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Sample records for hybrid yield trial

  1. Yield Stability of Maize Hybrids Evaluated in Maize Regional Trials in Southwestern China Using Nonparametric Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-jian; DUAN Chuan; TIAN Meng-liang; HU Er-liang; HUANG Yu-bi

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of multi-environment trials (METs) of crops for the evaluation and recommendation of varieties is an important issue in plant breeding research. Evaluating on the both stability of performance and high yield is essential in MET analyses. The objective of the present investigation was to compare 11 nonparametric stability statistics and apply nonparametric tests for genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) to 14 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes grown at 25 locations in southwestern China during 2005. Results of nonparametric tests of GEI and a combined ANOVA across locations showed that both crossover and noncrossover GEI, and genotypes varied highly significantly for yield. The results of principal component analysis, correlation analysis of nonparametric statistics, and yield indicated the nonparametric statistics grouped as four distinct classes that corresponded to different agronomic and biological concepts of stability.Furthermore, high values of TOP and low values of rank-sum were associated with high mean yield, but the other nonparametric statistics were not positively correlated with mean yield. Therefore, only rank-sum and TOP methods would be useful for simultaneously selection for high yield and stability. These two statistics recommended JY686 and HX 168 as desirable and ND 108, CM 12, CN36, and NK6661 as undesirable genotypes.

  2. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

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    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  3. Identification of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and yield potential in maize hybrids in the Southeast Regional Aflatoxin Trials (SERAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins pose a serious health hazard to humans and livestock, requiring significant economic cost in identifying and disposing of contaminated grain. Since 2003, a multi-environmental trial of public breeding maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids across multiple programs in the southeastern United States h...

  4. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Jocić Siniša; Miklič Vladimir; Saftić-Panković Dejana; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2011-01-01

    The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Sancevi (Region of Vojvodina) and Kula (Central Serbia) show t...

  5. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Šančevi (Region of Vojvodina and Kula (Central Serbia show that the new confectionary hybrids are expressing higher seed yields in comparison to standards (Vranac and Cepko though with a lower seed oil content. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed yield and seed protein content, kernel content and mass of 1000 seeds. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed protein content, seed yield and mass of 1000 seeds, with protein yield. This indicates that seed yield, seed protein content and mass of 1000 seeds have a high influence on protein yield. The degree of interdependence between different traits is a sign of direction which is supposed to facilitate better planning of sunflower breeding program.

  6. Brachiaria hybrids: potential, forage use and seed yield

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    Esteban A. Pizarro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvv. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman. Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought tolerance in the Brazilian Cerrado and Mexico, plus outstanding nutritional value. Following trials in Mexico and Thailand, evaluating 155 new hybrids for 7 years, cv. Cayman was released due to strong waterlogging tolerance. Research on production, quality and seed yields of brachiaria hybrids in Asia, the Americas and Africa from 2003 to 2013 is summarized in this paper.

  7. Brachiaria hybrids: potential, forage use and seed yield

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban A. Pizarro; Michael D. Hare; Mpenzi Mutimura; Bai Changjun

    2013-01-01

    A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia) combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvv. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman). Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought to...

  8. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

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    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  9. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

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    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  10. Root yield and quality of investigated sugar beet hybrids in northwest Croatia in the period from 2010 to 2013

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    Milan Pospišil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reliable information on yield and root quality of new sugar beet hybrids, the micro varietal trials were set up on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Zagreb in the period from 2010 to 2013. The study included a total of 51 sugar beet hybrids owned by five breeding companies present in the Croatian market. There were significant differences among investigated hybrids in root and sugar yield and sugar content in the roots in all years of research, except in the dry 2011. However, a large number of hybrids achieved statistically equal values because the differences were within the statistical tolerance. In 2010, the highest root yield (107.5 t/ha and the highest technological sugar yield (13.5 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Elvis. That year, the largest sugar content (15.68% was achieved by the hybrid Markus. In 2012, the highest root yield (86.4 t/ha, and the highest sugar yield (12.0 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Serenada KWS. The largest root sugar content (17.37% was achieved by the hybrid Denisa KWS. In 2013, the highest root yield (90.2 t/ha and the highest sugar yield (10.8 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Terranova KWS. That year, the largest sugar content in root (15.23% was achieved by the hybrid Pharaon.

  11. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

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    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  12. Agronomic Characters, Yield Components and Grain Yield Evaluation of 11 New Hybrid Maize Prospective Genotypes

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    Budi Setyawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second important commodity after rice in Indonesia. As of  2015, more than 3 million tons of maize grain still need to be imported. It is caused by productivity of maize which remains low due to the lowness proportion of hybrid maize seed. In addition to a single cross, threeway cross seed is still necessary as alternatives for farmers rather than open pollinated cultivar ones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grain yield of 11 prospective genotypes utilizing BISI 18 and Sukmaraga as control cultivars. Randomized block design (RBD with three replications was adopted. The study was carried out in the dry season 2015. The result of this study showed that at 95% confidence level (a=0.05, prospective genotype SSUSX48274 performed significantly better than BISI 18 and Sukmaraga, while others yielded significantly better than Sukmaraga, but equal to BISI 18. All new prospective genotypes could be included in the  multilocation trial in order to release superior varieties.

  13. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  14. Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids

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    Karoline Guedes Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha. There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

  15. Improving precision of forage yield trials: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-based agronomic and genetic research relies heavily on the data generated from field evaluations. Therefore, it is imperative to optimize the precision of yield estimates in cultivar evaluation trials to make reliable selections. Experimental error in yield trials is sensitive to several facto...

  16. Yielding evaluation of new corn (Zea mays L. hybrids bred by HR Smolice

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    Hanna Sulewska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison was made between 22 new maize hybrids from Hodowla Roślin Smolice Sp. z o.o. The plots were established within trial program of five experimental stations located in 2008, in different soil and climate conditions. The results were compared with mean of three COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing standards. Within 22 tested hybrids, four of them (no. 6 – SMH 0827, no. 14 – SMH 0835, no. 13 – SMH 0834 and no. 8 – SMH 0829 had yielded significantly higher than mean of standards, and one of them (no. 3 – SMH 0824 had significant higher dry matter content than mean of standards. Two hybrids: no. 18 – SMH 0839 and no. 24 – PR39H32 (standard showed break of negative correlation between yield and dry matter content in kernels as their average yields and dry matter content were higher in all cases. Based on Kanga’s measurement and standard deviation procedure, genotypes were selected according to suitability for particular growing regions. The best yielding and stabile hybrids are: no. 14 – SMH 0835 and no. 6 – SMH 0827. The best and stabile dry matter content had: no. 1 – SMH 0822, no. 3 – SMH 0824, no. 11 – SMH 0832 and no. 22 – SMH 0843. Hybrids no. 6 – SMH 0827 and no. 18 – SMH 0839 were selected for testing investigation in COBORU.

  17. Combining ability studies for yield and yield components trait in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    P.V. Padmavathi, P.V. Satyanarayana , Lal Ahamed M.,Y. Ashoka Rani and V. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty two hybrids were generated from crossing four CMS lines and thirteen restorer lines in line x tester design. Crosses along with parents were evaluated for yield and yield component traits during rabi, 2011 at RARS, Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Predominance of non additive gene action was recorded for all the characters. Among CMS lines APMS 9A andAPMS 10A and in testers viz., MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1, MTU II -187-6-1-1, MTU II-143-26-2, MTU II-290-42-1 and MTU II-283-7-1-1 were found to be good general combiners for grain yield and yield component traits. The crosses APMS 10A x MTU II-290-42-1, APMS 6A x MTU II -187-6-1-1 and PMS 6A x MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1 were identified as most promising hybrids for grain yield plant-1. These hybrids can be tested over locations before their commercial cultivation.

  18. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

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    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  19. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

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    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  20. The interrelation between plus-hybrid effect on grain yield and genetic distance of studied hybrids

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    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia is referred to as the Plus-Hybrid effect. A mixture of hybrids, in which one is a sterile female component and the other is a fertile pollinator, was sown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase of a hybrid genetic distance would result in the increased gain from Plus-hybrid effects on grain yield. Two ZP hybrids (ZP 1 and ZP 2, i.e. their sterile and fertile counterparts, as well as, five hybrid pollinators (ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4 and ZP 5 were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trail was set up according to the randomized split-plot design at Zemun Polje in 2009. SSR markers were used to determine the genetic distance between hybrids. Ten out of total 12 applied primers gave results. Coefficients of similarity were estimated according to Dice and Jaccard. The greatest (0.37, i.e. smallest genetic distance (0.08, according to Dice, was obtained between hybrids ZP 1 and ZP 5, i.e. ZP 1 and ZP 4, respectively. Values of genetic distance according to Jaccard were between 0.14 (ZP 1 and ZP 4 and 0.54 (ZP 1 i ZP 5 . By using the cluster analysis, four hybrids (ZP 1, ZP 4, ZP 3 and ZP 2 were grouped into one sub-cluster that was loosely linked to ZP 5. The Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield of the hybrid ZP 1 was negative. The greatest gain was detected in the ZP 2st ' ZP 1 combination, between two hybrids that were genetically very similar and belonged to the same sub-cluster, and then in ZP 2st x ZP 3 and ZP 2st x ZP 4 combinations, between hybrids that also belonged to the same sub-cluster. It can be concluded that the Plus-hybrid effect, after all, depends not on the hybrid genetic distance but on the hybrid genotype.

