ), and its stable antisense silencing under the control of an abscission zone (AZ)-specific promoter, Tomato Abscission Polygalacturonase4,significantly inh...

  18. Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Sasaki, Misao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here

  19. Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: abolhasani@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here.

  20. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  1. 1-D hybrid code for FRM dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    A 1-D radial hybrid code has been written to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. This code, named FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up), models the plasma as azimuthal symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. This method is designed to be more efficient than those employing particle tracking, since the characteristic timescale of the simulation is the ion slowing down time, rather than the much shorter cyclotron period. A time-differentiated Grad-Shafranov equation couples the ion current to massless fluid equations describing electrons and low energy ions. Flux coordinates are used in this fluid model, in preference to an Eulerian framework, so that coupling of plasma at the two different radii of a closed flux surface may be treated with ease. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, a separate model for the electron current has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of injection into a 2XIIB-like plasma are discussed. Electron currents are found to retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center

  2. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  3. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  4. Testing parasite "intimacy": the whipworm Trichuris muris in the European house mouse hybrid zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wasimuddin, Wasimuddin; Bryja, Josef; Ribas, A.; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2016), s. 2688-2701 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA MŠk EE2.3.35.0026; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20049S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybrid zones * Mus musculus * parasite life history traits * phylogeography * population structure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  5. Multi-Zone hybrid model for failure detection of the stable ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Soltani, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live stock building is elaborated. The main challenge of this research is to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear hybrid model. A recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is implemented for estimation....... Since the EKF is sensitive to the initial guess, in the following the estimation process is split up into simple parts and approximate parameters are found with a non recursive least squares method in order to provide good initial values. Results based on experiments from a real life stable facility...

  6. Stable Heliconius butterfly hybrid zones are correlated with a local rainfall peak at the edge of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Mallet, James

    2014-12-01

    Multilocus clines between Müllerian mimetic races of Heliconius butterflies provide a classic example of the maintenance of hybrid zones and their importance in speciation. Concordant hybrid zones in the mimics Heliconius erato and H. melpomene in northern Peru were carefully documented in the 1980s, and this prior work now permits a historical analysis of the movement or stasis of the zones. Previous work predicted that these zones might be moving toward the Andes due to selective asymmetry. Extensive deforestation and climate change might also be expected to affect the positions and widths of the hybrid zones. We show that the positions and shapes of these hybrid zones have instead remained remarkably stable between 1985 and 2012. The stability of this interaction strongly implicates continued selection, rather than neutral mixing following secondary contact. The stability of cline widths and strong linkage disequilibria (gametic correlation coefficients Rmax = 0.35-0.56 among unlinked loci) over 25 years suggest that mimetic selection pressures on each color pattern locus have remained approximately constant (s ≈ 0.13-0.40 per locus in both species). Exceptionally high levels of precipitation at the edge of the easternmost Andes may act as a population density trough for butterflies, trapping the hybrid zones at the foot of the mountains, and preventing movement. As such, our results falsify one prediction of the Pleistocene Refugium theory: That the ranges of divergent species or subspecies should be centered on regions characterized by maxima of rainfall, with hybrid zones falling in more arid regions between them. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  8. DYNAMIC HYBRIDS UNDER SOLVENCY II: RISK ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the new and standardized European system of supervisory called Solvency II. In essence, asymmetric distribution of information between policyholder and insurer triggered this new regulation which aims at better protecting policyholders. Its three-pillar model is about to challenge both, insurers as well as policyholders. The first pillar includes quantitative aspects, the second pillar contains qualitative aspects and the third pillar comprises market transparency and reporting obligations. Underwriting risks, the default risk of a bank and market risks can be identified for the dynamic hybrid. Solvency II covers all these risks in the first pillar and insurers shall deposit sufficient risk-bearing capital. In our analysis, we first identify the dynamic hybrid specific risks under the Solvency II regime und then develop product modifications to reduce this risk.

  9. .i.Daphnia./i. hybridization along ecological gradients in pelagic environments: the potential for the presence of hybrid zones in plankton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrusek, A.; Seďa, Jaromír; Macháček, Jiří; Ruthová, Š.; Šmilauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 363, č. 1505 (2008), s. 2931-2941 ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : interspecific hybridization * Daphnia longispina complex * hybrid zones * canyon-shaped reservoirs * ITS-RFLP * allozyme electrophoresis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.556, year: 2008

  10. Scalable and balanced dynamic hybrid data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranne, Tuomo; Amour, Idrissa; Gunia, Martin; Kallio, Kari; Lepistö, Ahti; Koponen, Sampsa

    2017-04-01

    Scalability of complex weather forecasting suites is dependent on the technical tools available for implementing highly parallel computational kernels, but to an equally large extent also on the dependence patterns between various components of the suite, such as observation processing, data assimilation and the forecast model. Scalability is a particular challenge for 4D variational assimilation methods that necessarily couple the forecast model into the assimilation process and subject this combination to an inherently serial quasi-Newton minimization process. Ensemble based assimilation methods are naturally more parallel, but large models force ensemble sizes to be small and that results in poor assimilation accuracy, somewhat akin to shooting with a shotgun in a million-dimensional space. The Variational Ensemble Kalman Filter (VEnKF) is an ensemble method that can attain the accuracy of 4D variational data assimilation with a small ensemble size. It achieves this by processing a Gaussian approximation of the current error covariance distribution, instead of a set of ensemble members, analogously to the Extended Kalman Filter EKF. Ensemble members are re-sampled every time a new set of observations is processed from a new approximation of that Gaussian distribution which makes VEnKF a dynamic assimilation method. After this a smoothing step is applied that turns VEnKF into a dynamic Variational Ensemble Kalman Smoother VEnKS. In this smoothing step, the same process is iterated with frequent re-sampling of the ensemble but now using past iterations as surrogate observations until the end result is a smooth and balanced model trajectory. In principle, VEnKF could suffer from similar scalability issues as 4D-Var. However, this can be avoided by isolating the forecast model completely from the minimization process by implementing the latter as a wrapper code whose only link to the model is calling for many parallel and totally independent model runs, all of them

  11. Hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrizal, N.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal dynamic model is presented. ► The model, once calibrated, can predict the power output for any set of climate data. ► The physical electrical model includes explicitly thermal and irradiance dependences. ► The results agree with those obtained through steady-state characterization. ► The model approaches the junction cell temperature through the system energy balance. -- Abstract: A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal transient model has been developed and validated experimentally. The methodology extends the quasi-dynamic thermal model stated in the EN 12975 in order to involve the electrical performance and consider the dynamic behavior minimizing constraints when characterizing the collector. A backward moving average filtering procedure has been applied to improve the model response for variable working conditions. Concerning the electrical part, the model includes the thermal and radiation dependences in its variables. The results revealed that the characteristic parameters included in the model agree reasonably well with the experimental values obtained from the standard steady-state and IV characteristic curve measurements. After a calibration process, the model is a suitable tool to predict the thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid solar collector, for a specific weather data set.

  12. Hybridization between mouse lemurs in an ecological transition zone in southern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, M; Ganzhorn, J U; Rakotondravony, D; Ramilijaona, O R; Razafimahatratra, E; Zischler, H; Hapke, A

    2009-02-01

    Hybrid zones in ecotones can be useful model systems for the study of evolutionary processes that shape the distribution and discreteness of species. Such studies could be important for an improved understanding of the complex biogeography of Madagascar, which is renowned for its outstanding degree of small-scale endemism. Certain forest remnants in central Madagascar indicate that transitional corridors across the island could have connected microendemics in different forest types in the past. Evolutionary processes in such corridors are difficult to study because most of these corridors have disappeared due to deforestation in central Madagascar. We studied a hybrid zone in one of the few remaining ecotonal corridors between dry and humid forests in Madagascar, which connects two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus in dry spiny forest and Microcebus murinus in humid littoral forest. We sampled 162 mouse lemurs at nine sites across this boundary. Morphometric analyses revealed intermediate morphotypes of many individuals in transitional habitat. Bayesian clustering of microsatellite genotypes and assignment tests yielded evidence for a mixed ancestry of mouse lemurs in the ecotone, where we also observed significant linkage disequilibria and heterozygote deficiency. In contrast to these observations, mitochondrial haplotypes displayed a sharply delimited boundary at the eastern edge of spiny forest, which was noncoincident with the signals from microsatellite data. Among several alternative scenarios, we propose asymmetric nuclear introgression due to male-biased dispersal, divergent environmental selection, and an expansion of dry spiny forest in the course of aridification as a probable explanation of our observations.

  13. Investigation of Innervation Zone Shift with Continuous Dynamic Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Nishihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innervation zone (IZ has been identified as the origin of action potential propagation in isometric contraction. However, IZ shifts with changes in muscle length during muscle activity. The IZ shift has been estimated using raw EMG signals. This study aimed to investigate the movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction, using a computer program. Subjects flexed their elbow joint as repetitive dynamic muscle contractions. EMG signals were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle using an eight-channel surface electrode array. Approximately 100 peaks from EMG signals were detected for each channel and summed to estimate the IZ location. For each subject, the estimated IZ locations were subtracted from the IZ location during isometric contractions with the elbow flexed at 90°. The results showed that the IZ moved significantly with elbow joint movement from 45° to 135°. However, IZ movement was biased with only a 3.9 mm IZ shift on average when the elbow angle was acute but a 16 mm IZ shift on average when it was obtuse. The movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction can be investigated using this signal processing procedure without subjective judgment.

  14. Species distribution models contribute to determine the effect of climate and interspecific interactions in moving hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, J O; Rödder, D; Elle, O; Hochkirch, A; Secondi, J

    2013-11-01

    Climate is a major factor delimiting species' distributions. However, biotic interactions may also be prominent in shaping geographical ranges, especially for parapatric species forming hybrid zones. Determining the relative effect of each factor and their interaction of the contact zone location has been difficult due to the lack of broad scale environmental data. Recent developments in species distribution modelling (SDM) now allow disentangling the relative contributions of climate and species' interactions in hybrid zones and their responses to future climate change. We investigated the moving hybrid zone between the breeding ranges of two parapatric passerines in Europe. We conducted SDMs representing the climatic conditions during the breeding season. Our results show a large mismatch between the realized and potential distributions of the two species, suggesting that interspecific interactions, not climate, account for the present location of the contact zone. The SDM scenarios show that the southerly distributed species, Hippolais polyglotta, might lose large parts of its southern distribution under climate change, but a similar gain of novel habitat along the hybrid zone seems unlikely, because interactions with the other species (H. icterina) constrain its range expansion. Thus, whenever biotic interactions limit range expansion, species may become 'trapped' if range loss due to climate change is faster than the movement of the contact zone. An increasing number of moving hybrid zones are being reported, but the proximate causes of movement often remain unclear. In a global context of climate change, we call for more interest in their interactions with climate change. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Tomography and Dynamics of Western-Pacific Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    We review the significant recent results of multiscale seismic tomography of the Western-Pacific subduction zones and discuss their implications for seismotectonics, magmatism, and subduction dynamics, with an emphasis on the Japan Islands. Many important new findings are obtained due to technical advances in tomography, such as the handling of complex-shaped velocity discontinuities, the use of various later phases, the joint inversion of local and teleseismic data, tomographic imaging outside a seismic network, and P-wave anisotropy tomography. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) and high-attenuation (low-Q) zones are revealed in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath active arc and back-arc volcanoes and they extend to the deeper portion of the mantle wedge, indicating that the low-V/low-Q zones form the sources of arc magmatism and volcanism, and the arc magmatic system is related to deep processes such as convective circulation in the mantle wedge and dehydration reactions in the subducting slab. Seismic anisotropy seems to exist in all portions of the Northeast Japan subduction zone, including the upper and lower crust, the mantle wedge and the subducting Pacific slab. Multilayer anisotropies with different orientations may have caused the apparently weak shear-wave splitting observed so far, whereas recent results show a greater effect of crustal anisotropy than previously thought. Deep subduction of the Philippine Sea slab and deep dehydration of the Pacific slab are revealed beneath Southwest Japan. Significant structural heterogeneities are imaged in the source areas of large earthquakes in the crust, subducting slab and interplate megathrust zone, which may reflect fluids and/or magma originating from slab dehydration that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. These results suggest that large earthquakes do not strike anywhere, but in only anomalous areas that may be detected with geophysical methods. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under

  16. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  17. Clinal differentiation and putative hybridization in a contact zone of Pinus ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, B K; Telewski, F W; Plovanich-Jones, A E; Grimes, J E

    2001-06-01

    The widely distributed Pinus subsection Ponderosae is a species complex that has a transition zone among taxa in the southwestern United States. In southern Arizona and New Mexico at least two recognized taxa, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and Pinus arizonica or P. ponderosa var. arizonica, are known to coexist in close proximity. In this study, we report the existence of populations where the taxa are sympatric. One of the key characteristics distinguishing taxa is the number of needles per fascicle; P. ponderosa typically has three, P. arizonica has five. We examined the spatial distribution of needle-number types in a belt transect that covers a transition zone from nearly pure three-needle types at the top of Mount Lemmon to five-needle types downslope, in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. The spatial distribution is inconsistent with there being both free interbreeding among types and selective neutrality of types. Trees with intermediate types, having combinations of three, four, and five needles and/or mean numbers of needles between 3.0 and 5.0, are spatially concentrated in the middle of the transition zone. The spatial distribution supports the occurrence of hybridization and introgression, and this is consistent with reported crossabilities of the types. The results suggest that selection is acting, either on needle number per se or on other traits of the ecotype with which it may be in linkage disequilibrium, to maintain the observed steep clinal differentiation.

  18. Vadose Zone Nitrate Transport Dynamics Resulting from Agricultural Groundwater Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N. P.; McLaughlin, S.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, California's increased reliance on groundwater resources to meet agricultural and municipal demands has resulted in significant overdraft and water quality issues. Agricultural groundwater banking (AGB) has emerged as a promising groundwater replenishment opportunity in California; AGB is a form of managed aquifer recharge where farmland is flooded during the winter using excess surface water in order to recharge the underlying groundwater. Suitable farmland that is connected to water delivery systems is available for AGB throughout the Central Valley. However, questions remain how AGB could be implemented on fertilized agricultural fields such that nitrate leaching from the root zone is minimized. Here, we present results from field and soil column studies that investigate the transport dynamics of nitrogen in the root and deeper vadose zone during flooding events. We are specifically interested in estimating how timing and duration of flooding events affect percolation rates, leaching and nitrification/denitrification processes in three soil types within the Central Valley. Laboratory and field measurements include nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, N2O), redox potentials, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, moisture content and EC. Soil cores are collected in the field before and after recharge events up to a depth of 4m, while other sensors monitor field conditions continuously. Preliminary results from the three field sites show that significant portions of the applied floodwater (12-62 cm) infiltrated below the root zone: 96.1% (Delhi), 88.6% (Modesto) and 76.8% (Orland). Analysis of the soil cores indicate that 70% of the residual nitrate was flushed from the sandy soil, while the fine sandy loam showed only a 5% loss and in some cores even an increase in soil nitrate (in the upper 20cm). Column experiments support these trends and indicate that increases in soil nitrate in the upper root zone might be due to organic nitrogen mineralization and

  19. Study of male–mediated gene flow across a hybrid zone in the common shrew (Sorex araneus using Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Polyakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I. Microsatellite markers have not revealed any barrier to gene flow, but the phenotypic differentiation between races is greater than may be expected if gene flow was unrestricted. To explore this contradiction we analyzed the distribution of the Y chromosome SNP markers within this hybrid zone. The Y chromosome variants in combination with race specific autosome complements allow backcrosses to be distinguished and their proportion among individuals within the hybrid zone to be evaluated. The balanced ratio of the Y variants observed among the pure race individuals as well as backcrosses reveals no male mediated barrier to gene flow. The impact of reproductive unfitness of backcrosses on gene flow is discussed as a possible mechanism of the preservation of race-specific morphology within the hybrid zone.

  20. Dynamic performance analysis of two regional Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; Vilim, Richard B.; Binder, William R.; Bragg Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.; McKellar, Michael G.; Paredis, Christiaan J.J.

    2016-01-01

    In support of more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, HES (hybrid energy systems) can be designed and operated as FER (flexible energy resources) to meet both electrical and thermal energy needs in the electric grid and industrial sectors. These conceptual systems could effectively and economically be utilized, for example, to manage the increasing levels of dynamic variability and uncertainty introduced by VER (variable energy resources) such as renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar), distributed energy resources, demand response schemes, and modern energy demands (e.g., electric vehicles) with their ever changing usage patterns. HES typically integrate multiple energy inputs (e.g., nuclear and renewable generation) and multiple energy outputs (e.g., electricity, gasoline, fresh water) using complementary energy conversion processes. This paper reports a dynamic analysis of two realistic HES including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by their application in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high renewable penetration. It is performed for regional cases – not generic examples – based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses. - Highlights: • Hybrids including renewables can operate as dispatchable flexible energy resources. • Nuclear energy can address high variability and uncertainty in energy systems. • Nuclear hybrids can reliably provide grid services over various time horizons. • Nuclear energy can provide operating reserves and grid inertia under high renewables. • Nuclear hybrids can greatly reduce GHG emissions and support grid and industry needs.

  1. Hybridization in the Ensatina Ring Species, Strong selection against hybrids at a hybrid zone in the ensatina ring species complex and its evolutionary implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrino, Joao; Baird, Stuart J.E.; Lawson, Lucinda; Macey, J. Robert; Moritz, Craig; Wake, David B.

    2005-04-22

    The analysis of interactions between lineages at varying levels of genetic divergence can provide insights into the process of speciation through the accumulation of incompatible mutations. Ring species, and especially the Ensatina eschscholtzii system exemplify this approach. The plethodontid salamanders Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica and Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis hybridize in the Central Sierran foothills of California. We compared the genetic structure across two transects (southern and northern Calaveras Co.), one of which was re-sampled over 20 years, and examined diagnostic molecular markers (eight allozyme loci and mitochondrial DNA) and a diagnostic quantitative trait (color pattern). Key results across all studies were: (i) cline centers for all markers were coincident and the zones were narrow, with width estimates of 730m to 2000m; (ii) cline centers at the northern Calaveras transect were coincident between 1981 and 2001, demonstrating repeatability over 5 generations; (iii) there are very few if any putative F1's, but a relatively high number of backcrossed individuals (57-86 percent) in the central portion of transects; (iv) we found substantial linkage disequilibrium in all three studies and strong heterozygote deficit both in northern Calaveras, in 2001, and southern Calaveras. Both linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote deficit show maximum values near the center of the zones (R and Fis, approx. equal to 0.5). Using estimates of cline width and dispersal, we infer strong selection against hybrids (s* approx. equal to 46-75 percent). This is sufficient to promote accumulation of differences at loci that are neutral or under divergent selection, but would still allow for introgression of adaptive alleles. The evidence for strong, but incomplete isolation across this centrally located contact is consistent with theory suggesting a gradual increase in postzygotic incompatibility between allopatric populations subject to divergent

  2. Analysis of stability and adaptability of QPM hybrids of maize growing in different Colombian agroecological zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ever Andrés vargas Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is maize´s biggest contribution for humans and animals. Scientist have been trying to increase its protein level since 1896, it wasn´t until the 60´s when the opaque gene O2 was discovered. In its recessive state, the gene causes the quality of the maize protein to increase, due to the growth of the Globulin protein and the reduction of Zein protein. Known as Quality Protein Maize (QPM, they can double the essential amino acids Lysine and Tryptophan´s percentages when compared with normal maize endosperm. In a commercial scenario, there is a need for high yielding genotypes adapted to different environments; it is also desirable to have a better protein quality. In the present study, 9 yellow endosperm QPM hybrids, developed by FENALCE from CIMMYT´s germoplasm and a normal commercial endosperm check were tested in 6 agro ecological zones: Wet Caribbean, Dry Caribbean, Orinoco, Valley of the Cauca River, Valley of the Magdalena River and the Coffee Growing Zone. A randomized complete block design was used in 17 environments and four repetitions. Variables concerning the plant and yield components were measured, but for this study the grain yield was the only taken. Additionally samples were taken to assess the content of Tryptophan. The stability and adaptability analysis was made using the Eberhart and Russell, Lin and Binns and AMMI models. The QPM hybrid that stood out for all the environments was QPM 303 and QPM 305 for unfavorable environments. Both retain their biochemical characteristics of protein quality and are stable in the evaluated environments according to the statistical models that were used.

  3. Testing parasite 'intimacy': the whipworm Trichuris muris in the European house mouse hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasimuddin; Bryja, Josef; Ribas, Alexis; Baird, Stuart J E; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2016-05-01

    Host-parasite interaction studies across hybrid zones often focus on host genetic variation, treating parasites as homogeneous. 'Intimately' associated hosts and parasites might be expected to show similar patterns of genetic structure. In the literature, factors such as no intermediate host and no free-living stage have been proposed as 'intimacy' factors likely constraining parasites to closely follow the evolutionary history of their hosts. To test whether the whipworm, Trichuris muris, is intimately associated with its house mouse host, we studied its population genetics across the European house mouse hybrid zone (HMHZ) which has a strong central barrier to gene flow between mouse taxa. T. muris has a direct life cycle and nonmobile free stage: if these traits constrain the parasite to an intimate association with its host we expect a geographic break in the parasite genetic structure across the HMHZ. We genotyped 205 worms from 56 localities across the HMHZ and additionally T. muris collected from sympatric woodmice (Apodemus spp.) and allopatric murine species, using mt-COX1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA and 10 microsatellites. We show four haplogroups of mt-COX1 and three clear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 clades in the HMHZ suggesting a complex demographic/phylogeographic history. Microsatellites show strong structure between groups of localities. However, no marker type shows a break across the HMHZ. Whipworms from Apodemus in the HMHZ cluster, and share mitochondrial haplotypes, with those from house mice. We conclude Trichuris should not be regarded as an 'intimate' parasite of the house mouse: while its life history might suggest intimacy, passage through alternate hosts is sufficiently common to erase signal of genetic structure associated with any particular host taxon.

  4. Exciton Dynamics of 2D Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhu, Zhuan; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Xiao, Kai; Bao, Jiming; Yao, Yan; Li, Wenzhi

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as promising materials for applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among the perovskites, two dimensional (2D) perovskites are of great interests due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties as well as the flexibility of material selection for the organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we demonstrate the solution-phase growth of large square-shaped single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 with a few unit cells thickness. Compared to the bulk crystal, a band gap shift and new photoluminescence (PL) peak are observed from the hybrid perovskite sheets. Color of the 2D crystals can be tuned by adjusting the sheet thickness. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate the exciton dynamics and exhibits a biexponential decay with an amplitude-weighted lifetime of 16.7 ps. Such high-quality (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 sheets are expected to have high PL quantum efficiency which can be adopted for light-emitting devices. National Science Foundation (Grant No. CMMI-1334417 and DMR-1506640).

  5. Importance of ecotone type to landscape dynamics at biome transition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscapes in biome transition zones consist of a mosaic of patches dominated or codominated by species from adjacent biomes. Shifts in the vegetation composition and dynamics of a biome transition zone depend upon the underlying patch dynamics of the ecotones between these dominant species. Landsc...

  6. Shear-transformation-zone theory of linear glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2011-06-01

    We present a linearized shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of glassy dynamics in which the internal STZ transition rates are characterized by a broad distribution of activation barriers. For slowly aging or fully aged systems, the main features of the barrier-height distribution are determined by the effective temperature and other near-equilibrium properties of the configurational degrees of freedom. Our theory accounts for the wide range of relaxation rates observed in both metallic glasses and soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions. We find that the frequency-dependent loss modulus is not just a superposition of Maxwell modes. Rather, it exhibits an α peak that rises near the viscous relaxation rate and, for nearly jammed, glassy systems, extends to much higher frequencies in accord with experimental observations. We also use this theory to compute strain recovery following a period of large, persistent deformation and then abrupt unloading. We find that strain recovery is determined in part by the initial barrier-height distribution, but that true structural aging also occurs during this process and determines the system's response to subsequent perturbations. In particular, we find by comparison with experimental data that the initial deformation produces a highly disordered state with a large population of low activation barriers, and that this state relaxes quickly toward one in which the distribution is dominated by the high barriers predicted by the near-equilibrium analysis. The nonequilibrium dynamics of the barrier-height distribution is the most important of the issues raised and left unresolved in this paper.

  7. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP owners’ satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners’ satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network.

  8. Dynamic force profile in hydraulic hybrid vehicles: a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh-Motlagh, Amin; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2010-04-01

    A hybrid hydraulic vehicle (HHV) combines a hydraulic sub-system with the conventional drivetrain in order to improve fuel economy for heavy vehicles. The added hydraulic module manages the storage and release of fluid power necessary to assist the motion of the vehicle. The power collected by a pump/motor (P/M) from the regenerative braking phase is stored in a high-pressure accumulator and then released by the P/M to the driveshaft during the acceleration phase. This technology is effective in significantly improving fuel-economy for heavy-class vehicles with frequent stop-and-go drive schedules. Despite improved fuel economy and higher vehicle acceleration, noise and vibrations are one of the main problems of these vehicles. The dual function P/Ms are the main source of noise and vibration in a HHV. This study investigates the dynamics of a P/M and particularly the profile and frequency-dependence of the dynamic forces generated by a bent-axis P/M unit. To this end, the fluid dynamics side of the problem has been simplified for investigating the system from a dynamics perspective. A mathematical model of a bent axis P/M has been developed to investigate the cause of vibration and noise in HHVs. The forces are calculated in time and frequency domains. The results of this work can be used to study the vibration response of the chassis and to design effective vibration isolation systems for HHVs.

  9. Genotype, soil type, and locale effects on reciprocal transplant vigor, endophyte growth, and microbial functional diversity of a narrow sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglia, K.J.; McArthur, E.D.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Zak, J.C.; Freeman, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    When addressing the nature of ecological adaptation and environmental factors limiting population ranges and contributing to speciation, it is important to consider not only the plant's genotype and its response to the environment, but also any close interactions that it has with other organisms, specifically, symbiotic microorganisms. To investigate this, soils and seedlings were reciprocally transplanted into common gardens of the big sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah, to determine location and edaphic effects on the fitness of parental and hybrid plants. Endophytic symbionts and functional microbial diversity of indigenous and transplanted soils and sagebrush plants were also examined. Strong selection occurred against the parental genotypes in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil; F1 hybrids had the highest fitness under these conditions. Neither of the parental genotypes had superior fitness in their indigenous soils and habitats; rather F1 hybrids with the nonindigenous maternal parent were superiorly fit. Significant garden-by-soil type interactions indicate adaptation of both plant and soil microorganisms to their indigenous soils and habitats, most notably in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil. Contrasting performances of F1 hybrids suggest asymmetrical gene flow with mountain, rather than basin, big sagebrush acting as the maternal parent. We showed that the microbial community impacted the performance of parental and hybrid plants in different soils, likely limiting the ranges of the different genotypes.

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  11. Dynamic Hybrid Simulation of the Lunar Wake During ARTEMIS Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Glassmeier, K.; Kriegel, H.; Motschmann, U. M.; Mueller, J.

    2010-12-01

    The interaction of the highly dynamic solar wind with the Moon is simulated with the A.I.K.E.F. (Adaptive Ion Kinetic Electron Fluid) code for the ARTEMIS P1 flyby on February 13, 2010. The A.I.K.E.F. hybrid plasma simulation code is the improved version of the Braunschweig code. It is able to automatically increase simulation grid resolution in areas of interest during runtime, which greatly increases resolution as well as performance. As the Moon has no intrinsic magnetic field and no ionosphere, the solar wind particles are absorbed at its surface, resulting in the formation of the lunar wake at the nightside. The solar wind magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon and the wake is slowly filled up with solar wind particles. However, this interaction is strongly influenced by the highly dynamic solar wind during the flyby. This is considered by a dynamic variation of the upstream conditions in the simulation using OMNI solar wind measurement data. By this method, a very good agreement between simulation and observations is achieved. The simulations show that the stationary structure of the lunar wake constitutes a tableau vivant in space representing the well-known Friedrichs diagram for MHD waves.

  12. A hybrid algorithm for parallel molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiardi, Chris M.; Meyer, R.

    2017-10-01

    This article describes algorithms for the hybrid parallelization and SIMD vectorization of molecular dynamics simulations with short-range forces. The parallelization method combines domain decomposition with a thread-based parallelization approach. The goal of the work is to enable efficient simulations of very large (tens of millions of atoms) and inhomogeneous systems on many-core processors with hundreds or thousands of cores and SIMD units with large vector sizes. In order to test the efficiency of the method, simulations of a variety of configurations with up to 74 million atoms have been performed. Results are shown that were obtained on multi-core systems with Sandy Bridge and Haswell processors as well as systems with Xeon Phi many-core processors.

  13. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  14. Hybrid Inflation: Multi-field Dynamics and Cosmological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of hybrid models is usually approximated by the evolution of a scalar field slowly rolling along a nearly flat valley. Inflation ends with a waterfall phase, due to a tachyonic instability. This final phase is usually assumed to be nearly instantaneous. In this thesis, we go beyond these approximations and analyze the exact 2-field dynamics of hybrid models. Several effects are put in evidence: 1) the possible slow-roll violations along the valley induce the non existence of inflation at small field values. Provided super-planckian fields, the scalar spectrum of the original model is red, in agreement with observations. 2) The initial field values are not fine-tuned along the valley but also occupy a considerable part of the field space exterior to it. They form a structure with fractal boundaries. Using bayesian methods, their distribution in the whole parameter space is studied. Natural bounds on the potential parameters are derived. 3) For the original model, inflation is found to continue for more than 60 e-folds along waterfall trajectories in some part of the parameter space. The scalar power spectrum of adiabatic perturbations is modified and is generically red, possibly in agreement with CMB observations. Topological defects are conveniently stretched outside the observable Universe. 4) The analysis of the initial conditions is extended to the case of a closed Universe, in which the initial singularity is replaced by a classical bounce. In the third part of the thesis, we study how the present CMB constraints on the cosmological parameters could be ameliorated with the observation of the 21cm cosmic background, by future giant radio-telescopes. Forecasts are determined for a characteristic Fast Fourier Transform Telescope, by using both Fisher matrix and MCMC methods.

  15. Evolutionary Design of Both Topologies and Parameters of a Hybrid Dynamical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of open-ended plants for hybrid dynamical systems--i.e. both their topologies and parameters. Hybrid bond graphs are used to represent dynamical systems involving both continuous and discrete system dynamics. Genetic programming, with some...... of hybrid dynamical systems that fulfill predefined design specifications. A comprehensive investigation of a case study of DC-DC converter design demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the HBGGP approach. Important characteristics of the approach are also discussed, with some future research...

  16. New hybrid genetic particle swarm optimization algorithm to design multi-zone binary filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Zhao, Hongyang; Ma, Yuan; Tan, Jiubin; Jin, Peng

    2016-05-16

    The binary phase filters have been used to achieve an optical needle with small lateral size. Designing a binary phase filter is still a scientific challenge in such fields. In this paper, a hybrid genetic particle swarm optimization (HGPSO) algorithm is proposed to design the binary phase filter. The HGPSO algorithm includes self-adaptive parameters, recombination and mutation operations that originated from the genetic algorithm. Based on the benchmark test, the HGPSO algorithm has achieved global optimization and fast convergence. In an easy-to-perform optimizing procedure, the iteration number of HGPSO is decreased to about a quarter of the original particle swarm optimization process. A multi-zone binary phase filter is designed by using the HGPSO. The long depth of focus and high resolution are achieved simultaneously, where the depth of focus and focal spot transverse size are 6.05λ and 0.41λ, respectively. Therefore, the proposed HGPSO can be applied to the optimization of filter with multiple parameters.

  17. Brittle-ductile gliding shear zone and its dynamic metallization in uranium deposit No. 3110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study on the macroscopic geological structure, microstructures of plastic deformation rotary strain, structural geochemistry and zoning regularity of a brittle-ductile gliding shear zone in uranium deposit No. 3110 is made. Structural dynamic metallization of uranium caused by the strong shearing stress is discussed. It is pointed out that great attention must be paid to in further exploration

  18. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.; Walton, Jay R.; Gorb, Yuliya

    2009-01-01

    interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation

  19. A hybrid computer simulation of reactor spatial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, H.W.

    1977-08-01

    The partial differential equations describing the one-speed spatial dynamics of thermal neutron reactors were converted to a set of ordinary differential equations, using finite-difference approximations for the spatial derivatives. The variables were then normalized to a steady-state reference condition in a novel manner, to yield an equation set particularly suitable for implementation on a hybrid computer. One Applied Dynamics AD/FIVE analog-computer console is capable of solving, all in parallel, up to 30 simultaneous differential equations. This corresponds roughly to eight reactor nodes, each with two active delayed-neutron groups. To improve accuracy, an increase in the number of nodes is usually required. Using the Hsu-Howe multiplexing technique, an 8-node, one-dimensional module was switched back and forth between the left and right halves of the reactor, to simulate a 16-node model, also in one dimension. These two versions (8 or 16 nodes) of the model were tested on benchmark problems of the loss-of-coolant type, which were also solved using the digital code FORSIM, with two energy groups and 26 nodes. Good agreement was obtained between the two solution techniques. (author)

  20. Number of genes controlling a quantitative trait in a hybrid zone of the aposematic frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Twomey, Evan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The number of genes controlling mimetic traits has been a topic of much research and discussion. In this paper, we examine a mimetic, dendrobatid frog Ranitomeya imitator, which harbours extensive phenotypic variation with multiple mimetic morphs, not unlike the celebrated Heliconius system...... and apply it to the R. imitator system. We show that probably one or two, or at most three genes, control the mimetic phenotype segregating in a R. imitator hybrid zone identified using image analyses....

  1. The ecology of white-handed and pileated gibbons in a zone of overlap and hybridization in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Norberto; José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Kongrit, Chalita; Brockelman, Warren Y

    2017-08-01

    The study of related species in contact zones can elucidate what factors mediate species coexistence and geographical distributions. We investigated niche overlap and group interactions of two gibbon species and their hybrids co-occurring in a zone of overlap and hybridization. The location, composition and behavior of white-handed, pileated, and mixed-species gibbon groups were studied by following them during 31 consecutive months in a relatively large part of the contact zone. Twenty groups of white-handed gibbon were mapped followed by nine groups of pileated gibbons and five mixed-species groups. White-handed, pileated and mixed-species groups had similar sizes and composition, ate a high proportion of fruits, shared a large number of species in their diets, and presented similar habitat preferences. Group home range sizes did not differ between species and overlapped little with neighboring groups irrespective of species, and intraspecific and interspecific encounter rates were similar. Ecological similarities support that competition between the gibbon species exists and takes the form of interspecific territoriality. However, we could not find any clear mechanism of niche partitioning favoring coexistence between species. Our findings suggest that the contact zone is unstable and is maintained by dispersal inward from groups of the parental species. The relatively low numbers of mixed-species groups and hybrids found suggests a high degree of premating reproductive isolation, perhaps mediated by interspecific miscommunication. The existence of hybrids and backcrosses potentially undetectable from phenotypic characters alone raises the possibility of more widespread introgression than has been evident. Hence, while interspecific territoriality should reduce the rate of gene transfer, it would not necessarily present a barrier to introgression into contiguous populations of the opposite species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  3. A Thrust Allocation Method for Efficient Dynamic Positioning of a Semisubmersible Drilling Rig Based on the Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.

  4. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  5. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites of glass and banana fiber (obtained from the pseudo stem of Musa sapientum) in polyester matrix, are subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over a range of temperature and three different frequencies. The effect of temperature...

  6. Dynamics of mobile form of plutonium isotopes in soils within 10-km zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuktomova, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of the mobile forms of plutonium isotopes depending on the time of there presence in environment were studied on samples of five soil varieties within the limits of the 10-km zone of Chernobyl NPP. Seasonal dynamic study of the extracted plutonium isotopes showed the increase (5-10 fold) in the amount of mobile forms of radionuclides in all soil samples. Studying the dynamics of total sum of mobile forms of isotopes in soils showed their decrease in general

  7. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Makran Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, C.; Tavakoli, F.; Sobouti, F.; Copley, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Jackson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, along the southern coasts of Iran and Pakistan, hosts the world's largest exposed accretionary prism. In contrast to the circum-Pacific subduction zones, the Makran has not been extensively studied, with seismic data collected in the offshore region presenting only a time-integrated picture of the deformation. We investigate spatio-temporal variations in the deformation of the accretionary prism and the insights these offer into subduction zone driving forces and megathrust rheology. We combine seismology, geodesy and field observations to study the 2013 Mw 6.1 Minab earthquake, which occurred at the western end of the accretionary prism. We find that the earthquake was a left-lateral rupture on an ENE-WSW plane, approximately perpendicular to the previously mapped faults in the region. The causative fault of the Minab earthquake is one of a series of left-lateral faults in the region which accommodate a velocity field equivalent to right-lateral shear on N-S planes by rotating clockwise about vertical axes. Another recent strike-slip event within the Makran accretionary wedge was the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, which occurred on a fault optimally oriented to accommodate the regional compression by thrusting. The dominance of strike-slip faulting within the onshore prism, on faults perpendicular to the regional compression, suggests that the prism may have reached the maximum elevation which the megathrust can support, with the compressional forces which dominated in the early stages of the collision now balanced by gravitational forces. This observation allows us to estimate the mean shear stress on the megathrust interface and its effective coefficient of friction.