  1. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (Pfungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  2. Degree of inheritance and heritability of yield in parental genotypes and F1 hybrids of tobacco

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    Aleksoski Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode and level of inheritance of green and dry mass yield per stalk were investigated in four parental genotypes (Burley - B 2/93, Suchum - S1, Suchum - S2 and Prilep - P-84 and in their six diallel F1 hybrids. The trial was set up in 2007, 2008 and 2009 in the field of Tobacco Institute-Prilep in a randomized block design with four replications. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the heritability as an indicator of the inheritance of the yield as one of the most important quantitative characters of tobacco, in order to give suggestions for the selection of parental genotypes and directions for the creation of new varieties. The mode of inheritance was estimated according to the test - significance of the mean value of F1 progeny compared to the parental average. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated after Allard (1960, while broad-sense heritability and genetic components were estimated after Mather and Jinks (1974. The mode of inheritance in the hybrids was different. Positive heterosis for green and dry mass yields per stalk was recorded in S1 x S2. Negative heterosis for green mass yields per stalk was recorded in S1 x P-84 and S2 x P-84, while for dry mass yield it was recorded in S1 x P-84. Inheritance of the characters during the three years of investigation was identical. The higher heritability index of both types was recorded for dry mass yield. As regards inheritance of the yield, the values of broad-sense heritability were higher than those of narrow-sense heritability.

  3. Radiation use efficiency, biomass production, and grain yield in two maize hybrids differing in drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought tolerant (DT) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids have potential to increase yield under drought conditions. However, little information is known about the physiological determinations of yield in DT hybrids. Our objective was to assess radiation use efficiency (RUE), biomass production, and yield ...

  4. Analysis of the stability for yield in maize (Zea mays hybrids in the central Ecuadorian Coastal Region

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    Daniel Vera Aviles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the stability of commercial and experimental maize hybrids in the Central Ecuadorian Coastal Region. During a period from december 2010 to april 2011 uniform trials of yield in four locations with contrasting environments were evaluated. The genetic material was constituted by five experimental hybrids and three commercial. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks design with four replications; the experimental plots were two rows with a length of 5.0 m separated to 0.90 meters. The combined analysis of variance proposed by Eberhart and Russel was statistical significance as well as for genotype and for interaction. The average yield showed that between experimental hybrids two, (SM45 x SSD08SV39 and (SM45 x SV15SV39, were highlighted with averages higher than 7.0 t ha-1 whilst AG-003 was the highlighted commercial hybrid with a yield of 7.48 t ha-1. The best yields and environmental indexes were registered in the locations of Quevedo and Vinces, the lowest environmental indexes were for Balzar and Ventanas. In relation to the tendency of response of the outstanding genotypes in the four evaluation environments, it was particularly observed that genotypes are desirable by virtue of the outstanding results in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

  5. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

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    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  6. Wide hybridization: engineering the next leap in wheat yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daowen Wang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Wide hybridization and chromosome engineering constitute an active and important area of plant biology research. The insights obtained in this field have contributed significantly to the understanding of the structure and function of plant chromosomes and genomes, and to the genetic improvement of many agricultural crops.

  7. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  8. HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT CHARACTERS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. HYBRID

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    M RAMESH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the components of genetic variation were worked out by Kempthorne method from a Line x Tester analysis in castor for fourteen plant type related traits. The analysis for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares of both general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for all the characters which indicated the presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions. The ratio of GCA variance and SCA variance ratio revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except plant height up to primary spike, no. of nodes up to primary spike, no. of capsules/primary spike and total spike length of secondary. JP-87 was good general combiner for most of the characters including seed yield. The line DCS-106 was also a good general combiner for early flowering, days to maturity and number of capsules on secondary spike. Cross JP-87 × RG-1740/A was a good specific combiner for seed yield per plant and for other yield component. The hybrid DPC-9 × RG-156 with good specific combining ability for days to maturity can be used for yield improvement in castor. In general for yield and other yield attributing traits the promising hybrids with high heterosis were JP-87 × RG-1740/A, JP-87 × DCS-106, DPC-17 × RG-156, DPC-17 × DCS-106 and DPC-17 × DCS-107 were on par with the check. These cross combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding programme for improvement in yield of castor.

  9. Effect of Rate and Split Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components in (Bahar Hybrid Rice Cultivar

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    M Nahvi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determinate the optimum nitrogen rate and time for split N application based on phonological stages of Bahar hybrid rice, an experiment was conducted over two years (2007-2008 using a randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII farm, Rasht. Factorial arrangement of the following factors was used: three N rates (90, 120 and 150 kg pure N in hectare and six different phonological stages (T1: using leaf color chart with number 4; T2; 1/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage, 1/3 in booting stage; T3; 1/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in tillering stage, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage; T4: 1/2 base fertilizer, 1/4 in tillering stage, 1/4 in booting stage; T5: 1/3base fertilizer, 1/3in tillering stage, 1/3 in booting stage; T6; 2/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage with a control plot in each replication. After sowing in bed nursery the twenty days old seedlings were transplanted in the experimental plots. Results of analysis of variance clearly showed significant differences between different phonological stages on many characteristics. Means differences were highly significant for grain yield. The T6 treatment produced the highest yield of 8.373 and 7.920 t ha-1 in two years, respectively. However, 120 kg N ha-1 when applied as T5, produced the highest yield (8.760 t ha-1. Combined analysis of variance showed that yield and yield components.were affected by time of N application. Combined comparison of means also showed that the T5 treatment and 120 kg N ha-1 produced the highest yield of 7.925 and 7.514 t ha-1 in the first and second year, respectively. According to the results, it can be recommended that for Bahar hybrid rice maximum yield could be achieved by application of 120 kg N ha-1 when split as defined in T5 (1/3 based fertilizer + 1/3 first tillering stage + 1/3 booting stage. Keywords: Hybrid rice, Leaf Color Chart (LCC, Nitrogen fertilizer

  10. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  11. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  12. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  13. Effect of daily minimum pond dissolved oxygen concentration on hybrid striped bass fingerling yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of hybrid striped ...

  14. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Lima-Brito; A. Carvalho; A. Martin; J. S. Heslop-Harrison; H. Guedes-Pinto

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrids ($2n = 6x = 42$; AABBDHch) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of Hch and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the Hch genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F1 hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  15. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  16. Development of eggplant hybrid cultivar ‘BATEM FILIZI’ and determination of yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Filiz BOYACI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivation is an important part of vegetable production in Turkey. It is highly affected by abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures during growth and development. The present study was aimed to improve new hybrid varieties with high quality and fruit setting under undesirable environmental conditions in eggplant. The 39 inbred lines were developed from eggplant genepool by using pedigree breeding method at the Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute. They were characterized morphologically and evaluated for phylogenetic relationship among them. Selected seven lines were crossed each other to obtain F1 hybrids. Thirteen hybrids from these crosses were examined for their rate of heterosis and heterobeltiosis. These hybrids were not suitable for market demands although F1 hybrids including P350 as parental line had high heterosis rate. Oval fruit shaped P350 inbred line as female parent showed good performance and crossed with long fruit shaped P599 inbred line. The resultant F1 hybrid cultivar higher yielding, suitable for production under greenhouse and highly adaptable was registered with the name of BATEM FILIZI. It is recommended that this hybrid can be used in greenhouse production especially in single crop season.