  8. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  9. Optimal management with hybrid dynamics : The shallow lake problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, P.V.; Schumacher, Hans; Engwerda, Jacob; Camlibel, M.K.; Julius, A.A.; Pasumarthy, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze an optimal management problem that arises in ecological economics using hybrid systems modeling. First, we introduce a discounted autonomous infinite horizon hybrid optimal control problem and develop few tools to analyze the necessary conditions for optimality. Next,

  10. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N = 141) and A. nigricans (N = 412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N = 54) and A. japonicus (N = 49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000 to 2.25 million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr ≈ 0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST = 0.6533, P < 0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mt

  11. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rocha, Luiz A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-08-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N=141) and A. nigricans (N=412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N=54) and A. japonicus (N=49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000-2.25million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr≈0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST=0.6533, P<0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mtDNA lineage and

  12. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2016-04-30

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N = 141) and A. nigricans (N = 412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N = 54) and A. japonicus (N = 49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000 to 2.25 million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr ≈ 0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST = 0.6533, P < 0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mt

  13. Seismic Structure of Mantle Transition Zone beneath Northwest Pacific Subduction Zone and its Dynamic Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Guo, G.; WANG, X.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The northwest Pacific subduction region is an ideal location to study the interaction between the subducting slab and upper mantle discontinuities. Various and complex geometry of the Pacific subducting slab can be well traced downward from the Kuril, Japan and Izu-Bonin trench using seismicity and tomography images (Fukao and Obayashi, 2013). Due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the sea, investigation of the deep mantle structure beneath the broad sea regions is very limited. In this study, we applied the well- developed multiple-ScS reverberations method (Wang et al., 2017) to analyze waveforms recorded by the Chinese Regional Seismic Network, the densely distributed temporary seismic array stations installed in east Asia. A map of the topography of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath the broad oceanic regions in northwest Pacific subduction zone is imaged. We also applied the receiver function analysis to waveforms recorded by stations in northeast China and obtain the detailed topography map beneath east Asia continental regions. We then combine the two kinds of topography of upper mantle discontinuities beneath oceanic and continental regions respectively, which are obtained from totally different methods. A careful image matching and spatial correlation is made in the overlapping study regions to calibrate results with different resolution. This is the first time to show systematically a complete view of the topography of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities beneath the east Asia "Big mantle wedge" (Zhao and Ohtani, 2009) covering the broad oceanic and continental regions in the Northwestern Pacific Subduction zone. Topography pattern of the 660 and 410 is obtained and discussed. Especially we discovered a broad depression of the 410-km discontinuity covering more than 1000 km in lateral, which seems abnormal in the cold subducting tectonic environment. Based on plate tectonic reconstruction studies and HTHP mineral experiments, we

  14. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  15. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in the hyporheic zone of an Oregon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Wentz, Dennis A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the hyporheic zone in mercury (Hg) cycling has received limited attention despite the biogeochemically active nature of this zone and, thus, its potential to influence Hg behavior in streams. An assessment of Hg geochemistry in the hyporheic zone of a coarse-grained island in the Coast Fork Willamette River in Oregon, USA, illustrates the spatially dynamic nature of this region of the stream channel for Hg mobilization and attenuation. Hyporheic flow through the island was evident from the water-table geometry and supported by hyporheic-zone chemistry distinct from that of the bounding groundwater system. Redox-indicator species changed abruptly along a transect through the hyporheic zone, indicating a biogeochemically reactive stream/hyporheic-zone continuum. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total Hg, and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations increased in the upgradient portion of the hyporheic zone and decreased in the downgradient region. Total Hg (collected in 2002 and 2003) and MeHg (collected in 2003) were correlated with DOC in hyporheic-zone samples: r2=0.63 (total Hg-DOC, 2002), 0.73 (total Hg-DOC, 2003), and 0.94 (MeHg-DOC, 2003). Weaker Hg/DOC association in late summer 2002 than in early summer 2003 may reflect seasonal differences in DOC reactivity. Observed correlations between DOC and both total Hg and MeHg reflect the importance of DOC for Hg mobilization, transport, and fate in this hyporheic zone. Correlations with DOC provide a framework for conceptualizing and quantifying Hg and MeHg dynamics in this region of the stream channel, and provide a refined conceptual model of the role hyporheic zones may play in aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Plankton dynamics associated with the convergence zone of a shear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationships between water quality variables and plankton abundances. Community analysis was also run on the data in order to determine community dynamics associated with frontal system convergence and downwelling. Key words: ichthyoplankton, phytoplankton, ...

  17. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Multi-zone Models for Livestock Indoor Climate Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    , the livestock, the ventilation system and the building on the dynamic performance of indoor climate. Some significant parameters employed in the climate model as well as the airflow interaction between each conceptual zone are identified with the use of experimental time series data collected during spring......In this paper, a multi-zone modeling concept is proposed based on a simplified energy balance formulation to provide a better prediction of the indoor horizontal temperature variation inside the livestock building. The developed mathematical models reflect the influences from the weather...... and winter at a real scale livestock building in Denmark. The obtained comparative results between the measured data and the simulated output confirm that a very simple multi-zone model can capture the salient dynamical features of the climate dynamics which are needed for control purposes....

  18. Mesoscale modeling of amorphous metals by shear transformation zone dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Eric R.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    A new mesoscale modeling technique for the thermo-mechanical behavior of metallic glasses is proposed. The modeling framework considers the shear transformation zone (STZ) as the fundamental unit of deformation, and coarse-grains an amorphous collection of atoms into an ensemble of STZs on a mesh. By employing finite element analysis and a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm, the modeling technique is capable of simulating glass processing and deformation on time and length scales greater than those usually attainable by atomistic modeling. A thorough explanation of the framework is presented, along with a specific two-dimensional implementation for a model metallic glass. The model is shown to capture the basic behaviors of metallic glasses, including high-temperature homogeneous flow following the expected constitutive law, and low-temperature strain localization into shear bands. Details of the effects of processing and thermal history on the glass structure and properties are also discussed.

  19. Application of a hybrid multiscale approach to simulate hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the river-groundwater interaction zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Yang, Xiaofan; Song, Xuehang; Song, Hyun-Seob; Hou, Zhangshuan; Chen, Xingyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Scheibe, Tim

    2017-03-01

    The groundwater-surface water interaction zone (GSIZ) plays an important role in riverine and watershed ecosystems as the exchange of waters of variable composition and temperature (hydrologic exchange flows) stimulate microbial activity and associated biogeochemical reactions. Variable temporal and spatial scales of hydrologic exchange flows, heterogeneity of the subsurface environment, and complexity of biogeochemical reaction networks in the GSIZ present challenges to incorporation of fundamental process representations and model parameterization across a range of spatial scales (e.g. from pore-scale to field scale). This paper presents a novel hybrid multiscale simulation approach that couples hydrologic-biogeochemical (HBGC) processes between two distinct length scales of interest.

  20. Estimating the right allocation of resources on weekends and public holidays in Green Zone using hybrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nazhatul Sahima Mohd; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Noh, Abu Yazid Md; Noor, Nur Amalina Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Long patient waiting time and congestion is a major problem faced by Green Zone in Emergency Department at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (EDHUSM) especially during weekends and public holidays. Even though the Green Zone is servicing only the non-critical patients, patient waiting time, causing the department fails to achieve its Key Performance Indicator (KPI). The long waiting time is due to the insufficient resources provided during the weekends and public holidays versus the large number of patients. Currently, only two doctors supported by two nurses are scheduled for every shift during weekends and public holidays. The numbers of patients are higher during weekends and public holidays as compared to weekdays, but the scheduled number of doctors and nurses are the same as weekdays. Therefore, this study presents a hybrid method to estimate the right number of doctors and nurses for improving the services of the Green Zone during weekends and public holidays. Fifty scenarios based on current and proposed schedules of doctors and nurses are simulated and analysed using the hybrid method of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC) input-oriented model and Super-Efficiency models of DEA were used to analyse the efficiency of the scenarios. The results show that the best schedule is a combination of four doctors supported by four nurses in every shift during weekends and public holidays for the Green Zone. The findings show that such schedule will not only help the department to achieve its KPI but also enable a more optimal utilization of the resources.

  1. Dynamic Model of Islamic Hybrid Securities: Empirical Evidence From Malaysia Islamic Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Pyeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure selection is fundamentally important in corporate financial management as it influence on mutually return and risk to stakeholders. Despite of Malaysia’s position as one of the major players of Islamic Financial Market, there are still lack of studies has been conducted on the capital structure of shariah compliant firms especially related to hybrid securities. The objective of this study is to determine the hybrid securities issuance model among the shariah compliant firms in Malaysia. As such, this study is to expand the literature review by providing comprehensive analysis on the hybrid capital structure and to develop dynamic Islamic hybrid securities model for shariah compliant firms. We use panel data of 50 companies that have been issuing the hybrid securities from the year of 2004- 2012. The outcomes of the studies are based on the dynamic model GMM estimation for the determinants of hybrid securities. Based on our model, risk and growth are considered as the most determinant factors for issuing convertible bond and loan stock. These results suggest that, the firms that have high risk but having good growth prospect will choose hybrid securities of convertible bond. The model also support the backdoor equity listing hypothesis by Stein (1992 where the hybrid securities enable the profitable firms to venture into positive NPV project by issuing convertible bond as it offer lower coupon rate as compare to the normal debt rate

  2. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  3. Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Gałajda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.

  4. Modeling Zone-3 Protection with Generic Relay Models for Dynamic Contingency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiuhua; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Pajuelo, Eli

    2017-10-02

    This paper presents a cohesive approach for calculating and coordinating the settings of multiple zone-3 protections for dynamic contingency analysis. The zone-3 protections are represented by generic distance relay models. A two-step approach for determining zone-3 relay settings is proposed. The first step is to calculate settings, particularly, the reach, of each zone-3 relay individually by iteratively running line open-end fault short circuit analysis; the blinder is also employed and properly set to meet the industry standard under extreme loading conditions. The second step is to systematically coordinate the protection settings of the zone-3 relays. The main objective of this coordination step is to address the over-reaching issues. We have developed a tool to automate the proposed approach and generate the settings of all distance relays in a PSS/E dyr format file. The calculated zone-3 settings have been tested on a modified IEEE 300 system using a dynamic contingency analysis tool (DCAT).

  5. Dynamic calculation of structures in seismic zones. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, Alain; Davidovici, Victor

    1982-01-01

    The aims of this book are both didactic and practical. It is therefore addressed to both experienced engineers and students. Some general information about earthquakes and their occurrence is first given. The problem of a simple oscillator is presented. In this way, the reader is provided with an insight into undestanding the dynamic phenomena taking place and is introduced to the concept of response spectra and to an intuitive comprehension of the behavior of structures during earthquakes. The next chapter is devoted to the cases most frequently encountered with multiple oscillator structures. Theoretical studies are based on the usual modal decomposition method. The various practical methods of calculation employed are then examined, emphasis being given to the various different stages involved and to which of them is the best suited for a particular type of structure. Advise is given on how to select the model whose behavior best describes the real structure, both manual and computer methods of calculation being envisaged [fr

  6. Adaptability of grades and hybrids of tangerine in a subtropical zone of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Abilphazova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of various cultivars and hybrids of tangerine growing in the conditions of the humid subtropics of Russia and possessing valuable physiological and biochemical markers are presented in article. The stress factors limiting cultivation of tangerine culture in Krasnodar region are defined. The assessment of the water saving and enzymes activity in tangerine leaves is given. Changes of physiological parameters at influence of a stressful factor are shown. The analysis of water deficiency is revealed existence of essential distinctions between cultivars and hybrids. Change of thickness of a leaf blade of tangerine is the important diagnostic characteristic testifying the ability of leaf tissues to accumulate and keep water. Researches are showing that difference between catalase action of cultivars and hybrids are insignificant. Strengthening of enzyme activity can testify to bigger violation of a functional state of plant cultivars in comparison with the hybrides. Water deficiency and drought resistance coefficient can be used for diagnostics of stability of tangerine to hydrothermal factors. Correlation coefficients between the studied markers were calculated and regression models of their interrelation were given. So, there was a high correlation between thickness of a leaf blade and water deficiency index; close correlation between water deficiency and thickness of a leaf blade, as well as dependence of average degree on water deficiency and catalase activity were noted. There were revealed tangerine cultivars and hybrids which are stable in in the changing environmental conditions and have high biochemical value of fruits.

  7. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.

    2009-08-19

    We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Facile Route to Vertically Aligned High-Aspect Ratio Block Copolymer Films via Dynamic Zone Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kulkarni, Manish; Yager, Kevin; Smilgies, Detlef; Bucknall, David; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Directed assembly of block copolymers (BCP) can be used to fabricate a diversity of nanostructures useful for nanotech applications. The ability to vertically orient etchable high aspect ratio (˜30) ordered BCP domains on flexible substrates via continuous processing methods are particularly attractive for nanomanufacturing. We apply sharp dynamic cold zone annealing (CZA-S) to create etchable, and predominantly vertically oriented 30nm cylindrical domains in 1 μm thick poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) films on low thermal conductivity rigid (quartz) and flexible (PDMS & Kapton) substrates. Under similar static conditions, temporally stable vertical cylinders form within a narrow zone above a critical temperature gradient. Primary ordering mechanism of CZA-S involves sweeping this vertically orienting zone created at maximum thermal gradient. An optimal speed is needed since the process competes with preferential surface wetting dynamics that favors parallel orientation. GISAXS of etched BCP films confirms internal morphology.

  9. Unexpected ancestry of Populus seedlings from a hybrid zone implies a large role for postzygotic selection in the maintenance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtke, Dorothea; Gompert, Zachariah; Lexer, Christian; Buerkle, C Alex

    2014-09-01

    In the context of potential interspecific gene flow, the integrity of species will be maintained by reproductive barriers that reduce genetic exchange, including traits associated with prezygotic isolation or poor performance of hybrids. Hybrid zones can be used to study the importance of different reproductive barriers, particularly when both parental species and hybrids occur in close spatial proximity. We investigated the importance of barriers to gene flow that act early vs. late in the life cycle of European Populus by quantifying the prevalence of homospecific and hybrid matings within a mosaic hybrid zone. We obtained genotypic data for 11 976 loci from progeny and their maternal parents and constructed a Bayesian model to estimate individual admixture proportions and hybrid classes for sampled trees and for the unsampled pollen parent. Matings that included one or two hybrid parents were common, resulting in admixture proportions of progeny that spanned the whole range of potential ancestries between the two parental species. This result contrasts strongly with the distribution of admixture proportions in adult trees, where intermediate hybrids and each of the parental species are separated into three discrete ancestry clusters. The existence of the full range of hybrids in seedlings is consistent with weak reproductive isolation early in the life cycle of Populus. Instead, a considerable amount of selection must take place between the seedling stage and maturity to remove many hybrid seedlings. Our results highlight that high hybridization rates and appreciable hybrid fitness do not necessarily conflict with the maintenance of species integrity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  11. Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics – a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.

  12. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Belkhatir, Zehor; Ledezma, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study

  13. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  14. Seismic response of earth dams considering dynamic properties of unsaturated zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is conventionally assumed in the analysis and design of earth dams that the soil located above the phreatic line, i.e. the uppermost seepage flow line, is completely dry. However, there is often an unsaturated flow of water through an unsaturated zone above this borderline and variation in moisture content in this zone results in variation of matric suction throughout this region. Variation of matric suction, in turn, results in variation of effective stresses in this zone. In this research, the seismic response of earth dams in terms of the displacement and acceleration at the crown of the dam as well as the stress distribution in the dam body is investigated. Taking into account the effect of unsaturated zone, a comparison is made to investigate the effect of conventional simplification in ignoring the dynamic characteristics of the unsaturated zone above the phreatic line and the more complicated analysis which includes the unsaturated zone. A function for the soil-water retention curve (SWRC was assigned to the soil in the unsaturated zone to determine the variation of matric suction in this zone and analyses were made using finite difference software (FLAC. Results are then compared to the conventional method for homogeneous dams. In these analyzes the soil shear modulus was assumed to vary with the mean effective stress both for saturated and unsaturated zones. Among various results, it was notable that the history of crest x-displacement, and acceleration show higher values in models accounting for the unsaturated region. It was attributed to the considerably lower values of damping ratio in the crest region in the unsaturated models.

  15. Modeling the Influence of Dynamic Zoning of Forest Harvesting on Ecological Succession in a Northern Hardwoods Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker C. Radeloff; David J. Mladenoff

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic zoning (systematic alteration in the spatial and temporal allocation of even-aged forest management practices) has been proposed as a means to change the spatial pattern of timber harvest across a landscape to maximize forest interior habitat while holding timber harvest levels constant. Simulation studies have established that dynamic zoning strategies...

  16. Characterization and application of microearthquake clusters to problems of scaling, fault zone dynamics, and seismic monitoring at Parkfield, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains information about the characterization and application of microearthquake clusters and fault zone dynamics. Topics discussed include: Seismological studies; fault-zone dynamics; periodic recurrence; scaling of microearthquakes to large earthquakes; implications of fault mechanics and seismic hazards; and wave propagation and temporal changes.

  17. Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Kevin S. McKelvey; Taylor M. Wilcox; Daniel M. Bingham; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kellie J. Carim; Matthew R. Campbell; Matthew P. Corsi; Dona L. Horan; David E. Nagel; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted...

  18. [Identification of a novel WART-like chromosome rearrangement in complex heterozygotes in an interracial hybrid zone of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, S V; Bulatova, N Sh

    2010-09-01

    Karyotypes uncharacteristic of pure races or hybrids were identified in the interracial hybrid zones of the common shrew Sorex araneus L. that were recently discovered in the European part of Russia. This suggests the actual existence in natural populations of WART-like rearrangements (whole-arm reciprocal translocations) along with Robertsonian fusions of acrocentrics. Demonstration of new and still rare chromosome variants is the aim of this communication.

  19. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  20. Hybrid Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach for Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Gas and Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuai, Hang; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach for the multiple time-period optimal power flow in integrated gas and power systems. ADP successively solves Bellman's equation to make decisions according to the current state of the system. So, the updated near future...

  1. Temperature dependence of the dynamics of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li system (Li concentration: 10%) and their dynamics with temperature are reported. Additional modes at 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 are observed and assigned to zone boundary phonons at critical point M in the Brillouin zone [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)] due to breakdown of crystal translational symmetry with Li incorporation in ZnO. Anharmonicity in peak frequency and linewidth of the zone boundary phonons in a temperature range from 100 to 1000 K is also analyzed taking into account the decay of zone boundary phonons into three- and four-phonon modes (cubic and quadratic anharmonicities). The anharmonic behavior of peak frequency is found to be feebly dependent on three-phonon decay process but thermal expansion of lattice together with four-phonon decay process appropriately defines the temperature dependence. Linewidths, however, follow the simple four-phonon decay mechanism. E2(low) mode, on the other hand, shows a linear temperature dependency and therefore follows a three-phonon decay channel. The calculated values of phonon lifetimes at 100 K for the 127, 157, 194 cm-1, and E2(low) modes are 8.23, 6.54, 5.32, and 11.39 ps. Decay of the zone boundary phonon modes compared to E2(low) mode reveals that dopant induced disorder has a strong temperature dependency.

  2. Molecular-dynamics Simulation-based Cohesive Zone Representation of Intergranular Fracture Processes in Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    A traction-displacement relationship that may be embedded into a cohesive zone model for microscale problems of intergranular fracture is extracted from atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. A molecular-dynamics model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions is developed to analyze intergranular fracture along a flat 99 [1 1 0] symmetric tilt grain boundary in aluminum. Under hydrostatic tensile load, the simulation reveals asymmetric crack propagation in the two opposite directions along the grain boundary. In one direction, the crack propagates in a brittle manner by cleavage with very little or no dislocation emission, and in the other direction, the propagation is ductile through the mechanism of deformation twinning. This behavior is consistent with the Rice criterion for cleavage vs. dislocation blunting transition at the crack tip. The preference for twinning to dislocation slip is in agreement with the predictions of the Tadmor and Hai criterion. A comparison with finite element calculations shows that while the stress field around the brittle crack tip follows the expected elastic solution for the given boundary conditions of the model, the stress field around the twinning crack tip has a strong plastic contribution. Through the definition of a Cohesive-Zone-Volume-Element an atomistic analog to a continuum cohesive zone model element - the results from the molecular-dynamics simulation are recast to obtain an average continuum traction-displacement relationship to represent cohesive zone interaction along a characteristic length of the grain boundary interface for the cases of ductile and brittle decohesion. Keywords: Crack-tip plasticity; Cohesive zone model; Grain boundary decohesion; Intergranular fracture; Molecular-dynamics simulation

  3. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  4. A hybrid model of swash-zone longshore sediment transport on refelctive beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, A.W.; Hughes, M.; Cowell, P.; Gordon, A.; Savioli, J.C.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the swash zone is currently outside the domain of coastal-area models, which is a significant limitation in obtaining littoral sediment-transport estimates, especially on steep reflective beaches where the waves practically break on the beachface. In this

  5. The thermochemical, two-phase dynamics of subduction zones: results from new, fully coupled models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees Jones, D. W.; Katz, R. F.; May, D.; Tian, M.; Rudge, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zones are responsible for most of Earth's subaerial volcanism. However, previous geodynamic modelling of subduction zones has largely neglected magmatism. We previously showed that magmatism has a significant thermal impact, by advecting sensible heat into the lithosphere beneath arc volcanos [1]. Inclusion of this effect helps reconcile subduction zone models with petrological and heat flow observations. Many important questions remain, including how magma-mantle dynamics of subduction zones affects the position of arc volcanos and the character of their lavas. In this presentation, we employ a fully coupled, thermochemical, two-phase flow theory to investigate the dynamics of subduction zones. We present the first results from our new software (SubFUSc), which solves the coupled equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species. The presence and migration of partial melts affect permeability and mantle viscosity (both directly and through their thermal impact); these, in turn, feed back on the magma-mantle flow. Thus our fully coupled modelling improves upon previous two-phase models that decoupled the governing equations and fixed the thermal structure [2]. To capture phase change, we use a novel, simplified model of the mantle melting in the presence of volatile species. As in the natural system, volatiles are associated with low-degree melting at temperatures beneath the anhydrous solidus; dehydration reactions in the slab supply volatiles into the wedge, triggering silicic melting. We simulate the migration of melts under buoyancy forces and dynamic pressure gradients. We thereby demonstrate the dynamical controls on the pattern of subduction-zone volcanism (particularly its location, magnitude, and chemical composition). We build on our previous study of the thermal consequences of magma genesis and segregation. We address the question of what controls the location of arc volcanoes themselves [3]. [1] Rees Jones, D. W

  6. MIL-STD-1553 dynamic bus controller/remote terminal hybrid set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical requirements of a Dual Redundant BUS Interface Unit (BIU) acting as a BUS Controller Interface Unit (BCIU) or Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) between a Motorola 68000 VME BUS and MIL-STD-1553B Multiplex Data Bus. A discussion of how the BIU Hybrid set is programmed, and operates as a BCIU or RTU, will be included. This paper will review Dynamic Bus Control and other Mode Code capabilities. The BIU Hybrid Set interfaces to a 68000 Microprocessor with a VME Bus using programmed I/O transfers. This special interface will be discussed along with the internal Dual Access Memory (4K x 16) used to support the data exchanges between the CPU and the BIU Hybrid Set. The hybrid set's physical size and power requirements will be covered. This includes the present Double Eurocard the BIU function is presently being offered on.

  7. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  8. Hybrid approximations via second order combined dynamic derivatives on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the approximation of conventional second order derivative via the combined (diamond-$\\alpha$ dynamic derivative on time scales with necessary smoothness conditions embedded. We will show the constraints under which the second order dynamic derivative provides a consistent approximation to the conventional second derivative; the cases where the dynamic derivative approximates the derivative only via a proper modification of the existing formula; and the situations in which the dynamic derivative can never approximate consistently even with the help of available structure correction methods. Constructive error analysis will be given via asymptotic expansions for practical hybrid modeling and computational applications.

  9. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  10. Dynamics of growth zone patterning in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Vreede, Barbara M I; Weiss, Aryeh; Hester, Susan D; Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-15

    We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during the generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation. Although abdominal segment addition is primarily generated through the rearrangement of a pool of undifferentiated cells, there is nonetheless proliferation in the posterior. By correlating proliferation with gene expression in the growth zone, we propose a model for growth zone dynamics during segmentation in which the growth zone is functionally subdivided into two distinct regions: a posterior region devoted to a slow rate of growth among undifferentiated cells, and an anterior region in which segmental differentiation is initiated and proliferation inhibited. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Microcanonical and hybrid simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.K.

    1986-10-01

    Lattice QCD is simulated using Microcanonical and Hybrid (Micro-canonical/Langevin) methods to facilitate the inclusion of dynamical fermions (quarks). We report on simulations with 4 flavors of light dynamical quarks on a 10 3 x 6 lattice to study the finite temperature deconfinement/chiral transition which should be observable in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as a function of quark mass. A first order transition is observed at large mass, weakens at intermediate mass and strengthens for very small quark mass

  12. Dynamical zoning within a Lagrangian mesh by use of DYN, a stellar pulsation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, J.I.; Davis, C.G.; Davison, D.K.

    1977-02-01

    A method of dynamical zoning within a Lagrangian mesh is used to resolve the motion of the hydrogen ionization front in a time-dependent nonlinear model of a pulsating star. The resulting coupling with the radiative-transfer improves the calculated light curves. The method is described is some detail and then applied to a model of the Cepheid eta Aq1. 8 figures, 1 table

  13. Hybrid neural network bushing model for vehicle dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2008-01-01

    Although the linear model was widely used for the bushing model in vehicle suspension systems, it could not express the nonlinear characteristics of bushing in terms of the amplitude and the frequency. An artificial neural network model was suggested to consider the hysteretic responses of bushings. This model, however, often diverges due to the uncertainties of the neural network under the unexpected excitation inputs. In this paper, a hybrid neural network bushing model combining linear and neural network is suggested. A linear model was employed to represent linear stiffness and damping effects, and the artificial neural network algorithm was adopted to take into account the hysteretic responses. A rubber test was performed to capture bushing characteristics, where sine excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes is applied. Random test results were used to update the weighting factors of the neural network model. It is proven that the proposed model has more robust characteristics than a simple neural network model under step excitation input. A full car simulation was carried out to verify the proposed bushing models. It was shown that the hybrid model results are almost identical to the linear model under several maneuvers

  14. Dynamics of CTAB in hybrid CTAB-hydroxyapatite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, P., E-mail: purushd@barc.gov.in; Sharma, V. K.; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Verma, G.; Hassan, P. A. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Johnson, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-05-23

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an important material in biomedical engineering due to its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. Here we report dynamics of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in HAp composite, prepared by co-precipitation method, as studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. It is found that the observed dynamics involved two time scales associated with fast torsional motion and segmental motion of the CTAB monomers. In addition to segmental motion of the hydrogen atoms, few undergo torsional motion as well. Torsional dynamics was described by a 2-fold jump diffusion model. The segmental dynamics of CTAB has been described assumimg the hydrogen atoms undergoing diffusion inside a sphere of confined volume. While the diffusivity is found to increase with temperature, the spherical volumes within which the hydrogen atoms are undergoing diffusion remain almost unchanged.

  15. Best practices in the use of hybrid static-dynamic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Static signs are traditionally used to convey messages to the road users. The need to quickly communicate up-to-date messages to the road users has given rise to the increasing use of dynamic message signs (DMS). An alternative to DMS is hybrid signs...

  16. Language Multiplicity and Dynamism: Emergent Bilinguals Taking Ownership of Language Use in a Hybrid Curricular Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of hybrid instructional spaces on the purposeful and expansive use of translanguaging practices. Utilizing technology, the study explores the role of multimodality in bilinguals' language multiplicity and dynamism. The research addresses: (a) how do emergent bilinguals in dual language programs deploy their full…

  17. A dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for intentions and information changes in strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I present a dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for reasoning about information and intention changes in situations of strategic interaction. I provide a complete axiomatization for this logic, and then use it to study intentions-based transformations of decision problems.

  18. Controlled initiation and quantitative visualization of cell interaction dynamics - a novel hybrid microscopy method -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder-van As, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development, validation, and application of a hybrid microscopy technique to study cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions in a controlled and quantitative manner. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the selected membrane molecules CD6 and the activated

  19. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  20. Reduced range of the endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) and a possible hybrid zone with Sapajus nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney Pereira; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Rylands, Anthony B

    2017-10-01

    The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S. robustus. Camera traps were used in key localities if interviews suggested the presence of capuchins but no animals were sighted during the surveys. Of 127 valid interviews, only 39 people reported the presence of Sapajus in nearby forest fragments. We confirmed the presence of Sapajus in only 19 of these. S. robustus occurred in four, and S. libidinosus, S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, or S. robustus × S. nigritus (hybrids?) occurred in the remaining 15. Based on our study, the estimated geographical distribution of S. robustus is 119,654 km 2 , which represents a reduction of more than 70,000 km 2 when compared to its formerly described range. The geographical limits as defined in this study are: northeast-the Jequitinhonha River; northwest and west-the Jequitinhonha River; southwest-the Suaçuí Grande River and the Espinhaço mountains; southeast-the Doce River; east-the Atlantic Ocean. A probable hybrid zone where capuchin monkeys have morphological features of both S. nigritus and S. robustus was found between the Santo Antônio and the Suaçuí Grande rivers. The elucidation of the geographical distribution of S. robustus is important for its conservation, facilitating the delineation of priority areas for the creation of reserves and the initiation of studies of the species' ecology and behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamic wavefront creation for processing units using a hybrid compactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthoor, Sooraj; Beckmann, Bradford M.; Yudanov, Dmitri

    2018-02-20

    A method, a non-transitory computer readable medium, and a processor for repacking dynamic wavefronts during program code execution on a processing unit, each dynamic wavefront including multiple threads are presented. If a branch instruction is detected, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following a same control path in the program code have reached a compaction point, which is the branch instruction. If no branch instruction is detected in executing the program code, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following the same control path have reached a reconvergence point, which is a beginning of a program code segment to be executed by both a taken branch and a not taken branch from a previous branch instruction. The dynamic wavefronts are repacked with all threads that follow the same control path, if all wavefronts following the same control path have reached the branch instruction or the reconvergence point.

  2. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2016-10-24

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  3. A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Manoa (United States); Ramaswamy, S.; Cunningham, J.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hauer, K.H. [xcellvision, Major-Hirst-Strasse 11, 38422 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tool for the battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the hybridized hydrogen fuel cell system within an existing fuel cell vehicle simulation tool. The discussion is focused on the simulation of the sub-systems that are unique to the hybridized direct-hydrogen vehicle, and builds on a previous paper that described a simulation tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen vehicle. The configuration of the general fuel cell vehicle simulation tool has been previously presented in detail, and is only briefly reviewed in the introduction to this paper. Strictly speaking, the results provided in this paper only serve as an example that is valid for the specific fuel cell vehicle design configuration analyzed. Different design choices may lead to different results, depending strongly on the parameters used and choices taken during the detailed design process required for this highly non-linear and n-dimensional system. The primary purpose of this paper is not to provide a dynamic simulation tool that is the ''final word'' for the ''optimal'' hybrid fuel cell vehicle design. The primary purpose is to provide an explanation of a simulation method for analyzing the energetic aspects of a hybrid fuel cell vehicle. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djemai, M.; Tadjine, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  5. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  6. The Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) method and dynamic fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Marcia G. do

    1994-01-01

    Nevertheless the Monte Carlo method has been extensively used in the simulation of many types of theories, the successful application has been established only for models containing boson fields. With the present computer generation, the development of faster and efficient algorithms became necessary and urgent. This paper studies the HMC and the dynamic fermions

  7. A Dynamic Multistage Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Optimization Algorithm for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dynamic multistage hybrid swarm intelligence optimization algorithm is introduced, which is abbreviated as DM-PSO-ABC. The DM-PSO-ABC combined the exploration capabilities of the dynamic multiswarm particle swarm optimizer (PSO and the stochastic exploitation of the cooperative artificial bee colony algorithm (CABC for solving the function optimization. In the proposed hybrid algorithm, the whole process is divided into three stages. In the first stage, a dynamic multiswarm PSO is constructed to maintain the population diversity. In the second stage, the parallel, positive feedback of CABC was implemented in each small swarm. In the third stage, we make use of the particle swarm optimization global model, which has a faster convergence speed to enhance the global convergence in solving the whole problem. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm, various scale benchmark problems are tested to demonstrate the potential of the proposed multistage hybrid swarm intelligence optimization algorithm. The results show that DM-PSO-ABC is better in the search precision, and convergence property and has strong ability to escape from the local suboptima when compared with several other peer algorithms.

  8. Implementing Molecular Dynamics for Hybrid High Performance Computers - 1. Short Range Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Wang, Peng; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2011-01-01

    The use of accelerators such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - (1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, (2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, (3) utilizing the available processing power from both many-core CPUs and accelerators, and (4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. We describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high performance machines. We describe a new approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPGPUs and 180 CPU cores.

  9. Modelling the WWER-type reactor dynamics using a hybrid computer. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeta, C.

    Results of simulation studies into reactor and steam generator dynamics of a WWER type power plant are presented. Spatial kinetics of the reactor core is described by a nodal approximation to diffusion equations, xenon poisoning equations and heat transfer equations. The simulation of the reactor model dynamics was performed on a hybrid computer. Models of both a horizontal and a vertical steam generator were developed. The dynamics was investigated over a large range of power by computing the transients on a digital computer. (author)

  10. The study of sheath flow dark zone phenomenon in dynamic individual cells scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Weiguang

    2008-09-01

    Dynamic cells scattering is one of the most efficient approaches exploring in measurements of cells size, morphology and growth states. This technique can be widely applied in real-time detection for pharmaceutical industry, food industry, liquor industry and other biological fields. A novel method named dynamic individual cells scattering measurement is designed in this paper, which can make cells pass through quartz glass measurement zone one by one with sheath flow driving force. During the experiments, an obvious phenomenon has been found which is called sheath flow dark zone phenomenon (SFDZ). Under the influence of SFDZ, sheath flow forming detection becomes very difficult. In this paper, the causes giving rise to SFDZ have been analyzed. And an improved method is put forward, in which the orifice inside the measurement zone is set as an optical system. Then the illuminating system is redesigned. In this way, almost all the illuminating light can enter orifice so that the total reflection energy decreases substantially. A comparison experiments have been done, which proves the efficiency of this redesigned optical system and its sound effects on SFDZ avoiding.

  11. Hybrid insolation forcing of Pliocene monsoon dynamics in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Kuechler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene is regarded as a potential analogue for future climate with conditions generally warmer-than-today and higher-than-preindustrial atmospheric CO2 levels. Here we present the first orbitally resolved records of continental hydrology and vegetation changes from West Africa for two Pliocene time intervals (5.0–4.6 Ma, 3.6–3.0 Ma, which we compare with records from the last glacial cycle (Kuechler et al., 2013. Our results indicate that changes in local insolation alone are insufficient to explain the full degree of hydrologic variations. Generally two modes of interacting insolation forcings are observed: during eccentricity maxima, when precession was strong, the West African monsoon was driven by summer insolation; during eccentricity minima, when precession-driven variations in local insolation were minimal, obliquity-driven changes in the summer latitudinal insolation gradient became dominant. This hybrid monsoonal forcing concept explains orbitally controlled tropical climate changes, incorporating the forcing mechanism of latitudinal gradients for the Pliocene, which probably increased in importance during subsequent Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  12. Design and implementation of dynamic hybrid Honeypot network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peili; Hu, Shan-Shan; Zhai, Ji-Qiang

    2013-05-01

    The method of constructing a dynamic and self-adaptive virtual network is suggested to puzzle adversaries, delay and divert attacks, exhaust attacker resources and collect attacking information. The concepts of Honeypot and Honeyd, which is the frame of virtual Honeypot are introduced. The techniques of network scanning including active fingerprint recognition are analyzed. Dynamic virtual network system is designed and implemented. A virtual network similar to real network topology is built according to the collected messages from real environments in this system. By doing this, the system can perplex the attackers when Hackers attack and can further analyze and research the attacks. The tests to this system prove that this design can successfully simulate real network environment and can be used in network security analysis.

  13. Dynamic Behavior Sequencing in a Hybrid Robot Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    robots to represent and execute procedures, scripts , and plans in dynamic environ- ments [24]. Ingrand et al. describe the PRS as the link between the...based language in a similar style to Java that follows a model-based programming approach. A model-based programming approach refers to embedded...refers to the angular orientation of the robot from its initial heading. Therefore, the θ parameter value of zero (0) indicates that the desired

  14. Dynamic behavior of hybrid sodium bearings. Theoretical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Juignet, N.; Queval, M.

    1981-08-01

    The primary sodium pump shaft lower section of a fast breeder reactor is guided by a hydrostatic sodium bearing. This recess type bearing is supplied via orifices restrictors. Sodium is sampled at hight pressure at the diffuser outlet and is then centrifuged towards the orifices restrictors. Bearing stiffness and damping data is essential for the study of rotor dynamic behavior. Two points in particular may then be studied: - calculation of rotor instability ranges and critical speeds, - dynamic behavior of the rotor in the event of an earthquake. As regards the bearing design, the problem is to obtain the pressure fields in the liquid film. The integration of these pressure fields will then give the stiffness coefficients. The damping coefficients can then be obtained by the same calculation after slight displacement. The Reynolds equation can be used to study the liquid film (under any conditions for the turbulent and inertia effects). Then the computer code DELPAL is explained that solves the modified Reynolds equation using a finite element method. The presentation of tests conducted in 1981 on the Super-Phenix 1 full scall bearing (diameter 850 mm) in water is made. In conclusion this paper describes a method for calculating the stiffness and damping matrices of a hydrostatic bearing using the DELPAL calculation code and shows the loop of behavior tests on a bearing with sinusoidal excitation. The results, obtained by calculation and by testing, are indispensable when calculating the dynamic behavior of the shaft line

  15. Adaptive traits are maintained on steep selective gradients despite gene flow and hybridization in the intertidal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo I Zardi

    Full Text Available Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients

  16. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  17. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  18. Complex cytogeographical patterns reveal a dynamic tetraploid–octoploid contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Albano; Husband, Brian; Loureiro, João

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of cytotypes in mixed-ploidy species is crucial for evaluating ecological processes involved in the establishment and evolution of polyploid taxa. Here, we use flow cytometry and chromosome counts to explore cytotype diversity and distributions within a tetraploid–octoploid contact zone. We then use niche modelling and ploidy seed screening to assess the roles of niche differentiation among cytotypes and reproductive interactions, respectively, in promoting cytotype coexistence. Two cytotypes, tetraploids and octoploids, were dominant within the contact zone. They were most often distributed parapatrically or allopatrically, resulting in high geographic isolation. Still, 16.7 % of localities comprised two or more cytotypes, including the intermediate hexaploid cytotype. Tetraploids and octoploids had high environmental niche overlap and associated with similar climatic environments, suggesting they have similar ecological requirements. Given the geographical separation and habitat similarity among cytotypes, mixed-ploidy populations may be transitional and subject to the forces of minority cytotype exclusion which lead to pure-ploidy populations. However, seed ploidy analysis suggests that strong reproductive barriers may enforce assortative mating which favours stable cytotype coexistence. High cytogenetic diversity detected in the field suggests that unreduced gamete formation and hybridization events seem frequent in the studied polyploid complex and might be involved with the recurrent polyploid formation, governing, as well, the gene flow between cytogenetic entities. PMID:29593853

  19. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Kaufmann, Olivier; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Poulain, Amaël; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Hallet, Vincent; Quinif, Yves; Van Ruymbeke, Michel; Van Camp, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL) site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets) and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1) upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2) deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3) a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of the sources of drip

  20. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Watlet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1 upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2 deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3 a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of

  1. Hybrid numerical-experimental optical investigation of the contact zone of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Janusas, Giedrius; Pilkauskas, Kestutis

    2005-09-01

    Ultrasonic motors have seen application in areas needing compact, efficient, and intermittent motion. Such applications include: camera auto focus lenses, watch motors, compact paper handling, microrobots, medicine and etc.. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. Compared with electromagnetic actuators, there is no danger of interference due to electromagnetic induction because no magnetic field is used and ultrasonic motors are more quiet since speed-reduction gears are not required. A polarization vector of the piezoceramic element and location of excitation electrodes on its surface determine the resonance modes of the high frequency vibration exciter. In its turn the modes of vibration play a key role in the functionality of ultrasonic motor. There are analyzed two different regimes of operation--when the contact zone of the resonator performs elliptic and unidirectional motions. Though the mechanical characteristics of the ultrasonic motor in both cases are comparable, detailed analysis of the contact surface shows very different wears. Laser holography is used to identify and control the regimes of motion of actuator. Experimental results are compared with computer simulations. Contact surfaces are analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) before experiment, after 10 minutes and after 50 minutes of operation.