  17. Nanofabrication Yields. Hybridization and Click-Fixation of Polycyclic DNA Nanoassemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the stepwise assembly of a fully addressable polycyclic DNA hexagon nanonetwork for the preparation of a four-ring system, one of the biggest networks yet constructed from tripodal building blocks. We find that the yield exhibits a distinct upper level <100%, a fundamental problem of thermodynamic DNA assembly that appears to have been overlooked in the DNA nanotechnology literature. A simplistic model based on a single step-yield parameter y can quantitatively describe the total yield of DNA assemblies in one-pot reactions as Y = yduplex n, with n the number of hybridization steps. Experimental errors introducing deviations from perfect stoichiometry and the thermodynamics of hybridization equilibria contribute to decreasing the value of yduplex (on average y = 0.96 for our 10 base pair hybridization). For the four-ring system (n = 31), the total yield is thus less than 30%, which is clearly unsatisfactory if bigger nanoconstructs of this class are to be designed. Therefore, we introduced site-specific click chemistry for making and purifying robust building blocks for future modular constructs of larger assemblies. Although the present yield of this robust module was only about 10%, it demonstrates a first step toward a general fabrication approach. Interestingly, we find that the click yields follow quantitatively a binomial distribution, the predictability of which indicates the usefulness of preparing pools of pure and robust building blocks in this way. The binomial behavior indicates that there is no interference between the six simultaneous click reactions but that step-yield limiting factors such as topological constraints and Cu(I) catalyst concentration are local and independent. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Guan-fu; TAO Long-xing; SONG Jian; WANG Xi; CAO Li-yong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2008-01-01

    By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control) were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05) respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  19. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  20. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  1. Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L. Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Munawar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result depicted that cob position, no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per cob may be used as reliable criteria for improving grain yield. Heritability and genetic advance estimates described the genetic attributes of the traits under study. All the traits except no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row had non additive type of gene action with high heritability and low genetic advance. The exploitation of these traits would be effective in hybrid maize breeding. No. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row showed both additive and non additive type of gene action with environmental influence due to high environmental variance. These traits can be utilized effectively through selection in varietal development.

  2. INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kovačević

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Six corn (Zea mays L. hybrids (OsSK 377; OsSK 382; OsSK 407; OsSK 552; OsSK 644 and Bc 66-61 were grown on strong K-fixing soil during the growing season 1993. Increased K fertilization in KCl form was applied in spring of 1990 to level of 3250 kg K2O ha-1. Four rates were used for testing corn hybrids response (150, 1000, 1900 and 3250 kg K2O ha-1. Response of corn to K fertilization was very pronounced: grain yields were in range from 1.83 t h-1 (150 kg K2O ha-1 to 7.04 t ha-1 (3250 K2O ha-1. Differences of grain yields among corn hybrids were from 4.35 t ha-1 (Bc 66-61 to 5.31 t ha-1 (OsSK 407. Significant differences of nutritional status among the hybrids were found as follows (mg kg-1: 18.9-26.5 (zinc, 14.4-17.4 (manganese, 120-144 (iron and 18.2-23.2 (copper, respectively. Zinc status in corn leaves was independent on applied fertilization, while the concentration of manganese, iron and copper was significantly decreased by application of the highest KCl rate (mg kg-1: 17.4 and 12.6 Mn, 150 and 120 Fe, 21.5 and 18.5 Cu, for the control and 3250 kg K2O ha-1, respectively. As affected by KCl fertilization there were found considerable differences in K and Mg status of corn leaves as follows: 0.31% K (acute K deficiency and 1.18% K, as well as 1.08% Mg and 0.47% Mg, for the control and 3250 kg K2O ha-1, respectively.

  3. [Characteristics of canopy structure of super high yielding japonica hybrid rice community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Hengde; Mao, Guojuan

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of canopy structure, such as the numbers of seedling, panicle and grain, the distribution of dry matters in different canopy layers and different organs, and the distributions of LAI and of solar radiation in different canopy layers of super high yielding community of japonica hybrid rice were studied, in comparison with normal japonica rice. The results showed that the total the dry matter weight and the dry matter weight of layers below 40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm and above 80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 32.29%, 29.12%, 13.95%, 16.45% and 100.17% higher those that of normal japonica rice, respectively. The ratios of dry leaf (photosynthetic organ) and of dry panicle (sink organ) weight to total dry weight were 24.8% and 12.8%, respectively, which were greater than those of normal japonica rice, while the ratios of dry sheath and stem (storage organs) weight were 33.6% and 28.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of normal japonica rice. The allotment of LAI in different layers of japonica hybrid rice canopy was reasonable, and the LAI of above 40 cm layer at full heading stage reached 5.44. The solar radiation was well-distributed inside japonica hybrid rice canopy, for example, the solar radiation in layers below 60 cm were 13.1%-37.0% higher, but 5.9%-12.2% lower above 60 cm than that of normal japonica rice. The extinction coefficients of solar radiation in layers below 20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 35.1%, 13.5%, 29.1% and 17.2% lower than that of normal japonica rice, respectively.

  4. Hot Hole Transfer Increasing Polaron Yields in Hybrid Conjugated Polymer/PbS Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, Elisabeth; deQuilettes, Dane W; Hsieh, Stephen T; Colbert, Adam E; Ginger, David S

    2014-01-01

    We use quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) to study charge generation in blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with PbS nanocrystal quantum dots as a function of excitation energy. We find that, per photon absorbed, the yield of photogenerated holes present on the conjugated polymer increases with pump energy, even at wavelengths where only the quantum dots absorb. We interpret this result as direct evidence for transfer of hot holes in these conjugated polymer/quantum dot blends. These results help understand the operation of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaics.

  5. Practice and Thought on Developing Hybrid Rice for Super High Yield by Exploiting Inter-subspecific Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since the breakthrough of grain yield owing to the development of dwarf rice and three-line system hybrid rice, rice breeding for high yield hardly had showed significant progress in the next successive two decades. It was considered that utilizing heterosis between subspecific varieties (Oryza sativa L.) would be an effective approach to increase yield further. During 1987-1993,an indica-japonica hybrid Yayou 2 yielded as high as 10.5 t/ha; however, it failed to be commercialized because of seed purity problem due to non-uniform emasculation by chemical agent in seed production, and sensitivity of seed setting in F1 plants to environmental conditions. In the past decade, two inter-subspeific hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64S/9311, javanica/indica) and Liangyou E32 (Peiai 64S/E32, javanica/japonica); both of them exhibited grain yield higher than 10.5 t/ha, and were widely judged as the pioneers of super hybrid rice. Liangyoupeijiu has been successfully popularized over 4 million hectare in wide climatic areas, while Liangyou E32 made a yield record and offered a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice. It was considered that in combination with plant ideotype, active physiological functions, and wide-range adaptability to ecological conditions, exploitation of indica-japonica heterosis would be the key approach for super hybrid rice breeding.

  6. Comparisons of yield performance and nitrogen response between hybrid and inbred rice under different ecological conditions in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Peng; XIONG Hong; ZOU Ying-bin; XIE Xiao-bing; HUANG Min; ZHOU Xue-feng; ZHANG Rui-chun; CHEN Jia-na; WU Dan-dan; XIA Bing; XU Fu-xian

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the yield performance and nitrogen (N) response of hybrid rice under different ecological conditions in southern China, ifeld experiments were conducted in Huaiji County of Guangdong Province, Binyang of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Changsha City of Hunan Province, southern China in 2011 and 2012. Two hybrid (Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1) and two inbred rice cultivars (Yuxiangyouzhan and Huanghuazhan) were grown under three N treatments (N1, 225 kg ha–1;N2, 112.5–176 kg ha–1;N3, 0 kg ha–1) in each location. Results showed that grain yield was higher in Changsha than in Huaiji and Binyang for both hybrid and inbred cultivars. The higher grain yield in Changsha was attribut-ed to larger panicle size (spikelets per panicle) and higher biomass production. Consistently higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars was observed in Changsha but not in Huaiji and Binyang. Higher grain weight and higher biomass production were responsible for the higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars in Changsha. The better crop perfor-mance of rice (especial y hybrid cultivars) in Changsha was associated with its temperature conditions and indigenous soil N. N2 had higher internal N use efifciency, recovery efifciency of applied N, agronomic N use efifciency, and partial factor productivity of applied N than N1 for both hybrid and inbred cultivars, while the difference in grain yield between N1 and N2 was relatively smal . Our study suggests that whether hybrid rice can outyield inbred rice to some extent depends on the ecological conditions, and N use efifciency can be increased by using improved nitrogen management such as site-speciifc N management in both hybrid and inbred rice production.

  7. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  8. Relationship of Parental Indica-Japonica Indexes with Yield and Grain Quality Traits of Japonica Hybrid Rice in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-rong; QIU Fu-lin; HUA Ze-tian; DAI Gui-jin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the main parents (10 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) and their 100 combinations of japonica hybrid rice in northern China as materials, the relationships of parental indica-japonica indexes determined by the methods of the Cheng's index as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with yield and grain quality traits of hybrid rice were studied. For the parents, the Cheng's index (Chi) ranged from 13.5 to 19.3 and the indica index in SSR markers (ADi) were from 0.12 to 0.38. The classification of parents by Chi was not completely consistent with that by ADi. The Chi of male parent was more closely related to hybrid traits than that of female parent, as contrasted to ADi. At the same time, the difference between parents (PD) in Chi was more closely related to hybrid traits than that in ADi. The indica-japonica indexes of parents and their difference between parents appeared quadratic relationship to hybrid traits with the critical extremum. The directions of the correlation of indica-japonica indexes of parents and their differences with hybrid yield traits were on the opposition to those with hybrid grain quality traits. Therefore, the female parent should match the male parent moderately in indica-japonica index to obtain the optimum of hybrid traits, high yield as well as good quality.

  9. YIELD OF ENERGY AND PROTEIN FROM GRAIN MAIZE HYBRIDS USING AGROTECHNICAL SYSTEM, OPTIMAL FOR THE CONDITIONS IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANYA DELIBALTOVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The yields of metabolizable energy for ducks and protein, so as the multiplication effect by different varieties of maize have been investigated. For the conditions in the Plovdiv region the hybrid PR35P12 had the highest yield of crude protein - 1368 kg/ha, and metabolizable energy – AME- 171,5 GJ/ha and TME – 181,3 GJ/ha. The highest multiplication effect (protein yield/crude protein applied by seed material – showed hybrid PR35P12 - +403.3.

  10. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Application Rate on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xian-qing; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Hui-zhe; ZHANG Yu-ping

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake, yield and its components for two super-high-yielding hybrid rice combinations, Guodao 6 and Eryou 7954 were investigated under different plant densities (15, 18, and 21 plants/m2) and different nitrogen application rates (120, 150, 180, and 210 kg/hm2). The experiment was conducted on loam soil during 2004-2006 at the experimental farm of the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou, China. In these years, the two hybrid rice clearly showed higher yield at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Guodao 6 produced an average grain yield of 10 215.6 kg/hm2 across the three years, while the yield of Eryou 7954 was 9 633.0 kg/hm2. With fewer plants per unit-area and larger plants in the plots, the two hybrid rice produced more panicles per plant in three years. The highest nitrogen uptake of the two hybrid rice was at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Further increasing nitrogen application rate was not advantageous for nitrogen uptake in super-high-yielding rice under the same plant density.

  11. Combining ability analysis for yield and fibre quality parameters in intraspecific hybrids of G. hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Saravanan, N.A., R. Ravikesavan and T.S. Raveendran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four genetically diverse jassid resistant varieties viz., SRT 1, Khandwa 2, KC 2 and SVPR 3 (Females i.e lines were crossedwith three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7 and MCU 12 (male parents i.e., testers in line x tester fashion for estimationin combining ability effects of twelve economic characters including fibre quality traits like 2.5% span length, bundle strength,fibre fineness, uniformity ratio and elongation percentage. Non-additive type of gene action was found relatively more importantfor all the characters. The jassid resistant parent KC 2 was a good combiner for boll weight, lint index, seed index and bundlestrength besides seed cotton yield. While the parents SRT 1 and MCU 5 were found to be good general combiner for 2.5 per centspan length. On the basis of sca effects the combinations KC 2 x MCU 5, KC 2 x MCU 12 and Khandwa 2 x MCU 5 were thebest hybrids for combining high yield, quality and jassid resistance.

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus management strategy for better growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Ali and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted during autumn season, 2010 investigated the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on sunflower hybrid Hysun-33. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design (factorial arrangement, with three replication, having net plot size of 3 x 7 m. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments, three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, viz., 85, 135, 185 kg N ha-1, and 50, 75, 85 kg P ha-1. Nitrogen affected all estimated characters significantly, except plant population, while, phosphorus did not show significant effect on plant population and plant height. All other parameters, as leaf area plant-1, head diameter, 1000- achene weight and achene yield were affected significantly by different nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were significant in all these cases. The highest achene’s yield (2584 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 135-75 kg NP ha-1as against the lowest (1491kg ha-1 at 85-50 kg NP ha-1.

  13. STUDYING GXE INTERACTION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND YIELD LEVEL USING LINEAR-BILINEAR MODELS: THE CASE OF CIMMYT INTERMEDIATE TO LATE HYBRIDS TRAILS IN EASTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Taye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT, with national programs, conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions; this investigation is expected to add information to the existing knowledge. Data sets used in this study comes from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trails (ILHT conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA countries from 2008 to 2011. Trials, ranging from 18 in 2009 to 29 in 2010 were used. Trials are categorized into four management systems and two yield levels. Variance Components, broad sense heritability (H, Site Regression (SREG, Genotypic Regression (GREG, Completely Multiplicative Model (COMM and Factor Analytic (FA models were fitted. Results are discussed and compared with those stated in literature. We argue that it is preferable to first fit the fixed effect models before proceeding to the mixed effect model, as the former shows the level of complexity of the GE component and number of Axis required to explain it. The fixed effect model, SREG2, is preferable for trails targeting to compare hybrids with checks. From the GGE biplots it was noted that the first two PC did not account for sufficient percentage of variation for all years which witnessed complexity in the GE component for this data. Nevertheless, since PC1 accounted for large percentage of variation than PC2, the plot still gives some idea of which hybrids are favored and where. Most importantly, location of genotypes along PC1 can serve for judging yielding potential of the genotypes to guide in selection decision. Equivalence between Finlay – Wilkinson and GREG was established. The few environmental covariables obtained for 2009 was used to fit Partial Least Square (PLS regression. The result indicated complexity in the GE component, as PLS latent factors accounted for small percentage of variation. It was recommended to use information from SREG2, GREG2 and FA(1 models in order to identify stable genotype.

  14. 'Caro-Tex 312’ – An F1 Hybrid, High Yielding, Multiple Disease Resistant, Orange Habanero Pepper Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University and the USDA-ARS U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC, have developed a new, F1 hybrid Habanero pepper cultivar. ‘Caro-Tex 312’ produces a large, orange-fruited Habanero pepper with typical shape and high pungency. It also possesses unique yield, early maturity and dise...

  15. Genotypic diversity in the responses of yield and yield components to elevated ozone of diverse inbred and hybrid maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O3]), an important air pollutant, are phytotoxic and detrimental to crop yield causing significant losses of ~14-26 billion in 4 of the world’s major crops. Until recent years, it was believed that agricultural and economically important C4 plants, such as...

  16. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.Badshah; Naimei; Tu; Yingbin; Zou; M.Ibrahim; Ke; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice grain production. To evaluate yield and tillering response, Liangyoupeijiu(super hybrid rice) was grown in Hunan, China during 2011–2012 under different methods of tillage(conventional and no-tillage system) and crop establishment methods(transplanting at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and direct seeding at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg ha-1). Our results revealed that, at maximum tillering(Max.) and at maturity(MA) stages, direct seeding(DS) resulted in 22% more tillers than transplanting(TP) irrespective of tillage system. Tiller mortality reached a peak between panicle initiation(PI) and booting(BT) stages, and was 16% higher under conventional tillage(CT) than under no-tillage(NT). Transplanting required 29% more time for the completion of tillering and less for DS. Tillering rate was 43% higher in DS than TP under either CT or NT. There was a positive correlation between panicle number per m2and maximum tiller number per m2, but not panicle-bearing tiller rate. The panicle bearing tiller rate was higher under DS than TP and higher under NT than CT. Tiller dry weight gradually increased up to heading(HD) stage, and was 14% higher under TP than DS. Leaf area(cm2tiller-1) gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in conventional tillage transplanting(CTTP) and 45% in no-tillage transplanting(NTTP) from 12DAH–24DAH(days after heading), but was similar(35%) under DS under either CT or NT. Grain yield was higher under CTTP owing to the larger sink size(heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle) than under DS.

  17. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  18. Grain yield, net blotch and scald of barley in Finnish official variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ROBINSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on grain yield, and terminal severity of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis from Finnish official barley (Hordeum vulgare variety trials were analysed to indicate the pattern of disease incidence over six years and five sites for nineteen barley genotypes, and the effect of the diseases on yield and the genotype by environment interaction for yield. The effect of climatic factors on net blotch severity were also investigated. The genotype by site interaction for net blotch severity was not statistically significant, but that for yield was. Net blotch severity differed between years, but was similar across sites and there were statistically significant first order interactions between year, site and genotype. 'Saana' and 'Thule' had relatively low mean terminal net blotch scores and their reaction to the disease was less sensitive to the environment than was that of 'Tyra' for example. Analysis of yield data adjusted for net blotch severity indicated that the magnitude of the genotype by environment interaction terms were not accounted for to any significant degree by differences in relative net blotch resistances among the barley genotypes. Overall, mean scores for scald severity were lower than those for net blotch. Terminal net blotch severity was correlated with May rainfall and growing degree days.;

  19. Bunch yield of interspecific hybrids of American oil palm with oil palm in the juvenile phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alberto Gomes Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior genotypes, 42 progenies of interspecific hybrids between American oil palm and oil palm were evaluated in an area with incidence of bud rot. The following variables were assessed: total bunch yield (TBY, number of bunches (NB and mean bunch weight (MBW from the third to the sixth year of cultivation and estimates of genetic parameters obtained by REML/BLUP procedures. High heritability values of the evaluated traits were observed. The gain estimates for TBY were 14.49% for the selection of the five best progenies and 33.36% for the selection of the five best trees, considering multiplication by cloning. A medium correlation was observed between TBY and NB (r2 = 0.33±0.021, a high correlation between TBY and MBW (r2 = 0.53±0.019 and a negative high correlation between NB and MBW (r2 = –0.60±0.018. The results indicate a high expectation of gains with selection for TBY.