  2. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene, short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina, two species with comparatively long generation times. Results Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga. Conclusions The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  3. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...... significant. This study suggests that hybrid zones are a common phenomenon for marine fishes in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea and highlights the importance of using interspecific comparisons for inferring population structure in high gene flow species such as most marine fishes....

  4. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Bottrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.

  5. Complex plume dynamics in the transition zone underneath the Hawaii hotspot: seismic imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Q.; van der Hilst, R. D.; de Hoop, M. V.; Shim, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in seismology to constrain the depth variations of the transition zone discontinuities, e.g. 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, which can be used to constrain the local temperature and chemistry profiles, and hence to infer the existences and morphology of mantle plumes. Taking advantage of the abundance of natural earthquake sources in western Pacific subduction zones and the many seismograph stations in the Americas, we used a generalized Radon transform (GRT), a high resolution inverse-scattering technique, of SS precursors to form 3-D images of the transition zone structures of a 30 degree by 40 degree area underneath Hawaii and the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. Rather than a simple mushroom-shape plume, our seismic images suggest complex plume dynamics interacting with the transition zone phase transitions, especially at the 660’ discontinuity. A conspicuous uplift of the 660 discontinuity in a region of 800km in diameter is observed to the west of Hawaii. No correspondent localized depression of the 410 discontinuity is found. This lack of correlation between and differences in lateral length scale of the topographies of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are consistent with many geodynamical modeling results, in which a deep-mantle plume impinging on the transition zone, creating a pond of hot material underneath endothermic phase change at 660 km depth, and with secondary plumes connecting to the present-day hotspot at Earth’s surface. This more complex plume dynamics suggests that the complicated mass transport process across the transition zone should be taken into account when we try to link the geochemical observations of Hawaiian basalt geochemistry at the Earth’s surface to deep mantle domains. In addition to clear signals at 410km, 520km and 660km depth, the data also reveals rich structures near 350km depth and between 800 - 1000km depth, which may be regional, laterally intermittent scatter interfaces

  6. Evaluation of methods for extraction of the volitional EMG in dynamic hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizrahi Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid muscle activation is a modality used for muscle force enhancement, in which muscle contraction is generated from two different excitation sources: volitional and external, by means of electrical stimulation (ES. Under hybrid activation, the overall EMG signal is the combination of the volitional and ES-induced components. In this study, we developed a computational scheme to extract the volitional EMG envelope from the overall dynamic EMG signal, to serve as an input signal for control purposes, and for evaluation of muscle forces. Methods A "synthetic" database was created from in-vivo experiments on the Tibialis Anterior of the right foot to emulate hybrid EMG signals, including the volitional and induced components. The database was used to evaluate the results obtained from six signal processing schemes, including seven different modules for filtration, rectification and ES component removal. The schemes differed from each other by their module combinations, as follows: blocking window only, comb filter only, blocking window and comb filter, blocking window and peak envelope, comb filter and peak envelope and, finally, blocking window, comb filter and peak envelope. Results and conclusion The results showed that the scheme including all the modules led to an excellent approximation of the volitional EMG envelope, as extracted from the hybrid signal, and underlined the importance of the artifact blocking window module in the process. The results of this work have direct implications on the development of hybrid muscle activation rehabilitation systems for the enhancement of weakened muscles.

  7. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price.

  8. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  9. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Puga, Manuel; Salazar, Abby Stephanie; Aguilar, Leocundo; Gaxiola-Pacheco, Carelia; Licea, Guillermo

    2015-12-02

    The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs). This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs) over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  10. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  11. Analysis of the Dynamic Wheel Loads in Railway Transition Zones Considering the Moisture Condition of the Ballast and Subballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in vertical support structures, e.g., near bridges. Due to possible water flow constrictions in transition zone structures, there is frequently an increased moisture level in the ballast/subballast layers, which is a potential source of track degradation. This paper presents results of the moisture condition measured in three transition zones using ground penetrating radar, where the ballast/subballast are analyzed. The relationship between the moisture condition and track degradation in the transition zones is studied by comparing it to the longitudinal track level that is measured by the track inspection coaches. A strong connection is found between the high moisture condition and track degradation in the transition zones. The dynamic behavior of the transition zones with high moisture condition is analyzed using the Finite Element method. Differential stiffness and settlement are taken into consideration in the transition zone model, which is also coupled with a vehicle. The ballast/subballast layers are modelled as solid elements. Increased moisture conditions are considered as a reduction of elastic modulus, according to laboratory findings. Results show that high moisture leads to an increase of dynamic wheel loads in the transition zone, which explains the connection and confirms that the high moisture condition is a source of transition zone problems.

  12. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu

    2017-10-01

    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  13. Numerical methodologies for investigation of moderate-velocity flow using a hybrid computational fluid dynamics - molecular dynamics simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Soon Heum; Kim, Na Yong; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Moldovan, Dorel; Jha, Shantenu

    2014-01-01

    Numerical approaches are presented to minimize the statistical errors inherently present due to finite sampling and the presence of thermal fluctuations in the molecular region of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) - molecular dynamics (MD) flow solution. Near the fluid-solid interface the hybrid CFD-MD simulation approach provides a more accurate solution, especially in the presence of significant molecular-level phenomena, than the traditional continuum-based simulation techniques. It also involves less computational cost than the pure particle-based MD. Despite these advantages the hybrid CFD-MD methodology has been applied mostly in flow studies at high velocities, mainly because of the higher statistical errors associated with low velocities. As an alternative to the costly increase of the size of the MD region to decrease statistical errors, we investigate a few numerical approaches that reduce sampling noise of the solution at moderate-velocities. These methods are based on sampling of multiple simulation replicas and linear regression of multiple spatial/temporal samples. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the perspective of solution accuracy and computational cost.

  14. Hybrid computer simulation of the dynamics of the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, J.C.; Vries, J.W. de.

    1976-01-01

    A distributed parameter model for the dynamics of the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) at Delft is presented. The neutronic and the thermodynamic part of this model have been separately implemented on the AD4-IBM1800 Hybrid Computer of the Delft University of Technology Computation Centre. A continuous Space/Discrete Time solution method has been employed. Some test results of the simulation are included

  15. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  16. Experimental investigations on the state of the friction-welded joint zone in steel hybrid components after process-relevant thermo-mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Vucetic, M.; Peshekhodov, I.; Matthias, T.; Kolbasnikov, N.; Sokolov, S.; Ganin, S.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the newly established Collaborative Research Center 1153 (SFB 1153) "Process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high-performance components by tailored forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, the Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM) examines the influence of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus as well as the hardness of hybrid (steel-steel compound) joined semi-finished products. Currently the expertise in the production of bulk metal formed parts is limited to mono-materials. For manufacturing parts of hybrid materials and also for the methods of the new process routes, practical experience has to be gained. The subproject C1 within the collaborative research center 1153 with the short title "Failure Prediction" deals with the question, if the hybrid semi-finished products fulfill the thermo-mechanical demands or if they fail at the joining zone (JZ) during forging. For this purpose, stresses similar to those in the process were imposed on hybrid semi-finished products by torsion tests by using the thermo-mechanical test system Gleeble 3800. Afterwards, the specimens were examined metallographically and by nanoindentations with the help of a TriboIndenter TI950. Thus, first knowledge on the behaviour of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus and the hardness of hybrid joined semi-finished parts was gained.

  17. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revealing the distinct habitat ranges and hybrid zone of genetic sub-populations within Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in the West Pacific area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Han, Myung-Soo

    2018-03-01

    Genetic sub-populations (clades) of cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens might have distinct habitats, and their hybrid zone is suspected in higher latitude area of the West Pacific area, however, it is still unrevealed because of technical difficulties and lack of evidences in natural environments. The aim of this study is to investigate the habitat characteristics of each clade of P. pungens on geographical distribution with the habitat temperature ranges of each clade and to reveal their hybrid zone in the West Pacific area. We employed the 137 number of nucleotide sequences of P. pungens and its sampling data (spatial and temporal scale) originated from the West Pacific area, and used field application of qPCR assay for intra-specific level of P. pungens. Only two genotypes, clade I and III, were identified in the West Pacific area. Clade I was distributed from 39 to 32.3°N, and clade III were from 1.4 to 34.4°N. The estimated habitat temperature for the clade I and clade III ranges were 8.1-26.9 °C and 24.2-31.2 °C, respectively. The latitudinal distributions and temperature ranges of each clade were significantly different. The qPCR assay employed, and results suggested that the hybrid zone for clade I and III has been observed in the southern Korean coasts, and clade III might be introduced from the Southern Pacific area. The cell abundances of clade III were strongly related with the higher seawater temperature and warm current force. This study has defined distinct habitat characteristics of genetically different sub-populations of P. pungens, and revealed its hybrid zone in natural environment for the first time. We also provided strong evidences about dispersion of the population of clade III to higher latitude in the West Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1) Attrition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangyong; Zhang, Ancai

    2014-01-01

    For the particularity of warfare hybrid dynamic process, a class of warfare hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1) battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation), and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics). Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tact...

  20. Argon concentration time-series as a tool to study gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächler, Lars; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The oxygen dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a peri-alpine river (Thur, Switzerland), were studied through recording and analyzing the concentration time-series of dissolved argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature during low flow conditions, for a period of one week. The argon concentration time-series was used to investigate the physical gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone. Differences in the transport behavior of heat and gas were determined by comparing the diel temperature evolution of groundwater to the measured concentration of dissolved argon. These differences were most likely caused by vertical heat transport which influenced the local groundwater temperature. The argon concentration time-series were also used to estimate travel times by cross correlating argon concentrations in the groundwater with argon concentrations in the river. The information gained from quantifying the physical gas transport was used to estimate the oxygen turnover in groundwater after water recharge. The resulting oxygen turnover showed strong diel variations, which correlated with the water temperature during groundwater recharge. Hence, the variation in the consumption rate was most likely caused by the temperature dependence of microbial activity.

  1. Effects of thermal vapor diffusion on seasonal dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The response of water in the unsaturated zone to seasonal changes of temperature (T) is determined analytically using the theory of nonisothermal water transport in porous media, and the solutions are tested against field observations of moisture potential and bomb fallout isotopic (36Cl and 3H) concentrations. Seasonally varying land surface temperatures and the resulting subsurface temperature gradients induce thermal vapor diffusion. The annual mean vertical temperature gradient is close to zero; however, the annual mean thermal vapor flux is downward, because the temperature‐dependent vapor diffusion coefficient is larger, on average, during downward diffusion (occurring at high T) than during upward diffusion (low T). The annual mean thermal vapor flux is shown to decay exponentially with depth; the depth (about 1 m) at which it decays to e−1of its surface value is one half of the corresponding decay depth for the amplitude of seasonal temperature changes. This depth‐dependent annual mean flux is effectively a source of water, which must be balanced by a flux divergence associated with other transport processes. In a relatively humid environment the liquid fluxes greatly exceed the thermal vapor fluxes, so such a balance is readily achieved without measurable effect on the dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone. However, if the mean vertical water flux through the unsaturated zone is very small (theoretical prediction is supported by long‐term field measurements in the Chihuahuan Desert. The analysis also makes predictions, confirmed by the field observations, regarding the seasonal variations of matric potential at a given depth. The conceptual model of unsaturated zone water transport developed here implies the possibility of near‐surface trapping of any aqueous constituent introduced at the surface.

  2. Modeling and Density Estimation of an Urban Freeway Network Based on Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangzhou; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-29

    In this paper, in order to describe complex network systems, we firstly propose a general modeling framework by combining a dynamic graph with hybrid automata and thus name it Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata (DGHA). Then we apply this framework to model traffic flow over an urban freeway network by embedding the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) into the DGHA. With a modeling procedure, we adopt a dual digraph of road network structure to describe the road topology, use linear hybrid automata to describe multi-modes of dynamic densities in road segments and transform the nonlinear expressions of the transmitted traffic flow between two road segments into piecewise linear functions in terms of multi-mode switchings. This modeling procedure is modularized and rule-based, and thus is easily-extensible with the help of a combination algorithm for the dynamics of traffic flow. It can describe the dynamics of traffic flow over an urban freeway network with arbitrary topology structures and sizes. Next we analyze mode types and number in the model of the whole freeway network, and deduce a Piecewise Affine Linear System (PWALS) model. Furthermore, based on the PWALS model, a multi-mode switched state observer is designed to estimate the traffic densities of the freeway network, where a set of observer gain matrices are computed by using the Lyapunov function approach. As an example, we utilize the PWALS model and the corresponding switched state observer to traffic flow over Beijing third ring road. In order to clearly interpret the principle of the proposed method and avoid computational complexity, we adopt a simplified version of Beijing third ring road. Practical application for a large-scale road network will be implemented by decentralized modeling approach and distributed observer designing in the future research.

  3. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  4. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  5. Dynamic analysis of hybrid energy systems under flexible operation and variable renewable generation – Part II: Dynamic cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Mohanty, Amit; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Cherry, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of HES (hybrid energy systems) under flexible operation and variable renewable generation is considered in this two-part communication to better understand various challenges and opportunities associated with the high system variability arising from the integration of renewable energy into the power grid. Advanced HES solutions are investigated in which multiple forms of energy commodities, such as electricity and chemical products, may be exchanged. In particular, a comparative dynamic cost analysis is conducted in this part two of the communication to determine best HES options. The cost function includes a set of metrics for computing fixed costs, such as fixed operations and maintenance and overnight capital costs, and also variable operational costs, such as cost of operational variability, variable operations and maintenance cost, and cost of environmental impact, together with revenues. Assuming natural gas, coal, and nuclear as primary heat sources, preliminary results identify the level of renewable penetration at which a given advanced HES option (e.g., a nuclear hybrid) becomes increasingly more economical than a traditional electricity-only generation solution. Conditions are also revealed under which carbon resources may be better utilized as carbon sources for chemical production rather than as combustion material for electricity generation. - Highlights: ► Dynamic analysis of HES to investigate challenges related to renewable penetration. ► Evaluation of dynamic synergies among HES constituents on system performance. ► Comparison of traditional versus advanced HES candidates. ► Dynamic cost analysis of HES candidates to investigate their economic viability. ► Identification of conditions under which an energy commodity may be best utilized

  6. Dynamic performance of self-operated three-way valve used in a hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Penglei; Zhou, Dehai; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting; Wang, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid air conditioner combining a thermosyphon cycle with a vapor compression refrigeration cycle has a large energy saving potential compared with a common air conditioner for spaces requiring year-round cooling. The performance of the switch between the vapor compression mode and the thermosyphon mode largely impacts the safety and reliability of hybrid air conditioners. Therefore, a self-operated three-way valve is proposed. A thermodynamic model and a kinetic model are developed in this paper to evaluate the dynamic performance of the switch valve. The effects of the spring force constant, compressor discharging volume, fit clearance and piston length on the dynamic performance of the switch valve are analyzed. In conclusion, the proposed self-operated three-way valve can realize the switch operation accurately. - Highlights: •A self-operated three-way valve is proposed for hybrid air conditioners. •The thermodynamic model and kinetic model of the self-operated three-way valve are developed. •The validity of models is verified by experiments. •Effects of four main design parameters on the operating performance of the valve are researched

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  8. Control Systems for a Dynamic Multi-Physics Model of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Fugate, David W [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different local markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  9. Formal verification of dynamic hybrid systems: a NuSMV-based model checking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software security is an important and challenging research topic in developing dynamic hybrid embedded software systems. Ensuring the correct behavior of these systems is particularly difficult due to the interactions between the continuous subsystem and the discrete subsystem. Currently available security analysis methods for system risks have been limited, as they rely on manual inspections of the individual subsystems under simplifying assumptions. To improve this situation, a new approach is proposed that is based on the symbolic model checking tool NuSMV. A dual PID system is used as an example system, for which the logical part and the computational part of the system are modeled in a unified manner. Constraints are constructed on the controlled object, and a counter-example path is ultimately generated, indicating that the hybrid system can be analyzed by the model checking tool.

  10. An Evaluation of Molecular Dynamics Performance on the Hybrid Cray XK6 Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Nguyen, Trung D.; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.; Berger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the drive towards computational physics studies that match the size and time-scales of experiment has been fueled by increases in processor and interconnect performance that could be exploited with relatively little modification to existing codes. Engineering and electrical power constraints have disrupted this trend, requiring more drastic changes to both hardware and software solutions. Here, we present details of the Cray XK6 architecture that achieves increased performance with the use of GPU accelerators. We review software development efforts in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package that have been implemented in order to utilize hybrid high performance computers. We present benchmark results for solid-state, biological, and mesoscopic systems and discuss some challenges for utilizing hybrid systems. We present some early work in improving application performance on the XK6 and performance results for the simulation of liquid copper nanostructures with the embedded atom method.

  11. Dynamic Correlations of Sovereign Bond Yield Spreads in the Euro zone and the Role of Credit Rating Agencies' Downgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The European debt crisis that followed the global financial crisis, erupting first with Greece, then Ireland, Portugal, Italy and Spain, has threatened the very existence of the Euro zone. In this paper we examine the evolution of dynamic co-movements of sovereign bond yield spreads (BYS) in the Euro zone and the role of credit rating agency downgrades on those co-movements. Estimation results from a multivariate DCC-GARCH model on daily BYS data for nine Euro zone countries over the period 2...

  12. Efficient hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics--Monte Carlo simulations with symmetric momentum reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2014-09-21

    Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct

  13. Efficient hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics - Monte Carlo simulations with symmetric momentum reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct

  14. Enhanced configurational sampling with hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Donghyuk; Radak, Brian K.; Chipot, Christophe; Roux, Benoît

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories based on classical equations of motion can be used to sample the configurational space of complex molecular systems. However, brute-force MD often converges slowly due to the ruggedness of the underlying potential energy surface. Several schemes have been proposed to address this problem by effectively smoothing the potential energy surface. However, in order to recover the proper Boltzmann equilibrium probability distribution, these approaches must then rely on statistical reweighting techniques or generate the simulations within a Hamiltonian tempering replica-exchange scheme. The present work puts forth a novel hybrid sampling propagator combining Metropolis-Hastings Monte Carlo (MC) with proposed moves generated by non-equilibrium MD (neMD). This hybrid neMD-MC propagator comprises three elementary elements: (i) an atomic system is dynamically propagated for some period of time using standard equilibrium MD on the correct potential energy surface; (ii) the system is then propagated for a brief period of time during what is referred to as a "boosting phase," via a time-dependent Hamiltonian that is evolved toward the perturbed potential energy surface and then back to the correct potential energy surface; (iii) the resulting configuration at the end of the neMD trajectory is then accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis criterion before returning to step 1. A symmetric two-end momentum reversal prescription is used at the end of the neMD trajectories to guarantee that the hybrid neMD-MC sampling propagator obeys microscopic detailed balance and rigorously yields the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. The hybrid neMD-MC sampling propagator is designed and implemented to enhance the sampling by relying on the accelerated MD and solute tempering schemes. It is also combined with the adaptive biased force sampling algorithm to examine. Illustrative tests with specific biomolecular systems indicate that the method can yield

  15. A Double Zone Dynamical Model For The Tidal Evolution Of The Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Cilia

    2017-10-01

    It is debated wether close-in giants planets can form in-situ and if not, which mechanisms are responsible for their migration. One of the observable tests for migration theories is the current value of the obliquity. But after the main migration mechanism has ended, the combined effects of tidal dissipation and the magnetic braking of the star lead to the evolution of both the obliquity and the semi-major axis. The observed correlation between effective temperature and measured projected obliquity has been taken as evidence of such mechanisms being at play. Here I present an improved model for the tidal evolution of the obliquity. It includes all the components of the dynamical tide for circular misaligned systems. It uses an analytical formulation for the frequency-averaged dissipation for each mode, depending only on global stellar parameters, giving a measure of the dissipative properties of the convective zone of the host as it evolves in time. The model also includes the effect of magnetic braking in the framework of the double zone model. This results in the estimation of different tidal evolution timescales for the evolution of the planet's semi-major axis and obliquity depending on the properties of the stellar host. This model can be used to test migration theories, provided that a good determination of stellar radii, masses and ages can be obtained.

  16. Dynamics of Soil Properties and Plant Composition during Postagrogenic Evolution in Different Bioclimatic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesnina, V. M.; Kurganova, I. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Ovsepyan, L. A.; Lichko, V. I.; Ermolaev, A. M.; Mirin, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The postagrogenic dynamics of acidity and some parameters of humus status have been studied in relation to the restoration of zonal vegetation in southern taiga (podzolic and soddy-podzolic soils ( Retisols)), coniferous-broadleaved (subtaiga) forest (gray forest soil ( Luvic Phaeozem)), and forest-steppe (gray forest soil ( Haplic Phaeozem)) subzones. The most significant transformation of the studied properties of soils under changing vegetation has been revealed for poor sandy soils of southern taiga. The degree of changes in the content and stocks of organic carbon, the enrichment of humus in nitrogen, and acidity in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer during the postagrogenic evolution decreases from north to south. The adequate reflection of soil physicochemical properties in changes of plant cover is determined by the climatic zone and the land use pattern. A correlation between the changes in the soil acidity and the portion of acidophilic species in the plant cover is revealed for the southern taiga subzone. A positive relationship is found between the content of organic carbon and the share of species preferring humus-rich soils in the forest-steppe zone.

  17. Dynamic triggering of low magnitude earthquakes in the Middle American Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, C. R.; Velasco, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze global and Middle American Subduction Zone (MASZ) seismicity from 1998 to 2008 to quantify the transient stresses effects at teleseismic distances. We use the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre Catalog (ISCCD) published by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). To identify MASZ seismicity changes due to distant, large (Mw >7) earthquakes, we first identify local earthquakes that occurred before and after the mainshocks. We then group the local earthquakes within a cluster radius between 75 to 200 km. We obtain statistics based on characteristics of both mainshocks and local earthquakes clusters, such as local cluster-mainshock azimuth, mainshock focal mechanism, and local earthquakes clusters within the MASZ. Due to lateral variations of the dip along the subducted oceanic plate, we divide the Mexican subduction zone in four segments. We then apply the Paired Samples Statistical Test (PSST) to the sorted data to identify increment, decrement or either in the local seismicity associated with distant large earthquakes. We identify dynamic triggering for all MASZ segments produced by large earthquakes emerging from specific azimuths, as well as, a decrease for some cases. We find no depend of seismicity changes due to focal mainshock mechanism.

  18. Colloid dynamics and transport of major elements through a boreal river - brackish bay mixing zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ö.; Widerlund, A.; Andersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    km in the spring.. During the dynamic springflood conditions studied, small 238U–234Th disequilibria, low sediment trap fluxes, laboratory mixing experiments, as well as results from an independent two-box, two-dimensional mixing model combine to suggest that no significant removal of Fe, Si......A range of biogeochemical methodologies were applied to investigate how aggregation processes affected the phase distribution and mixing of Fe, Si, and organic carbon between the Kalix River and the Bothnic Bay, northernmost Baltic Sea salinityF3; the low-salinity zone LSZ. was stretching over 60...... similar to that of neighboring Russian Arctic rivers, is hypothesized to result from a comparatively high organic-to-detrital matter characteristic of the aggregates. While first principles would indeed suggest that decreasing electrostatic repulsion during mixing lead to aggregation, a low specific...

  19. Light curves for ''bump Cepheids'' computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.F.; Castor, J.E.; Davis, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison has been used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. This study, with a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves, shows again that the light and velocity curves for 9.8-day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the ''evolutionary mass.'' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators

  20. Dynamics of coarse particulate matter in the turbidity maximum zone of the Gironde Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cid, Ana; Etcheber, Henri; Schmidt, Sabine; Abril, Gwenaël; De-Oliveira, Eric; Lepage, Mario; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of studies devoted to coarse particulate matter (CPM) in estuaries, although this fraction can disturb activities that filter large volumes of water, such as industrial or fishery activities. In the macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde Estuary, a monthly sampling of CPM was performed in 2011 and 2013 at two stations in the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ) to understand its seasonal, tidal and hydrological dynamics. Regardless of the season and station, low quantities of CPM (few g m-3) were observed in comparison with suspended particulate matter (several 103 g m-3). The highest concentrations were consistently recorded in bottom waters and at the upstream station. Whereas there is no clear link between the CPM present in the column water and spring or neap tides, an increase in the CPM size has been identified at the two stations after a flood event, fact potentially critical regarding filtering functioning of estuarine activities.

  1. A Dynamic Hydrology-Critical Zone Framework for Rainfall-triggered Landslide Hazard Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Dietrich, W. E.; Bras, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed-scale coupled hydrologic-stability models are still in their early stages, and are characterized by important limitations: (a) either they assume steady-state or quasi-dynamic watershed hydrology, or (b) they simulate landslide occurrence based on a simple one-dimensional stability criterion. Here we develop a three-dimensional landslide prediction framework, based on a coupled hydrologic-slope stability model and incorporation of the influence of deep critical zone processes (i.e., flow through weathered bedrock and exfiltration to the colluvium) for more accurate prediction of the timing, location, and extent of landslides. Specifically, a watershed-scale slope stability model that systematically accounts for the contribution of driving and resisting forces in three-dimensional hillslope segments was coupled with a spatially-explicit and physically-based hydrologic model. The landslide prediction framework considers critical zone processes and structure, and explicitly accounts for the spatial heterogeneity of surface and subsurface properties that control slope stability, including soil and weathered bedrock hydrological and mechanical characteristics, vegetation, and slope morphology. To test performance, the model was applied in landslide-prone sites in the US, the hydrology of which has been extensively studied. Results showed that both rainfall infiltration in the soil and groundwater exfiltration exert a strong control on the timing and magnitude of landslide occurrence. We demonstrate the extent to which three-dimensional slope destabilizing factors, which are modulated by dynamic hydrologic conditions in the soil-bedrock column, control landslide initiation at the watershed scale.

  2. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  3. Design, Dynamics, and Workspace of a Hybrid-Driven-Based Cable Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, dynamics, and workspace of a hybrid-driven-based cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM are presented. The HDCPM is able to perform high efficiency, heavy load, and high-performance motion due to the advantages of both the cable parallel manipulator and the hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. The design is performed according to theories of mechanism structure synthesis for cable parallel manipulators. The dynamic formulation of the HDCPM is established on the basis of Newton-Euler method. The workspace of the manipulator is analyzed additionally. As an example, a completely restrained HDCPM with 3 degrees of freedom is studied in simulation in order to verify the validity of the proposed design, workspace, and dynamic analysis. The simulation results, compared with the theoretical analysis, and the case study previously performed show that the manipulator design is reasonable and the mathematical models are correct, which provides the theoretical basis for future physical prototype and control system design.

  4. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org), suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor

  5. Dynamical analysis of Parkinsonian state emulated by hybrid Izhikevich neuron models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Li, Huiyan; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Fietkiewicz, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Computational models play a significant role in exploring novel theories to complement the findings of physiological experiments. Various computational models have been developed to reveal the mechanisms underlying brain functions. Particularly, in the development of therapies to modulate behavioral and pathological abnormalities, computational models provide the basic foundations to exhibit transitions between physiological and pathological conditions. Considering the significant roles of the intrinsic properties of the globus pallidus and the coupling connections between neurons in determining the firing patterns and the dynamical activities of the basal ganglia neuronal network, we propose a hypothesis that pathological behaviors under the Parkinsonian state may originate from combined effects of intrinsic properties of globus pallidus neurons and synaptic conductances in the whole neuronal network. In order to establish a computational efficient network model, hybrid Izhikevich neuron model is used due to its capacity of capturing the dynamical characteristics of the biological neuronal activities. Detailed analysis of the individual Izhikevich neuron model can assist in understanding the roles of model parameters, which then facilitates the establishment of the basal ganglia-thalamic network model, and contributes to a further exploration of the underlying mechanisms of the Parkinsonian state. Simulation results show that the hybrid Izhikevich neuron model is capable of capturing many of the dynamical properties of the basal ganglia-thalamic neuronal network, such as variations of the firing rates and emergence of synchronous oscillations under the Parkinsonian condition, despite the simplicity of the two-dimensional neuronal model. It may suggest that the computational efficient hybrid Izhikevich neuron model can be used to explore basal ganglia normal and abnormal functions. Especially it provides an efficient way of emulating the large-scale neuron network

  6. Soil Gas Dynamics and Microbial Activity in the Unsaturated Zone of a Regulated River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H.; Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Bennett, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Over 60% of the world's rivers are dammed, and are therefore regulated. In some river systems, river regulation is the dominant factor governing fluid exchange and soil gas dynamics in the hyporheic region and overlying unsaturated zone of the river banks. Where this is the case, it is important to understand the effects that an artificially-induced change in river stage can have on the chemical, plant, and microbial components of the unsaturated zone. Daily releases from an upstream dam cause rapid stage fluctuations in the Lower Colorado River east of Austin, Texas. For this study, we utilized an array of water and gas wells along a transect perpendicular to the river to investigate the biogeochemical process occurring in this mixing zone. The gas wells were installed at several depths up to 1.5 meters, and facilitated the continuous monitoring of soil gases as the pulse percolated through the river bank. Water samples collected from the screened wells penetrated to depths below the water table and were analyzed for nutrients, carbon, and major ions. Additionally, two soil cores were taken at different distances from the river and analyzed for soil moisture and grain size. These cores were also analyzed for microbial activity using the total heterotroph count method and the acetylene inhibition technique, a sensitive method of measuring denitrifying activity. The results provide a detailed picture of soil gas flux and biogeochemical processes in the bank environment in a regulated river. Findings indicate that a river pulse that causes a meter-scale change in river stage causes small, centimeter-scale pulses in the water table. We propose that these conditions create an area of elevated microbial respiration at the base of the unsaturated zone that appears to be decoupled from normal diurnal fluctuations. Along the transect, CO2 concentrations increased with increasing depth down to the water table. CO2 concentrations were highest in the time following a pulse

  7. Convergence dynamics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.-W.; Yang Shizhong

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, the characteristics of the convergence dynamics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with distributed transmission delays are studied. Without assuming the symmetry of synaptic connection weights and the monotonicity and differentiability of activation functions, the Lyapunov functionals are constructed and the generalized Halanay-type inequalities are employed to derive the delay-independent sufficient conditions under which the networks converge exponentially to the equilibria associated with temporally uniform external inputs. Some examples are given to illustrate the correctness of our results

  8. ENVIRONMENT-DEPENDENT ADMIXTURE DYNAMICS IN A TIGER SALAMANDER HYBRID ZONE. (R828896)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Substrate adhesion regulates sealing zone architecture and dynamics in cultured osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Anderegg

    Full Text Available The bone-degrading activity of osteoclasts depends on the formation of a cytoskeletal-adhesive super-structure known as the sealing zone (SZ. The SZ is a dynamic structure, consisting of a condensed array of podosomes, the elementary adhesion-mediating structures of osteoclasts, interconnected by F-actin filaments. The molecular composition and structure of the SZ were extensively investigated, yet despite its major importance for bone formation and remodelling, the mechanisms underlying its assembly and dynamics are still poorly understood. Here we determine the relations between matrix adhesiveness and the formation, stability and expansion of the SZ. By growing differentiated osteoclasts on micro-patterned glass substrates, where adhesive areas are separated by non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG barriers, we show that SZ growth and fusion strictly depend on the continuity of substrate adhesiveness, at the micrometer scale. We present a possible model for the role of mechanical forces in SZ formation and reorganization, inspired by the current data.

  10. On the role of infiltration and exfiltration in swash zone boundary layer dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado-Patiño, José Carlos; Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Puleo, Jack A.; Pokrajac, Dubravka

    2015-09-01

    Boundary layer dynamics are investigated using a 2-D numerical model that solves the Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with a VOF-tracking scheme and a k - ɛ turbulence closure. The model is validated with highly resolved data of dam break driven swash flows over gravel impermeable and permeable beds. The spatial gradients of the velocity, bed shear stress, and turbulence intensity terms are investigated with reference to bottom boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Numerical results show that the mean vorticity responds to flow divergence/convergence at the surface that result from accelerating/decelerating portions of the flow, bed shear stress, and sinking/injection of turbulence due to infiltration/exfiltration. Hence, the zero up-crossing of the vorticity is employed as a proxy of the BL thickness inside the shallow swash zone flows. During the uprush phase, the BL develops almost instantaneously with bore arrival and fluctuates below the surface due to flow instabilities and related horizontal straining. In contrast, during the backwash phase, the BL grows quasi-linearly with less influence of surface-induced forces. However, the infiltration produces a reduction of the maximum excursion and duration of the swash event. These effects have important implications for the BL development. The numerical results suggest that the BL growth rate deviates rapidly from a quasi-linear trend if the infiltration is dominant during the initial backwash phase and the flat plate boundary layer theory may no longer be applicable under these conditions.

  11. Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and

  12. Investigation of the interfacial properties of polyurethane/carbon nanotube hybrid composites: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclon, Jakub; Panczyk, Tomasz; Winkler, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Considering the varied applications of hybrid polymer/carbon nanotube composites and the constant progress in the synthesis methods of such materials, we report a theoretical study of interfacial layer formation between pristine single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and polyurethane (PU) using molecular dynamic simulations. We vary the SWCNT diameter and the number of PU chains to examine various PU-SWCNT interaction patterns. Our simulations indicate the important role of intra-chain forces in PU. No regular polymeric structures could be identified on the carbon nanotube surface during the simulations. We find that increasing the SWCNT diameter results in stronger polymer binding. However, higher surface loadings of PU lead to stronger interpenetration by the polymeric segments; this effect is more apparent for SWCNTs with small diameters. Our core finding is that the attached PU binds most strongly to the carbon nanotubes with the largest diameters. Polymer dynamics reveal the loose distribution of PU chains in these systems.

  13. Sampling Enrichment toward Target Structures Using Hybrid Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kecheng Yang

    Full Text Available Sampling enrichment toward a target state, an analogue of the improvement of sampling efficiency (SE, is critical in both the refinement of protein structures and the generation of near-native structure ensembles for the exploration of structure-function relationships. We developed a hybrid molecular dynamics (MD-Monte Carlo (MC approach to enrich the sampling toward the target structures. In this approach, the higher SE is achieved by perturbing the conventional MD simulations with a MC structure-acceptance judgment, which is based on the coincidence degree of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS intensity profiles between the simulation structures and the target structure. We found that the hybrid simulations could significantly improve SE by making the top-ranked models much closer to the target structures both in the secondary and tertiary structures. Specifically, for the 20 mono-residue peptides, when the initial structures had the root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD from the target structure smaller than 7 Å, the hybrid MD-MC simulations afforded, on average, 0.83 Å and 1.73 Å in RMSD closer to the target than the parallel MD simulations at 310K and 370K, respectively. Meanwhile, the average SE values are also increased by 13.2% and 15.7%. The enrichment of sampling becomes more significant when the target states are gradually detectable in the MD-MC simulations in comparison with the parallel MD simulations, and provide >200% improvement in SE. We also performed a test of the hybrid MD-MC approach in the real protein system, the results showed that the SE for 3 out of 5 real proteins are improved. Overall, this work presents an efficient way of utilizing solution SAXS to improve protein structure prediction and refinement, as well as the generation of near native structures for function annotation.

  14. In vitro adhesion of staphylococci to diamond-like carbon polymer hybrids under dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Antti; Levon, Jaakko; Katsikogianni, Maria; Myllymaa, Katja; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Kinnari, Teemu J; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Missirlis, Yannis

    2011-03-01

    This study compares the ability of selected materials to inhibit adhesion of two bacterial strains commonly implicated in implant-related infections. These two strains are Staphylococcus aureus (S-15981) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984). In experiments we tested six different materials, three conventional implant metals: titanium, tantalum and chromium, and three diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings: DLC, DLC-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) and DLC-polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coatings. DLC coating represents extremely hard material whereas DLC hybrids represent novel nanocomposite coatings. The two DLC polymer hybrid films were chosen for testing due to their hardness, corrosion resistance and extremely good non-stick (hydrophobic and oleophobic) properties. Bacterial adhesion assay tests were performed under dynamic flow conditions by using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC). The results show that adhesion of S. aureus to DLC-PTFE-h and to tantalum was significantly (P DLC-PDMS-h (0.671 ± 0.001 × 10(7)/cm(2) and 0.751 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2) vs. 1.055 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2), respectively). No significant differences were detected between other tested materials. Hence DLC-PTFE-h coating showed as low susceptibility to S. aureus adhesion as all the tested conventional implant metals. The adherence of S. epidermidis to biomaterials was not significantly (P DLC-PTFE-h films could be used as a biomaterial coating without increasing the risk of implant-related infections.

  15. Inclusion of methoxy groups inverts the thermodynamic stabilities of DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gorle; Priyakumar, U Deva

    2015-09-01

    Modified nucleic acids have found profound applications in nucleic acid based technologies such as antisense and antiviral therapies. Previous studies on chemically modified nucleic acids have suggested that modifications incorporated in furanose sugar especially at 2'-position attribute special properties to nucleic acids when compared to other modifications. 2'-O-methyl modification to deoxyribose sugars of DNA-RNA hybrids is one such modification that increases nucleic acid stability and has become an attractive class of compounds for potential antisense applications. It has been reported that modification of DNA strands with 2'-O-methyl group reverses the thermodynamic stability of DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on two hybrid duplexes (DR and RD) which differ from each other and 2'-O-methyl modified counterparts to investigate the effect of 2'-O-methyl modification on their duplex stability. The results obtained suggest that the modification drives the conformations of both the hybrid duplexes towards A-RNA like conformation. The modified hybrid duplexes exhibit significantly contrasting dynamics and hydration patterns compared to respective parent duplexes. In line with the experimental results, the relative binding free energies suggest that the introduced modifications stabilize the less stable DR hybrid, but destabilize the more stable RD duplex. Binding free energy calculations suggest that the increased hydrophobicity is primarily responsible for the reversal of thermodynamic stability of hybrid duplexes. Free energy component analysis further provides insights into the stability of modified duplexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  17. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in lysimeters with sandy soil under an automatic rain-out shelter to study the effects of subsurface drip irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD), on nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-plant system of potatoes...

  18. Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, Marc R.; Huisman, Henkjan J.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Jager, Gerrit J.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Blickman, Johan G.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate which parameters of dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T2 relaxation rate would result in optimal discrimination of prostatic carcinoma from normal peripheral zone (PZ) and central gland (CG) tissues and to correlate these parameters with tumor stage, Gleason score,

  19. Multiple Time-Step Dual-Hamiltonian Hybrid Molecular Dynamics - Monte Carlo Canonical Propagation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Kale, Seyit; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R; Roux, Benoît

    2016-04-12

    A multiple time-step integrator based on a dual Hamiltonian and a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) is proposed to sample systems in the canonical ensemble. The Dual Hamiltonian Multiple Time-Step (DHMTS) algorithm is based on two similar Hamiltonians: a computationally expensive one that serves as a reference and a computationally inexpensive one to which the workload is shifted. The central assumption is that the difference between the two Hamiltonians is slowly varying. Earlier work has shown that such dual Hamiltonian multiple time-step schemes effectively precondition nonlinear differential equations for dynamics by reformulating them into a recursive root finding problem that can be solved by propagating a correction term through an internal loop, analogous to RESPA. Of special interest in the present context, a hybrid MD-MC version of the DHMTS algorithm is introduced to enforce detailed balance via a Metropolis acceptance criterion and ensure consistency with the Boltzmann distribution. The Metropolis criterion suppresses the discretization errors normally associated with the propagation according to the computationally inexpensive Hamiltonian, treating the discretization error as an external work. Illustrative tests are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano...... of transfection-competent siRNA-DOTAP lipoplexes from the LPNs. Based on these results, we suggest a model for the nanostructural characteristics of the LPNs, in which the siRNA is organized in lamellar superficial assemblies and/or as complexes entrapped in the polymeric matrix.......Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA......) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X...

  1. Simulating Dynamic Fracture in Oxide Fuel Pellets Using Cohesive Zone Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Williamson

    2009-08-01

    It is well known that oxide fuels crack during the first rise to power, with continued fracture occurring during steady operation and especially during power ramps or accidental transients. Fractures have a very strong influence on the stress state in the fuel which, in turn, drives critical phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel creep, and eventual fuel/clad mechanical interaction. Recently, interest has been expressed in discrete fracture methods, such as the cohesive zone approach. Such models are attractive from a mechanistic and physical standpoint, since they reflect the localized nature of cracking. The precise locations where fractures initiate, as well as the crack evolution characteristics, are determined as part of the solution. This paper explores the use of finite element cohesive zone concepts to predict dynamic crack behavior in oxide fuel pellets during power-up, steady operation, and power ramping. The aim of this work is first to provide an assessment of cohesive zone models for application to fuel cracking and explore important numerical issues associated with this fracture approach. A further objective is to provide basic insight into where and when cracks form, how they interact, and how cracking effects the stress field in a fuel pellet. The ABAQUS commercial finite element code, which includes powerful cohesive zone capabilities, was used for this study. Fully-coupled thermo-mechanical behavior is employed, including the effects of thermal expansion, swelling due to solid and gaseous fission products, and thermal creep. Crack initiation is determined by a temperature-dependent maximum stress criterion, based on measured fracture strengths for UO2. Damage evolution is governed by a traction-separation relation, calibrated to data from temperature and burn-up dependent fracture toughness measurements. Numerical models are first developed in 2D based on both axisymmetric (to explore axial cracking) and plane strain (to explore radial

  2. Hybrid broadband Ground Motion simulation based on a dynamic rupture model of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Bayless, J.; Dalguer, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake exhibits depth-dependent variations in the frequency content of seismic radiation from the plate interface. This depth-varying rupture property has also been observed in other subduction zones (Lay et al, 2012). During the Tohoku earthquake, the shallow region radiated coherent low frequency seismic waves whereas the deeper region radiated high frequency waves. Several kinematic inversions (Suzuki et al, 2011; Lee et al, 2011; Bletery et al, 2014; Minson et al, 2014) detected seismic waves below 0.1 Hz coming from the shallow depths that produced slip larger than 40-50 meters close to the trench. Using empirical green functions, Asano & Iwata (2012), Kurahashi and Irikura (2011) and others detected regions of strong ground motion radiation at frequencies up to 10Hz located mainly at the bottom of the plate interface. A recent dynamic model that embodies this depth-dependent radiation using physical models has been developed by Galvez et al (2014, 2015). In this model the rupture process is modeled using a linear weakening friction law with slip reactivation on the shallow region of the plate interface (Galvez et al, 2015). This model reproduces the multiple seismic wave fronts recorded on the Kik-net seismic network along the Japanese coast up to 0.1 Hz as well as the GPS displacements. In the deep region, the rupture sequence is consistent with the sequence of the strong ground motion generation areas (SMGAs) that radiate high frequency ground motion at the bottom of the plate interface (Kurahashi and Irikura, 2013). It remains challenging to perform ground motions fully coupled with a dynamic rupture up to 10 Hz for a megathrust event. Therefore, to generate high frequency ground motions, we make use of the stochastic approach of Graves and Pitarka (2010) but add to the source spectrum the slip rate function of the dynamic model. In this hybrid-dynamic approach, the slip rate function is windowed with Gaussian

  3. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1 Attrition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyong Chen

    2014-01-01

    hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1 battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation, and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics. Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tactics control problem for warfare hybrid dynamic system. The optimal control strategies are designed based on dynamic programming and differential game theory. As an example of the consequences of this optimal control problem, we take the (2, 1 case and solve the optimal strategies in a (2, 1 case. Simulation results show the feasibility of warfare hybrid system model and the effectiveness of the optimal control strategies designed.

  4. Transfer matrix method for dynamics modeling and independent modal space vibration control design of linear hybrid multibody system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Bao; Rui, Xiaoting; Lu, Kun; Tao, Ling; Wang, Guoping; Ni, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an efficient method of dynamics modeling and vibration control design of a linear hybrid multibody system (MS) is studied based on the transfer matrix method. The natural vibration characteristics of a linear hybrid MS are solved by using low-order transfer equations. Then, by constructing the brand-new body dynamics equation, augmented operator and augmented eigenvector, the orthogonality of augmented eigenvector of a linear hybrid MS is satisfied, and its state space model expressed in each independent model space is obtained easily. According to this dynamics model, a robust independent modal space-fuzzy controller is designed for vibration control of a general MS, and the genetic optimization of some critical control parameters of fuzzy tuners is also presented. Two illustrative examples are performed, which results show that this method is computationally efficient and with perfect control performance.

  5. Toward an improved understanding of the role of transpiration in critical zone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, B.; Papuga, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the total water balance across any ecosystem. In subalpine mixed-conifer ecosystems, transpiration (T) often dominates the total water flux and therefore improved understanding of T is critical for accurate assessment of catchment water balance and for understanding of the processes that governs the complex dynamics across critical zone (CZ). The interaction between T and plant vegetation not only modulates soil water balance but also influences water transit time and hydrochemical flux - key factors in our understanding of how the CZ evolves and responds. Unlike an eddy covariance system which provides only an integrated ET flux from an ecosystem, a sap flow system can provide an estimate of the T flux from the ecosystem. By isolating T, the ecohydrological drivers of this major water loss from the CZ can be identified. Still, the species composition of mixed-conifer ecosystems vary and the drivers of T associated with each species are expected to be different. Therefore, accurate quantification of T from a mixed-conifer requires knowledge of the unique transpiration dynamics of each of the tree species. Here, we installed a sap flow system within two mixed-conifer study sites of the Jemez River Basin - Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (JRB - SCM CZO). At both sites, we identified the dominant tree species and installed sap flow sensors on healthy representatives for each of those species. At the JRB CZO site, sap sensors were installed in fir (4) and spruce (4) trees; at the SCM CZO site, sap sensors were installed at white fir (4) and maple (4) and one dead tree. Meteorological data as well as soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (θ) at multiple depths were also collected from each of the two sites. Preliminary analysis of two years of sap flux rate at JRB - SCM CZO shows that the environmental drivers of fir, spruce, and maple are different and also vary throughout the year. For JRB fir

  6. Study of local-zone microstructure, strength and fracture toughness of hybrid laser-metal-inert-gas-welded A7N01 aluminum alloy joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Li, Mingxing; Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2017-03-14

    Mechanical properties of hybrid laser-metal-inert-gas-welded A7N01-T5 aluminum alloy joints were studied by using local samples that were extracted from the base metal (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and fusion zone (FZ) of the joint to investigate the triangular relationship of microstructure, strength and fracture toughness of the local zones. The BM had the highest yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and lowest elongation, which contrasts with the FZ. The yield strength of the HAZ is lower than that of the BM, whereas its UTS is very close to that of the BM, and its elongation is higher than that of the BM. The fracture toughness of the three local zones decreased as HAZ>BM>FZ. To analyze differences in local mechanical behavior, the detailed microstructure of the three local zones was studied by optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction, whereas the fracture surface and precipitation were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The variation of grain size, especially the morphology and distribution of strengthening phase in HAZ in welding process is the key factor that leads to its different mechanical properties from that of BM, which can be elucidated by different dislocation mechanism, sheared mechanism or Orowan mechanism. The as-cast microstructure and second-phase particles that segregate between dendritic branches provide the FZ with the lowest yield strength and UTS. The factors including area fraction of the precipitates, the difference of strength between the matrix and the grain boundaries, the precipitate-free zone along grain boundaries, as well as the grain boundaries angle are taken into account to explain the difference of fracture toughness among BM, HAZ and FZ, and their fracture modes.

  7. Demonstration of variation in chondrocyte activity in different zones of articular cartilage: an assessment of the value of in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, P J; Hoyland, J A; Parkinson, R; Freemont, A J

    1991-04-01

    Several methods have been described for investigating chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. In this study, in-situ hybridization (ISH) using an oligonucleotide probe (i.e. a poly-d(T) probe) to detect total messenger RNA (mRNA) in cartilage explants has been compared with radiosulphate and radioleucine uptake studies in an attempt to assess the value of ISH in investigating chondrocyte metabolism. The relative results of the three parameters indicate qualitative similarities in cells in the intermediate, deep and calcified zones but differences in the superficial zone. The relative levels of mRNA and leucine and sulphate uptake in the midzone areas could be construed as indicating that the bulk of cellular activity was directed towards the synthesis of proteoglycans. A similar relation between the three parameters, but at a lower level, was seen in chondrocytes in the calcified zone demonstrating that these cells are viable and biosynthetic. Both quantitative and qualitative differences between the three methods were observed in the superficial chondrocytes regarding the amount of mRNA compared to sulphate and leucine uptake. The results suggest that ISH can detect differences in the amount of mRNA present in chondrocytes in differing zones of cartilage and, like the radioleucine and radiosulphate studies, particularly emphasizes their functional heterogeneity.

  8. Hybridized Kibble-Zurek scaling in the driven critical dynamics across an overlapping critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Liang-Jun; Wang, Huai-Yu; Yin, Shuai

    2018-04-01

    The conventional Kibble-Zurek scaling describes the scaling behavior in the driven dynamics across a single critical region. In this paper, we study the driven dynamics across an overlapping critical region, in which a critical region (Region A) is overlaid by another critical region (Region B). We develop a hybridized Kibble-Zurek scaling (HKZS) to characterize the scaling behavior in the driven process. According to the HKZS, the driven dynamics in the overlapping region can be described by the critical theories for both Region A and Region B simultaneously. This results in a constraint on the scaling function in the overlapping critical region. We take the quantum Ising chain in an imaginary longitudinal field as an example. In this model, the critical region of the Yang-Lee edge singularity and the critical region of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition overlap with each other. We numerically confirm the HKZS by simulating the driven dynamics in this overlapping critical region. The HKZSs in other models are also discussed.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of SAR11 populations in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the northwestern Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Craig A; Morris, Robert; Parsons, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    , resolving their temporal dynamics can provide important insights to the cycling of organic and inorganic nutrients. This quantitative time-series data revealed distinct annual distribution patterns of SAR11 abundance in the euphotic (0-120) and upper mesopelagic (160-300 m) zones that were reproducibly...... correlated with seasonal mixing and stratification of the water column. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data generated from a decade of samples collected at BATS were combined with the FISH data to model the annual dynamics of SAR11 subclade populations. 16S rRNA gene clone...... the Sargasso Sea surface layer, and revealed new details of their population dynamics....

  10. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  11. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashifane, T. B.; Vichi, M.; Waldron, H. N.; Machu, E.; Garçonc, V.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nitrite dynamics in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) is a challenge as it represents an intermediary nitrogen species with a short turnover time. Nitrite is also reduced to nitrogen in OMZs, preventing its accumulation. This creates difficulties in detecting nitrite with colorimetric methods as concentrations may occur below detection limits in some regions. Nitrite concentrations are key to understanding intermediate nitrogen processes and their implication for nitrogen loss in OMZs. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is applied in the Benguela OMZ to study nitrite dynamics and its associated feedback processes. Simulated results show occurrence of primary and secondary nitrite maxima in the Benguela shelf waters. The primary nitrite maxima in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification and nitrate assimilation as they occur in association with the nitracline. Secondary nitrite maxima accumulate in the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) OMZ and are attributed to denitrification. The secondary nitrite maxima are consumed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) off Walvis Bay. Nitrite maxima are restricted to the shelf off Walvis Bay and advected offshore in the ABF region. Interchanges between the poleward South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the equatorward, well-aerated Eastern South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) drive the seasonality of nitrogen processes in the Benguela. Subsequent nitrite reduction in the Benguela OMZ leads to nitrous oxide production, with high concentrations occurring in the ABF region as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Off Walvis Bay, nitrous oxide production is low since nitrite is consumed by anammox. Nitrous oxide production occurs in thermocline, intermediate and deeper water masses in the ABF region. High N fluxes in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification as compared to anammox and denitrification. Results from this study demonstrate the role of intermediate nitrogen species in nitrogen feedback

  12. Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and their transition in the Daling Thrust (DT) zone, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Dasgupta, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    The Daling Thrust (DT) delineates a zone of intense shear localization in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. From microstructural studies of deformed quartzite samples, we show a transition in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism with increasing distance from the DT, dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) recrystallization closest to the DT, and progressively replaced by sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization away from the thrust. The transition is marked by a characteristic variation in the fractal dimension (D) of grain boundaries, estimated from the area-perimeter method. For the BLG regime, D ≈ 1.046, which decreases significantly to a value as low as 1.025 for the SGR regime. Using the available thermal data for BLG and SGR recrystallization, we infer increasing deformation temperatures away from the DT in the hanging wall. Based on the quartz piezometer our estimates reveal strong variations in the flow stress (59.00 MPa to 16.00 MPa) over a distance of 1.2 km from the DT. Deformation mechanism maps constructed for different temperatures indicate that the strain rates (10- 12 S- 1 to 10- 14 S- 1) comply with the geologically possible range. Finally, we present a mechanical model to provide a possible explanation for the cause of stress intensification along the DT.

  13. Dynamic simulation of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle during the federal test procedure-75 driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sanggyu; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a FCHV dynamic model. • Integration of a PEMFC system dynamic model with the electric vehicle model. • Investigation of the dynamic behavior of the FCEV and PEMFC system during FTP-75. • Capturing the dynamic correlation among components in PEMFC system during FTP-75. - Abstract: The dynamic behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is a crucial factor to ensure the safe and effective operation of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs). Specifically, water and thermal management are critical to stabilize the performance of the PEMFC during severe load changes. In the present study, the FCHV dynamic model is developed. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system developed by Matlab–Simulink® is integrated into the electric vehicle model embedded in the Amesim®. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system is composed of a PEMFC stack, an air feeding system, and a thermal management system (TMS). The component models of PEMFC, a shell-and-tube gas-to-gas membrane humidifier, and a heat exchanger are validated via a comparison with the experimental data. The FCHV model is simulated during a federal test procedure (FTP)-75 driving cycle. One system configuration and control strategy is adopted to attain optimal water and thermal management in the PEMFC system. The vehicle speed obtained from the FCHV model aptly tracks the target velocity profile of the FTP-75 cycle within an error of ±0.5%. The dynamic behavior and correlation of each component in the PEMFC system is investigated. The mass and heat transfer in the PEMFC, a humidifier, and a heat exchanger are resolved to determine the species concentration and the temperature more accurately with discretization in the flow’s perpendicular direction. Discretization in the flow parallel direction of humidifier and heat exchanger model makes it possible to capture the distribution of the characteristics. The present model can be used to attain the optimization of the system

  14. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  15. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  16. Hybrid SOA-SQP algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasubramani, S.; Swarup, K.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid technique combining a new heuristic algorithm named seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for solving dynamic economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects. The SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching, where the search direction is based on the empirical gradient (EG) by evaluating the response to the position changes and the step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple fuzzy rule. In this paper, SOA is used as a base level search, which can give a good direction to the optimal global region and SQP as a local search to fine tune the solution obtained from SOA. Thus SQP guides SOA to find optimal or near optimal solution in the complex search space. Two test systems i.e., 5 unit with losses and 10 unit without losses, have been taken to validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid method. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed method outperforms the existing method in terms of solution quality. (author)

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of an Isolated Hybrid Power System in a Rural Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojian Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In some rural areas in the northwest of China, people are suffering from not only the voltage drop due to long distance transmission but also the power outages due to remoteness and poorly maintained grid. In recent few years, the price of solar energy has been reduced drastically every year in China due to the government policy on renewable energy. In the near future, isolated hybrid power systems for home use could be affordable and used by residences in these rural areas. Thus, it is necessary to design a hybrid power system based on local load and weather condition to check system feasibility and expected performance. It includes load simulation, system sizing, and dynamic system modeling and simulation. This paper firstly introduces current development of renewable energy in China and then goes through the sizing, modeling, and simulation of the system design for a typical remote home in China and finally discusses the system’s availability based on the simulation results. In this paper, the NASA website is the source for weather data, and BEopt is used to generate load data. During system modeling, the MPPT algorithm is much simpler designed than the complex incremental method. A soft starter is adopted with the diesel generator for stability. The charge controller of the battery storage provides external command to the MPPT and diesel PID controller to prevent the battery storage from overcharging. The rms value of the fundamental load voltage is used in the voltage control loop of the inverter.

  18. Low temperature excitonic spectroscopy and dynamics as a probe of quality in hybrid perovskite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Som; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Chen, Yen-Chang; Lin, Oliver; Gopinathan, Ajay; Tung, Vincent C; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2016-10-19

    We have developed a framework for using temperature dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence (PL) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (PVSKs) to characterize lattice defects in thin films, based on the presence of nanodomains at low temperature. Our high-stability PVSK films are fabricated using a novel continuous liquid interface propagation technique, and in the tetragonal phase (T > 120 K), they exhibit bi-exponential recombination from free charge carriers with an average PL lifetime of ∼200 ns. Below 120 K, the emergence of the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a reduction in lifetimes by an order of magnitude, which we establish to be the result of a crossover from free carrier to exciton-dominated radiative recombination. Analysis of the PL as a function of excitation power at different temperatures provides direct evidence that the exciton binding energy is different in the two phases, and using these results, we present a theoretical approach to estimate this variable binding energy. Our findings explain this anomalous low temperature behavior for the first time, attributing it to an inherent fundamental property of the hybrid PVSKs that can be used as an effective probe of thin film quality.

  19. Optimization of a Continuous Hybrid Impeller Mixer via Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT. Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.

  20. Optimization of a continuous hybrid impeller mixer via computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Meor Adnan, M A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT). Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD) was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF) was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.

  1. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  2. Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina

    Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high

  3. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  4. Hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Dynamic Supply Chain Network Design under Traffic Congestion and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Jouzdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.

  5. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  6. Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory. New Dynamic Practices of Cultural Memory in the Multi-Platform Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article, television is reconsidered as a hybrid ‘repertoire’ ofmemory. It is demonstrated how new dynamic production and scheduling practicesin connection with highly accessible and participatory forms of user engagementoffer opportunities for television users to engage with the

  7. Extracted Venom and Cuticular Compounds of Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., and Chemotaxonomic Applications Across a Persistent Hybrid Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of cuticular biomolecular assemblages for imported fire ants permit basic distinctions among colonies of S. invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrids; thus, providing opportunities to investigate details of landscape ecology for this species complex as well as to assess levels of inva...

  8. Modeling pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Autret, Jean-Marie; Diard, Catherine; Marchal, Luc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-04-24

    A model based on mass transfer resistances and acid-base equilibriums at the liquid-liquid interface was developed for the pH-zone refining mode when it is used in countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The binary separation of catharanthine and vindoline, two alkaloids used as starting material for the semi-synthesis of chemotherapy drugs, was chosen for the model validation. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system. First, hydrodynamics and mass transfer were studied by using chemical tracers. Trypan blue only present in the aqueous phase allowed the determination of the parameters τextra and Pe for hydrodynamic characterization whereas acetone, which partitioned between the two phases, allowed the determination of the transfer parameter k0a. It was shown that mass transfer was improved by increasing both flow rate and rotational speed, which is consistent with the observed mobile phase dispersion. Then, the different transfer parameters of the model (i.e. the local transfer coefficient for the different species involved in the process) were determined by fitting experimental concentration profiles. The model accurately predicted both equilibrium and dynamics factors (i.e. local mass transfer coefficients and acid-base equilibrium constant) variation with the CCC operating conditions (cell number, flow rate, rotational speed and thus stationary phase retention). The initial hypotheses (the acid-base reactions occurs instantaneously at the interface and the process is mainly governed by mass transfer) are thus validated. Finally, the model was used as a tool for catharanthine and vindoline separation prediction in the whole experimental domain that corresponded to a flow rate between 20 and 60 mL/min and rotational speeds from 900 and 2100 rotation per minutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing the intra-urban spatiotemporal dynamics of High Heat Stress Zones (Hotspots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreevastava, A.; Rao, P. S.; McGrath, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present an innovative framework to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of High Heat Stress Zones (Hot spots) created within an Urban area in the event of a Heat Wave. Heat waves are one of the leading causes of weather-related human mortality in many countries, and cities receive its worst brunt. The extreme heat stress within urban areas is often a synergistic combination of large-scale meteorological events, and the locally exacerbated impacts due to Urban Heat Islands (UHI). UHI is typically characterized as the difference between mean temperature of the urban and rural area. As a result, it fails to capture the significant variability that exists within the city itself. This variability arises from the diverse and complex spatial geometries of cities. Previous studies that have attempted to quantify the heat stress at an intra-urban scale are labor intensive, expensive, and difficult to emulate globally as they rely on availability of extensive data and their assimilation. The proposed study takes advantage of the well-established notion of fractal properties of cities to make the methods scalable to other cities where in-situ observational data might not be available. As an input, land surface temperatures are estimated using Landsat data. Using clustering analysis, we probe the emergence of thermal hotspots. The probability distributions (PD) of these hotspots are found to follow a power-law distribution in agreement with fractal characteristics of the city. PDs of several archetypical cities are then investigated to compare the effect of different spatial structures (e.g. monocentric v/s polycentric, sprawl v/s compact). Further, the temporal variability of the distributions on a diurnal as well as a seasonal scale is discussed. Finally, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the urban hotspots under a heat-wave (E.g. Delhi Heat wave, 2015) are compared against the non-heat wave scenarios. In summary, a technique that is globally adaptive and

  10. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  11. Characterization of the Dynamic Littoral Zone: An Exercise in the Real-Time Dynamics of Spatial Data Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breckenridge, John

    2000-01-01

    The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) has established 'Phase I Proof-of-Concept Demonstration for an Integrated Interagency Characterization of the Littoral Zone' under the program direction of Chung Hye Read...

  12. Exploring the dynamic links between microbial ecology and redox state of the hyporheic zone: insight from flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Cardenas, M. B.; Stegen, J.; Graham, E.; Cook, P. L. M.; Kessler, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) provides key ecosystem services such as heavy metal sequestration, nutrient uptake and consumption, and habitat for a diverse collection of ecologically and commercially important species. Microbes are responsible for many of the chemical transformations in the HZ. These microbe populations are intimately linked to redox conditions, and recent work has shown that redox conditions in the HZ can be highly dynamic. Here we investigate the dynamic coupling between surface flow conditions, hyporheic redox conditions, and the hyporheic microbiome. Our window into this world is a large experimental flume (5m x 0.7m x 0.3m), prepared and incubated in a way that is relatively common to hyporheic zone research, without a strong attempt to impose a specific microbial community structure. We use computer-controlled flow combined with sand bedforms within the flume to generate a pattern of oxic and anoxic sediment zones, from which we collected sediment and water samples. Dissolved oxygen was mapped with a large planar optode. The samples were analyzed for microbial community composition through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We compare the population structure between oxic and anoxic zones, showing that the presence of oxygen in the HZ is a strong predictor of microbial composition. Additionally, we compare both the oxic and anoxic community structure from the flume to those of samples taken from natural environments, showing both interesting similarities and differences. In the future, we plan to use time-series sampling to observe the response times of microbial communities subjected to dynamic surface channel flow and redox conditions. This work will yield greater understanding of the role that dynamic rivers play in microbe-provided ecosystem services.

  13. Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting in Subduction Zones: Inference from Pseudotachylytes and Ultracataclasites in an Ancient Accretionary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ujiie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fault rocks in ancient accretionary complexes exhumed from seismogenic depths may provide an invaluable opportunity to examine the mechanisms and mechanics of seismic slip in subduction thrusts and splay faults. In order to understand the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones, we analyzed pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites from the Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.21.2007

  14. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the interaction between the various variables associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF such as the mosquito vector, available hosts and rainfall distribution. To that end, the varying zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes (ZPOM, rainfall events and pond dynamics, and the associated exposure of hosts to the RVF virus by Aedes vexans, were analyzed in the Barkedji area of the Ferlo, Senegal, during the 2003 rainy season. Ponds were identified by remote sensing using a high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite image. Additional data on ponds and rainfall events from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were combined with in-situ entomological and limnimetric measurements, and the localization of vulnerable ruminant hosts (data derived from QuickBird satellite. Since “Ae. vexans productive events” are dependent on the timing of rainfall for their embryogenesis (six days without rain are necessary to trigger hatching, the dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Ae. vexans density was based on the total rainfall amount and pond dynamics. Detailed ZPOM mapping was obtained on a daily basis and combined with aggressiveness temporal profiles. Risks zones, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability are combined, are expressed by the percentages of parks where animals are potentially exposed to mosquito bites. This new approach, simply relying upon rainfall distribution evaluated from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of a new, operational early warning system for RVF based on environmental risks linked to climatic and environmental conditions.

  16. A Hybrid Dynamic System Assessment Methodology for Multi-Modal Transportation-Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.T. van der Wardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrified transportation, be it in the form of buses, trains, or cars have become an emerging form of mobility. Electric vehicles (EVs, especially, are set to expand the amount of electric miles driven and energy consumed. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether EVs will be technically feasible within infrastructure systems. Fundamentally, EVs interact with three interconnected systems: the (physical transportation system, the electric power grid, and their supporting information systems. Coupling of the two physical systems essentially forms a nexus, the transportation-electricity nexus (TEN. This paper presents a hybrid dynamic system assessment methodology for multi-modal transportation-electrification. At its core, it utilizes a mathematical model which consists of a marked Petri-net model superimposed on the continuous time microscopic traffic dynamics and the electrical state evolution. The methodology consists of four steps: (1 establish the TEN structure; (2 establish the TEN behavior; (3 establish the TEN Intelligent Transportation-Energy System (ITES decision-making; and (4 assess the TEN performance. In the presentation of the methodology, the Symmetrica test case is used throughout as an illustrative example. Consequently, values for several measures of performance are provided. This methodology is presented generically and may be used to assess the effects of transportation-electrification in any city or area; opening up possibilities for many future studies.

  17. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  18. A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maruccio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid computational framework is described here in order to assess the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. The proposed strategy basically consists of two steps. First, fully coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analyses are performed to evaluate the nonlinear static response of the device. An enhanced reduced-order model is then derived, where the global dynamic response is formulated in the state-space using lumped coefficients enriched with the information derived from the FE simulations. The electromechanical response of piezoelectric beams under forced vibrations is studied by means of the proposed approach, which is also validated by comparing numerical predictions with some experimental results. Such numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the main aim of studying the influence of material and geometrical parameters on the global nonlinear response. The advantage of the presented approach is that the overall computational and experimental efforts are significantly reduced while preserving a satisfactory accuracy in the assessment of the global behavior.

  19. An Online Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles are a compromise between traditional vehicles and pure electric vehicles and can be part of the solution to the energy shortage problem. Energy management strategies (EMSs are highly related to energy utilization in HEVs’ fuel economy. In this research, we have employed a neuro-dynamic programming (NDP method to simultaneously optimize fuel economy and battery state of charge (SOC. In this NDP method, the critic network is a multi-resolution wavelet neural network based on the Meyer wavelet function, and the action network is a conventional wavelet neural network based on the Morlet function. The weights and parameters of both networks are obtained by an algorithm of backpropagation type. The NDP-based EMS has been applied to a parallel HEV and compared with a previously reported NDP EMS and a stochastic dynamic programing-based method. Simulation results under ADVISOR2002 have shown that the proposed NDP approach achieves better performance than both the methods. These indicate that the proposed NDP EMS, and the CWNN and MRWNN, are effective in approximating a nonlinear system.

  20. Dynamic Simulation and Exergo-Economic Optimization of a Hybrid Solar–Geothermal Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic simulation model and a parametric analysis of a solar-geothermal hybrid cogeneration plant based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC powered by a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource and a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. The fluid temperature supplying heat to the ORC varies continuously as a function of the solar irradiation, affecting both the electrical and thermal energies produced by the system. Thus, a dynamic simulation was performed. The ORC model, developed in Engineering Equation Solver, is based on zero-dimensional energy and mass balances and includes specific algorithms to evaluate the off-design system performance. The overall simulation model of the solar-geothermal cogenerative plant was implemented in the TRNSYS environment. Here, the ORC model is imported, whereas the models of the other components of the system are developed on the basis of literature data. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting energetic, economic and exergetic performance data. Finally, a rigorous optimization has been performed to determine the set of system design/control parameters minimizing simple payback period and exergy destruction rate. The system is profitable when a significant amount of the heat produced is consumed. The highest irreversibilities are due to the solar field and to the heat exchangers.

  1. Electron currents in field reversed mirror dynamics: Theory and hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    To model the dynamics of the Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) as a whole we have developed a 1-D radical hybrid code which also incorporates the above electron null current model. This code, named FROST, models the plasma as azimuthally symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. Massless fluid equations describe electrons and low energy ions. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, the null region electron current model discussed above has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of neutral beam start-up in a 2XIIB-like plasma is discussed. There FROST predicts that electron currents will retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center. These results are optimistic when compared to actual reversal experiments in 2XIIB, because there finite axial length effects and micro-instabilities substantially deteriorated the ion confinement. Nevertheless, because of the importance of the electron current in a low field region in the FRM, FROST represents a valuable intermediate step toward a more complete description of FRM dynamics. 54 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Ac-driven vortex-antivortex dynamics in nanostructured superconductor-ferromagnetic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Clessio L.S., E-mail: clsl@df.ufpe.br [Nucleo de Tecnologia, Centro Academico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru-PE (Brazil); Souza Silva, Clecio C. de; Aguiar, J. Albino [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The dynamics of ac-driven vortices and antivortices in a superconducting film interacting with an array of magnetic dipoles on top is investigated via hybrid molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo simulations. The dipole array considered in this study is capable to stabilize in equilibrium vortex-antivortex pairs. The appearance of a net electric field out of the ac excitation demonstrates that this system behaves as a voltage rectifier. Because of the asymmetric nature of the effective pinning potential generated by the dipole array, the ac-driven vortices and antivortices are ratcheted in opposite directions, thereby contributing additively to the observed net voltage. In addition, for high frequency values, the dc electric field-ac amplitude curves present a series of steps. A careful analysis of the time series of the electric field and number of vortex-antivortex (v-av) pairs reveals that these steps are related to mode-locking between the drive frequency and the number of v-av creation-annihilation events.

  3. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles is limited for some types. A mathematical programming model in the form of the discrete nonlinear optimization model is proposed. A hybrid dynamic programming algorithm is developed for finding the optimal solution. To increase the computational efficiency of the solution algorithm, several concepts and routines, such as the imbedded state routine, surrogate constraint concept, and bounding schemes, are incorporated in the dynamic programming algorithm. A real world case problem is selected and solved by the proposed solution algorithm, and the optimal solution is obtained.

  4. Bridge Deterioration Prediction Model Based On Hybrid Markov-System Dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Soetjipto Jojok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instantaneous bridge failure tends to increase in Indonesia. To mitigate this condition, Indonesia’s Bridge Management System (I-BMS has been applied to continuously monitor the condition of bridges. However, I-BMS only implements visual inspection for maintenance priority of the bridge structure component instead of bridge structure system. This paper proposes a new bridge failure prediction model based on hybrid Markov-System Dynamic (MSD. System dynamic is used to represent the correlation among bridge structure components while Markov chain is used to calculate temporal probability of the bridge failure. Around 235 data of bridges in Indonesia were collected from Directorate of Bridge the Ministry of Public Works and Housing for calculating transition probability of the model. To validate the model, a medium span concrete bridge was used as a case study. The result shows that the proposed model can accurately predict the bridge condition. Besides predicting the probability of the bridge failure, this model can also be used as an early warning system for bridge monitoring activity.

  5. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien; Bunker, Matt; Zhang, Jianxin; Martin-Bertelsen, Birte; Yaghmur, Anan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Nielsen, Hanne M; Foged, Camilla

    2015-03-10

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies suggested that the siRNA-loaded LPNs are characterized by a core-shell structure consisting of a PLGA matrix core coated with lamellar DOTAP structures with siRNA localized both in the core and in the shell. Release studies in buffer and serum-containing medium combined with in vitro gene silencing and quantification of intracellular siRNA suggested that this self-assembling core-shell structure influences the siRNA release kinetics and the delivery dynamics. A main delivery mechanism appears to be mediated via the release of transfection-competent siRNA-DOTAP lipoplexes from the LPNs. Based on these results, we suggest a model for the nanostructural characteristics of the LPNs, in which the siRNA is organized in lamellar superficial assemblies and/or as complexes entrapped in the polymeric matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and dynamics of a cryptic suture zone in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C.; Hoskin, C.J.; MacKenzie, J.B.; Phillips, B.L.; Tonione, M.; Silva, N.; VanDerWal, J.; Williams, S.E.; Graham, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Suture zones, shared regions of secondary contact between long-isolated lineages, are natural laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. For tropical rainforest, the existence of suture zones and their significance for speciation has been controversial. Using comparative phylogeographic evidence, we locate a morphologically cryptic suture zone in the Australian Wet Tropics rainforest. Fourteen out of 18 contacts involve morphologically cryptic phylogeographic lineages, with mtDNA sequence divergences ranging from 2 to 15 per cent. Contact zones are significantly clustered in a suture zone located between two major Quaternary refugia. Within this area, there is a trend for secondary contacts to occur in regions with low environmental suitability relative to both adjacent refugia and, by inference, the parental lineages. The extent and form of reproductive isolation among interacting lineages varies across species, ranging from random admixture to speciation, in one case via reinforcement. Comparative phylogeographic studies, combined with environmental analysis at a fine-scale and across varying climates, can generate new insights into suture zone formation and to diversification processes in species-rich tropical rainforests. As arenas for evolutionary experimentation, suture zones merit special attention for conservation. PMID:19203915

  7. Dynamic modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasemeyer, Mark David

    The volatile prices of fossil fuels and their contribution to global warming have caused many people to turn to renewable energy systems. Many developing communities are forced to use these systems as they are too far from electrical distribution. As a result, numerous software models have been developed to simulate hybrid renewable energy systems. However almost, if not all, implementations are static in design. A static design limits the ability of the model to account for changes over time. Dynamic modeling can be used to fill the gaps where other modeling techniques fall short. This modeling practice allows the user to account for the effects of technological and economic factors over time. These factors can include changes in energy demand, energy production, and income level. Dynamic modeling can be particularly useful for developing communities who are off-grid and developing at rapid rates. In this study, a dynamic model was used to evaluate a real world system. A non-governmental organization interested in improving their current infrastructure was selected. Five different scenarios were analyzed and compared in order to discover which factors the model is most sensitive to. In four of the scenarios, a new energy system was purchased in order to account for the opening of a restaurant that would be used as a source of local income generation. These scenarios were then compared to a base case in which a new system was not purchased, and the restaurant was not opened. Finally, the results were used to determine which variables had the greatest impact on the various outputs of the simulation.

  8. Migration of the deforming zone during seismic shear and implications for field observations, dynamic weakening, and the onset of melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J. D.; Rice, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    diffusivity. Similarly, regions of high reactant mass fraction allow more vigorous thermal decomposition and thus attract straining. The migration outlined above has three important consequences: (1) Migration must be taken into account when inferring the width of the deforming zone from field observations. Even when the zone of localized straining is only a few tens of microns wide, migration can lead to a final strain profile with a zone of roughly uniform strain on the order of a millimeter wide. (2) For thermal pressurization the width of the deforming zone largely controls the initial weakening of the fault. A pre-existing zone of low hydraulic diffusivity localizes straining more efficiently leading to faster weakening. Thus, dynamic weakening may be controlled by the gouge properties in the region most susceptible to strain rate localization. (3) Migration of the localized zone distributes frictional heating over a broader region, leading to a much lower temperature rise when compared with a stationary shear zone. Our results rarely show temperatures above the melting temperature, providing a plausible explanation for the fact that melt signatures are rarely observed on mature faults active at shallower crustal depths.

  9. The influence of riverine nitrogen on the dynamics of the North Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große, Fabian; Kreus, Markus; Lenhart, Hermann; Pätsch, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    lowest bottom oxygen concentrations. In 2002, a year with high discharges from the European continental rivers, oxygen concentrations of less than 6 unit{mg L-1} are reached in that region, while in 2010 values stay well above 7.5 unit{mg L-1}. Mass balance calculations show that the remarkably lower values in 2002 are mainly caused by enhanced pelagic and benthic bacterial remineralisation during summer stratification (factor 1.55 higher than in 2010). The TBNT analysis reveals that almost 50 unit{%} of the bacterial consumption in that region are driven by the N supply from the Atlantic. However, the large continental rivers also account for about 23 unit{%} in 2010, and even 30 unit{%} in 2002. It further shows that in 2002, remineralisation due to N originating from these rivers is about twice as high as in 2010, representing the largest relative difference among all contributors. This demonstrates the great influence of the N input from the continental rivers on the oxygen dynamics in the North Sea minimum zone, and emphasises their importance for the eutrophication management in the southern central North Sea. {References} Troost, T. A., Blaas, M., Los, F. J. (2013). The role of atmospheric deposition in the eutrophication of the North Sea: a model analysis. Journal of Marine Systems, 125, 101-112.

  10. THE STUDY OF DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF THE ABSCISSA AND ORDINATE OF THE POINT AT THE FAR MERIDIAN SIX DEGREE ZONE IN THE PROJECTION GAUSS-KRUGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Mamedbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the dynamics of the abscissa and ordinate points in the far zone meridian six degree conformal Gauss-Kruger projection. Performed calculations and graphical representation of the classic formulas of conformal projection. 