  20. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  1. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Use Etica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  2. Preliminary Trial of 11 New Hybrid Maize Genotype to The Resistance on Java Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setyawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the family of grasses (Poaceae.  Maize is grown globally and one of the most important cereal crop in the world.  In many countries, corn is the main agricultural crop, and are used as food, feed and industrial raw materials. Together with rice and wheat, corn included in the cereals that provide about 65% carbohydrates and 50% protein that humans need. For this purpose, many developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa are in a strong effort to increase their corn yields through the use of better seeds.  Although in Indonesia, corn is the second important food crop after rice, however, with the rapid growth of the livestock industry, corn is a major component (60% in feed ingredient.  It is estimated that more than 55% of the corn used for feed in Indonesia.  Java Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis is the main disease that is concerned by maize corn growers. This disease often resulting in substantial losses for farmers, even reach 100% in susceptible genotypes.  Therefore trial on 11 new prospective hybrids was conducted with the expectation that they can be classified in the criteria “less resistant or higher” according to the criteria of modified Reid (2005.  Of the 11 new hybrids, 3 new hybrids (27.3% classified in the criteria “very resistant”, 4 new hybrids (36.4% classified in the criteria “resistant”, 2 new hybrid (18.2% classified in the criteria “less resistant”, and 2 other new hybrids (18.2% classified in the criteria “less susceptible”.

  3. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  4. Photochemical properties in flag leaves of a super-high-yielding hybrid rice and a traditional hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Shan, YongJie; Kochian, Leon; Strasser, Reto J; Chen, GuoXiang

    2015-12-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of flag leaves in a super-high-yielding hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) LYPJ, and a traditional hybrid rice SY63 cultivar with lower grain yield, which were grown in the field, were investigated from emergence through senescence of flag leaves. As the flag leaf matured, there was an increasing trend in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum efficiency of primary photochemistry ([Formula: see text] Po) and efficiency of electron transport from PS II to PS I (Ψ Eo). The overall photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) was significantly higher in the high-yielding LYPJ compared to SY63 during the entire reproductive stage of the plant, the same to MDA content. However, [Formula: see text] Po(=F V/F M), an indicator of the primary photochemistry of the flag leaf, did not display significant changes with leaf age and was not significantly different between the two cultivars, suggesting that PIABS is a more sensitive parameter than [Formula: see text] Po (=F V/F M) during leaf age for distinguishing between cultivars differing in yield.

  5. Yield and yield components of hybrid corn (Zea mays L.) as affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis and zinc sulfate under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, N A; Ardakani, M R; Rejali, F; Mohabbati, F; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-12-01

    With respect to the significance of improving hybrid corn performance under stress, this experiment was conducted at the Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran. A complete randomized block design with three levels of irrigations (at 100%, 75% and 50% crop water requirement), two levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glumus intraradisis) (including control), and three levels of zinc (Zn) sulfate (0, 25 and 45 kg ha(-1)), was performed. Results of the 2-year experiments indicated that irrigation treatment significantly affected corn yield and its components at P = 1%. AM fungi and increasing Zn levels also resulted in similar effects on corn growth and production. Although AM fungi did not significantly affect corn growth at the non-stressed irrigation treatment, at moderate drought stress AM fungi significantly enhanced corn quality and yield relative to the control treatment. The combined effects of AM fungi and Zn sulfate at 45 kg ha(-1) application significantly affected corn growth and production. In addition, the tripartite treatments significantly enhanced corn yield at P = 1%. Effects of Zn and AM fungi on plant growth under drought stress is affected by the stress level.

  6. Four-Parameter Hybrid-Bishop-Hill Model Applied to OFE Copper for the Evaluation of Elastic/Yield Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ribeka; Fullwood, David T.; Adams, Brent L.

    2014-09-01

    This study employs a novel stress-based Hybrid-Bishop-Hill yield model approach to evaluate the yield surface of oxygen-free electronic copper samples. The local yield surface is determined from three parameters of crystal orientation and one parameter of geometrically necessary dislocation (GND). All four local state variables can be rapidly determined by analysis of measured electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Estimates for the polycrystalline yield surface are obtained by standard averaging procedures. The shape of the yield surface is most influenced by the texture of the material, while the volume of the envelope scales with the average GND density. However, correlations between crystal orientation and GND content modify the yield surface shape and size. While correlations between GND density and crystal orientation are not strong for most copper samples, there are sufficient dependencies to demonstrate the benefits of the detailed four-parameter model. The four-parameter approach has potential for improving estimates of elastic-yield limit in all polycrystalline materials.

  7. Diallel analyze of yield and progress of the severity of leaf diseases in maize hybrids in two population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ventura Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven commercial maize hybrids (AS1575, 2B688, Penta, GNZ2004, AG8021, Sprint e P30F53 were intercrossed in a complete diallel, excluded reciprocal, obtaining 21 crosses. The 28 treatments were evaluated in two environments characterized by different densities (62,500 and 90,000 plants ha-1, with the aim of selecting the most promising parents for generating base population to obtain lines. Two experiments were carried out in Guarapuava-PR, at randomized block design with three replications. We estimated the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities for yield and disease severity assessed by the area under the common rust (Puccinia sorghi progress curve (AURPC and the area under the leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis progress curve (AULPC. The effects of GCA and SCA were significant for grain yield and diseases severity in both densities, revealing the importance of both additive and non-additive effects. There GCA x densities interaction was significant only for grain yield. Crossings P30F53 x AG8021 and P30F53 x Penta had negative estimates of SCA for AURPC and AULPC on the environments average. Hybrids GNZ 2004 and P30F53 stood out showing positive GCA for grain yield and negative for AURPC and AULPC in both densities and therefore are recommended for generating base populations for obtaining lines adapted for both densities, conventional and denser plantings, given the current trends in management of maize.

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fawad; Kanwal, Naila; Ahsan, Muhammmad; Ali, Qurban; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P < 0.05) with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.

  9. Metabolite Profiles of Maize Leaves in Drought, Heat, and Combined Stress Field Trials Reveal the Relationship between Metabolism and Grain Yield1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Sandra; Lisec, Jan; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Yousfi, Salima; Araus, Jose Luis; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of abiotic stress-resistant cultivars is of premium importance for the agriculture of developing countries. Further progress in maize (Zea mays) performance under stresses is expected by combining marker-assisted breeding with metabolite markers. In order to dissect metabolic responses and to identify promising metabolite marker candidates, metabolite profiles of maize leaves were analyzed and compared with grain yield in field trials. Plants were grown under well-watered conditions (control) or exposed to drought, heat, and both stresses simultaneously. Trials were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 10 tropical hybrids selected to exhibit diverse abiotic stress tolerance. Drought stress evoked the accumulation of many amino acids, including isoleucine, valine, threonine, and 4-aminobutanoate, which has been commonly reported in both field and greenhouse experiments in many plant species. Two photorespiratory amino acids, glycine and serine, and myoinositol also accumulated under drought. The combination of drought and heat evoked relatively few specific responses, and most of the metabolic changes were predictable from the sum of the responses to individual stresses. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between levels of glycine and myoinositol and grain yield under drought. Levels of myoinositol in control conditions were also related to grain yield under drought. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models very well explained the variation of grain yield via the combination of several metabolites. These results indicate the importance of photorespiration and raffinose family oligosaccharide metabolism in grain yield under drought and suggest single or multiple metabolites as potential metabolic markers for the breeding of abiotic stress-tolerant maize. PMID:26424159

  10. Metabolite Profiles of Maize Leaves in Drought, Heat, and Combined Stress Field Trials Reveal the Relationship between Metabolism and Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshihiro; Witt, Sandra; Lisec, Jan; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Yousfi, Salima; Araus, Jose Luis; Cairns, Jill E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-12-01