  11. A hybrid hydrologic-geophysical inverse technique for the assessment and monitoring of leachates in the vadose zone. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    'It is the objective of this proposed study to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This fundamentally new approach to site characterization and monitoring will provide detailed knowledge about hydrological properties, geological heterogeneity and the extent and movement of contamination. HHGIT combines electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to geophysically sense a 3D volume, statistical information about fabric of geological formations, and sparse data on moisture and contaminant distributions. Combining these three types of information into a single inversion process will provide much better estimates of spatially varied hydraulic properties and three-dimensional contaminant distributions than could be obtained from interpreting the data types individually. Furthermore, HHGIT will be a geostatistically based estimation technique; the estimates represent conditional mean hydraulic property fields and contaminant distributions. Thus, this method will also quantify the uncertainty of the estimates as well as the estimates themselves. The knowledge of this uncertainty is necessary to determine the likelihood of success of remediation efforts and the risk posed by hazardous materials. Controlled field experiments will be conducted to provide critical data sets for evaluation of these methodologies, for better understanding of mechanisms controlling contaminant movement in the vadose zone, and for evaluation of the HHGIT method as a long term monitoring strategy.'

  12. Hybrid dynamic stabilization: a biomechanical assessment of adjacent and supraadjacent levels of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswaran, Prasath; Techy, Fernando; Colbrunn, Robb W; Bonner, Tara F; McLain, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of hybrid dynamic stabilization on adjacent levels of the lumbar spine. Seven human spine specimens from T-12 to the sacrum were used. The following conditions were implemented: 1) intact spine; 2) fusion of L4-5 with bilateral pedicle screws and titanium rods; and 3) supplementation of the L4-5 fusion with pedicle screw dynamic stabilization constructs at L3-4, with the purpose of protecting the L3-4 level from excessive range of motion (ROM) and to create a smoother motion transition to the rest of the lumbar spine. An industrial robot was used to apply continuous pure moment (± 2 Nm) in flexion-extension with and without a follower load, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Intersegmental rotations of the fused, dynamically stabilized, and adjacent levels were measured and compared. In flexion-extension only, the rigid instrumentation at L4-5 caused a 78% decrease in the segment's ROM when compared with the intact specimen. To compensate, it caused an increase in motion at adjacent levels L1-2 (45.6%) and L2-3 (23.2%) only. The placement of the dynamic construct at L3-4 decreased the operated level's ROM by 80.4% (similar stability as the fusion at L4-5), when compared with the intact specimen, and caused a significant increase in motion at all tested adjacent levels. In flexion-extension with a follower load, instrumentation at L4-5 affected only a subadjacent level, L5-sacrum (52.0%), while causing a reduction in motion at the operated level (L4-5, -76.4%). The dynamic construct caused a significant increase in motion at the adjacent levels T12-L1 (44.9%), L1-2 (57.3%), and L5-sacrum (83.9%), while motion at the operated level (L3-4) was reduced by 76.7%. In lateral bending, instrumentation at L4-5 increased motion at only T12-L1 (22.8%). The dynamic construct at L3-4 caused an increase in motion at T12-L1 (69.9%), L1-2 (59.4%), L2-3 (44.7%), and L5-sacrum (43.7%). In axial rotation, only the placement of

  13. Molecular ecology of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus): Genetic and natural history variation in a hybrid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubaum, M.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Douglas, M.E.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several geographically distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) have been documented in North America. Individuals from 2 of these lineages, an eastern and a western form, co-occur within maternity colonies in Colorado. The discovery of 2 divergent mtDNA lineages in sympatry prompted a set of questions regarding possible biological differences between haplotypes. We captured big brown bats at maternity roosts in Colorado and recorded data on body size, pelage color, litter size, roosting and overwintering behaviors, and local distributions. Wing biopsies were collected for genetic analysis. The ND2 region of the mtDNA molecule was used to determine lineage of the bats. In addition, nuclear DNA (nDNA) intron 1 of the ??-globin gene was used to determine if mtDNA lineages are hybridizing. Eastern and western mtDNA lineages differed by 10.3% sequence divergence and examination of genetic data suggests recent population expansion for both lineages. Differences in distribution occur along the Colorado Front Range, with an increasing proportion of western haplotypes farther south. Results from nDNA analyses demonstrated hybridization between the 2 lineages. Additionally, no outstanding distinctiveness was found between the mtDNA lineages in natural history characters examined. We speculate that historical climate changes separated this species into isolated eastern and western populations, and that secondary contact with subsequent interbreeding was facilitated by European settlement. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Hybrid Cubature Kalman filtering for identifying nonlinear models from sampled recording: Estimation of neuronal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Mahmoud K; Karameh, Fadi N

    2017-01-01

    Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled. This paper investigates the performance of cubature filtering (CKF and CD-CKF) in two flagship problems arising in the field of neuroscience upon relating brain functionality to aggregate neurophysiological recordings: (i) estimation of the firing dynamics and the neural circuit model parameters from electric potentials (EP) observations, and (ii) estimation of the hemodynamic model parameters and the underlying neural drive from BOLD (fMRI) signals. First, in simulated neural circuit models, estimation accuracy was investigated under varying levels of observation noise (SNR), process noise structures, and observation sampling intervals (dt). When compared to the CKF, the CD-CKF consistently exhibited better accuracy for a given SNR, sharp accuracy increase with higher SNR, and persistent error reduction with smaller dt. Remarkably, CD-CKF accuracy shows only a mild deterioration for non-Gaussian process noise, specifically with Poisson noise, a commonly assumed form of background fluctuations in neuronal systems. Second, in simulated hemodynamic models, parametric estimates were consistently improved under CD-CKF. Critically, time-localization of the underlying neural drive, a determinant factor in fMRI-based functional connectivity studies, was significantly more accurate

  15. Hybrid Cubature Kalman filtering for identifying nonlinear models from sampled recording: Estimation of neuronal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled. This paper investigates the performance of cubature filtering (CKF and CD-CKF) in two flagship problems arising in the field of neuroscience upon relating brain functionality to aggregate neurophysiological recordings: (i) estimation of the firing dynamics and the neural circuit model parameters from electric potentials (EP) observations, and (ii) estimation of the hemodynamic model parameters and the underlying neural drive from BOLD (fMRI) signals. First, in simulated neural circuit models, estimation accuracy was investigated under varying levels of observation noise (SNR), process noise structures, and observation sampling intervals (dt). When compared to the CKF, the CD-CKF consistently exhibited better accuracy for a given SNR, sharp accuracy increase with higher SNR, and persistent error reduction with smaller dt. Remarkably, CD-CKF accuracy shows only a mild deterioration for non-Gaussian process noise, specifically with Poisson noise, a commonly assumed form of background fluctuations in neuronal systems. Second, in simulated hemodynamic models, parametric estimates were consistently improved under CD-CKF. Critically, time-localization of the underlying neural drive, a determinant factor in fMRI-based functional connectivity studies, was significantly more accurate

  16. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, D.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan δ peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of

  17. Pinning synchronization of hybrid-coupled directed delayed dynamical network via intermittent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuiming; Zhou, Peipei; Liu, Zengrong

    2014-09-01

    This paper concerns the problem of exponential synchronization for a class of general delayed dynamical networks with hybrid coupling via pinning periodically intermittent control. Both the internal delay and coupling delay are taken into account in the network model. Meanwhile, the transmission delay and self-feedback delay are involved in the delayed coupling term. By establishing a new differential inequality, several simple and useful exponential synchronization criteria are derived analytically. It is shown that the controlled synchronization state can vary in comparison with the conventional synchronized solution, and the degree of the node and the inner delayed coupling matrix play important roles in the controlled synchronization state. By choosing different inner delayed coupling matrices and the degrees of the node, different controlled synchronization states can be obtained. Furthermore, the detail pinning schemes deciding what nodes should be chosen as pinned candidates and how many nodes are needed to be pinned for a fixed coupling strength are provided. The simple procedures illuminating how to design suitable intermittent controllers in real application are also given. Numerical simulations, including an undirected scale-free network and a directed small-world network, are finally presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  18. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  19. Charge Dynamics and Spin Blockade in a Hybrid Double Quantum Dot in Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Urdampilleta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin qubits in silicon, whether in quantum dots or in donor atoms, have long been considered attractive qubits for the implementation of a quantum computer because of silicon’s “semiconductor vacuum” character and its compatibility with the microelectronics industry. While donor electron spins in silicon provide extremely long coherence times and access to the nuclear spin via the hyperfine interaction, quantum dots have the complementary advantages of fast electrical operations, tunability, and scalability. Here, we present an approach to a novel hybrid double quantum dot by coupling a donor to a lithographically patterned artificial atom. Using gate-based rf reflectometry, we probe the charge stability of this double quantum-dot system and the variation of quantum capacitance at the interdot charge transition. Using microwave spectroscopy, we find a tunnel coupling of 2.7 GHz and characterize the charge dynamics, which reveals a charge T_{2}^{*} of 200 ps and a relaxation time T_{1} of 100 ns. Additionally, we demonstrate a spin blockade at the inderdot transition, opening up the possibility to operate this coupled system as a singlet-triplet qubit or to transfer a coherent spin state between the quantum dot and the donor electron and nucleus.

  20. Inference of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on dynamic Bayesian network hybrid learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-06

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli , and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.

  1. Optimized molecular reconstruction procedure combining hybrid reverse Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousige, Colin; Boţan, Alexandru; Coasne, Benoît, E-mail: coasne@mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); UMI 3466 CNRS-MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ulm, Franz-Josef [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Pellenq, Roland J.-M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); UMI 3466 CNRS-MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); CINaM, CNRS/Aix Marseille Université, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2015-03-21

    We report an efficient atom-scale reconstruction method that consists of combining the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo algorithm (HRMC) with Molecular Dynamics (MD) in the framework of a simulated annealing technique. In the spirit of the experimentally constrained molecular relaxation technique [Biswas et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 195207 (2004)], this modified procedure offers a refined strategy in the field of reconstruction techniques, with special interest for heterogeneous and disordered solids such as amorphous porous materials. While the HRMC method generates physical structures, thanks to the use of energy penalties, the combination with MD makes the method at least one order of magnitude faster than HRMC simulations to obtain structures of similar quality. Furthermore, in order to ensure the transferability of this technique, we provide rational arguments to select the various input parameters such as the relative weight ω of the energy penalty with respect to the structure optimization. By applying the method to disordered porous carbons, we show that adsorption properties provide data to test the global texture of the reconstructed sample but are only weakly sensitive to the presence of defects. In contrast, the vibrational properties such as the phonon density of states are found to be very sensitive to the local structure of the sample.

  2. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Cevik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand.

  3. Tungsten polyoxometalate molecules as active nodes for dynamic carrier exchange in hybrid molecular/semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balliou, A.; Douvas, A. M.; Normand, P.; Argitis, P.; Glezos, N.; Tsikritzis, D.; Kennou, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the utilization of molecular transition metal oxides known as polyoxometalates (POMs), in particular the Keggin structure anions of the formula PW 12 O 40 3− , as active nodes for potential switching and/or fast writing memory applications. The active molecules are being integrated in hybrid Metal-Insulator/POM molecules-Semiconductor capacitors, which serve as prototypes allowing investigation of critical performance characteristics towards the design of more sophisticated devices. The charging ability as well as the electronic structure of the molecular layer is probed by means of electrical characterization, namely, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements, as well as transient capacitance measurements, C (t), under step voltage polarization. It is argued that the transient current peaks observed are manifestations of dynamic carrier exchange between the gate electrode and specific molecular levels, while the transient C (t) curves under conditions of molecular charging can supply information for the rate of change of the charge that is being trapped and de-trapped within the molecular layer. Structural characterization via surface and cross sectional scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopies, UPS, and XPS contribute to the extraction of accurate electronic structure characteristics and open the path for the design of new devices with on-demand tuning of their interfacial properties via the controlled preparation of the POM layer.

  4. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Taner

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT) which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU) runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand. PMID:24194684

  5. A hybrid particle–field molecular dynamics approach: a route toward efficient coarse-grained models for biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Antonio; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the coarse-grained models of phospholipids recently developed by the authors in the frame of a hybrid particle–field molecular dynamics technique. This technique employs a special class of coarse-grained models that are gaining popularity because they allow simulations of large scale systems and, at the same time, they provide sufficiently detailed chemistry for the mapping scheme adopted. The comparison of the computational costs of our approach with standard molecular dynamics simulations is a function of the system size and the number of processors employed in the parallel calculations. Due to the low amount of data exchange, the larger the number of processors, the better are the performances of the hybrid particle–field models. This feature makes these models very promising ones in the exploration of several problems in biophysics. (paper)

  6. Development and application of dynamic hybrid multi-region inventory analysis for macro-level environmental policy analysis. A case study on climate policy in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, C.-W.; Heijungs, R.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a novel inventory method called Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Region Inventory analysis (DHMRI), which integrates the EEMRIOA and Integrated Hybrid LCA and applies time-dependent environmental intervention information for inventory analysis. Consequently, DHMRI is able to quantify the change in

  7. Scientific management of Mediterranean coastal zone: a hybrid ocean forecasting system for oil spill and search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, A; Ferrer, M I; Vizoso, G; Orfila, A; Basterretxea, G; Casas, B; Alvarez, A; Roig, D; Garau, B; Martínez, M; Fernández, V; Fornés, A; Ruiz, M; Fornós, J J; Balaguer, P; Duarte, C M; Rodríguez, I; Alvarez, E; Onken, R; Orfila, P; Tintoré, J

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill from Prestige tanker showed the importance of scientifically based protocols to minimize the impacts on the environment. In this work, we describe a new forecasting system to predict oil spill trajectories and their potential impacts on the coastal zone. The system is formed of three main interconnected modules that address different capabilities: (1) an operational circulation sub-system that includes nested models at different scales, data collection with near-real time assimilation, new tools for initialization or assimilation based on genetic algorithms and feature-oriented strategic sampling; (2) an oil spill coastal sub-system that allows simulation of the trajectories and fate of spilled oil together with evaluation of coastal zone vulnerability using environmental sensitivity indexes; (3) a risk management sub-system for decision support based on GIS technology. The system is applied to the Mediterranean Sea where surface currents are highly variable in space and time, and interactions between local, sub-basin and basin scale increase the non-linear interactions effects which need to be adequately resolved at each one of the intervening scales. Besides the Mediterranean Sea is a complex reduced scale ocean representing a real scientific and technological challenge for operational oceanography and particularly for oil spill response and search and rescue operations.

  8. Repair boundary for parent tube indications within the upper joint zone of hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) sleeved tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.K.; Keating, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the Spring and Fall of 1994, and the Spring of 1995, crack-like indications were found in the upper hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) region of Steam Generator (S/G) tubes which had been sleeved using Westinghouse HEJ sleeves. As a result of these findings, analytic and test evaluations were performed to assess the effect of the degradation on the structural, and leakage, integrity of the sleeve/tube joint relative to the requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) draft Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.121. The results of these evaluations demonstrated that tubes with implied or known crack-like circumferential parent tube indications (PTIs) located 1.1 inches or farther below the bottom of the hardroll upper transition, have sufficient, and significant, integrity relative to the requirements of RG 1.121. Thus, the purpose of this report is to provide background information related to the justification of the modified tube repair boundary

  9. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K. B.; Wood, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by ˜100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting 3 weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75°N 158°W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47 °N 161°E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C org, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in 51 μm size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C org and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient ( C P) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 μM m -1 conversion factor. At K2, C P profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed ˜40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 μm C org of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 μm C org, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 μm Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO 4 precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days

  10. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.

    2008-03-25

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4

  11. Model validation of solar PV plant with hybrid data dynamic simulation based on fast-responding generator method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant number of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV plants have been put into operation or been under planning around the world. The model accuracy of solar PV plant is the key factor to investigate the mutual influences between solar PV plants and a power grid. However, this problem has not been well solved, especially in how to apply the real measurements to validate the models of the solar PV plants. Taking fast-responding generator method as an example, this paper presents a model validation methodology for solar PV plant via the hybrid data dynamic simulation. First, the implementation scheme of hybrid data dynamic simulation suitable for DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is proposed, and then an analysis model of solar PV plant integration based on IEEE 9 system is established. At last, model validation of solar PV plant is achieved by employing hybrid data dynamic simulation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in solar PV plant model validation.

  12. Cilium transition zone proteome reveals compartmentalization and differential dynamics of ciliopathy complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dean, S.; Moreira-Leite, F.; Varga, Vladimír; Gull, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 35 (2016), E5135-E5143 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transition zone * cilium/flagellum * BBSome * MKS/B9 complex * trypanosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  13. Modeling the dynamics of driver's dilemma zone perception using machine learning methods for safer intersection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The "dilemma zone" (DZ) is defined as the area where drivers approaching a signalized intersection must decide to either proceed or stop at the onset of the yellow indication. Drivers that might perceive themselves to be too close to an intersection ...

  14. Dynamics of sugar content in vegetative organs of Syringa Genus representatives introduced into Steppe Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative contents of sugars in phases of growth and development in overground organs of species of Syringa L. genus were determined. It is shown a cryoprotective role of sugars in plants. Conclusions on resistance of plants under conditions of a steppe zone are made.

  15. Dynamics of nitrate production and removal as a function of residence time in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay P. Zarnetske; Roy Haggerty; Steven M. Wondzell; Michelle A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Biogeochemical reactions associated with stream nitrogen cycling, such as nitrification and denitrification, can be strongly controlled by water and solute residence times in the hyporheic zone (HZ). We used a whole-stream steady state 15N-Iabeled nitrate and conservative tracer addition to investigate the spatial and temporal physiochemical...

  16. Effect of reservoir zones and hedging factor dynamism on reservoir adaptive capacity for climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Soundharajan, Bankaru-Swamy

    2018-06-01

    When based on the zones of available water in storage, hedging has traditionally used a single hedged zone and a constant rationing ratio for constraining supply during droughts. Given the usual seasonality of reservoir inflows, it is also possible that hedging could feature multiple hedged zones and temporally varying rationing ratios but very few studies addressing this have been reported especially in relation to adaptation to projected climate change. This study developed and tested Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimised zone-based operating policies of various configurations using data for the Pong reservoir, Himachal Pradesh, India. The results show that hedging does lessen vulnerability, which dropped from ≥ 60 % without hedging to below 25 % with the single stage hedging. More complex hedging policies, e.g. two stage and/or temporally varying rationing ratios only produced marginal improvements in performance. All this shows that water hedging policies do not have to be overly complex to effectively offset reservoir vulnerability caused by water shortage resulting from e.g. projected climate change.

  17. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  18. Dynamic investigation of mode transition in inductively coupled plasma with a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuxia; Gao Fei; Wang Younian

    2009-01-01

    Industrial inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources are always operated in low gas pressure 10-100 mTorr, therefore in order to accurately investigate the mode transition of ICP, we developed our pure fluid model (2009 J. Appl. Phys. 105 083306) into a hybrid fluid/Monte Carlo (MC) model, where the MC part is exploited to take in more dynamic characteristics of electrons and self-consistently calculate the rate coefficients and electron temperature used in the fluid module, and more crucially to study the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) evolution with mode transition. Due to the introduction of the nonlocal property of the electrons at relatively low pressures, the dependences of the plasma density on the coil current, including the mode transitions, are distinctly different at low and high pressures when simulated by this improved hybrid model (HM), while the trends for different pressures obtained from the original pure fluid model (PFM) are the same in all cases. Furthermore, the computed peaks of the electron density profile by the HM shift from the discharge centre in the E mode to the intense inductive field heating area (about half of the radius of the reaction chamber under the dielectric window) in H mode. In addition, the electron temperature profiles of two modes under different pressures simulated by HM are totally higher than the results of PFM. When the pressure is low, there is a minimum exhibited in the bulk plasma of the electron temperature profiles of the E mode, and along with the mode transition the distribution area of low temperature is substantially reduced. Moreover, this phenomenon disappears when the gas pressure is increased. Accompanied by this, the calculated EEDF of the E mode in the low pressure also demonstrates an absolutely dominant low energy electron fraction (about ≤5 eV); while transforming to the H discharge most of the electrons carry an energy of 1-10 eV. The tendencies of the calculated EEDF evolution with

  19. Fast and stable redox reactions of MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes for dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Taoli; Wei, Bingqing

    2015-07-01

    Pseudocapacitors, which are energy storage devices that take advantage of redox reactions to store electricity, have a different charge storage mechanism compared to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and they could realize further gains if they were used as stretchable power sources. The realization of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors and understanding of the underlying fundamentals of their mechanical-electrochemical relationship have become indispensable. We report herein the electrochemical performance of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors using buckled MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes. The extremely small relaxation time constant of less than 0.15 s indicates a fast redox reaction at the MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes, securing a stable electrochemical performance for the dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors. This finding and the fundamental understanding gained from the pseudo-capacitive behavior coupled with mechanical deformation under a dynamic stretching mode would provide guidance to further improve their overall performance including a higher power density than LIBs, a higher energy density than EDLCs, and a long-life cycling stability. Most importantly, these results will potentially accelerate the applications of stretchable pseudocapacitors for flexible and biomedical electronics.Pseudocapacitors, which are energy storage devices that take advantage of redox reactions to store electricity, have a different charge storage mechanism compared to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and they could realize further gains if they were used as stretchable power sources. The realization of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors and understanding of the underlying fundamentals of their mechanical-electrochemical relationship have become indispensable. We report herein the electrochemical performance of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors using buckled MnO2/CNT hybrid

  20. Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory. New Dynamic Practices of Cultural Memory in the Multi-Platform Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Hagedoorn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, television is reconsidered as a hybrid ‘repertoire’ ofmemory. It is demonstrated how new dynamic production and scheduling practicesin connection with highly accessible and participatory forms of user engagementoffer opportunities for television users to engage with the past, and how suchpractices affect television as a practice of memory. The media platform HollandDoc is discussed as a principal casestudy. By adopting and expanding Aleida Assmann’s model of the dynamics ofcultural memory between remembering and forgetting, a new model to studytelevision as cultural memory is proposed which represents the medium’shybridity in the multi-platform era.

  1. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Bottrill; J. van Hunen; M. B. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away...

  2. Hybridization dynamics between Colorado's native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Siegle, Matthew R; Martin, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    Newly formed hybrid populations provide an opportunity to examine the initial consequences of secondary contact between species and identify genetic patterns that may be important early in the evolution of hybrid inviability. Widespread introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) into watersheds with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) have resulted in hybridization. These introductions have contributed to the decline of native cutthroat trout populations. Here, we examine the pattern of hybridization between introduced rainbow trout and 2 populations of cutthroat trout native to Colorado. For this study, we utilized 7 diagnostic, codominant nuclear markers and a diagnostic mitochondrial marker to investigate hybridization in a population of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) and a population of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). We infer that cutthroat-rainbow trout hybrid swarms have formed in both populations. Although a mixture of hybrid genotypes was present, not all genotype combinations were detected at expected frequencies. We found evidence that mitochondrial DNA introgression in hybrids is asymmetric and more likely from rainbow trout than from cutthroat trout. A difference in spawning time of the 2 species or differences in the fitness between the reciprocal crosses may explain the asymmetry. Additionally, the presence of intraspecific cytonuclear associations found in both populations is concordant with current hypotheses regarding coevolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.

  3. Chaotic-Dynamical Conceptual Model to Describe Fluid Flow and Contaminant Transport in a Fractured Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Geller, Jil T.

    1999-01-01

    DOE faces the remediation of numerous contaminated sites, such as those at Hanford, INEEL, LLNL, and LBNL, where organic and/or radioactive wastes were intentionally or accidentally released to the vadose zone from surface spills, underground tanks, cribs, shallow ponds, and deep wells. Migration of these contaminants through the vadose zone has led to the contamination of (or threatens to contaminate) underlying groundwater. A key issue in choosing a corrective action plan to clean up contaminated sites is the determination of the location, total mass, mobility and travel time to receptors for contaminants moving in the vadose zone. These problems are difficult to solve in a technically defensible and accurate manner because contaminants travel downward intermittently, through narrow pathways, driven by variations in environmental conditions. These preferential flow pathways can be difficult to find and predict. The primary objective of this project is to determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. The objective of this project is being achieved through the following activities: Development of multi scale conceptual models and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport, which incorporate both (a) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media and (b) the temporal dynamics of flow and transport; Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow; Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from non-linear dynamics; Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils and remediation efforts. This approach is based on the consideration of multi scale spatial heterogeneity and flow phenomena that are affected by

  4. Modeling and simulation of a controlled steam generator in the context of dynamic reliability using a Stochastic Hybrid Automaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babykina, Génia; Brînzei, Nicolae; Aubry, Jean-François; Deleuze, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a modeling framework to support Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of a complex industrial system. The aim is to analyze the system dependability in the presence of random events, described by any type of probability distributions. Continuous dynamic evolutions of physical parameters are taken into account by a system of differential equations. Dynamic reliability is chosen as theoretical framework. Based on finite state automata theory, the formal model is built by parallel composition of elementary sub-models using a bottom-up approach. Considerations of a stochastic nature lead to a model called the Stochastic Hybrid Automaton. The Scilab/Scicos open source environment is used for implementation. The case study is carried out on an example of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant. The behavior of the system is studied by exploring its trajectories. Possible system trajectories are analyzed both empirically, using the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and analytically, using the formal system model. The obtained results are show to be relevant. The Stochastic Hybrid Automaton appears to be a suitable tool to address the dynamic reliability problem and to model real systems of high complexity; the bottom-up design provides precision and coherency of the system model. - Highlights: • A part of a nuclear power plant is modeled in the context of dynamic reliability. • Stochastic Hybrid Automaton is used as an input model for Monte Carlo simulations. • The model is formally built using a bottom-up approach. • The behavior of the system is analyzed empirically and analytically. • A formally built SHA shows to be a suitable tool to approach dynamic reliability.

  5. Titanium zoning and diffusion chronometry reveal dynamic and late-stage quartz growth in the Youngest Toba Tuff, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, C. R.; Reid, M. R.; Burns, D. H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Chesner, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The enormous 74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) ejected 2800 km3 of compositionally zoned (68-77 wt.% SiO2) ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite ash. Titanium zoning within YTT quartz records a dynamic growth history, and sometimes concludes with a final growth stage under different conditions. We investigated the timescales of quartz growth using diffusion chronometry, and determined whether the last stage of crystallization was the result of a discrete and chamber-wide magmatic event. This work offers insight into the dynamics and timescales of storage and remobilization of voluminous silicic magmas - an important consideration for hazards assessment. High-resolution (1 µm steps) hyperspectral CL was mapped from 5-20 quartz crystals from each of five pumices spanning the YTT compositional spectrum. CL intensity was calibrated to Ti concentration via EPMA, and numerically modeled time-dependent diffusional relaxation curves where fit to concentration profiles across zone boundaries. CL-bright/high-Ti rims are found in quartz from all samples, but become less common and have lower Ti concentrations with increasing host pumice silica content (e.g., 70 ppm vs 50 ppm). Some large crystals contain distinct CL-bright interior zones with similar Ti concentration to the rims. Onset of growth of CL-bright rims commenced between 15 and 100 years before eruption, and interior bands between 30 and 1500 years. Neither rim nor interior ages correlate significantly with host pumice silica. Rim growth on quartz evidently occurred closer to eruption than a previous estimate of several decades to centuries for quartz from a single YTT pumice (Matthews et al., 2012). The similar timing for the onset of high-Ti quartz rim growth across all samples suggests a marked and temporally discrete magmatic event in the years to decades prior to eruption and may be recording the chamber-wide influence of magmatic recharge or remobilization. High-Ti interior zones likely record older recharge events that

  6. Advanced RESTART method for the estimation of the probability of failure of highly reliable hybrid dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turati, Pietro; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The efficient estimation of system reliability characteristics is of paramount importance for many engineering applications. Real world system reliability modeling calls for the capability of treating systems that are: i) dynamic, ii) complex, iii) hybrid and iv) highly reliable. Advanced Monte Carlo (MC) methods offer a way to solve these types of problems, which are feasible according to the potentially high computational costs. In this paper, the REpetitive Simulation Trials After Reaching Thresholds (RESTART) method is employed, extending it to hybrid systems for the first time (to the authors’ knowledge). The estimation accuracy and precision of RESTART highly depend on the choice of the Importance Function (IF) indicating how close the system is to failure: in this respect, proper IFs are here originally proposed to improve the performance of RESTART for the analysis of hybrid systems. The resulting overall simulation approach is applied to estimate the probability of failure of the control system of a liquid hold-up tank and of a pump-valve subsystem subject to degradation induced by fatigue. The results are compared to those obtained by standard MC simulation and by RESTART with classical IFs available in the literature. The comparison shows the improvement in the performance obtained by our approach. - Highlights: • We consider the issue of estimating small failure probabilities in dynamic systems. • We employ the RESTART method to estimate the failure probabilities. • New Importance Functions (IFs) are introduced to increase the method performance. • We adopt two dynamic, hybrid, highly reliable systems as case studies. • A comparison with literature IFs proves the effectiveness of the new IFs.

  7. Dynamics of the EEG of human brain in the gradient magnetic fields of geological faults in different geographical and climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobachenko, S. V.; Sokolov, M. V.; Grigoriev, P. E.; Vasilieva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    There are presented the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of indices of the functional state of a person located within the zones characterized by anomalous parameters of spatial distribution of magnetic field vector values. It is shown that these geophysical modifications have a pronounced effect on the dynamics of electrical activity indices of the human brain, regardless of geographic and climatic conditions.

  8. An improved hybrid multi-criteria/multidimensional model for strategic industrial location selection: Casablanca industrial zones as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the issue of strategic industrial location selection in uncertain decision making environments for implanting new industrial corporation. In fact, the industrial location issue is typically considered as a crucial factor in business research field which is related to many calculations about natural resources, distributors, suppliers, customers, and most other things. Based on the integration of environmental, economic and social decisive elements of sustainable development, this paper presents a hybrid decision making model combining fuzzy multi-criteria analysis with analytical capabilities that OLAP systems can provide for successful and optimal industrial location selection. The proposed model mainly consists in three stages. In the first stage, a decision-making committee has been established to identify the evaluation criteria impacting the location selection process. In the second stage, we develop fuzzy AHP software based on the extent analysis method to assign the importance weights to the selected criteria, which allows us to model the linguistic vagueness, ambiguity, and incomplete knowledge. In the last stage, OLAP analysis integrated with multi-criteria analysis employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate, rank and select the strategic industrial location for implanting new business corporation in the region of Casablanca, Morocco. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the impact of criteria weights and the preferences given by decision makers on the final rankings of strategic industrial locations.

  9. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Dynamics and mitigation of six pesticides in a "Wet" forest buffer zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeport, Elodie; Richard, Benjamin; Chaumont, Cédric; Margoum, Christelle; Liger, Lucie; Gril, Jean-Joël; Tournebize, Julien

    2014-04-01

    Pesticide pollution is one of the main current threats on water quality. This paper presents the potential and functioning principles of a "Wet" forest buffer zone for reducing concentrations and loads of glyphosate, isoproturon, metazachlor, azoxystrobin, epoxiconazole, and cyproconazole. A tracer injection experiment was conducted in the field in a forest buffer zone at Bray (France). A fine time-scale sampling enabled to illustrate that interactions between pesticides and forest buffer substrates (soil and organic-rich litter layer), had a retarding effect on molecule transfer. Low concentrations were observed for all pesticides at the forest buffer outlet thus demonstrating the efficiency of "Wet" forest buffer zone for pesticide dissipation. Pesticide masses injected in the forest buffer inlet directly determined concentration peaks observed at the outlet. Rapid and partially reversible adsorption was likely the major process affecting pesticide transfer for short retention times (a few hours to a few days). Remobilization of metazachlor, isoproturon, desmethylisoproturon, and AMPA was observed when non-contaminated water flows passed through the forest buffer. Our data suggest that pesticide sorption properties alone could not explain the complex reaction mechanisms that affected pesticide transfer in the forest buffer. Nevertheless, the thick layer of organic matter litter on the top of the forest soil was a key parameter, which enhanced partially reversible sorption of pesticide, thus retarded their transfer, decreased concentration peaks, and likely increased degradation of the pesticides. Consequently, to limit pesticide pollution transported by surface water, the use of already existing forest areas as buffer zones should be equally considered as the most commonly implemented grass buffer strips.

  11. A HYBRID BALANCED SCORECARD AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS FOR MEASURING PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI GUNARSIH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement on an organization whether it is a profit or nonprofit, has to be conducted in order to evaluate plan attainment. This measurement is considered incomplete as the performance of a company is not only based on financial perspective, but also other perspectives. Balanced Score Card (BSC is a performance measurement method using four perspectives: financial, customers, internal business processes and learning and growth. BSC measurement can be applied on profit and non-profit organizations. BSC focuses on causality (cause and effect which is based only on linear correlation. This situation is the weakness on BSC because it cannot continue to the specific forward step that can predict the future activities. In this study, BSC is combined with System Dynamics (SD that can identify the interaction among four perspectives and also related variable through a causal loop design model. Hybrid modelling design between BSC and SD gives an effective and interesting contemporary study. Then, the model performed with 2012 data input and performance forecasting until 2017. The result obtained for the financial perspectives related to fund absorption from 2013 until 2017 consecutively 100%, 100%, 85%, 72% and 100% with the most influential variable of tax and non-tax by 44.3% and the smallest variable effect is levies variable with 0,08%.Perspectives toward customers related to the efficiency and effective value by 50%, 43%, 43%, 48%, 49 % to customer dissatisfaction variable 48.09%, and 12.03% of customer's satisfaction. Internal business process perspective relates to the value of the total effective capacity by 80%, 71%, 69%, 71%, and 70%. With the most influential variable is the productivity and innovation for 50.77% and 1.94% variable staff morale. The last perspectives is learning and growth effective value for 50%, 44%, 56%, 47%, 46% with the most influential variable is the skill level of workers 27.98% and the smallest effect is

  12. A hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian numerical scheme for solving prognostic equations in fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian numerical scheme (HEL for solving prognostic equations in fluid dynamics is proposed. The basic idea is to use an Eulerian as well as a fully Lagrangian representation of all prognostic variables. The time step in Lagrangian space is obtained as a translation of irregularly spaced Lagrangian parcels along downstream trajectories. Tendencies due to other physical processes than advection are calculated in Eulerian space, interpolated, and added to the Lagrangian parcel values. A directionally biased mixing amongst neighboring Lagrangian parcels is introduced. The rate of mixing is proportional to the local deformation rate of the flow. The time stepping in Eulerian representation is achieved in two steps: first a mass-conserving Eulerian or semi-Lagrangian scheme is used to obtain a provisional forecast. This forecast is then nudged towards target values defined from the irregularly spaced Lagrangian parcel values. The nudging procedure is defined in such a way that mass conservation and shape preservation is ensured in Eulerian space. The HEL scheme has been designed to be accurate, multi-tracer efficient, mass conserving, and shape preserving. In Lagrangian space only physically based mixing takes place; i.e., the problem of artificial numerical mixing is avoided. This property is desirable in atmospheric chemical transport models since spurious numerical mixing can impact chemical concentrations severely. The properties of HEL are here verified in two-dimensional tests. These include deformational passive transport on the sphere, and simulations with a semi-implicit shallow water model including topography.

  13. Adaptive neural network output feedback control for stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown dead-zone and unmodeled dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Wang, Tong; Li, Yongming; Zhang, Huaguang

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the problem of adaptive neural network output feedback control for a class of stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems. The concerned systems have certain characteristics, such as unknown nonlinear uncertainties, unknown dead-zones, unmodeled dynamics and without the direct measurements of state variables. In this paper, the neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear uncertainties, and then by representing the dead-zone as a time-varying system with a bounded disturbance. An NN state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. Based on both backstepping design technique and a stochastic small-gain theorem, a robust adaptive NN output feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that all the variables involved in the closed-loop system are input-state-practically stable in probability, and also have robustness to the unmodeled dynamics. Meanwhile, the observer errors and the output of the system can be regulated to a small neighborhood of the origin by selecting appropriate design parameters. Simulation examples are also provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Building Conceptual Models of Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface simulation is being used to build, test, and couple conceptual process models to better understand controls on a 0.4 km by 1.0 km uranium plume that has persisted above the drinking water standard in the groundwater of the Hanford 300 Area over the last 15 years. At this site, uranium-contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer are subject to significant variations in water levels and velocities driven by the diurnal, weekly, seasonal, and episodic Columbia River stage dynamics. Groundwater flow reversals typically occur twice a day with significant exchange of river water and groundwater in the near-river aquifer. Mixing of the dilute solution chemistry of the river with the groundwater complicates the uranium sorption behavior as the mobility of U(VI) has been shown experimentally to be a function of pH, carbonate, calcium, and uranium. Furthermore, uranium mass transfer between solid and aqueous phases has been observed to be rate-limited in the context of the high groundwater velocities resulting from the river stage fluctuations and the highly transmissive sediments (hydraulic conductivities ∼1500 m/d). One- and two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional simulations of variably-saturated flow and reactive transport, based on laboratory-derived models of distributed rate mass transfer and equilibrium multicomponent surface complexation, are used to assess uranium transport at the dynamic vadose zone aquifer interface as well as changes to uranium mobility due to incursions of river water into the aquifer

  15. A hybrid parallel architecture for electrostatic interactions in the simulation of dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Qian, Hu-Jun; Wang, Yong-Lei; Han, Jie-Ping

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we upgraded the electrostatic interaction method of CU-ENUF (Yang, et al., 2016) which first applied CUNFFT (nonequispaced Fourier transforms based on CUDA) to the reciprocal-space electrostatic computation and made the computation of electrostatic interaction done thoroughly in GPU. The upgraded edition of CU-ENUF runs concurrently in a hybrid parallel way that enables the computation parallelizing on multiple computer nodes firstly, then further on the installed GPU in each computer. By this parallel strategy, the size of simulation system will be never restricted to the throughput of a single CPU or GPU. The most critical technical problem is how to parallelize a CUNFFT in the parallel strategy, which is conquered effectively by deep-seated research of basic principles and some algorithm skills. Furthermore, the upgraded method is capable of computing electrostatic interactions for both the atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) and the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Finally, the benchmarks conducted for validation and performance indicate that the upgraded method is able to not only present a good precision when setting suitable parameters, but also give an efficient way to compute electrostatic interactions for huge simulation systems. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/zncf24fhpv.1 Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License 3 (GPL) Programming language: C, C++, and CUDA C Supplementary material: The program is designed for effective electrostatic interactions of large-scale simulation systems, which runs on particular computers equipped with NVIDIA GPUs. It has been tested on (a) single computer node with Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770@ 3.40 GHz (CPU) and GTX 980 Ti (GPU), and (b) MPI parallel computer nodes with the same configurations. Nature of problem: For molecular dynamics simulation, the electrostatic interaction is the most time-consuming computation because of its long-range feature and slow convergence in simulation space

  16. Effect of backbone chemistry on hybridization thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids: a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2016-02-28

    In this paper we study how varying oligonucleic acid backbone chemistry affects the hybridization/melting thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids. We first describe the coarse-grained (CG) model with tunable parameters that we developed to enable the study of both naturally occurring oligonucleic acids, such as DNA, and their chemically-modified analogues, such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and locked nucleic acids (LNAs). The DNA melting curves obtained using such a CG model and molecular dynamics simulations in an implicit solvent and with explicit ions match with the melting curves obtained using the empirical nearest-neighbor models. We use these CG simulations to then elucidate the effect of backbone flexibility, charge, and nucleobase spacing along the backbone on the melting curves, potential energy and conformational entropy change upon hybridization and base-pair hydrogen bond residence time. We find that increasing backbone flexibility decreases duplex thermal stability and melting temperature mainly due to increased conformational entropy loss upon hybridization. Removing charges from the backbone enhances duplex thermal stability due to the elimination of electrostatic repulsion and as a result a larger energetic gain upon hybridization. Lastly, increasing nucleobase spacing decreases duplex thermal stability due to decreasing stacking interactions that are important for duplex stability.