    The development of abiotic stress-resistant cultivars is of premium importance for the agriculture of developing countries. Further progress in maize (Zea mays) performance under stresses is expected by combining marker-assisted breeding with metabolite markers. In order to dissect metabolic responses and to identify promising metabolite marker candidates, metabolite profiles of maize leaves were analyzed and compared with grain yield in field trials. Plants were grown under well-watered conditions (control) or exposed to drought, heat, and both stresses simultaneously. Trials were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 10 tropical hybrids selected to exhibit diverse abiotic stress tolerance. Drought stress evoked the accumulation of many amino acids, including isoleucine, valine, threonine, and 4-aminobutanoate, which has been commonly reported in both field and greenhouse experiments in many plant species. Two photorespiratory amino acids, glycine and serine, and myoinositol also accumulated under drought. The combination of drought and heat evoked relatively few specific responses, and most of the metabolic changes were predictable from the sum of the responses to individual stresses. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between levels of glycine and myoinositol and grain yield under drought. Levels of myoinositol in control conditions were also related to grain yield under drought. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models very well explained the variation of grain yield via the combination of several metabolites. These results indicate the importance of photorespiration and raffinose family oligosaccharide metabolism in grain yield under drought and suggest single or multiple metabolites as potential metabolic markers for the breeding of abiotic stress-tolerant maize.

  11. Zhongdanyaozhi No. 1 and Zhongdanyaozhi No. 2 Are Hybrid Cultivars of Salvia miltiorrhiza with High Yield and Active Compounds Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chun; Jin, Yue; Wei, Jianhe

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Intraspecific hybridization between a male sterile line and inbred lines was followed by 39 F1 crossings. Cultivars “Zhongdanyaozhi No. 1” (ZD1) and “Zhongdanyaozhi No. 2” (ZD2) were obtained. In 2012 and 2013 tests in Beijing, the two cultivars were compared with three widely accepted types, SDCK, SXCK and HNCK from Shandong, Shanxi and Henan provinces. The yield of ZD1 and ZD2 exceeded the three CKs by more than 48.2% and 39.2%, respectively; the composition of the two hybrid cultivars was similar to the control, although the content of some compounds varied to some extent. The content of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A of both ZD1 and ZD2 could measure up the requirement of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The former showed no obvious advantage than the three CKs, while the later’s tanshinone II A was 29.6% higher than the three CKs. Taken together, ZD1 is a high yielding and thick-root-type cultivar which is suitable for decoction pieces; while ZD2 is suitable for component especially lipophilic component extraction. ZD1 and ZD2 reported here are the first cultivars obtained by the hybridization of S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27658029

  12. Generation of Five New Musa Hybrids With Resistance To Black Sigatoka and High Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify genetic variation is indispensable to effective management and use of genetic resources. This work is the first approach concerning to generation and genetic differentiation of new Musa hybrid lines obtained in INIVIT (Cuba, crossing Musa acuminata male diploid (AA x female triploid (ABB, genotypes selected by their resistant character to pests and diseases. From the obtained hybrids, only five were chosen because of their agronomic behavior and were genetically discriminated among them and also respect to the commercial clone FHIA-18 by AFLP polymorphism. Thanks to this prior genetic characterization Musa breeding programs could be consistently dinamised.

  13. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  14. Response on yield and nutritive value of two commercial maize hybrids as a consequence of a water irrigation reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated in a practical farm condition the response of two commercial maize hybrids (maturity class FAO rating 700 grown for silage production on chemical composition and digestibility of whole maize plant as consequence of a severe water irrigation reduction. Based on different irrigation applications, water restricted (WR and fully irrigated (FI plots received 50 and 200 mm of irrigation water, respectively. A split-plot factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design with two main plots (WR and FI and two sub-plots (hybrid A and B with 12 replications/ treatment was performed. Studied parameters were dry matter (DM yield, harvest index (HI, chemical composition, rumen in situ DM and neutral detergent fibre disappearance (DMD and NDFD, respectively, indigestible NDF (iNDF, 7h in vitro starch degradability (7hIVSD and net energy (NE for lactation content. Total DM and grain yields, HI and chemical composition differed (P<0.05 between FI and WR crops and only slight differences were recorded between hybrids. When compared to FI plants, WR had lower starch and higher fibre contents (P<0.05. Higher DMD (59.2 vs 56.4% DM and NDFD (61.0 vs 58.4% NDFOM were measured for FI with respect to WR crops, whereas iNDF was about 36% higher (P<0.05 in WR than FI. Lastly, WR plants had a lower NE content than FI plants (P<0.05. Our research showed that a drastic reduction in water irrigation negatively affected whole plant yield, chemical composition and nutrient availability of forage maize.

  15. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier), at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days), in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR). CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number p...

  16. Predicting yields of short-rotation hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) for the United States through model-data synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; LeBauer, David; Dietze, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) is an important biomass crop being evaluated for cellulosic ethanol production. Predictions of poplar growth, rotation period, and soil carbon sequestration under various growing conditions, soils, and climates are critical for farmers and managers planning to establish short-rotation forestry (SRF) plantations. In this study, we used an ecoinformatics workflow, the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), to integrate literature data and field measurements into the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model to estimate yield potential of poplar plantations. Within PEcAn 164 records of seven different traits from the literature were assimilated using a Bayesian meta-analysis. Next, variance decomposition identified seven variables for further constraint that contributed > 80% to the uncertainty in modeled yields: growth respiration, dark respiration, quantum efficiency, mortality coefficient, water conductance, fine-root allocation, and root turnover rate. Assimilation of observed yields further constrained uncertainty in model parameters (especially dark respiration and root turnover rate) and biomass estimates. Additional measurements of growth respiration, mortality, water conductance, and quantum efficiency would provide the most efficient path toward further constraint of modeled yields. Modeled validation demonstrated that ED2 successfully captured the interannual and spatial variability of poplar yield observed at nine independent sites. Site-level analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of land use change to SRF poplar on soil C sequestration compared to alternate land uses. These suggest that poplar plantations became a C sink within 18 years of conversion from corn production or existing forest. Finally, poplar yields were estimated for the contiguous United States at a half degree resolution in order to determine potential productivity, estimate the optimal rotation period, and compare poplar to perennial grass yields. This

  17. Resilin-PEG Hybrid Hydrogels Yield Degradable Elastomeric Scaffolds with Heterogeneous Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher L; Akins, Robert E; Kiick, Kristi L

    2016-01-11

    Hydrogels derived from resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have shown outstanding mechanical resilience and cytocompatibility; expanding the versatility of RLP-based materials via conjugation with other polypeptides and polymers would offer great promise in the design of a range of materials. Here, we present an investigation of the biochemical and mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels composed of a recombinant RLP and a multiarm PEG macromer. These hybrid hydrogels can be rapidly cross-linked through a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues on the RLP and vinyl sulfone groups on the multiarm PEG. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastomeric hydrogels with mechanical resilience comparable to aortic elastin; hydrogel stiffness was easily modulated through the cross-linking ratio. Macromolecular phase separation of the RLP-PEG hydrogels offers the unique advantage of imparting a heterogeneous microstructure, which can be used to localize cells, through simple mixing and cross-linking. Assessment of degradation of the RLP by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) illustrated the specific proteolysis of the polypeptide in both its soluble form and when cross-linked into hydrogels. Finally, the successful encapsulation and viable three-dimensional culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) demonstrated the cytocompatibility of the RLP-PEG gels. Overall, the cytocompatibility, elastomeric mechanical properties, microheterogeneity, and degradability of the RLP-PEG hybrid hydrogels offer a suite of promising properties for the development of cell-instructive, structured tissue engineering scaffolds.

  18. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11H21Cl3MnN2 (1) and C11H22Cl4MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Liangyoupeijiu (Super High-Yield Hybrid Rice) Seedlings to Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Fang Yang; Xiao-Juan Li; Yu Liang; Yu-Xiang Jing; Shi-Hua Shen; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yield hybrid rice. Despite its advantages with respect to yield and grain quality, it is sensitive to cold, which keeps it from being widely cultivated. We subjected Liangyoupeijiu seedlings to 4 ℃ cold treatment, then extracted the leaf proteins. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, a series of differentially displayed proteins were identified. Some metabolism-associated proteins were found among the downregulated proteins, such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transketolase 1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The upregulated proteins included both stress-resistance proteins such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase Ⅰ and proteins that are negative for rice growth, such as FtsH-like protein, plastid fusion and/or translocation factor (Pftf) and actin. Our results indicate that cold may inhibit Liangyoupeijiu growth through decreasing metabolic activity and damaging cell structure.