  17. Experimental investigation on the dynamic performance of a hybrid PEM fuel cell/battery system for lightweight electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong; Yuan, Wei; Pan, Minqiang; Wan, Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid system combining a 2 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and a lead-acid battery pack is developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The dynamic performances of this PEMFC system with and without the assistance of the batteries are systematically investigated in a series of laboratory and road tests. The stack current and voltage have timely dynamic responses to the load variations. Particularly, the current overshoot and voltage undershoot both happen during the step-up load tests. These phenomena are closely related to the charge double-layer effect and the mass transfer mechanisms such as the water and gas transport and distribution in the fuel cell. When the external load is beyond the range of the fuel cell system, the battery immediately participates in power output with a higher transient discharging current especially in the accelerating and climbing processes. The DC-DC converter exhibits a satisfying performance in adaptive modulation. It helps rectify the voltage output in a rigid manner and prevent the fuel cell system from being overloaded. The dynamic responses of other operating parameters such as the anodic operating pressure and the inlet and outlet temperatures are also investigated. The results show that such a hybrid system is able to dynamically satisfy the vehicular power demand.

  18. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  19. Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (H-ESS Coupled to a Photovoltaic (PV Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Barelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy storage is strongly needed to allow grid safety and stability due to the wide penetration of renewable plants. Mainly economic and technological issues impede a relevant integration of conventional storage devices in the energy system. In this scenario, the hybridization of different storage technologies can be a techno-economic solution useful to overcome these issues and promote their diffusion. Hybridization allows multi-operation modes of the Energy Storage System (ESS, merging the positive features of base-technologies and extending their application ranges. This paper provides a dynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system (H-ESS consisting of a flywheel and a battery pack coupled to a photovoltaic generation plant and a residential load up to 20 kW. A dynamic model of the overall micro-grid (MG was developed implementing the H-ESS preliminary sizing and a suitable management algorithm. The instantaneous behavior of each component was evaluated. A brief summary of the MG performance at different weather and load conditions was provided together with a characterization of the impact of power fluctuations on the battery current and on the power exchange with the grid.

  20. The problem of the use the hybrid and photovoltaic systems in insular zones with climatic siversity in Madeira; A problematica da utilizacao de sistemas fotovoltaicos e hibridos em zonas insulares de diversidade climatica-ILHA da Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magro, J. C. E.

    2004-07-01

    Project PAUER contemplates the evaluation and utilization of renewable energy in insular zones with climatic diversity, situated on the Archipelago of Madeira. The project has three main areas of intervention: prospecting and evaluating energetic resources; creation of data bases of climatic data for application in energetic studies and other areas; the installation of twenty autonomous photovoltaic or hybrid systems in isolated localities. This communication presents some data from meteorological observations made up until the present date, following appropriate statistical analysis. Characteristics of some installed photovoltaic and hybrid systems as well as some of the principal problems encountered in the field are also given. (Author)

  1. Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William C.; Dulaiova, Henrieta

    2003-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone has received increased attention in the last few years as it is now recognized that this process represents an important pathway for material transport. Assessing these material fluxes is difficult, as there is no simple means to gauge the water flux. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of a continuous radon monitor to measure radon concentrations in coastal zone waters over time periods from hours to days. Changes in the radon inventories over time can be converted to fluxes after one makes allowances for tidal effects, losses to the atmosphere, and mixing with offshore waters. If one assumes that advective flow of radon-enriched groundwater (pore waters) represent the main input of 222 Rn in the coastal zone, the calculated radon fluxes may be converted to water fluxes by dividing by the estimated or measured 222 Rn pore water activity. We have also used short-lived radium isotopes ( 223 Ra and 224 Ra) to assess mixing between near-shore and offshore waters in the manner pioneered by . During an experiment in the coastal Gulf of Mexico, we showed that the mixing loss derived from the 223 Ra gradient agreed very favorably to the estimated range based on the calculated radon fluxes. This allowed an independent constraint on the mixing loss of radon--an important parameter in the mass balance approach. Groundwater discharge was also estimated independently by the radium isotopic approach and was within a factor of two of that determined by the continuous radon measurements and an automated seepage meter deployed at the same site

  2. Dynamics of baroclinic wave pattern in transition zones between different flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, Thomas von; Egbers, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Baroclinic waves, both steady and time-dependent, are studied experimentally in a differentially heated rotating cylindrical gap with a free surface, cooled from within. Water is used as working fluid. We focus especially on transition zones between different flow regimes, where complex flow pattern like mixed-mode states are found. The transition from steady wave regime to irregular flow is also of particular interest. The surface flow is observed with visualisation techniques. Velocity time series are measured with the optical laser-Doppler-velocimetry technique. Thermographic measurements are applied for temperature field visualisations

  3. A hybrid machine learning model to estimate nitrate contamination of production zone groundwater in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, K.; Nolan, B. T.; Faunt, C. C.; Bell, A.; Gronberg, J.; Traum, J.; Wheeler, D. C.; Rosecrans, C.; Belitz, K.; Eberts, S.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid, non-linear, machine learning statistical model was developed within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface in the Central Valley, California. A database of 213 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and county scale nitrogen mass balance, historical and current landuse, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6,000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The machine learning method, gradient boosting machine (GBM) was used to screen predictor variables and rank them in order of importance in relation to the groundwater nitrate measurements. The top five most important predictor variables included oxidation/reduction characteristics, historical field scale nitrogen mass balance, climate, and depth to 60 year old water. Twenty-two variables were selected for the final model and final model errors for log-transformed hold-out data were R squared of 0.45 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.124. Modeled mean groundwater age was tested separately for error improvement in the model and when included decreased model RMSE by 0.5% compared to the same model without age and by 0.20% compared to the model with all 213 variables. 1D and 2D partial plots were examined to determine how variables behave individually and interact in the model. Some variables behaved as expected: log nitrate decreased with increasing probability of anoxic conditions and depth to 60 year old water, generally decreased with increasing natural landuse surrounding wells and increasing mean groundwater age, generally increased with increased minimum depth to high water table and with increased base flow index value. Other variables exhibited much more erratic or noisy behavior in

  4. Male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" Robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B M; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    1992-01-01

    Wild male house mice Mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the John o'Groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern Scotland. Meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single Robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. At prophase/metaphase I in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. At pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the position of the centromeres, as a result of nonhomologous pairing of the acrocentrics. This side arm persisted into diplotene. Generally only a single chiasma was formed between each acrocentric and the metacentric. Anaphase I nondisjunction frequencies were estimated as 1.5% for the homozygotes and 2.7% for the heterozygotes. The extent of germ cell death between the pachytene and round spermatid stages was 18% greater in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Our results concur with previous studies which indicate that single Robertsonian heterozygotes in wild house mice have near-normal fertility.

  5. About a Class of Positive Hybrid Dynamic Linear Systems and an Associate Extended Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an “ad hoc” robust version under parametrical disturbances of the discrete version of the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma for a class of positive hybrid dynamic linear systems which consist of a continuous-time system coupled with a discrete-time or a digital one. An extended discrete system, whose state vector contains both the digital one and the discretization of the continuous-time one at sampling instants, is a key analysis element in the formulation. The hyperstability and asymptotic hyperstability properties of the studied class of positive hybrid systems under feedback from any member of a nonlinear (and, eventually, time-varying class of controllers, which satisfies a Popov’s-type inequality, are also investigated as linked to the positive realness of the associated transfer matrices.

  6. Coherent Dynamics of a Hybrid Quantum Spin-Mechanical Oscillator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth William, III

    A fully functional quantum computer must contain at least two important components: a quantum memory for storing and manipulating quantum information and a quantum data bus to securely transfer information between quantum memories. Typically, a quantum memory is composed of a matter system, such as an atom or an electron spin, due to their prolonged quantum coherence. Alternatively, a quantum data bus is typically composed of some propagating degree of freedom, such as a photon, which can retain quantum information over long distances. Therefore, a quantum computer will likely be a hybrid quantum device, consisting of two or more disparate quantum systems. However, there must be a reliable and controllable quantum interface between the memory and bus in order to faithfully interconvert quantum information. The current engineering challenge for quantum computers is scaling the device to large numbers of controllable quantum systems, which will ultimately depend on the choice of the quantum elements and interfaces utilized in the device. In this thesis, we present and characterize a hybrid quantum device comprised of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers embedded in a high quality factor diamond mechanical oscillator. The electron spin of the NV center is a leading candidate for the realization of a quantum memory due to its exceptional quantum coherence times. On the other hand, mechanical oscillators are highly sensitive to a wide variety of external forces, and have the potential to serve as a long-range quantum bus between quantum systems of disparate energy scales. These two elements are interfaced through crystal strain generated by vibrations of the mechanical oscillator. Importantly, a strain interface allows for a scalable architecture, and furthermore, opens the door to integration into a larger quantum network through coupling to an optical interface. There are a few important engineering challenges associated with this device. First, there have been no

  7. A Control Scheme That Uses Dynamic Postural Synergies to Coordinate a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis: Theory and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji A; Molazadeh, Vahidreza; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor. Further, dynamic disturbances such as electromechanical delay (EMD) and muscle fatigue must be considered during the control design process. This ensures stability and control performance despite disparate dynamics of FES and electric motor. In this paper, a general framework to coordinate FES of multiple gait-governing muscles with electric motors is presented. A muscle synergy-inspired control framework is used to derive the controller and is motivated mainly to address the actuator redundancy issue. Dynamic postural synergies between FES of the muscles and the electric motors were artificially generated through optimizations and result in key dynamic postures when activated. These synergies were used in the feedforward path of the control system. A dynamic surface control technique, modified with a delay compensation term, is used as the feedback controller to address model uncertainty, the cascaded muscle activation dynamics, and EMD. To address muscle fatigue, the stimulation levels in the feedforward path were gradually increased based on a model-based fatigue estimate. A Lyapunov-based stability approach was used to derive the controller and guarantee its stability. The synergy-based controller was demonstrated experimentally on an able-bodied subject and person with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  8. A Control Scheme That Uses Dynamic Postural Synergies to Coordinate a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis: Theory and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji A. Alibeji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor. Further, dynamic disturbances such as electromechanical delay (EMD and muscle fatigue must be considered during the control design process. This ensures stability and control performance despite disparate dynamics of FES and electric motor. In this paper, a general framework to coordinate FES of multiple gait-governing muscles with electric motors is presented. A muscle synergy-inspired control framework is used to derive the controller and is motivated mainly to address the actuator redundancy issue. Dynamic postural synergies between FES of the muscles and the electric motors were artificially generated through optimizations and result in key dynamic postures when activated. These synergies were used in the feedforward path of the control system. A dynamic surface control technique, modified with a delay compensation term, is used as the feedback controller to address model uncertainty, the cascaded muscle activation dynamics, and EMD. To address muscle fatigue, the stimulation levels in the feedforward path were gradually increased based on a model-based fatigue estimate. A Lyapunov-based stability approach was used to derive the controller and guarantee its stability. The synergy-based controller was demonstrated experimentally on an able-bodied subject and person with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  9. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  10. [Dynamics of diazotrophic bacteria number in the root zone of wheat Vrn lines isogenic by genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoĭlov, A M; Zhmurko, V V

    2012-01-01

    The number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity in the root zone of isogenic monogene-dominant Vrn lines were measured in the field experiments throughout their vegetation from tillering to heading. The total number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity in the root zone of these lines during this period were increased irrespective of their genotypes. The above indices of the winter cultivar (Vrn loci bottom recessive) were lower than those of the spring lines--Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. Plants of Vrn-B1 line have the lowest indices among the spring lines with the exception of some indices. This line plants flowered later than those of Vrn-A1 and Vrn-D1 lines. We hypothesized the differences between plants of these lines as to nitrogen fixation activity and the number of diazotrophic bacteria are mediately determined by Vrn loci through their effects on metabolism intensity and assimilate reflux in the form of root exudates, therefore the total number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity increases.

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of organohalide-respiring bacteria in a heterogeneous PCE-DNAPL source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cápiro, Natalie L; Löffler, Frank E; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-11-01

    dynamic responses of organohalide-respiring bacteria in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone, and emphasize the influence of source zone architecture on bioremediation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  13. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines.Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  14. Dynamical coupling of plasmons and molecular excitations by hybrid quantum/classical calculations: time-domain approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakko, Arto; Rossi, Tuomas P; Nieminen, Risto M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of plasmonic material influences the optical properties of nearby molecules in untrivial ways due to the dynamical plasmon-molecule coupling. We combine quantum and classical calculation schemes to study this phenomenon in a hybrid system that consists of a Na 2 molecule located in the gap between two Au/Ag nanoparticles. The molecule is treated quantum-mechanically with time-dependent density-functional theory, and the nanoparticles with quasistatic classical electrodynamics. The nanoparticle dimer has a plasmon resonance in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the Na 2 molecule has an electron-hole excitation in the same energy range. Due to the dynamical interaction of the two subsystems the plasmon and the molecular excitations couple, creating a hybridized molecular-plasmon excited state. This state has unique properties that yield e.g. enhanced photoabsorption compared to the freestanding Na 2 molecule. The computational approach used enables decoupling of the mutual plasmon-molecule interaction, and our analysis verifies that it is not legitimate to neglect the backcoupling effect when describing the dynamical interaction between plasmonic material and nearby molecules. Time-resolved analysis shows nearly instantaneous formation of the coupled state, and provides an intuitive picture of the underlying physics. (paper)

  15. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Günter; Janczyk, Michael; Von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  16. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Janczyk, Michael; Quast, Günter; von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  17. Pyrenebutanoate as a dynamic protein modifier for fluorometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, 7-8 (2002), s. 1090-1095 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : pyrenebutanoate * dynamic protein modifier * CZE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  18. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labetskaya, A.G.; Balashina, N.S.; Kireenko, K.M.; Bychkova, E.I.; Efremova, G.A.; Tereshkina, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  19. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  20. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Ly, Thuc Hue

    2017-01-18

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation.

  1. Entry into the nuclear pore complex is controlled by a cytoplasmic exclusion zone containing dynamic GLFG-repeat nucleoporin domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiserova, Jindriska; Spink, Matthew; Richards, Shane A; Saunter, Christopher; Goldberg, Martin W

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic movement. The central channel contains proteins with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats, or variations (GLFG, glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine). These are 'intrinsically disordered' and often represent weak interaction sites that become ordered upon interaction. We investigated this possibility during nuclear transport. Using electron microscopy of S. cerevisiae, we show that NPC cytoplasmic filaments form a dome-shaped structure enclosing GLFG domains. GLFG domains extend out of this structure and are part of an 'exclusion zone' that might act as a partial barrier to entry of transport-inert proteins. The anchor domain of a GLFG nucleoporin locates exclusively to the central channel. By contrast, the localisation of the GLFG domains varied between NPCs and could be cytoplasmic, central or nucleoplasmic and could stretch up to 80 nm. These results suggest a dynamic exchange between ordered and disordered states. In contrast to diffusion through the NPC, transport cargoes passed through the exclusion zone and accumulated near the central plane. We also show that movement of cargo through the NPC is accompanied by relocation of GLFG domains, suggesting that binding, restructuring and movement of these domains could be part of the translocation mechanism.

  2. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikhin, S.V.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of the 137 Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986-1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticeable between 1986-1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137 Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137 Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137 Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137 Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  3. Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results-Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts Gary D.; Sinnamon, R.; Stringer, David B.; Dykas, Brian D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2012-01-01

    Composite spur gears were fabricated and then tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite material served as the web of the gear between the gear teeth and a metallic hub for mounting to the torque-applying shaft. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The Hybrid Gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating Hybrid Gear. As a result of the composite to metal fabrication process used, the concentricity of the gears were reduced from their initial high-precision value. Regardless of the concentricity error, the hybrid gears operated successfully for over 300 million cycles at 10000 rpm and 490 in.*lbs torque. Although the design was not optimized for weight, the composite gears were found to be 20% lighter than the all-steel gears. Free vibration modes and vibration/noise tests were also conduct to compare the vibration and damping characteristic of the Hybrid Gear to all-steel gears. The initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

  4. Methane emission in a specific riparian-zone sediment decreased with bioelectrochemical manipulation and corresponded to the microbial community dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot S. Friedman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in anaerobic soils and sediments. Thermodynamically, dissimilatory metal reduction is more favorable than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis but less favorable than denitrification and aerobic respiration. It is critical to understand the complex relationships, including the absence or presence of terminal electron acceptors, that govern microbial competition and coexistence in anaerobic soils and sediments, because subsurface microbial processes can effect greenhouse gas emissions from soils, possibly resulting in impacts at the global scale. Here, we elucidated the effect of an inexhaustible, ferrous-iron and humic-substance mimicking terminal electron acceptor by deploying potentiostatically poised electrodes in the sediment of a very specific stream riparian zone in Upstate New York state. At two sites within the same stream riparian zone during the course of six weeks in the spring of 2013, we measured CH4 and N2/N2O emissions from soil chambers containing either poised or unpoised electrodes, and we harvested biofilms from the electrodes to quantify microbial community dynamics. At the upstream site, which had a lower vegetation cover and highest soil temperatures, the poised electrodes inhibited CH4 emissions by ~45% (when normalized to remove temporal effects. CH4 emissions were not significantly impacted at the downstream site. N2/N2O emissions were generally low at both sites and were not impacted by poised electrodes. We did not find a direct link between bioelectrochemical treatment and microbial community membership; however, we did find a correspondence between environment/function and microbial community dynamics.

  5. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along Dipping Faults, with a focus on the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, K.; Moschetti, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study dynamic rupture and ground motion from dip-slip faults in regions that have high-seismic hazard, such as the Wasatch fault zone, Utah. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion along segments of this fault in the heavily populated regions near Salt Lake City but were restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). We seek to better understand the rupture process and assess broadband ground motions and variability from the Wasatch Fault Zone by extending deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies (up to 5 Hz). We perform simulations along a dipping normal fault (40 x 20 km along strike and width, respectively) with characteristics derived from geologic observations to generate a suite of ruptures > Mw 6.5. This approach utilizes dynamic simulations (fully physics-based models, where the initial stress drop and friction law are imposed) using a summation by parts (SBP) method. The simulations include rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) in addition to off-fault plasticity. Energy losses from heat and other mechanisms, modeled as anelastic attenuation, are also included, as well as free-surface topography, which can significantly affect ground motion patterns. We compare the effect of material structure and both rate and state and slip-weakening friction laws have on rupture propagation. The simulations show reduced slip and moment release in the near surface with the inclusion of plasticity, better agreeing with observations of shallow slip deficit. Long-wavelength fault geometry imparts a non-uniform stress distribution along both dip and strike, influencing the preferred rupture direction and hypocenter location, potentially important for seismic hazard estimation.

  6. The chemically zoned 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands): Petrologic evolution and magma supply dynamics of a rift zone eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Klügel, Andreas; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; White, James D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 1949 rift zone eruption along the Cumbre Vieja ridge on La Palma involved three eruptive centers, 3 km spaced apart, and was chemically and mineralogically zoned. Duraznero crater erupted tephrite for 14 days and shut down upon the opening of Llano del Banco, a fissure that issued first tephrite and, after 3 days, basanite. Hoyo Negro crater opened 4 days later and erupted basanite, tephrite, and phonotephrite, while Llano del Banco continued to issue basanite. The eruption ended with Dur...

  7. Stable and dynamic microtubules coordinately shape the myosin activation zone during cytokinetic furrow formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Victoria E.; von Dassow, George

    2008-01-01

    The cytokinetic furrow arises from spatial and temporal regulation of cortical contractility. To test the role microtubules play in furrow specification, we studied myosin II activation in echinoderm zygotes by assessing serine19-phosphorylated regulatory light chain (pRLC) localization after precisely timed drug treatments. Cortical pRLC was globally depressed before cytokinesis, then elevated only at the equator. We implicated cell cycle biochemistry (not microtubules) in pRLC depression, and differential microtubule stability in localizing the subsequent myosin activation. With no microtubules, pRLC accumulation occurred globally instead of equatorially, and loss of just dynamic microtubules increased equatorial pRLC recruitment. Nocodazole treatment revealed a population of stable astral microtubules that formed during anaphase; among these, those aimed toward the equator grew longer, and their tips coincided with cortical pRLC accumulation. Shrinking the mitotic apparatus with colchicine revealed pRLC suppression near dynamic microtubule arrays. We conclude that opposite effects of stable versus dynamic microtubules focuses myosin activation to the cell equator during cytokinesis. PMID:18955555

  8. An analysis of beamed wireless power transfer in the Fresnel zone using a dynamic, metasurface aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Gowda, Vinay R.; Yurduseven, Okan; Larouche, Stéphane; Lipworth, Guy; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Reynolds, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has been an active topic of research, with a number of WPT schemes implemented in the near-field (coupling) and far-field (radiation) regimes. Here, we consider a beamed WPT scheme based on a dynamically reconfigurable source aperture transferring power to receiving devices within the Fresnel region. In this context, the dynamic aperture resembles a reconfigurable lens capable of focusing power to a well-defined spot, whose dimension can be related to a point spread function. The necessary amplitude and phase distribution of the field imposed over the aperture can be determined in a holographic sense, by interfering a hypothetical point source located at the receiver location with a plane wave at the aperture location. While conventional technologies, such as phased arrays, can achieve the required control over phase and amplitude, they typically do so at a high cost; alternatively, metasurface apertures can achieve dynamic focusing with potentially lower cost. We present an initial tradeoff analysis of the Fresnel region WPT concept assuming a metasurface aperture, relating the key parameters such as spot size, aperture size, wavelength, and focal distance, as well as reviewing system considerations such as the availability of sources and power transfer efficiency. We find that approximate design formulas derived from the Gaussian optics approximation provide useful estimates of system performance, including transfer efficiency and coverage volume. The accuracy of these formulas is confirmed through numerical studies.

  9. Feasibility of waste to Bio-diesel production via Nuclear-Biomass hybrid model. System dynamics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hoseok; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system which takes waste biomass from municipal, agricultural area, and forest as feedstock produces Bio-diesel fuel from synthesis gas generated by endothermic pyrolytic gasification using high temperature nuclear heat. Over 900 degree Celsius of exterior thermal heat from nuclear reactors, Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and some other heat sources, bring about waste biomass gasification to produce maximum amount of chemical energy from feedstock. Hydrogen from Biomass gasification or Bio-diesel as the product of Fischer-Tropsch reaction following it provide fuels for transport sector. Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system is a new alternatives to produce more energy generating synergy effects by efficiently utilizing the high temperature heat from nuclear reactor that might be considerably wasted by thermal cycle, and also energy loss from biomass combustion or biochemical processes. System Dynamics approach is taken to analyze low-carbon synthesis fuel, Bio-diesel, production with combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen from biomass gasification. Feedstock cost considering collection, transportation, storage and facility for biomass gasification impacts the economic feasibility of this model. This paper provides the implication of practical nuclear-biomass hybrid system application with feedstock supply chain through evaluation of economic feasibility. (author)

  10. DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Firdaus; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO).

  11. DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Afifi

    Full Text Available To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware, a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and particle swarm optimization (PSO. Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO.

  12. DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Firdaus; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO). PMID:27611312

  13. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  14. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N

    2017-01-25

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ 18 O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ 18 O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ 18 O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆ core-rim  = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ 18 O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ 18 O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  15. Three-dimensional shear transformation zone dynamics model for amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Eric R; Schuh, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale modeling framework for the mechanical behavior of amorphous metals is proposed. The model considers the coarse-grained action of shear transformation zones (STZs) as the fundamental deformation event. The simulations are controlled through the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm and the mechanical response of the system is captured through finite-element analysis, where STZs are mapped onto a 3D finite-element mesh and are allowed to shear in any direction in three dimensions. Implementation of the technique in uniaxial creep tests over a wide range of conditions validates the model's ability to capture the expected behaviors of an amorphous metal, including high temperature flow conforming to the expected constitutive law and low temperature localization in the form of a nascent shear band. The simulation results are combined to construct a deformation map that is comparable to experimental deformation maps. The flexibility of the modeling framework is illustrated by performing a contact test (simulated nanoindentation) in which the model deforms through STZ activity in the region experiencing the highest shear stress

  16. Comparative Study of Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle on Energy Management for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two optimal energy management methods for parallel hybrid electric vehicles using an Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT. A control-oriented model of the powertrain and vehicle dynamics is built first. The energy management is formulated as a typical optimal control problem to trade off the fuel consumption and gear shifting frequency under admissible constraints. The Dynamic Programming (DP and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP are applied to obtain the optimal solutions. Tuning with the appropriate co-states, the PMP solution is found to be very close to that from DP. The solution for the gear shifting in PMP has an algebraic expression associated with the vehicular velocity and can be implemented more efficiently in the control algorithm. The computation time of PMP is significantly less than DP.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of joining process of Ag-Au nanowires and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanojoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanojoining process of Ag-Au hybrid nanowires at 800K was comprehensively studied by virtue of molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Three kinds of configurations including end-to-end, T-like and X-like were built in the simulation aiming to understand the nanojoining mechanism. The detailed dynamic evolution of atoms, crystal structure transformation and defects development during the nanojoining processes were performed. The results indicate that there are two stages in the nanojoining process of Ag-Au nanowires which are atom diffusion and new bonds formation. Temperature is a key parameter affecting both stages ascribed to the energy supply and the optimum temperature for Ag-Au nanojoint with diameter of 4.08 nm has been discussed. The mechanical properties of the nanojoint were examined with simulation of tensile test on the end-to-end joint. It was revealed that the nanojoint was strong enough to resist fracture at the joining area.

  18. Thermal conductivity prediction of nanoscale phononic crystal slabs using a hybrid lattice dynamics-continuum mechanics technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Reinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that nanostructuring of a semiconductor material to form a phononic crystal (PnC can significantly reduce its thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present a classical method that combines atomic-level information with the application of Bloch theory at the continuum level for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of finite-thickness PnCs with unit cells sized in the micron scale. Lattice dynamics calculations are done at the bulk material level, and the plane-wave expansion method is implemented at the macrosale PnC unit cell level. The combination of the lattice dynamics-based and continuum mechanics-based dispersion information is then used in the Callaway-Holland model to calculate the thermal transport properties of the PnC. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach provides both accurate and efficient predictions of the thermal conductivity.

  19. Resilience vs soft crisis: dynamic risk assessment in complex hybrid systems. Case history of Ginosa (Taranto, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Argentiero, Ilenia; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Considering a natural system without human-induced modifications, its resilience can be altered by many natural drivers (e.g. geological characteristics, climate) and their spatial modifications over time. Therefore, natural hazardous phenomena could shift natural system over tipping points in an easier or more difficult way. So long as natural system does not involve human settlements or transport infrastructures, natural system risk assessment could not be a basic topic. Nowadays, human activities have modified many natural systems forming, as a result, hybrid systems (both human and natural), in which natural and human-induced drivers modify hybrid systems vulnerability in order to decrease or increase their resilience: scientists define this new age Anthropocene. In this context, dynamic risk assessment of hybrid systems is required in order to avoid disaster when hazardous phenomena occur, but it is a quite complex issue. In fact, soft crisis emerging signals are difficult to identify because of wrong risk perception and lack of communication. Furthermore, natural and human-induced modifications are rarely registered and supervised by governments, so it is fairly difficult defining how systems resilience changes over time. Inhabitants of Ginosa (Taranto, South of Italy) had modified many old rock dwellings over thousand years since the Middle Ages. Indeed, they had built up three-storey houses on three hypogeum levels of rock dwellings along the ravine. The Matrice street collapse in Ginosa is an example of how natural and human-induced spatial modifications over time had led a soft crisis to evolve in a disaster, fortunately without fatalities. This research aim is to revisit events before the Matrice street collapse on the 21st January 2014. The will is to define the relationship between the hybrid system resilience and soft crisis variation over time and how human and natural drivers were involved in the shift.

  20. Acoustic measurement of sediment dynamics in the coastal zones using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, A., II; Paramasivam, A.; Seshachalam, S.; A, C.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzing of the impact of constructive or low energy waves and deconstructive or high energy waves in the ocean are very much significant since they deform the geometry of seashore. The deformation may lead to productive result and also to the end of deteriorate damage. Constructive waves results deposition of sediment which widens the beach where as deconstructive waves results erosion which narrows the beach. Validation of historic sediment transportation and prediction of the direction of movement of seashore is essential to prevent unrecoverable damages by incorporating precautionary measurements to identify the factors that influence sediment transportation if feasible. The objective of this study is to propose a more reliable and energy efficient Information and communication system to model the Coastal Sediment Dynamics. Various factors influencing the sediment drift at a particular region is identified. Consequence of source depth and frequency dependencies of spread pattern in the presence of sediments is modeled. Property of source depth and frequency on sensitivity to values of model parameters are determined. Fundamental physical reasons for these sediment interaction effects are given. Shallow to deep water and internal and external wave model of ocean is obtained intended to get acoustic data assimilation (ADA). Signal processing algorithms are used over the observed data to form a full field acoustic propagation model and construct sound speed profile (SSP). The inversions of data due to uncertainties at various depths are compared. The impact of sediment drift over acoustic data is identified. An energy efficient multipath routing scheme Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is deployed for the well-organized communication of data. The WSN is designed considering increased life time, decreased power consumption, free of threats and attacks. The practical data obtained from the efficient system to model the ocean sediment dynamics are evaluated with remote

  1. Improved decision-making on irrigation farming in arid zones using a system dynamics model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Wit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sandveld region in the Western Cape is a low rainfall area dominated by agricultural production using groundwater resources. The rise in agricultural production in the Sandveld has led to questions regarding the region's ecological sustainability. We developed a system dynamics model for the Sandveld system which captures land-use change, agricultural production, and groundwater abstraction and recharge. Using this model, we find little evidence that pressures on livelihoods result, either currently or in the immediate future, from ecological feedback effects. The model does indicate that the highest risks are associated with the financial viability of agriculture, in its present form, in the region. With lower margins, a drive towards economies of scale in agricultural production is more likely in the future. This process has had severe implications in some sectors already, with a 39% decrease in the number of potato producers in the Sandveld region between 2003 and 2009. These results highlight that an integrated approach to agricultural, economic and environmental management and planning is needed to capture the economic and ecological complexity and dynamics of the Sandveld system.

  2. Improvement of Dynamic Performance of Hybrid Gas Bearings via Adjustable Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    and the pressure and velocity fields in the injection nozzle are compared. The simplified theoretical model has been validated against the CFD results and experimentally using a test rig. The test rig consists of a flexible rotor supported by a ball bearing and a controllable hybrid gas bearing. The results show...

  3. Improving vehicle dynamics and fuel economy with an E-four hybrid powertrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrarens, A.F.A.; Noben, P.F.M.; Nievelstein, M.M.J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed the Toyota Hybrid System with CVT (THS-C) for the Toyota Estimaminivan. The THS-C is based on Toyota’s Super CVT (K110), where the conventional torque converter is replaced by a torsional damper and a newly developed motor/generator. For smooth switching between

  4. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Adgaba, Nuru; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Al-Maktary, Anwer A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations ( P  bee colonies were able to hoard three times more ( P  pollen and built more ( P  bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double ( P  bees had greater ( P  bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year's adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  5. Dynamic Measurement of Tumor Vascular Permeability and Perfusion using a Hybrid System for Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wuwei; Elmer, Andreas; Buehlmann, David; Augath, Mark-Aurel; Vats, Divya; Ripoll, Jorge; Rudin, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Assessing tumor vascular features including permeability and perfusion is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to compare fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based vascular readouts in subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice by simultaneous dynamic measurement of tracer uptake using a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)/MRI system. Vascular permeability was measured using a mixture of extravascular imaging agents, GdDOTA and the dye Cy5.5, and perfusion using a mixture of intravascular agents, Endorem and a fluorescent probe (Angiosense). Dynamic fluorescence reflectance imaging (dFRI) was integrated into the hybrid system for high temporal resolution. Excellent correspondence between uptake curves of Cy5.5/GdDOTA and Endorem/Angiosense has been found with correlation coefficients R > 0.98. The two modalities revealed good agreement regarding permeability coefficients and centers-of-gravity of the imaging agent distribution. The FMT/dFRI protocol presented is able to accurately map physiological processes and poses an attractive alternative to MRI for characterizing tumor neoangiogenesis.

  6. An open-source framework for analyzing N-electron dynamics. II. Hybrid density functional theory/configuration interaction methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Gunter; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2017-10-30

    In this contribution, we extend our framework for analyzing and visualizing correlated many-electron dynamics to non-variational, highly scalable electronic structure method. Specifically, an explicitly time-dependent electronic wave packet is written as a linear combination of N-electron wave functions at the configuration interaction singles (CIS) level, which are obtained from a reference time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation. The procedure is implemented in the open-source Python program detCI@ORBKIT, which extends the capabilities of our recently published post-processing toolbox (Hermann et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2016, 37, 1511). From the output of standard quantum chemistry packages using atom-centered Gaussian-type basis functions, the framework exploits the multideterminental structure of the hybrid TDDFT/CIS wave packet to compute fundamental one-electron quantities such as difference electronic densities, transient electronic flux densities, and transition dipole moments. The hybrid scheme is benchmarked against wave function data for the laser-driven state selective excitation in LiH. It is shown that all features of the electron dynamics are in good quantitative agreement with the higher-level method provided a judicious choice of functional is made. Broadband excitation of a medium-sized organic chromophore further demonstrates the scalability of the method. In addition, the time-dependent flux densities unravel the mechanistic details of the simulated charge migration process at a glance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Application of multiple geochemical markers to investigate organic pollution in a dynamic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-02-01

    Multiple geochemical markers, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were employed to relate sediment organic chemical pollution in the coastal zone off South China to socioeconomic development there. Concentrations of Σn-C(15-35) (n-alkanes with 15-35 carbon atoms), ΣLAB (sum of C(10) to C(13) LABs), and Σ(26) PAH (sum of 26 PAH compounds) ranged from 110 to 3,160, 11 to 160, and 26 to 600 ng/g, with medians of 730, 40, and 230 ng/g, respectively. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plant waxes, and in minor amounts from aquatic plankton and bacteria. Compositions of LABs indicated that considerable amounts of poorly treated wastewater had been directly discharged or transported to the eastern and western coastal areas of Guangdong Province. In addition, anthropogenic hydrocarbons were derived largely from vehicular emissions and combustion of domestic coal and biomass and to a lesser extent from oil spills. Eastern and western coastal sediments contained higher levels of LABs but lower levels of PAHs than those of the Pearl River Estuary, a coastal area of the Pearl River Delta. This spatial pattern of organic pollution was consistent with chemical use patterns. The eastern and western regions of Guangdong Province are economically less developed than the Pearl River Delta region, where more domestic wastewater treatment plants have been built. However, greater amounts of energy are consumed in the latter region to produce more combustion-derived PAH contamination. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    Fuel cells can produce electricity with high efficiency, low pollutants, and low noise. With the advent of fuel cell technologies, fuel cell systems have since been demonstrated as reliable power generators with power outputs from a few watts to a few megawatts. With proper equipment, fuel cell systems can produce heating and cooling, thus increased its overall efficiency. To increase the acceptance from electrical utilities and building owners, fuel cell systems must operate more dynamically and integrate well with renewable energy resources. This research studies the dynamic performance of fuel cells and the integration of fuel cells with other equipment in three levels: (i) the fuel cell stack operating on hydrogen and reformate gases, (ii) the fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit, and (iii) the hybrid energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels, fuel cell system, and energy storage. In the first part, this research studied the steady-state and dynamic performance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack. Collaborators at Aalborg University (Aalborg, Denmark) conducted experiments on a high temperature PEM fuel cell short stack at steady-state and transients. Along with the experimental activities, this research developed a first-principles dynamic model of a fuel cell stack. The dynamic model developed in this research was compared to the experimental results when operating on different reformate concentrations. Finally, the dynamic performance of the fuel cell stack for a rapid increase and rapid decrease in power was evaluated. The dynamic model well predicted the performance of the well-performing cells in the experimental fuel cell stack. The second part of the research studied the dynamic response of a high temperature PEM fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit with high thermal integration. After verifying the model performance with the

  9. Genome Dynamics of Hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae During Vegetative and Meiotic Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dutta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and recombination are the major sources of genetic diversity in all organisms. In the baker’s yeast, all mutation rate estimates are in homozygous background. We determined the extent of genetic change through mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome during successive vegetative and meiotic divisions. We measured genome-wide LOH and base mutation rates during vegetative and meiotic divisions in a hybrid (S288c/YJM789 S. cerevisiae strain. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid showed nearly complete reduction in heterozygosity within 31 generations of meioses and improved spore viability. LOH in the meiotic lines was driven primarily by the mating of spores within the tetrad. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid lines propagated vegetatively for the same duration as the meiotic lines, showed variable LOH (from 2 to 3% and up to 35%. Two of the vegetative lines with extensive LOH showed frequent and large internal LOH tracts that suggest a high frequency of recombination repair. These results suggest significant LOH can occur in the S288c/YJM789 hybrid during vegetative propagation presumably due to return to growth events. The average base substitution rates for the vegetative lines (1.82 × 10−10 per base per division and the meiotic lines (1.22 × 10−10 per base per division are the first genome-wide mutation rate estimates for a hybrid yeast. This study therefore provides a novel context for the analysis of mutation rates (especially in the context of detecting LOH during vegetative divisions, compared to previous mutation accumulation studies in yeast that used homozygous backgrounds.

  10. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS...