  20. Effects of Film-Degraded Rice Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Nitrogen Uptake and Yield of the Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out to nitrogen release characteristics of rice controlled release fertilizer (RCRF) coated with natural and half natural high molecular materials, and to thereof effects on the nitrogen uptake and yield of early and late hybrid rice from 1999 to 2000, with urea as control.In experimental fields regardless of early and late seasons, the amount of N in the plants increased exponentially at the early growth stage (y=abx) and nonlinearly at the middle and late growth stages (y=a+bx+cx2).Rice controlled release fertilizer lengthened the exponential phase and increased the parameter -b/c during the nonlinear phase. Although the N amount of plants was less in rice controlled release fertilizer plots than in urea plots within 20 days after transplanting, at the heading and maturity stages, the N amount of plants in rice controlled release fertilizer plots was above two times greater than in the urea plots due to the higher N recovery, and the high absorption density of N in the nonlinear phase. Tillers pattern and achievement of the maximum tillering stage varied with fertilizer types. The maximum tillering stage in the urea plots occurred a week earlier than in the rice controlled release fertilizer plots. Yield sink size and potential sink size of the plants reflected the N absorption pattern and the amount of N in the plants. The yields of early and late rice with 90 kg N ha-1of rice controlled release fertilizer were respectively increased by 832.7 kg ha-1 and 412.8 kg ha-1 than those with 90 kg N ha-1 of urea, almost equivalent to the yield of early and late hybrid rice with 180 kg N ha-1 of urea.

  1. Effects of Plant Density on Yield and Canopy Micro Environment in Hybrid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-zheng; LUO Xue-jiao; NIE Yi-chun; ZHANG Xian-long

    2014-01-01

    A rational plant population is an important attribute to high yield of cotton, because it can provide a beneifcial micro environment within the canopy for plant growth and development as well as yield formation. A 2-yr ifeld experiment was conducted to determine the optimal plant density based on cotton yield in relation to the canopy micro environment (canopy temperature, relative humidity and light transmittance). Six plant densities (1.2-5.7 plants m-2) were arranged with a completely randomized block design. The highest cotton yield (1 507 kg ha-1) was obtained at 3.0 plants m-2 due to more bolls per unit ground area (79 bolls m-2), while the lowest yield (1 091 kg ha-1) was obtained at 1.2 plants m-2. Under the moderate plant density (3.0 plants m-2), there was a lower mean daily temperature (MDT, 27.1°C) attributing to medium daily minimum temperature (Tmin, 21.9°C) and the lowest daily maximum temperature (Tmax, 35.8°C), a moderate mean canopy light transmittance of 0.51, and lower mean daily relative humidity (MRH) of 79.7%from June to October. The results suggest that 3.0 plants m-2 would be the optimal plant density because it provides a better canopy micro environment.

  2. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  3. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  4. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh K. Singh; N. Rai; Major Singh; S. N. Singh; K. Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line × tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC × EC-520061 and PBC × EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits.

  5. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss.

  6. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-09

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  7. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  8. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) for regional yield trials: a comparison to additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepho, H P

    1994-11-01

    Multilocation trials are often used to analyse the adaptability of genotypes in different environments and to find for each environment the genotype that is best adapted; i.e. that is highest yielding in that environment. For this purpose, it is of interest to obtain a reliable estimate of the mean yield of a cultivar in a given environment. This article compares two different statistical estimation procedures for this task: the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). A modification of a cross validation procedure commonly used with AMMI is suggested for trials that are laid out as a randomized complete block design. The use of these procedure is exemplified using five faba bean datasets from German registration trails. BLUP was found to outperform AMMI in four of five faba bean datasets.

  9. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  10. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  11. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Lambrechts, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service.

  12. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic

  13. Evaluation of quantitative relationships between saffron yield and nutrition (on farm trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ali behdani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to relate production of saffron and utilization of nutrients, a study was conducted in 2001 and 2002. Four selected locations for this study were Birjand, Gonabad, Qaen and Torbat-Haydariah, which are the main saffron production centers in Iran. This study was performed in 160 saffron farms, aged between 1 and 5 years. Manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers showed a positive linear relation with yield and length of flowering, while nitrogen and phosphorous showed a negative linear relation with start of flowering period. Yield of saffron showed a significant and positive correlation with the amount of applied manure and the saffron farms with age 4-5 year had highest yield. Our results showed that manure was the most effective factor in production of saffron. The beneficial effects of manure could be due to slow release of nutrients and enhancing soil physical properties. Stepwise regression analysis of yield and fertilizer application showed that 67 percent of yield variations was attributed to manure and phosphorous application.

  14. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro(®) Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm(2). Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro(®) Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence

  15. Hybrid approaches to clinical trial monitoring: Practical alternatives to 100% source data verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, a vast majority of clinical trial industry has followed the tenet of 100% source data verification (SDV. This has been driven partly by the overcautious approach to linking quality of data to the extent of monitoring and SDV and partly by being on the safer side of regulations. The regulations however, do not state any upper or lower limits of SDV. What it expects from researchers and the sponsors is methodologies which ensure data quality. How the industry does it is open to innovation and application of statistical methods, targeted and remote monitoring, real time reporting, adaptive monitoring schedules, etc. In short, hybrid approaches to monitoring. Coupled with concepts of optimum monitoring and SDV at site and off-site monitoring techniques, it should be possible to save time required to conduct SDV leading to more available time for other productive activities. Organizations stand to gain directly or indirectly from such savings, whether by diverting the funds back to the R&D pipeline; investing more in technology infrastructure to support large trials; or simply increasing sample size of trials. Whether it also affects the work-life balance of monitors who may then need to travel with a less hectic schedule for the same level of quality and productivity can be predicted only when there is more evidence from field.

  16. Simulating clinical trial visits yields patient insights into study design and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim SS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available S Sam Lim,1 Alan J Kivitz,2 Doug McKinnell,3 M Edward Pierson,4 Faye S O’Brien4 1Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Altoona, PA, USA; 3Deloitte Life Sciences Advisory, Basel, Switzerland; 4Clinical Operations, Global Medicines Development, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: We elicited patient experiences from clinical trial simulations to aid in future trial development and to improve patient recruitment and retention.Patients and methods: Two simulations of draft Phase II and Phase III anifrolumab studies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE/lupus nephritis (LN were performed involving African-American patients from Grady Hospital, an indigent care hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA, and white patients from Altoona Arthritis and Osteoporosis Center in Altoona, PA, USA. The clinical trial simulation included an informed consent procedure, a mock screening visit, a mock dosing visit, and a debriefing period for patients and staff. Patients and staff were interviewed to obtain sentiments and perceptions related to the simulated visits.Results: The Atlanta study involved 6 African-American patients (5 female aged 27–60 years with moderate to severe SLE/LN. The Altoona study involved 12 white females aged 32–75 years with mild to moderate SLE/LN. Patient experiences had an impact on four patient-centric care domains: 1 information, communication, and education; 2 responsiveness to needs; 3 access to care; and 4 coordination of care; and continuity and transition. Patients in both studies desired background material, knowledgeable staff, family and friend support, personal results, comfortable settings, shorter wait times, and greater scheduling flexibility. Compared with the Altoona study patients, Atlanta study patients reported greater preferences for information from the Internet, need for strong community and online support, difficulties in

  17. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    in reported grain yields, (2) diversity in disease resistance, and (3) diversity in weed suppressiveness, all among component varieties. Relative mixing effect was also found to increase significantly with the effective number of component varieties. The effects of the latter two differed significantly...

  18. 美国高产优质青贮玉米杂交种的选育%Breeding Maize Hybrids for High Silage Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-wei; 徐国良; 李淑华; XUE Yin-gen; 才卓

    2011-01-01

    总结粮饲兼用型、多叶型和棕色中脉型3种类型青贮玉米杂交种的特点.介绍青贮玉米产量和饲料营养价值的评价指标和方法,比较不同类型的青贮玉米种质资源的饲料营养价值和目前美国市场上最新的青贮玉米杂交种的农艺性状和品质性状.2010年美国德克萨斯州青贮玉米区域参试杂交种生物产量和干物质产量分别达78 210 kg/hm2和27 370 kg/hm2,淀粉含量平均为40.9%,中性洗涤纤维平均36.4%,总可消耗营养平均为75%.%Maize silage is an important source of forage. Superior hybrids should yield well, have high silage quality, and be adapted to local environments. Dual-type hybrids can be used for grain and silage production. They are usually taller and later in maturity and have a higher percentage of tropical germplasm than the typical temperate grain hybrids. Leafy hybrids have 9-12 leaves above the top ear due to a dominant gene(Lfyl). They usually have tall flexible stalks, thinner stalk rinds, wider leaves, soft and white cobs, and softer kernels. Silage-specific brown midrib hybrids have higher silage digestibility. Breeding for brown midrib hybrids takes more efforts because brown midrib trait is recessive and the two parent lines must be homozygous for a particular recessive gene. In 2010, the Texas state silage maize performance tests involved 28 hybrids at Halfway and 33 hybrids at Etter. The top yielding hybrid produced 78 210 kg/ha of silage yield and 27 370 kg/ha of dry matter. Silage quality was assayed with the NIR method. The tested hybrids had, on average based on the dry matter, 40.9% starch, 36.4% NDF, and 75% TDN.