  11. Preferential flow in the vadose zone and interface dynamics: Impact of microbial exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biting; Pales, Ashley R.; Clifford, Heather M.; Kupis, Shyla; Hennessy, Sarah; Liang, Wei-Zhen; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; Finneran, Kevin T.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2018-03-01

    In the hydrological cycle, the infiltration process is a critical component in the distribution of water into the soil and in the groundwater system. The nonlinear dynamics of the soil infiltration process yield preferential flow which affects the water distribution in soil. Preferential flow is influenced by the interactions between water, soil, plants, and microorganisms. Although the relationship among the plant roots, their rhizodeposits and water transport in soil has been the subject of extensive study, the effect of microbial exudates has been studied in only a few cases. Here the authors investigated the influence of two artificial microbial exudates-catechol and riboflavin-on the infiltration process, particularly unstable fingered flow, one form of preferential flow. Flow experiments investigating the effects of types and concentrations of microbial exudates on unstable fingered flow were conducted in a two-dimensional tank that was filled with ASTM

  12. Dissolved carbon dynamics in the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone of a coastal river entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the dynamics of dissolved carbon from freshwater to marine systems. This study aims to determine how dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations change along an 88-km long estuarine river with salinity ranging from 0.02 to 29.50. The study is expected to elucidate which processes most likely control carbon dynamics in a freshwater-saltwater mixing system, and to evaluate the net metabolism of this estuary using mixing curves and stable isotope analyses. From November 2014 to February 2016, water samples were collected and in-situ measurements on ambient water conditions were performed during eighteen field trips at six sites from upstream to downstream of the Calcasieu River, which enters the Northern Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States. δ13CDIC and δ13CDOC were measured from May 2015 to February 2017 during five of the field trips. The DIC concentration and δ13CDIC increased rapidly with increasing salinity in the mixing zone. The DIC concentrations appeared to be largely influenced by conservative mixing. The δ13CDIC values were close to those suggested by the conservative mixing model for May 2015, June 2015 and November 2015, but lower than those for July 2015 and February 2016, suggesting that an estuarine river can fluctuate from a balanced to a heterotrophic system (i.e., production/respiration aquatic photosynthesis from carbon produced by terrestrial photosynthesis in a river-ocean continuum. These findings suggest that riverine dissolved carbon undergoes a rapid change in freshwater-saltwater mixing, and that these dynamics should be taken into account in carbon processing and budgeting in the world's estuarine systems.

  13. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J; Anderson, William S

    2015-08-01

    The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the [Formula: see text] Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately [Formula: see text]. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  14. The control of auroral zone dynamics and thermodynamics by the interplanetary magnetic field dawn-dusk (Y) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sica, R.J.; Hernandez, G.; Emery, B.A.; Roble, R.G.; Smith, R.W.; Rees, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the dawn-dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B y ) expands the classical symmetric two-cell convection pattern toward dusk (B y negative) or toward dawn (B y positive) in the northern hemisphere, altering the ion drag forcing on the neutral atmosphere. Measurements of the neutral dynamics associated with these convection patterns have been presented primarily at magnetic latitudes greater than 70 degree in the polar cap. In this study, nights with coincident IMF measurements have been selected from the extensive four-year auroral zone thermospheric wind and temperature data set derived from Fabry-Perot spectrometer measurements of the Doppler shifts and widths of the O( 1 D) 15,867 cm -1 (630.0 nm) emission from College, Alaska. Averages from 112 nights of measurements from College were also computed using a selection criterion that depended on the previous 2 hours of IMF measurements (case 2). This procedure yielded averages that differed at times from case 1. The wind and temperature averages for both cases show large variations with B y in the auroral zone. The wind averages for B y negative and positive are compared with National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model predictions that use a B y -dependent model of ionospheric convection. The results for B y negative and positive are compared with National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model predictions that use a B y -dependent model of ionospheric convection. The results for B y negative compare favorably with the averages, but there are significant differences between model calculations and averages for the B y positive case

  15. DYNAMIC MIXING MODEL OF THE CHIGNAHUAPAN THERMAL SPRING IN THE GEOTHERMAL ZONE OF THE ACOCULCO CALDERA, PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Cirlos, A.; Torres-Rodriguez, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Acoculco Caldera, of Pliocenic age, is located within the limits of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (CVT) and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMOr). The Acoculco geothermal zone consists of a 790m thick igneous sequence, related to a volcanic complex formed by andesites and rhyolitic domes emplaced in an 18 Km diameter annular fracture. It unconformably overlies a 5000 m thick section of folded and faulted Jurassic-Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The Chignahuapan Spring, located in the extreme eastern part of the Geothermal Zone of the Acoculco Caldera, yields temperatures of 49°C and discharges an estimated of 98 lps from the karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone. Both major and trace element geochemical analysis were carried out, and results were interpreted using Piper and Stiff diagrams, as well as geothermometry. The results indicate that water belongs to the calcium-bicarbonate type and yield temperatures in a range of 70-80°C at depth, which suggest an extensive lateral flow from the main reservoir and mixing with shallow groundwaters. The spring suffers significant variations in its temperature throughout the year, especially during the rainy season, when water temperature decreases up to 10°C. Analyzing the hot spring water temperature data from of the last 10 years and comparing it with the precipitation and air temperature curves of the region, we expect to develop a dynamic mixing model which depicts the relation between these factors and the importance of each one in the water temperature variation. We also look forward to be able to forecast water temperature trends for the next several years and correlate it with climate change in the area.

  16. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Anderson, William S.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the 70-110 Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. Approach. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. Main results. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately 9 m{{m}2}. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. Significance. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  17. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  18. Dead zone analysis of ECAL barrel modules under static and dynamic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Emile, T.; Anduze, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the context of ILD project, impact studies of environmental loads on the Electromagnetic CALorimeter (ECAL) have been initiated. The ECAL part considered is the barrel and it consists of several independent modules which are mounted on the Hadronic CALorimeter barrel (HCAL) itself mounted on the cryostat coil and the yoke. The estimate of the gap required between each ECAL modules is fundamental to define the assembly step and avoid mechanical contacts over the barrel lifetime. In the meantime, it has to be done in consideration to the dead spaces reduction and detector hermiticity optimization. Several Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with static and dynamic loads have been performed in order to define correctly the minimum values for those gaps. Due to the implantation site of the whole project in Japan, seismic analysis were carried out in addition to the static ones. This article shows results of these analysis done with the Finite Element Method (FEM) in ANSYS. First results show the impact of HCAL design on the ECAL modules motion in static load. The second study dedicated to seismic approach on a larger model (including yoke and cryostat) gives additional results on earthquake consequences.

  19. Dynamic spin polarization by orientation-dependent separation in a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.; Akimov, I. A.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Langer, L.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Bayer, M.

    2012-07-01

    Integration of magnetism into semiconductor electronics would facilitate an all-in-one-chip computer. Ferromagnet/bulk semiconductor hybrids have been, so far, mainly considered as key devices to read out the ferromagnetism by means of spin injection. Here we demonstrate that a Mn-based ferromagnetic layer acts as an orientation-dependent separator for carrier spins confined in a semiconductor quantum well that is set apart from the ferromagnet by a barrier only a few nanometers thick. By this spin-separation effect, a non-equilibrium electron-spin polarization is accumulated in the quantum well due to spin-dependent electron transfer to the ferromagnet. The significant advance of this hybrid design is that the excellent optical properties of the quantum well are maintained. This opens up the possibility of optical readout of the ferromagnet's magnetization and control of the non-equilibrium spin polarization in non-magnetic quantum wells.

  20. Recognition of RNA by amide modified backbone nucleic acids: molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-RNA hybrids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Mafalda; Fonné-Pfister, Raymonde; Beaudegnies, Renaud; Chekatt, Habiba; Jung, Pierre M J; Murphy-Kessabi, Fiona; De Mesmaeker, Alain; Wendeborn, Sebastian

    2005-04-27

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a chemically modified DNA-RNA hybrid in which a phosphodiester linkage is replaced by a neutral amide-3 linkage (3'-CH(2)-CONH-5') were investigated using UV melting experiments, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water, and continuum solvent models. van't Hoff analysis of the experimental UV melting curves suggests that the significant increase of the thermodynamic stability of a 15-mer DNA-RNA with seven alternated amide-3 modifications (+11 degrees C) is mainly due to an increased binding enthalpy. To further evaluate the origin in the observed affinities differences, the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy was calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation numerically. The nonelectrostatic contribution was estimated as the product of a hydrophobic surface tension coefficient and the surface area that is buried upon double strand formation. Structures were taken from 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations computed in a consistent fashion using explicit solvent, counterions, and the particle-mesh Ewald procedure. The present preliminary thermodynamic study suggests that the favorable binding free energy of the amide-3 DNA single strand to the complementary RNA is equally driven by electrostatic and nonpolar contributions to the binding compared to their natural analogues. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water were performed on an amide-3 DNA single strand and the corresponding natural DNA. Results from the conformations cluster analysis of the simulated amide-3 DNA single strand ensembles suggest that the 25% of the population sampled within 10 ns has a pre-organized conformation where the sugar C3' endo pucker is favored at the 3'-flanking nucleotides. These structural and thermodynamic features contribute to the understanding of the observed increased affinities of the amide-3 DNA-RNA hybrids at the microscopic level.

  1. UCare navigator: A dynamic guide to the hybrid electronic and paper medical record in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, Seth J; Cucina, Russell J; Love, Jeffrey S; Blum, Michael S

    2007-10-11

    During the phased transition from a paper-based record to an electronic health record (EHR), we found that clinicians had difficulty remembering where to find important clinical documents. We describe our experience with the design and use of a web-based map of the hybrid medical record. With between 50 to 75 unique visits per day, the UCare Navigator has served as an important aid to clinicians practicing in the transitional environment of a large EHR implementation.

  2. The chemically zoned 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands): Petrologic evolution and magma supply dynamics of a rift zone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; White, James D. L.

    2000-03-01

    The 1949 rift zone eruption along the Cumbre Vieja ridge on La Palma involved three eruptive centers, 3 km spaced apart, and was chemically and mineralogically zoned. Duraznero crater erupted tephrite for 14 days and shut down upon the opening of Llano del Banco, a fissure that issued first tephrite and, after 3 days, basanite. Hoyo Negro crater opened 4 days later and erupted basanite, tephrite, and phonotephrite, while Llano del Banco continued to issue basanite. The eruption ended with Duraznero erupting basanite with abundant crustal and mantle xenoliths. The tephrites and basanites from Duraznero and Llano del Banco show narrow compositional ranges and define a bimodal suite. Each batch ascended and evolved separately without significant intermixing, as did the Hoyo Negro basanite, which formed at lower degrees of melting. The magmas fractionated clinopyroxene +olivine±kaersutite±Ti-magnetite at 600-800 MPa and possibly 800-1100 MPa. Abundant reversely zoned phenocrysts reflect mixing with evolved melts at mantle depths. Probably as early as 1936, Hoyo Negro basanite entered the deep rift system at 200-350 MPa. Some shallower pockets of this basanite evolved to phonotephrite through differentiation and assimilation of wall rock. A few months prior to eruption, a mixing event in the mantle may have triggered the final ascent of the magmas. Most of the erupted tephrite and basanite ascended from mantle depths within hours to days without prolonged storage in crustal reservoirs. The Cumbre Vieja rift zone differs from the rift zones of Kilauea volcano (Hawaii) in lacking a summit caldera or a summit reservoir feeding the rift system and in being smaller and less active with most of the rift magma solidifying between eruptions.

  3. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  4. First principles study of vibrational dynamics of ceria-titania hybrid clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com; Bibi, Maryam [University of Gujrat, Department of Physics (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    Density functional theory based calculations were performed to study vibrational properties of ceria, titania, and ceria-titania hybrid clusters. The findings revealed the dominance of vibrations related to oxygen when compared to those of metallic atoms in the clusters. In case of hybrid cluster, the softening of normal modes related to exterior oxygen atoms in ceria and softening/hardening of high/low frequency modes related to titania dimmers are observed. The results calculated for monomers conform to symmetry predictions according to which three IR and three Raman active modes were detected for TiO{sub 2}, whereas two IR active and one Raman active modes were observed for CeO{sub 2}. The comparative analysis indicates that the hybrid cluster CeTiO{sub 4} contains simultaneous vibrational fingerprints of the component dimmers. The symmetry, nature of vibrations, IR and Raman activity, intensities, and atomic involvement in different modes of the clusters are described in detail. The study points to engineering of CeTiO{sub 4} to tailor its properties for technological visible region applications in photocatalytic and electrochemical devices.

  5. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  6. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  7. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C.D.; Jones, M.C.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  8. Noise-driven cooperative dynamics between vegetation and topography in riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic dynamics, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In fact, in a given plot, vegetation biomass can grow (if the stage is below the plot elevation) or decay (if the stage is above the plot elevation). As a result, biomass exhibits significant temporal variations. In this framework, the capability of vegetation to alter the transect topography (namely, the plot elevation) is crucial. Vegetation can increase the plot elevation by a number of mechanisms (trapping of water- and wind-transported sediment particles, production of organic soil, stabilization of the soil surface). The increment of plot elevation induces the reduction of the plot-specific magnitude, frequency and duration of floods. These more favorable plot-specific hydrological conditions, in turn, induce an increment of biomass. Moreover, the higher the vegetation biomass, the higher the plot elevation increment induced by these mechanisms. In order to elucidate how the stochastically varying water stage and the vegetation-induced topographic alteration shape the bio-morphological characteristics of riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments and the stream was adopted. In particular, the capability of vegetation to alter the plot topography was emphasized. In modeling such interactions, the minimalistic approach was pursued. The complex vegetation-sediments-stream interactions were modeled by a set of state-depended stochastic eco-hydraulic equations. The probability density function of vegetation biomass was then analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This pdf strongly depends on the vegetation-topography feedback. We

  9. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    transport through the material interface which differs between the stationary (unilateral) and dynamic cases (bilateral). This qualitative observation is confirmed by breakthrough curves for dynamic experiments which generally show the trend of faster initial breakthrough and increased tailing when compared to stationary infiltration results. Literature Cremer, C.J.M., I. Neuweiler, M. Bechtold, J. Vanderborght (2016): Solute Transport in Heterogeneous Soil with Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions, Vadose Zone Journal 15 (6) DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.11.0144

  10. Critical Zone Co-dynamics: Quantifying Interactions between Subsurface, Land Surface, and Vegetation Properties Using UAV and Geophysical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wu, Y.; Tran, A. P.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Versteeg, R.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding and modelling of terrestrial systems requires advances in measuring and quantifying interactions among subsurface, land surface and vegetation processes over relevant spatiotemporal scales. Such advances are important to quantify natural and managed ecosystem behaviors, as well as to predict how watershed systems respond to increasingly frequent hydrological perturbations, such as droughts, floods and early snowmelt. Our study focuses on the joint use of UAV-based multi-spectral aerial imaging, ground-based geophysical tomographic monitoring (incl., electrical and electromagnetic imaging) and point-scale sensing (soil moisture sensors and soil sampling) to quantify interactions between above and below ground compartments of the East River Watershed in the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluate linkages between physical properties (incl. soil composition, soil electrical conductivity, soil water content), metrics extracted from digital surface and terrain elevation models (incl., slope, wetness index) and vegetation properties (incl., greenness, plant type) in a 500 x 500 m hillslope-floodplain subsystem of the watershed. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate the control of soil and geomorphic characteristic on hydrological processes. Results provide an unprecedented window into critical zone interactions, revealing significant below- and above-ground co-dynamics. Baseline geophysical datasets provide lithological structure along the hillslope, which includes a surface soil horizon, underlain by a saprolite layer and the fractured Mancos shale. Time-lapse geophysical data show very different moisture dynamics in various compartments and locations during the winter and growing season. Integration with aerial imaging reveals a significant linkage between plant growth and the subsurface wetness, soil characteristics and the topographic gradient. The obtained information about the organization and

  11. Real-Time Observation of Exciton-Phonon Coupling Dynamics in Self-Assembled Hybrid Perovskite Quantum Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Limeng; Huynh, Uyen; Cheminal, Alexandre; Thomas, Tudor H; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Hinrichsen, Ture F; Ahmad, Shahab; Sadhanala, Aditya; Rao, Akshay

    2017-11-28

    Self-assembled hybrid perovskite quantum wells have attracted attention due to their tunable emission properties, ease of fabrication, and device integration. However, the dynamics of excitons in these materials, especially how they couple to phonons, remains an open question. Here, we investigate two widely used materials, namely, butylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 and hexylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 , both of which exhibit broad photoluminescence tails at room temperature. We performed femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy to obtain a real-time picture of the exciton-phonon interaction and directly identified the vibrational modes that couple to excitons. We show that the choice of the organic cation controls which vibrational modes the exciton couples to. In butylammonium lead iodide, excitons dominantly couple to a 100 cm -1 phonon mode, whereas in hexylammonium lead iodide, excitons interact with phonons with frequencies of 88 and 137 cm -1 . Using the determined optical phonon energies, we analyzed photoluminescence broadening mechanisms. At low temperatures (photoluminescence line shape observed in hybrid perovskite quantum wells and provide insights into the mechanism of exciton-phonon coupling in these materials.

  12. Torsional properties of hexagonal boron nitride nanotubes, carbon nanotubes and their hybrid structures: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Qi-lin, E-mail: xiongql@hust.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tian, Xiao Geng [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Structure Strength and Vibration, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The torsional mechanical properties of hexagonal single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and their hybrid structures (SWBN-CNTs) are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Two approaches - force approach and energy approach, are adopted to calculate the shear moduli of SWBNNTs and SWCNTs, the discrepancy between two approaches is analyzed. The results show that the shear moduli of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), including SWBNNTs and SWCNTs are dependent on the diameter, especially for armchair SWNTs. The armchair SWNTs show the better ability of resistance the twisting comparable to the zigzag SWNTs. The effects of diameter and length on the critical values of torque of SWNTs are obtained by comparing the torsional behaviors of SWNTs with different diameters and different lengths. It is observed that the MD results of the effect of diameter and length on the critical values of torque agrees well with the prediction of continuum shell model. The shear modulus of SWBN-CNT has a significant dependence on the percentages of SWCNT and the hybrid style has also an influence on shear modulus. The critical values of torque of SWBN-CNTs increase with the increase of the percentages of SWCNT. This phenomenon can be interpreted by the function relationship between the torque of different bonds (B-N-X, C-C-X, C-B-X, C-N-X) and the angles of bonds.

  13. Soil Moisture/ Tree Water Status Dynamics in Mid-Latitude Montane Forest, Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Meadows, M. W.; Roudneva, K.; Storch, J.; Bales, R. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an effort to understand the root-water-nutrient interactions in the multi-dimensional soil/vegetation system surrounding large trees, in August 2008 we instrumented a mature white fir (Abies concolor) and the surrounding soil to better define the water balance in a single tree. In July 2010, we instrumented a second tree, a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in shallower soils on a drier, exposed slope. The trees are located in a mixed-conifer forest at an elevation of 2000m in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. The deployment of more than 250 sensors to measure temperature, volumetric water content, matric potential, and snow depth surrounding the two trees complements sap-flow measurements in the trunk and stem-water-potential measurements in the canopy to capture the seasonal cycles of soil wetting and drying. We show here the results of a multi-year deployment of soil moisture sensors as critical integrators of hydrologic/ biotic interaction in a forested catchment. Sensor networks such as deployed here are a valuable tool in closing the water budget in dynamic forested catchments. While the exchange of energy, water and carbon is continuous, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous in both space and time. Thus, the prediction of the behavior of the system across multiple scales constitutes a major challenge.

  14. Accelerating staggered-fermion dynamics with the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M. A.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2007-01-01

    Improved staggered-fermion formulations are a popular choice for lattice QCD calculations. Historically, the algorithm used for such calculations has been the inexact R algorithm, which has systematic errors that only vanish as the square of the integration step size. We describe how the exact rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm may be used in this context, and show that for parameters corresponding to current state-of-the-art computations it leads to a factor of approximately seven decrease in cost as well as having no step-size errors

  15. Dynamic Load Balancing with Handover in Hybrid Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Harald; Wang, Yunlu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid network combining lightfidelity (Li-Fi) with a radio frequency (RF) wireless fidelity(Wi-Fi) network is considered. An additional tier of very smallLi-Fi attocells which utilise the visible light spectrum offers asignificant increase in wireless data throughput in an indoorenvironment while at the same time providing room illumination.Importantly, there is no interference between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi.A Li-Fi attocell covers a significantly smaller area than a Wi-Fi access p...

  16. Hybridization of tensor-optimized and high-momentum antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for light nuclei with bare interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengjiao; Isaka, Masahiro; Myo, Takayuki; Toki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Suhara, Tadahiro; Yamada, Taiichi

    2018-01-01

    Many-body correlations play an essential role in the ab initio description of nuclei with nuclear bare interactions. We propose a new framework to describe light nuclei by the hybridization of the tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (TOAMD) and the high-momentum AMD (HM-AMD), which we call "HM-TOAMD." In this framework, we describe the many-body correlations in terms of not only the correlation functions in TOAMD, but also the high-momentum pairs in the AMD wave function. With the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction AV8^', we sufficiently reproduce the energy and radius of the {^3}H nucleus in HM-TOAMD. The effects of tensor force and short-range repulsion in the bare interaction are nicely described in this new framework. We also discuss the convergence in calculation and flexibility of the model space for this new method.

  17. Experimental investigation of the dynamics of a hybrid morphing wing: time resolved particle image velocimetry and force measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodin, Gurvan; Scheller, Johannes; Rouchon, Jean-François; Braza, Marianna; Mit Collaboration; Imft Collaboration; Laplace Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    A quantitative characterization of the effects obtained by high frequency-low amplitude trailing edge actuation is performed. Particle image velocimetry, as well as pressure and aerodynamic force measurements, are carried out on an airfoil model. This hybrid morphing wing model is equipped with both trailing edge piezoelectric-actuators and camber control shape memory alloy actuators. It will be shown that this actuation allows for an effective manipulation of the wake turbulent structures. Frequency domain analysis and proper orthogonal decomposition show that proper actuating reduces the energy dissipation by favoring more coherent vortical structures. This modification in the airflow dynamics eventually allows for a tapering of the wake thickness compared to the baseline configuration. Hence, drag reductions relative to the non-actuated trailing edge configuration are observed. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  18. Didactical suggestion for a Dynamic Hybrid Intelligent e-Learning Environment (DHILE) applying the PENTHA ID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2011-08-01

    The teleology of our research is to propose a solution to the request of "innovative, creative teaching", proposing a methodology to educate creative Students in a society characterized by multiple reference points and hyper dynamic knowledge, continuously subject to reviews and discussions. We apply a multi-prospective Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), defined and developed by our research group, which adopts a hybrid pedagogical approach, consisting of elements of didactical connectivism intertwined with aspects of social constructivism and enactivism. The contribution proposes an e-course structure and approach, applying the theoretical design principles of the above mentioned ID Model, describing methods, techniques, technologies and assessment criteria for the definition of lesson modes in an e-course.

  19. Dimensionality crossover in vortex dynamics of magnetically coupled F-S-F hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapetrov, G; Belkin, A; Iavarone, M; Yefremenko, V; Pearson, J E; Novosad, V; Divan, R; Cambel, V

    2011-01-01

    We report on the vortex dynamics in magnetically coupled F-S-F trilayers extracted from the analysis of the resistance-current isotherms. The superconducting thin film that is conventionally in the 2D vortex limit exhibits quite different behavior when sandwiched between ferromagnetic layers. The value of the dynamic critical exponent strongly increases in the F-S-F case due to screening of the stray vortex field by the adjacent ferromagnetic layers, leading to an effective dimensional crossover in vortex dynamics. Furthermore, the directional pinning by the magnetic stripe domains induces anisotropy in the vortex glass transition temperature and causes metastable avalanche behavior at strong driving currents.

  20. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  1. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each for one year (April 2013 through March 2014, and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0.05 than introduced honeybee colonies and produced more (P < 0.05 honey. The local bee colonies were able to hoard three times more (P < 0.05 pollen and built more (P < 0.05 queen cells than introduced bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double (P < 0.05 than that of introduced honeybee colonies. Moreover, local bees had greater (P < 0.05 adult bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year’s adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  2. A Novel Method for Dynamic Multicriteria Decision Making with Hybrid Evaluation Information

    OpenAIRE

    Shihu Liu; Tauqir Ahmed Moughal

    2014-01-01

    How to select the most desirable pattern(s) is often a crucial step for decision making problem. By taking uncertainty as well as dynamic of database into consideration, in this paper, we construct a dynamic multicriteria decision making procedure, where the evaluation information of criteria is expressed by real number, intuitionistic fuzzy number, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number. During the process of algorithm construction, the evaluation information at all time episodes is...

  3. A new hybrid two-zone/crucible furnace process for the growth of epitaxial Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.; Dominguez, F.; Padilla, R.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Epitaxial Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Tl-2212) films {approximately}5500 {Angstrom} thick are grown on LaAlO{sub 3}(100) substrates using a new hybrid two-zone/crucible furnace process enabling precise control of thallination. This method combines the best features of both conventional crucible and two-zone processing for the first time: superb film properties and reduced handling of hazardous Tl-oxide powders. Single-phase, highly {ital c}-axis oriented Tl-2212 films are grown with smooth morphology, Meissner transition {approximately}103 K, and critical current density {approximately}1.1{times}10{sup 7}A/cm{sup 2} at 5 K for twenty consecutive runs without having to change or add to the Tl-oxide source. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  4. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  5. Fuel cell/back-up battery hybrid energy conversion systems: Dynamic modeling and harmonic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel technique to completely eliminate the harmful harmonics of fuel cell system. • Presenting a novel high accurate detailed electrochemical dynamic model of fuel cells. • Back-up battery system to compensate the slow dynamic response of fuel cell system. • Exact analysis of real electrochemical reactions occurring inside fuel cells. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dynamic model of fuel cells is presented. High accurate static and dynamic responses of the proposed model are experimentally validated by comparing simulated results with real experimental data. The obtained model together with theoretical results shows that a fuel cell or a fuel cell stack has very slow dynamic response, so that, it cannot adapt itself to the fast variations in load demand. It is shown that for adapting well a fuel cell stack to the load demand, the stack should be equipped with a proposed back-up battery system which compensates the slow dynamic response of the stack by providing a bidirectional path to transmit/absorb the extra instant power. It is proved that the conventional switching waveforms used in the converters of the stacks and back-up systems produce an enormous amount of harmful harmonics. Then, a novel technique is proposed to completely eliminate main harmful harmonics. It is worthwhile to note that all the other techniques only reduce the harmful harmonics. Simulated results verify that the back-up battery system together with applying the proposed technique provide a fast dynamic response for the fuel cell/back-up battery system, and also completely eliminate the main harmful harmonics

  6. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  7. Applications of hybrid time-frequency methods in nonlinear structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politopoulos, I.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L.; Antunes, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on methods which may be used to compute the nonlinear response of systems whose linear properties are determined in the frequency or Laplace domain. Typically, this kind of situation may arise in soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction problems. In particular three methods are investigated: (a) the hybrid time-frequency method, (b) the computation of the convolution integral which requires an inverse Fourier or Laplace transform of the system's transfer function, and (c) the identification of an equivalent system defined in the time domain which may be solved with classical time integration methods. These methods are illustrated by their application to some simple, one degree of freedom, non-linear systems and their advantages and drawbacks are highlighted. (authors)

  8. On the dynamics of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation is provided on the propagation and absorption of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks. A combined ray tracing and Fokker-Planck code is utilized and stochastic effects induced by toroidicity are correctly taken into account by using a large number of rays. It is shown that when strong wave damping prevails the absorbed spectrum is very similar in shape to the launched one, although some broadening and shifting in parallel wave index generally occur, and power deposition is localized. If the wave damping is weak and stochastic effects are important, rays end up sweeping the entire plasma cross-section, power deposition turns out to be extended, and the absorbed spectrum is much broader than the launched one

  9. A hybrid algorithm for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jonathan U; Yates, Christian A

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic simulation methods can be applied successfully to model exact spatio-temporally resolved reaction-diffusion systems. However, in many cases, these methods can quickly become extremely computationally intensive with increasing particle numbers. An alternative description of many of these systems can be derived in the diffusive limit as a deterministic, continuum system of partial differential equations (PDEs). Although the numerical solution of such PDEs is, in general, much more efficient than the full stochastic simulation, the deterministic continuum description is generally not valid when copy numbers are low and stochastic effects dominate. Therefore, to take advantage of the benefits of both of these types of models, each of which may be appropriate in different parts of a spatial domain, we have developed an algorithm that can be used to couple these two types of model together. This hybrid coupling algorithm uses an overlap region between the two modelling regimes. By coupling fluxes at one end of the interface and using a concentration-matching condition at the other end, we ensure that mass is appropriately transferred between PDE- and compartment-based regimes. Our methodology gives notable reductions in simulation time in comparison with using a fully stochastic model, while maintaining the important stochastic features of the system and providing detail in appropriate areas of the domain. We test our hybrid methodology robustly by applying it to several biologically motivated problems including diffusion and morphogen gradient formation. Our analysis shows that the resulting error is small, unbiased and does not grow over time. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  11. A hybrid system dynamics and optimization approach for supporting sustainable water resources planning in Zhengzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Li, Chunhui; Wang, Xuan; Peng, Cong; Cai, Yanpeng; Huang, Weichen

    2018-01-01

    Problems with water resources restrict the sustainable development of a city with water shortages. Based on system dynamics (SD) theory, a model of sustainable utilization of water resources using the STELLA software has been established. This model consists of four subsystems: population system, economic system, water supply system and water demand system. The boundaries of the four subsystems are vague, but they are closely related and interdependent. The model is applied to Zhengzhou City, China, which has a serious water shortage. The difference between the water supply and demand is very prominent in Zhengzhou City. The model was verified with data from 2009 to 2013. The results show that water demand of Zhengzhou City will reach 2.57 billion m3 in 2020. A water resources optimization model is developed based on interval-parameter two-stage stochastic programming. The objective of the model is to allocate water resources to each water sector and make the lowest cost under the minimum water demand. Using the simulation results, decision makers can easily weigh the costs of the system, the water allocation objectives, and the system risk. The hybrid system dynamics method and optimization model is a rational try to support water resources management in many cities, particularly for cities with potential water shortage and it is solidly supported with previous studies and collected data.

  12. Prediction of China's coal production-environmental pollution based on a hybrid genetic algorithm-system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiwei; Wei Yiming

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and system dynamics (SD) for coal production–environmental pollution load in China. GA has been utilized in the optimization of the parameters of the SD model to reduce implementation subjectivity. The chain of “Economic development–coal demand–coal production–environmental pollution load” of China in 2030 was predicted, and scenarios were analyzed. Results show that: (1) GA performs well in optimizing the parameters of the SD model objectively and in simulating the historical data; (2) The demand for coal energy continuously increases, although the coal intensity has actually decreased because of China's persistent economic development. Furthermore, instead of reaching a turning point by 2030, the environmental pollution load continuously increases each year even under the scenario where coal intensity decreased by 20% and investment in pollution abatement increased by 20%; (3) For abating the amount of “three types of wastes”, reducing the coal intensity is more effective than reducing the polluted production per tonne of coal and increasing investment in pollution control. - Highlights: ► We propos a GA-SD model for China's coal production-pollution prediction. ► Genetic algorithm (GA) can objectively and accurately optimize parameters of system dynamics (SD) model. ► Environmental pollution in China is projected to grow in our scenarios by 2030. ► The mechanism of reducing waste production per tonne of coal mining is more effective than others.

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Fuzzy Self-Tuning Disturbance Decoupling Control for a 3-DOF Serial-Parallel Hybrid Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique fuzzy self-tuning disturbance decoupling controller (FSDDC is designed for a serial-parallel hybrid humanoid arm (HHA to implement the throwing trajectory-tracking mission. Firstly, the dynamic model of the HHA is established and the input signal of the throwing process is obtained by studying the throwing process of human's arm. Secondly, the FSDDC, incorporating the disturbance decoupling controller (DDC and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC, is designed to ensure trajectory tracking of the HHA in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances. With the FSDDC method, the HHA system can be decoupled by actively estimating and rejecting the effects of both the internal plant dynamics and external disturbances. The self-tuning parameters are adapted online to improve the performance of the FSDDC; thus, it does not require detailed system parameters of the presented FSDDC. Finally, the controller introduced is compared with a PD controller which is commonly used for the robot manipulators control in industry. The effectiveness of the designed FSDDC is illustrated by simulations.

  14. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here

  15. Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis of Excitation Dynamics in a Quantum Dot/Polymer Hybrid: Atomistic Description Rationalizes Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-07-08

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymer/quantum dot (QD) solar cells are an attractive alternative to the traditional cells. The original, simple models postulate that one-dimensional polymers have continuous energy levels, while zero-dimensional QDs exhibit atom-like electronic structure. A realistic, atomistic viewpoint provides an alternative description. Electronic states in polymers are molecule-like: finite in size and discrete in energy. QDs are composed of many atoms and have high, bulk-like densities of states. We employ ab initio time-domain simulation to model the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced dynamics in a QD/polymer hybrid and show that an atomistic description is essential for understanding the time-resolved experimental data. Both electron and hole transfers across the interface exhibit subpicosecond time scales. The interfacial processes are fast due to strong electronic donor-acceptor, as evidenced by the densities of the photoexcited states which are delocalized between the donor and the acceptor. The nonadiabatic charge-phonon coupling is also strong, especially in the polymer, resulting in rapid energy losses. The electron transfer from the polymer is notably faster than the hole transfer from the QD, due to a significantly higher density of acceptor states. The stronger molecule-like electronic and charge-phonon coupling in the polymer rationalizes why the electron-hole recombination inside the polymer is several orders of magnitude faster than in the QD. As a result, experiments exhibit multiple transfer times for the long-lived hole inside the QD, ranging from subpicoseconds to nanoseconds. In contrast, transfer of the short-lived electron inside the polymer does not occur beyond the first picosecond. The energy lost by the hole on its transit into the polymer is accommodated by polymer's high-frequency vibrations. The energy lost by the electron injected into the QD is accommodated primarily by much lower-frequency collective and

  16. Parameterization of Nitrogen Limitation for a Dynamic Ecohydrological Model: a Case Study from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, S.; Bras, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Feedbacks between vegetation and the soil nutrient cycle are important in ecosystems where nitrogen limits plant growth, and consequently influences the carbon balance in the plant-soil system. However, many biosphere models do not include such feedbacks, because interactions between carbon and the nitrogen cycle can be complex, and remain poorly understood. In this study we coupled a nitrogen cycle model with an eco-hydrological model by using the concept of carbon cost economics. This concept accounts for different "costs" to the plant of acquiring nitrogen via different pathways. This study builds on tRIBS-VEGGIE, a spatially explicit hydrological model coupled with a model of photosynthesis, stomatal resistance, and energy balance, by combining it with a model of nitrogen recycling. Driven by climate and spatially explicit data of soils, vegetation and topography, the model (referred to as tRIBS-VEGGIE-CN) simulates the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the soil-plant system; the dynamics of vegetation; and different components of the hydrological cycle. The tRIBS-VEGGIE-CN is applied in a humid tropical watershed at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). The region is characterized by high availability and cycling of nitrogen, high soil respiration rates, and large carbon stocks.We drive the model under contemporary CO2 and hydro-climatic forcing and compare results to a simulation under doubling CO2 and a range of future climate scenarios. The results with parameterization of nitrogen limitation based on carbon cost economics show that the carbon cost of the acquisition of nitrogen is 14% of the net primary productivity (NPP) and the N uptake cost for different pathways vary over a large range depending on leaf nitrogen content, turnover rates of carbon in soil and nitrogen cycling processes. Moreover, the N fertilization simulation experiment shows that the application of N fertilizer does not significantly change the simulated NPP. Furthermore, an

  17. Static and dynamic experimental study of strengthened reinforced short concrete corbel by using carbon fabrics, crack path in shear zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental analysis of tracking the path of the cracks and crack growth in strengthened or repair reinforced concrete short corbels bonded by carbon fiber fabrics under static and dynamic loads. The reinforced short concrete corbel is a used precast element, for industrial buildings and structures. In fact, their functioning interestingly unconventional is compared to classical beam type elements. Then the effects of bending and shearing are combined in this case. The horizontal reinforced steel is localized to resist to tensile strength induced in bending top and a transversal strength-absorbing contribution. The introduction of carbon fiber composite in the field of Civil Engineering allows to strengthen or repair reinforced concrete structures using adhesive. So the carbon fiber material has many advantages as its low weight, flexibility, easier handling and also interesting physicochemical properties. However maintenance of civil engineering works is to protect them by ensuring better sealing or limiting corrosion. Then strengthening is to repair structures by using bonding technique to compensate their rigidity loss and limit the cracking. This allows to improve their performance and durability. Bonding of composite material in tensile zone of corbel retrieves most tensile stress and allows the structure to extend their load-bearing capacity. The local behavior of the structure is measured by means of the extensometer technique based on electrical strain gauges. This technique allowed to measure strains of steel, carbon fiber fabrics and concrete. The results of this investigation showed that strengthened reinforced concrete corbel bonded by carbon fiber fabrics can improve the ultimate load to twice and stiffens less than a third. The ultimate load, strain and displacement of the specimen are compared to reference experimental model of monotonic and cyclic applied loads. The success of strengthening depends strongly

  18. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  19. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation : 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Morris, Antony; Plümper, Oliver; Spakman, Wim

    Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to mid-ocean ridges, as in e.g., the Neotethys Ocean during the Jurassic, remains a matter of debate. In

  20. A Hybrid Shared-Memory Parallel Max-Tree Algorithm for Extreme Dynamic-Range Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschini, Ugo; Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael

    Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute

  1. Semiclassical Hybrid Approach to Condensed Phase Molecular Dynamics: Application to the I2Kr17 Cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchholz, M.; Goletz, Ch. M.; Grossman, F.; Schmidt, B.; Heyda, J.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 46 (2012), s. 11199-11210 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : semiclassical molecular dynamics * cluster * wavepacket * coherence * spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.771, year: 2012

  2. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  3. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Field Observations of Swash-Zone Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Beach at the Yucatán Peninsula, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2016-02-01

    Sea breezes can modify the nearshore processes and alter beach morphology depending on the geographical location. Prior studies have shown that surf zone wave energy intensifies during strong sea-breeze conditions (wind speeds > 10 ms-1) and the impact on the coast can be similar to a small storm. However, few research efforts have investigated the coastal dynamics on sea-breeze dominated beaches (e.g., Masselink and Pattiaratchi, 1998, Mar. Geol.; Pattiaratchi et al., 1997, Cont. Shelf Res.) and, to the authors' knowledge, only one study has focused on swash-zone processes (Sonu et al., 1973, EOS). A field study was performed on a microtidal, low wave energy, sea-breeze dominated sandy beach in order to investigate the effects of local (sea breeze) and synoptic (storm) scale meteorological events on swash-zone dynamics. In-situ measurements of swash-zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes were collected from March 31st to April 12th, 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán located on the northern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. Flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations were measured concurrently, at multiple cross-shore and alongshore locations, using Vectrino-II profiling velocimeters and optical backscatter sensors, respectively. The high resolution data allowed the quantification of bed shear stress, turbulent dissipation rate, sediment loads and sediment flux during a mesoscale frontal system (cold-front passage referred to as an El Norte) and local sea-breeze cycles. Field observations showed that strong swash-zone bed shear stresses, turbulence intensity and sediment suspension occur during energetic conditions (i.e., El Norte event). On the other hand, despite milder energy conditions during the sea-breeze events, the alongshore component of bed-shear stresses and velocities can be significant owing to the high incidence wave angle associated with the sea-breeze system in the study area. The increased forcing in the swash zone induced sediment

  5. Phase Transition Effects on the Dynamical Stability of Hybrid Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Flores, César V.; Lugones, Germán

    2018-06-01

    We study radial oscillations of hybrid nonrotating neutron stars composed by a quark matter core and hadronic external layers. At first, we physically deduce the junction conditions that should be imposed between the two phases in these systems when perturbations take place. Then we compute the oscillation spectrum focusing on the effects of slow and rapid phase transitions at the quark-hadron interface. We use a generic MIT-bag model for quark matter and a relativistic mean field theory for hadronic matter. In the case of rapid transitions at the interface, we find a general relativistic version of the reaction mode that has similar properties as its classical counterpart. We also show that the usual static stability condition ∂M/∂ρ c ≥ 0, where ρ c is the central density of a star whose total mass is M, always remains true for rapid transitions but breaks down in general for slow transitions. In fact, for slow transitions, we find that the frequency of the fundamental mode can be a real number (indicating stability) even for some branches of stellar models that verify ∂M/∂ρ c ≤ 0. Thus, when secular instabilities are suppressed, as expected below some critical stellar rotation rate, the existance of twin or even triplet stars with the same gravitational mass but different radii, with one of the counterparts having ∂M/∂ρ c ≤ 0, would be possible. We explore some astrophysical consequences of these results.

  6. Dynamic Staffing and Rescheduling in Software Project Management: A Hybrid Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Ge

    Full Text Available Resource allocation could be influenced by various dynamic elements, such as the skills of engineers and the growth of skills, which requires managers to find an effective and efficient tool to support their staffing decision-making processes. Rescheduling happens commonly and frequently during the project execution. Control options have to be made when new resources are added or tasks are changed. In this paper we propose a software project staffing model considering dynamic elements of staff productivity with a Genetic Algorithm (GA and Hill Climbing (HC based optimizer. Since a newly generated reschedule dramatically different from the initial schedule could cause an obvious shifting cost increase, our rescheduling strategies consider both efficiency and stability. The results of real world case studies and extensive simulation experiments show that our proposed method is effective and could achieve comparable performance to other heuristic algorithms in most cases.

  7. Modeling the Effects of Hydrogeomorphology and Climactic Factors on Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Riparian Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Y.; Vidon, P.; Gold, A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Addy, K.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetated riparian zones are often considered for use as best management practices to mitigate the impacts of agriculture on water quality. However, riparian zones can also be a source of greenhouse gases and their influence on water quality varies depending on landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics and climate. Methods used to evaluate riparian zone functions include conceptual models, and spatially explicit and process based models (REMM), but very few attempts have been made to connect riparian zone characteristics with function using easily accessible landscape scale data. Here, we present comprehensive statistical models that can be used to assess riparian zone functions with easily obtainable landscape-scale hydrogeomorphic attributes and climate data. Models were developed from a database spanning 88 years and 36 sites. Statistical methods including principal component analysis and stepwise regression were used to reduced data dimensionality and identify significant predictors. Models were validated using additional data collected from scientific literature. The 8 models developed connect landscape characteristics to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and removal (1-4), greenhouse gas emissions (5-7), and water table depth (8). Results show the range of influence that various climate and landscape characteristics have on riparian zone functions, and the tradeoffs that exist with regards to nitrogen, phosphorous, and greenhouse gases. These models will help reduce the need for extensive field measurements and help scientists and land managers make more informed decisions regarding the use of riparian zones for water quality management.

  8. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  9. Hybrid image and blood sampling input function for quantification of small animal dynamic PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Welch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and validate a hybrid image and blood sampling (HIBS) method to derive the input function for quantification of microPET mice data. The HIBS algorithm derives the peak of the input function from the image, which is corrected for recovery, while the tail is derived from 5 to 6 optimally placed blood sampling points. A Bezier interpolation algorithm is used to link the rightmost image peak data point to the leftmost blood sampling point. To assess the performance of HIBS, 4 mice underwent 60-min microPET imaging sessions following a 0.40-0.50-mCi bolus administration of 18 FDG. In total, 21 blood samples (blood-sampled plasma time-activity curve, bsPTAC) were obtained throughout the imaging session to compare against the proposed HIBS method. MicroPET images were reconstructed using filtered back projection with a zoom of 2.75 on the heart. Volumetric regions of interest (ROIs) were composed by drawing circular ROIs 3 pixels in diameter on 3-4 transverse planes of the left ventricle. Performance was characterized by kinetic simulations in terms of bias in parameter estimates when bsPTAC and HIBS are used as input functions. The peak of the bsPTAC curve was distorted in comparison to the HIBS-derived curve due to temporal limitations and delay in blood sampling, which affected the rates of bidirectional exchange between plasma and tissue. The results highlight limitations in using bsPTAC. The HIBS method, however, yields consistent results, and thus, is a substitute for bsPTAC

  10. Effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Omid; Akbari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid is examined. The experiments carried out in the solid volume fraction range of 0 to 1.0% under the temperature ranging from 30 °C to 60 °C. The results showed that the hybrid nanofluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid for all solid volume fractions and temperatures considered. The measurements also indicated that the dynamic viscosity increases with increasing the solid volume fraction and decreases with the temperature rising. The relative viscosity revealed that when the solid volume fraction enhances from 0.1 to 1%, the dynamic viscosity increases up to 168%. Finally, using experimental data, in order to predict the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluids, a new correlation has been suggested. The comparisons between the correlation outputs and experimental results showed that the suggested correlation has an acceptable accuracy.

  11. Dynamic Control of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Au Nanodisk–J-Aggregate Hybrid Nanostructure Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Jensen, Linlin; Jensen, Lasse; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    We report the dynamic control of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au nanodisk arrays adsorbed with J-aggregate molecules by incident angle of light. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare Au nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonances. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlaps between molecular and plasmonic resonances, and the efficient measurement of plasmon-exciton coupling as a function of wavelength with one or fewer nanodisk arrays. Experimental observations of varying plasmon-exciton coupling match with coupled dipole approximation calculations.

  12. Evaluation of dynamic response for monopole and hybrid wind mill tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemal J.; Desai, Atul K.

    2017-07-01

    The wind mill towers are constructed using monopoles or lattice type tower. As the height of tower increases it gives more power but it becomes uneconomical, so in the present research work innovative wind mill tower such as combination of monopole and lattice tower is analyzed using FEM software. When the tall structures are constructed on soft soil it becomes dynamically sensitive so 3 types of soil such as hard, medium and soft soil is also modeled and the innovative tower is studied for different operating frequencies of wind turbine. From study it is concluded that the innovative tower will reduce resonance condition considering soil structure interaction.

  13. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  14. Soil water stable isotopes reveal evaporation dynamics at the soil–plant–atmosphere interface of the critical zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sprenger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of vegetation on water storage and flux in the upper soil is crucial in assessing the consequences of climate and land use change. We sampled the upper 20 cm of podzolic soils at 5 cm intervals in four sites differing in their vegetation (Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris and heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp and aspect. The sites were located within the Bruntland Burn long-term experimental catchment in the Scottish Highlands, a low energy, wet environment. Sampling took place on 11 occasions between September 2015 and September 2016 to capture seasonal variability in isotope dynamics. The pore waters of soil samples were analyzed for their isotopic composition (δ2H and δ18O with the direct-equilibration method. Our results show that the soil waters in the top soil are, despite the low potential evaporation rates in such northern latitudes, kinetically fractionated compared to the precipitation input throughout the year. This fractionation signal decreases within the upper 15 cm resulting in the top 5 cm being isotopically differentiated to the soil at 15–20 cm soil depth. There are significant differences in the fractionation signal between soils beneath heather and soils beneath Scots pine, with the latter being more pronounced. But again, this difference diminishes within the upper 15 cm of soil. The enrichment in heavy isotopes in the topsoil follows a seasonal hysteresis pattern, indicating a lag time between the fractionation signal in the soil and the increase/decrease of soil evaporation in spring/autumn. Based on the kinetic enrichment of the soil water isotopes, we estimated the soil evaporation losses to be about 5 and 10 % of the infiltrating water for soils beneath heather and Scots pine, respectively. The high sampling frequency in time (monthly and depth (5 cm intervals revealed high temporal and spatial variability of the isotopic composition of soil waters, which can be critical

  15. Dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France): Observations from field and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, David; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Castaing, Patrice; Babin, Marcel

    2009-02-01

    Over a 1-year period, field and satellite measurements of surface water turbidity were combined in order to study the dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone (TM) in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France). Four fixed platforms equipped with turbidity sensors calibrated to give the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration provided continuous information in the upper estuary. Full resolution data recorded by the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms provided information in the central and lower estuary twice a day (depending on cloud cover). Field data were used to validate a recently developed SPM quantification algorithm applied to the MODIS 'surface reflectance' product. The algorithm is based on a relationship between the SPM concentration and a reflectance ratio of MODIS bands 2 (near-infrared) and 1 (red). Based on 62 and 75 match-ups identified in 2005 with MODIS Terra and Aqua data, the relative uncertainty of the algorithm applied to these sensors was found to be 22 and 18%, respectively. Field measurements showed the tidal variations of turbidity in the upper estuary, while monthly-averaged MODIS satellite data complemented by field data allowed observing the monthly movements of the TM in the whole estuary. The trapping of fine sediments occurred in the upper estuary during the period of low river flow. This resulted in the formation of a highly concentrated TM during a 4-month period. With increasing river flow, the TM moved rapidly to the central estuary. A part of the TM detached, moved progressively in the lower estuary and was finally either massively exported to the ocean during peak floods or temporary trapped (settled) on intertidal mudflats. The massive export to the ocean was apparently the result of combined favorable environmental conditions: presence of fluid mud near the mouth, high river flow, high tides and limited wind speeds. The mean SPM concentration

  16. The Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) curtain wall: Validation and design of a solar air collector curtain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell Corey

    Given the increases in both the environmental and economic costs of energy, there is a need to design and building more sustainable and low-energy building systems now. Curtain wall assemblies show great promise---the spandrel panels within them can be natural solar collectors. By using a Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) in the spandrel cavity, solar energy can be efficiently gathered using the movement of air. There is a need for a numerical model capable of predicting performance of an SDBZ Curtain Wall system. This research designed, constructed and quantified a prototype SDBZ curtain wall system through by experimental testing in a laboratory environment. The laboratory experiments focussed on three main variables: air flow through the system, incoming radiation and collector surface type. Results from the experimental testing were used to validate a one-dimensional numerical model of the prototype. Results from this research show a SDBZ curtain wall system as an effective means of reducing building heating energy consumption through the preheating of incoming exterior ventilation air during the heating season in cold climates. The numerical model showed good correlation with experimental results at higher operating flows and at lower flows when using an apparent velocity at the heat transfer boundary layer. A seasonal simulation for Toronto, ON predicted energy savings of 205 kWh/m2 with an average seasonal efficiency of 28%. This is considered in the upper range when compared to other solar air collectors. Given the lack of published literature for similar systems, this research acts to introduce a simple, innovative approach to collect solar energy that would otherwise be lost to the exterior using already existing components within a curtain wall. Specifically, the research has provided: results from experiments and simulation, a first generation numerical model, aspects of design and construction of the SDBZ curtain wall and specific directions for further

  17. Effective dynamics of the hybrid quantization of the Gowdy T3 universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A.; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of the linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 model (compact inhomogeneous universes admitting linearly polarized gravitational waves) is analyzed within loop quantum cosmology by means of an effective dynamics. The analysis, performed via analytical and numerical methods, proves that the behavior found in the evolution of vacuum (homogeneous) Bianchi I universes is preserved qualitatively also in the presence of inhomogeneities. More precisely, the initial singularity is replaced by a big bounce which joins deterministically two large classical universes. In addition, we show that the size of the universe at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude (roughly speaking) as the size of the corresponding homogeneous universe obtained in the absence of gravitational waves. In particular, a precise lower bound for the ratio of these two sizes is found. Finally, the comparison of the amplitudes of the gravitational wave modes in the distant future and past shows that, statistically (i.e., for large samples of universes), the difference in amplitude is enhanced for nearly homogeneous universes, whereas this difference vanishes in inhomogeneity-dominated cases. The presented analysis constitutes the first systematic effective study of an inhomogeneous system within loop quantum cosmology, and it proves the robustness of the results obtained for homogeneous cosmologies in this context.

  18. Automated chemical kinetic modeling via hybrid reactive molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döntgen, Malte; Schmalz, Felix; Kopp, Wassja A; Kröger, Leif C; Leonhard, Kai

    2018-06-13

    An automated scheme for obtaining chemical kinetic models from scratch using reactive molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry simulations is presented. This methodology combines the phase space sampling of reactive molecular dynamics with the thermochemistry and kinetics prediction capabilities of quantum mechanics. This scheme provides the NASA polynomial and modified Arrhenius equation parameters for all species and reactions that are observed during the simulation and supplies them in the ChemKin format. The ab initio level of theory for predictions is easily exchangeable and the presently used G3MP2 level of theory is found to reliably reproduce hydrogen and methane oxidation thermochemistry and kinetics data. Chemical kinetic models obtained with this approach are ready-to-use for, e.g., ignition delay time simulations, as shown for hydrogen combustion. The presented extension of the ChemTraYzer approach can be used as a basis for methodologically advancing chemical kinetic modeling schemes and as a black-box approach to generate chemical kinetic models.

  19. Impact adding bifurcation in an autonomous hybrid dynamical model of church bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, P.; Chong, A. S. E.; Wiercigroch, M.; Perlikowski, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present the bifurcation analysis of the yoke-bell-clapper system which corresponds to the biggest bell "Serce Lodzi" mounted in the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus Kostka, Lodz, Poland. The mathematical model of the system considered in this work has been derived and verified based on measurements of dynamics of the real bell. We perform numerical analysis both by direct numerical integration and path-following method using toolbox ABESPOL (Chong, 2016). By introducing the active yoke the position of the bell-clapper system with respect to the yoke axis of rotation can be easily changed and it can be used to probe the system dynamics. We found a wide variety of periodic and non-periodic solutions, and examined the ranges of coexistence of solutions and transitions between them via different types of bifurcations. Finally, a new type of bifurcation induced by a grazing event - an "impact adding bifurcation" has been proposed. When it occurs, the number of impacts between the bell and the clapper is increasing while the period of the system's motion stays the same.

  20. Emission dynamics of hybrid plasmonic gold/organic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Schmitzer, H.; Kunert, G.; Hommel, D.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Langbein, W.; Wagner, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the emission of bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature- and intensity-dependent time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods of ˜1.5 μm length and ˜250 nm diameter were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Gold/Alq3 coated GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. The near band-edge and donor-acceptor pair luminescence was investigated in bare GaN nanorods and compared with multilevel model calculations providing the dynamical parameters for electron-hole pairs, excitons, impurity bound excitons, donors and acceptors. Subsequently, the influence of a 10 nm gold coating without and with an Alq3 spacer layer was studied and the experimental results were analyzed with the multilevel model. Without a spacer layer, a significant PL quenching and lifetime reduction of the near band-edge emission is found. The behavior is attributed to surface band-bending and Förster energy transfer from excitons to surface plasmons in the gold layer. Inserting a 5 nm Alq3 spacer layer reduces the PL quenching and lifetime reduction which is consistent with a reduced band-bending and Förster energy transfer. Increasing the spacer layer to 30 nm results in lifetimes which are similar to uncoated structures, showing a significantly decreased influence of the gold coating on the excitonic dynamics.

  1. An agar gel membrane-PDMS hybrid microfluidic device for long term single cell dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ieong; Atsumi, Shota; Huang, Wei-Chih; Wu, Tung-Yun; Hanai, Taizo; Lam, Miu-Ling; Tang, Ping; Yang, Jian; Liao, James C; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2010-10-21

    Significance of single cell measurements stems from the substantial temporal fluctuations and cell-cell variability possessed by individual cells. A major difficulty in monitoring surface non-adherent cells such as bacteria and yeast is that these cells tend to aggregate into clumps during growth, obstructing the tracking or identification of single-cells over long time periods. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform for long term single-cell tracking and cultivation with continuous media refreshing and dynamic chemical perturbation capability. The design highlights a simple device-assembly process between PDMS microchannel and agar membrane through conformal contact, and can be easily adapted by microbiologists for their routine laboratory use. The device confines cell growth in monolayer between an agar membrane and a glass surface. Efficient nutrient diffusion through the membrane and reliable temperature maintenance provide optimal growth condition for the cells, which exhibited fast exponential growth and constant distribution of cell sizes. More than 24 h of single-cell tracking was demonstrated on a transcription-metabolism integrated synthetic biological model, the gene-metabolic oscillator. Single cell morphology study under alcohol toxicity allowed us to discover and characterize cell filamentation exhibited by different E. coli isobutanol tolerant strains. We believe this novel device will bring new capabilities to quantitative microbiology, providing a versatile platform for single cell dynamic studies.

  2. An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J

    2007-07-30

    A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.

  3. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hülber, K.; Sonnleitner, M.; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, J.; Schönswetter, P.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Winkler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2015), s. 1224-1234 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gene flow * hybridization * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.537, year: 2015

  4. Genome-wide architecture of reproductive isolation in a naturally occurring hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, V.; Wang, L.; Luzynski, K.; Dufková, Petra; Mrkvicová Vyskočilová, Martina; Nachman, M. W.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2012), s. 3032-3047 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : genomics * proteomics * hybridization * mammals * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.275, year: 2012

  5. Assessment of stability and plasticity of new hybrids of maize (Zea mays L. under the conditions of Polissia and Steppe zones of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Присяжнюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select promising high productive maize hyb­rids of middle-early maturity group in terms of stability and plasticity of main economic characters. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. 14 maize hybrids recorded in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine in 2015 were studied for plasticity and stability of such traits as productivity, protein and starch content. Intensive highly-plastic hybrid ‘SI Tiptop’ was selected among the studied ones for productivity trait that can respond properly to changes of growing conditions. It was defined that for the starch content such hybrids as ‘SI Tiptop’, ‘SI Enigma’, ‘SI Arioso’, ‘Svich 38’, ‘Svich 35’, ‘HU 8653’, ‘Zdobutok’ and ‘SI Contrakt’ belonged to the intensive type and combined rather high values and the stability of the studied trait under variable conditions. The following hybrids as ‘NS 2642’, ‘DK S3016’, ‘Svich 38’, ‘NS 2632’ were qualified as intensive for protein content and appeared to be highly-plastic but stability values of this trait were low. ‘Svich 38’ hybrid was intensive simultaneously for two traits such as protein and starch content and showed rather high values of plasticity. ‘SI Tiptop’, ‘SI Enigma’ and ‘Svich 35’ were defined as hybrids of extensive type that provided stable protein content in adverse cultivation conditions. Conclusions. On the condition that intensive crop growing technologies should be used, for obtaining stable yields it is advisable to sow only highly-plastic hybrids that can adapt to unfavorable environmental factors, including ‘SI Tiptop’ – for productivity trait, ‘Zdobutok’ and ‘SI Kontrakt’ – for starch content, ‘MAC 24N‘, ‘NA 2642‘ and ‘Danubio’ – for protein content.

  6. Active Site Dynamics in Substrate Hydrolysis Catalyzed by DapE Enzyme and Its Mutants from Hybrid QM/MM-Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi

    2017-07-27

    The mechanism of the catalytic hydrolysis of N-succinyl diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) by the microbial enzyme DapE in its wild-type (wt) form as well as three of its mutants (E134D, H67A, and H349A) is investigated employing a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, wherein the time evolution of the atoms of the QM and MM regions are obtained from the forces acting on the individual atoms. The free-energy profiles along the reaction coordinates of this multistep hydrolysis reaction process are explored using a combination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium (umbrella sampling) QM/MM-MD simulation techniques. In the enzyme-substrate complexes of wt-DapE and the E134D mutant, nucleophilic attack is found to be the rate-determining step involving a barrier of 15.3 and 21.5 kcal/mol, respectively, which satisfactorily explains the free energy of activation obtained from kinetic experiments in wt-DapE-SDAP (15.2 kcal/mol) and the 3 orders of magnitude decrease in the catalytic activity due to E134D mutation. The catalysis is found to be quenched in the H67A and H349A mutants of DapE due to conformational rearrangement in the active site induced by the absence of the active site His residues that prohibits activation of the catalytic water molecule.

  7. Membrane flux dynamics in the submerged ultrafiltration hybrid treatment process during particle and natural organic matter removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xiaojian Zhang; Yonghong Li; Jun Wang; Chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water,which greatly influence the membrane filtration process.The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles,NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF.Particles,NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water.Exponential relationship,(JP/JP0 =axexp{-k[t-(n- 1)T]}),was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well.In this equation,coefficient a was determined by the value of Jp/Jp0 at the beginning of a filtration cycle,reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing,that is,the irreversible fouling.The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics.Integrated total permeability (ΣJp) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios.According to the results,there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process.This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant,which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing.The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing.

  8. A NEW HYBRID DYNAMIC METROPOLITAN TRAIN MODEL UN NUEVO MODELO DINÁMICO HÍBRIDO DE TREN METROPOLITANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Mahla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model of the metropolitan train type transport system is presented. The interactions between the trajectories of the trains in use and the passenger exchange between the cars and the platforms in the stations along the tracks are described. In contrast with the current traffic engineering models based on passenger flow, this model allows the simulation of passenger accumulation that occurs on the platforms when the train cannot transport the total number of passengers waiting for it. The dynamics of the metropolitan train is modeled with a hybrid system in which the platforms and the trains are considered as continuous modes and train arrival at the stations as discrete events.En este artículo se describe un modelo dinámico integral del sistema de transporte tipo tren metropolitano. En él se describen las interacciones entre las trayectorias de los trenes en circulación y el intercambio de pasajeros entre los coches y los andenes en las estaciones a lo largo de la vía. A diferencia de los actuales modelos de ingeniería de tráfico, basados en flujos de pasajeros, este modelo permite simular las acumulaciones que se producen en los andenes cuando el tren no logra transportar la cantidad total de pasajeros esperando en el andén. La dinámica del tren metropolitano es modelada como un sistema híbrido en el cual los andenes y los trenes son considerados modos continuos y los arribos de los trenes a las estaciones como eventos discretos.

  9. Dynamically Predicting the Quality of Service: Batch, Online, and Hybrid Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of dynamically modeling the quality of web service. The philosophy of designing practical web service recommender systems is delivered in this paper. A general system architecture for such systems continuously collects the user-service invocation records and includes both an online training module and an offline training module for quality prediction. In addition, we introduce matrix factorization-based online and offline training algorithms based on the gradient descent algorithms and demonstrate the fitness of this online/offline algorithm framework to the proposed architecture. The superiority of the proposed model is confirmed by empirical studies on a real-life quality of web service data set and comparisons with existing web service recommendation algorithms.

  10. A hybrid Bayesian network approach for trade-offs between environmental flows and agricultural water using dynamic discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Sun, Huaiwei; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and the eco-environment are increasingly competing for water. The extension of intensive farmland for ensuring food security has resulted in excessive water exploitation by agriculture. Consequently, this has led to a lack of water supply in natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a trade-off framework to coordinate the water-use conflict between agriculture and the eco-environment, based on economic compensation for irrigation stakeholders. A hybrid Bayesian network (HBN) is developed to implement the framework, including: (a) agricultural water shortage assessments after meeting environmental flows; (b) water-use tradeoff analysis between agricultural irrigation and environmental flows using the HBN; and (c) quantification of the agricultural economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The constructed HBN is computed by dynamic discretization, which is a more robust and accurate propagation algorithm than general static discretization. A case study of the Qira oasis area in Northwest China demonstrates that the water trade-off based on economic compensation depends on the available water supply and environmental flows at different levels. Agricultural irrigation water extracted for grain crops should be preferentially guaranteed to ensure food security, in spite of higher economic compensation in other cash crops' irrigation for water coordination. Updating water-saving engineering and adopting drip irrigation technology in agricultural facilities after satisfying environmental flows would greatly relieve agricultural water shortage and save the economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The approach in this study can be easily applied in water-stressed areas worldwide for dealing with water competition.

  11. GENESIS 1.1: A hybrid-parallel molecular dynamics simulator with enhanced sampling algorithms on multiple computational platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chigusa; Jung, Jaewoon; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takaharu; Ando, Tadashi; Tamura, Koichi; Kamiya, Motoshi; Sugita, Yuji

    2017-09-30

    GENeralized-Ensemble SImulation System (GENESIS) is a software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biological systems. It is designed to extend limitations in system size and accessible time scale by adopting highly parallelized schemes and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms. In this new version, GENESIS 1.1, new functions and advanced algorithms have been added. The all-atom and coarse-grained potential energy functions used in AMBER and GROMACS packages now become available in addition to CHARMM energy functions. The performance of MD simulations has been greatly improved by further optimization, multiple time-step integration, and hybrid (CPU + GPU) computing. The string method and replica-exchange umbrella sampling with flexible collective variable choice are used for finding the minimum free-energy pathway and obtaining free-energy profiles for conformational changes of a macromolecule. These new features increase the usefulness and power of GENESIS for modeling and simulation in biological research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of heat treatment on hole transfer dynamics in core-shell quantum dot/organic hole conductor hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingye; Zheng, Youjin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    The influence of heat treatment on hole transfer (HT) processes from the CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to 4,4‧,4″-Tris(carbazol-9-yl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) in QD/TCTA hybrid films has been researched with time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL dynamic results demonstrated a heat-treatment-temperature-dependent HT process from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA. The HT rates and efficiencies can be effectively increased due to reduced distance between core-shell CdSe QDs and TCTA after heat treatment. The CdS shell exhibited a more obvious effect on HT from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA than on electron transfer to TiO2, due to higher barrier for holes to tunnel through CdS shell and larger effective mass of holes in CdS than electrons. These results indicate that heat treatment would be an effective means to further optimize solid-state QD sensitized solar cells and rational design of CdS shell is significant.

  13. Mainstream upflow nitritation-anammox system with hybrid anaerobic pretreatment: Long-term performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Yuan, Heyang; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2017-11-15

    Mainstream nitritation-anammox is of strong interest to energy- and resource-efficient domestic wastewater treatment. However, there lack in-depth studies of pretreatment, tests of actual wastewater, and examination of long-term performance. Herein, an upflow nitritation-anammox granular reactor has been investigated to treat primary effluent with a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR) as pretreatment for more than 300 days. This system achieved 92% of COD removal, 75% of which was accomplished by the HAR, and had an average final effluent COD concentration of 22 mg L -1 . More than 90% of ammonium was removed in the nitritation-anammox reactor, achieving a nitrogen removal rate of 81.0 g N m -3  d -1 in the last stage. The accumulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the HAR evidenced the effect of sulfate on COD removal and subsequent nitrogen removal. Anammox bacteria (predominantly Ca. Jettenia asiatica) accounted for up to 40.2% of total granular communities, but their abundance decreased over time in the suspended communities. The dynamics of major metabolisms and functional genes involved in nitrogen conversion were predicted by PICRUSt based on the taxonomic data, providing more insights into the functions of the microbial communities. These results have demonstrated the effectiveness and importance of anaerobic pretreatment to successful mainstream nitritation-anammox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability and economy analysis based on computational fluid dynamics and field testing of hybrid-driven underwater glider with the water quality sensor in Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new kind of unmanned platform for water quality monitoring. It has advantages such as high controllability and maneuverability, low cost, easy operation, and ability to carry multiple sensors. This article develops a hybrid-driven underwater glider, PETRELII, and integrates a water quality monitoring sensor. Considering stability and economy, an optimal layout scheme is selected from four candidates by simulation using computational fluid dynamics method. Trials were carried out in Danjiangkou Reservoir—important headwaters of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. In the trials, a monitoring strategy with polygonal mixed-motion was adopted to make full use of the advantages of the unmanned platform. The measuring data, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll, and ammonia nitrogen, are obtained. These data validate the practicability of the theoretical layout obtained using computational fluid dynamics method and the practical performance of PETRELII with sensor.

  15. A hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Kyu; Hosoya, Kenta; Lee, Chung Ghiu; Hanawa, Masanori; Park, Chang-Soo

    2011-03-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks. Dynamic function is implemented by mechanically tuning the Fourier encoder/decoder for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) encoding/decoding. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is utilized for node assignment and 4-chip Fourier code recovers the matched signal from the codes. For an optical source well adapted to WDM channels and its short optical pulse generation, reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are used with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and gain-switched. To demonstrate we experimentally investigated a two-node hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a 4-chip Fourier encoder/decoder fabricated by cascading four FBGs with the bit error rate (BER) of <10(-9) for the node span of 10.64 km at 1.25 Gb/s.

  16. Impact of global warming on the geobotanic zones: an experiment with a statistical-dynamical climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchito, Sergio H.; Brahmananda Rao, V. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre, CCST, Sau Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes, E.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto, DSR, Sau Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, a zonally-averaged statistical climate model (SDM) is used to investigate the impact of global warming on the distribution of the geobotanic zones over the globe. The model includes a parameterization of the biogeophysical feedback mechanism that links the state of surface to the atmosphere (a bidirectional interaction between vegetation and climate). In the control experiment (simulation of the present-day climate) the geobotanic state is well simulated by the model, so that the distribution of the geobotanic zones over the globe shows a very good agreement with the observed ones. The impact of global warming on the distribution of the geobotanic zones is investigated considering the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration for the B1, A2 and A1FI scenarios. The results showed that the geobotanic zones over the entire earth can be modified in future due to global warming. Expansion of subtropical desert and semi-desert zones in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, retreat of glaciers and sea-ice, with the Arctic region being particularly affected and a reduction of the tropical rainforest and boreal forest can occur due to the increase of the greenhouse gases concentration. The effects were more pronounced in the A1FI and A2 scenarios compared with the B1 scenario. The SDM results confirm IPCC AR4 projections of future climate and are consistent with simulations of more complex GCMs, reinforcing the necessity of the mitigation of climate change associated to global warming. (orig.)

  17. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shanlin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  18. A Hybrid Shared-Memory Parallel Max-Tree Algorithm for Extreme Dynamic-Range Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Ugo; Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H F

    2018-03-01

    Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute attributes for images of any bit depth. However, we show that the current parallel algorithms perform poorly already with integers at bit depths higher than 16 bits per pixel. We propose a parallel method combining the two worlds of flooding and merging max-tree algorithms. First, a pilot max-tree of a quantized version of the image is built in parallel using a flooding method. Later, this structure is used in a parallel leaf-to-root approach to compute efficiently the final max-tree and to drive the merging of the sub-trees computed by the threads. We present an analysis of the performance both on simulated and actual 2D images and 3D volumes. Execution times are about better than the fastest sequential algorithm and speed-up goes up to on 64 threads.

  19. Hybrid neuro-heuristic methodology for simulation and control of dynamic systems over time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Marcin; Połap, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    Simulation and positioning are very important aspects of computer aided engineering. To process these two, we can apply traditional methods or intelligent techniques. The difference between them is in the way they process information. In the first case, to simulate an object in a particular state of action, we need to perform an entire process to read values of parameters. It is not very convenient for objects for which simulation takes a long time, i.e. when mathematical calculations are complicated. In the second case, an intelligent solution can efficiently help on devoted way of simulation, which enables us to simulate the object only in a situation that is necessary for a development process. We would like to present research results on developed intelligent simulation and control model of electric drive engine vehicle. For a dedicated simulation method based on intelligent computation, where evolutionary strategy is simulating the states of the dynamic model, an intelligent system based on devoted neural network is introduced to control co-working modules while motion is in time interval. Presented experimental results show implemented solution in situation when a vehicle transports things over area with many obstacles, what provokes sudden changes in stability that may lead to destruction of load. Therefore, applied neural network controller prevents the load from destruction by positioning characteristics like pressure, acceleration, and stiffness voltage to absorb the adverse changes of the ground. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  1. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs: the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ. To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ, PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  2. Developing a computationally efficient dynamic multilevel hybrid optimization scheme using multifidelity model interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Castro, Joseph Pete Jr. (; .); Giunta, Anthony Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Many engineering application problems use optimization algorithms in conjunction with numerical simulators to search for solutions. The formulation of relevant objective functions and constraints dictate possible optimization algorithms. Often, a gradient based approach is not possible since objective functions and constraints can be nonlinear, nonconvex, non-differentiable, or even discontinuous and the simulations involved can be computationally expensive. Moreover, computational efficiency and accuracy are desirable and also influence the choice of solution method. With the advent and increasing availability of massively parallel computers, computational speed has increased tremendously. Unfortunately, the numerical and model complexities of many problems still demand significant computational resources. Moreover, in optimization, these expenses can be a limiting factor since obtaining solutions often requires the completion of numerous computationally intensive simulations. Therefore, we propose a multifidelity optimization algorithm (MFO) designed to improve the computational efficiency of an optimization method for a wide range of applications. In developing the MFO algorithm, we take advantage of the interactions between multi fidelity models to develop a dynamic and computational time saving optimization algorithm. First, a direct search method is applied to the high fidelity model over a reduced design space. In conjunction with this search, a specialized oracle is employed to map the design space of this high fidelity model to that of a computationally cheaper low fidelity model using space mapping techniques. Then, in the low fidelity space, an optimum is obtained using gradient or non-gradient based optimization, and it is mapped back to the high fidelity space. In this paper, we describe the theory and implementation details of our MFO algorithm. We also demonstrate our MFO method on some example problems and on two applications: earth penetrators and

  3. Dynamic Simulation of a Trigeneration Scheme for Domestic Purposes Based on Hybrid Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Acevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a system providing electricity by coupling photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors and a wind turbine (WT, sanitary hot water (SHW coming from the PVT and evacuated tube collectors (ETCs and fresh water (FW produced in two seawater desalting facilities (membrane distillation, MD, and reverse osmosis, RO, has been carefully analyzed by means of a dynamic model developed in TRNSYS®. This analysis is compulsory to operate a lab-scale pilot plant that is being erected at Zaragoza, Spain. A new model-type has been included in TRNSYS® in order to include the MD unit in the scheme. A sensitivity analysis of some free-design variables, such that the ETC surface, PVT and ETC tilt, water storage tank, batteries capacities, and mass flow rates delivered to the SHW service and/or feeding the MD unit has been performed in order to propose the definite design of the scheme. The proposed base case was able to produce up to 15,311 L per year in the MD system and cover an electric energy demand of 1890 kWh. Coverage of SHW, water (including RO and MD and power is respectively 99.3%, 100% and 70%. However, daily and yearly assessment of FW, SHW and power produced with the optimized design gave a better coverage of water and energy demands for a typical single family home. The improved and definite design was able to increase its MD production in 35% and the electric energy in 7% compared with base case.

  4. Dynamic-ETL: a hybrid approach for health data extraction, transformation and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Toan C; Kahn, Michael G; Kwan, Bethany M; Yamashita, Traci; Brandt, Elias; Hosokawa, Patrick; Uhrich, Chris; Schilling, Lisa M

    2017-09-13

    Electronic health records (EHRs) contain detailed clinical data stored in proprietary formats with non-standard codes and structures. Participating in multi-site clinical research networks requires EHR data to be restructured and transformed into a common format and standard terminologies, and optimally linked to other data sources. The expertise and scalable solutions needed to transform data to conform to network requirements are beyond the scope of many health care organizations and there is a need for practical tools that lower the barriers of data contribution to clinical research networks. We designed and implemented a health data transformation and loading approach, which we refer to as Dynamic ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) (D-ETL), that automates part of the process through use of scalable, reusable and customizable code, while retaining manual aspects of the process that requires knowledge of complex coding syntax. This approach provides the flexibility required for the ETL of heterogeneous data, variations in semantic expertise, and transparency of transformation logic that are essential to implement ETL conventions across clinical research sharing networks. Processing workflows are directed by the ETL specifications guideline, developed by ETL designers with extensive knowledge of the structure and semantics of health data (i.e., "health data domain experts") and target common data model. D-ETL was implemented to perform ETL operations that load data from various sources with different database schema structures into the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership (OMOP) common data model. The results showed that ETL rule composition methods and the D-ETL engine offer a scalable solution for health data transformation via automatic query generation to harmonize source datasets. D-ETL supports a flexible and transparent process to transform and load health data into a target data model. This approach offers a solution that lowers technical

  5. THE ACCOUNTING OF A FACTOR OF TRANSBOUNDARY CLUSTERING DYNAMICS OF ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS OF COASTAL ZONES OF RUSSIA: GEOINFORMATION ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Druzhinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both thalasso-attractiveness of the whole Russia and its poly-scale inversions (existing at macro- and meso-levels have been pointed out. Their causes have been shown (including the conjugation with economic clustering and the development of cross-border and transnational ties. On the basis of geoinformation approach the inventory and typology of cross-border clusters in the coastal zones of European Russia has been implemented; the factors and prospects for their formation, functioning and development are analyzed and theoretically considered. Based on the synthesis of instrumental approaches implemented in the study (including the socio-economic zoning and economic (eco-economic structuring of the World’s oceans, the full-scale delimitation and typology of the coastal zone have been made (for all coastal regions of the European part of Russia, taking into account its regional socio-economic and residential specifics, geo-economic and geopolitical context, as well as the extent and nature of cross-border economic and socio-cultural relations. The prototype of the cartographic model of the settlement systems’ evolution in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia has been proposed (including its indicators and principles of scale. Based on it, as well as on the generated database (containing detailed demographic and socio-economic information for 14 regions and 94 “seaside” municipalities, the schematic map of the localization and dynamics of the seaside settlement is developed for the Baltic (Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Region, Kaliningrad Region and the Black Sea coast (Crimea. Analytical matrix of the settlement system has been submitted with the application of cluster and network structures and key infrastructure components. The model has allowed us to assess the projection of structural, technological, market-cyclical and geopolitical factors on the dynamics of settlement in coastal zones (with the emphasis on the dynamics of

  6. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  7. Three-dimensional dynamic fabrication of engineered cartilage based on chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold in a spinner flask with a special designed steel frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Li, Liying; Li, Wenfang; Zhu, Yanxia; Jiao, Zeren; Lim, Mayasari; Fang, Meiyun; Shi, Fangxin; Wang, Ling; Liu, Tianqing

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage transplantation using in vitro tissue engineered cartilage is considered a promising treatment for articular cartilage defects. In this study, we assessed the advantages of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds, which acted as a cartilage biomimetic scaffold, to fabricate a tissue engineered cartilage dynamically in vitro and compared this with traditional static culture. Physical properties of the hydrogel scaffolds were evaluated and ADSCs were inoculated into the hydrogel at a density of 1×10(7) cells/mL and cultured in a spinner flask with a special designed steel framework and feed with chondrogenic inductive media for two weeks. The results showed that the average pore size, porosity, swelling rate and elasticity modulus of hybrid scaffolds with good biocompatibility were 118.25±19.51 μm, 82.60±2.34%, 361.28±0.47% and 61.2±0.16 kPa, respectively. ADSCs grew well in chitosan/gelatin