  19. EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TRANSPLANTED HYBRID RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYEES A. SHAH* SANDEEP KUMAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The integrated use of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients can help in sustainable and environmentally sound nutrient management of soils that are low in organic matter. A study was conducted  during 2009- 10 & 2010-11, on sandy loam soils, low in organic carbon, medium in available phosphorus and potash with pH of 7.5 at Agricultural Research Farm of C.C.R.(P.G. College, Muzaffarnagar U.P. India, to investigate the comparative use of  integrated nutrient management on vegetative growth and yield of hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out with fifteen treatments in a RBD. The treatments were; Control (T1, NPK 100% RDF (T2, NPK 75% RDF (T3, NPK 50% RDF + FYM @ 10 tons  ha-1 (T4, NPK 50% RDF + FYM @15 tons ha-1 (T5, NPK 50% RDF + wheat cut straw @10 tons ha-1 (T6, NPK 50% RDF + wheat cut straw @15 tons ha-1 (T7, NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 2.5 tones ha-1 (T8, NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 5 tones ha-1 (T9, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tons ha-1 (T10, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tons ha-1 +Azotobacter (T11, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tones ha-1 +PSB @ 5Kg ha-1 (T12, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tones ha-1 + Azospirillum (T13, NPK 50% RDF  + Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB @ 5 Kg ha-1(T14, and NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 2.5 tones ha-1 +FYM @5 tons  ha-1 + Azotobacter+PSB @ 5Kg ha-1 (T15. The maximum grain yield (63 and 67 q per hectare during 2009 and 2010, respectively was obtained with the integration of NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @2.5 tonnes ha-1 + FYM @5 tonnes ha-1+Azotobacter+PSB @ 5kg ha-1.

  20. Embryonic stem cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype provide high yield of chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, A A; Kizilova, E A; Zhelezova, A I; Gridina, M M; Golubitsa, A N; Serov, O L

    2008-12-01

    Ten primary clones of hybrid cells were produced by the fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells, viz., line E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 marked by green fluorescent protein (GFP), with diploid embryonic or adult fibroblasts derived from DD/c mice. All the hybrid clones had many characteristics similar to those of ES cells and were positive for GFP. Five hybrid clones having ploidy close to tetraploidy (over 80% of cells had 76-80 chromosomes) were chosen for the generation of chimeras via injection into C57BL blastocysts. These hybrid clones also contained microsatellites marking all ES cell and fibroblast chromosomes judging from microsatellite analysis. Twenty chimeric embryos at 11-13 days post-conception were obtained after injection of hybrid cells derived from two of three clones. Many embryos showed a high content of GFP-positive descendents of the tested hybrid cells. Twenty one adult chimeras were generated by the injection of hybrid cells derived from three clones. The contribution of GFP-labeled hybrid cells was significant and comparable with that of diploid E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 cells. Cytogenetic and microsatellite analyses of cell cultures derived from chimeric embryos or adults indicated that the initial karyotype of the tested hybrid cells remained stable during the development of the chimeras, i.e., the hybrid cells were mainly responsible for the generation of the chimeras. Thus, ES cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype are able to generate chimeras at a high rate, and many adult chimeras contain a high percentage of descendants of the hybrid cells.

  1. Acetylene bridged porphyrin-monophthalocyaninato ytterbium(III) hybrids with strong two-photon absorption and high singlet oxygen quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hanzhong; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Hou, Anxin; Kwong, Daniel W J; Wong, Wai-Kwok

    2012-04-21

    Several acetylene bridged porphyrin-monophthalocyaninato ytterbium(III) hybrids, PZn-PcYb, PH(2)-PcYb and PPd-PcYb, have been prepared and characterized by (1)H and (31)P NMR, mass spectrometry, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Their photophysical and photochemical properties, especially the relative singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quantum yields and the two-photon absorption cross-section (σ(2)), were investigated. These three newly synthesized compounds exhibited very large σ(2) values and substantial (1)O(2) quantum yields upon photo-excitation, making them potential candidates as one- and two-photon photodynamic therapeutic agents.

  2. Performance of pearl millet hybrids under arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Manga, and Arun Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen male-sterile lines of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. found promising at CAZRI, Jodhpur were crossed with nine diverse restorers from different sources in this region, in a line x tester fashion to develop 144 hybrid combinations, with the objective to identify suitable A lines, R lines and hybrid combinations for arid Rajasthan. These hybrids were evaluated at three different locations in western Rajasthan (Tinwari, Pali and Jodhpur during the rainy season of 2003. Eighteen promising hybrids based upon their performance over locations during 2003, were again evaluated in larger plots during the rainy season of 2004. Considering grain yield over all the five locations during the two seasons 2003 and 2004, ten high yielding hybrids were identified. Among these hybrids grain yield ranged from 1932 kg/ha to 2293 kg/ha, and flowering time from 43 to 48 days. The highest yielding hybrid was ICMA 96111 x RIB-3135-18 followed by ICMA 98333 x RIB-3135-18, ICMA 98222 x CZI 9621, ICMA 98004 x RIB-3135-18, ICMA 97555 x RIB-3135-18 and ICMA 95555 x H 77/833-2. It was observed that the restorer lines RIB-3135-18, CZI 9621, H77/833-2, CZI 1676-2, MIR 97171 and ICMR 356 gave high yielding hybrids. Similarly male sterile lines, ICMA 98222, ICMA 97555 and ICMA 98004 were involved in promising hybrid combinations. The hybrid ICMA 98222 x CZI 9621, which was one of the top five high yielding hybrids, ranked first in a multilocation trial conducted during the rainy season of 2005, at Jodhpur, Bawal, Durgapura and Bikaner, representing extreme arid conditions. This hybrid again recorded 12.8% and 6.6% higher grain yield over national checks GHB 538 and ICMH 356 respectively in Initial hybrid trial 2007, and was promoted to the Advance Hybrid and Population Trial for Kharif 2008.

  3. Relationship Between F1, F2 Hybrid Yield, Heterosis and Genetic Distance Measured by Molecular Markers and Parent Performance in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yao-ting; ZHANG Tian-zhen; ZHU Xie-fei; WANG Guang-ming

    2002-01-01

    Genetic distance among 36 cotton cultivars measured by molecular markers of RAPDs, ISSRs,and SSRs was from 0.0701 to 0.4255 with the mean of 0.2844, and from 2.18 to 12.60 with the mean of 7.04 based on the genotype performance in two-year field experiments, which has a significant positive correlation (r = 0.3350). The correlative coefficients for boll number per plant, boll weight, yield per plant, lint percent and lint yield per plant were 0. 8035,0. 8877,0. 7135,0. 9640 and 0. 8956 between F1 and F2 hybrid performance assessed by three-environment field experiments, respectively. The mean of F1 and F2 hybrid heterosis of yield per plant and lint yield per plant were 13.62%, 16.31%, 7.90% and 9.02%, and the correlative coefficients between them were 0.3689 and 0.3787, respectively. The correlation between the genetic distance and heterosis was low, and influenced directly by the selected parents.

  4. Evaluation on the High Yielding, Stability and Comprehensive Performances of Check Cultivars in National Cotton Regional Trials in the Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiqiao JIN; Naiyin XU

    2014-01-01

    Objective] This study was to analyze the high yielding, stability, adaptabil-ity and main characteristics of check cultivars in national cotton regional trials in the Yangtze River Val ey in 2000-2013, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable selection of check cultivars for cotton regional trials. [Method] GGE biplot analysis method was used to carry out the intensive analysis and comprehensive comparisons on the performances and differences of the 9 major characters of check cultivars, namely, lint cotton yield , stability, and other main traits including bol weight, bol number, lint percentage, fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire val-ue, plant height and seed index. [Result] Ezamian 10 was suitable in the majority of cotton planting regions in the Yangtze River Val ey, with the best high yielding abili-ty and perfect yield stability. The yielding ability of Xiangzamian 8 ranked the sec-ond, but its stability was the poorest. Xiangzamian 8 was of the specific adaptive cultivar with relatively good performance in high yielding but the poorest stability. The suitable planting areas of Xiangzamian 8 were limited to the cotton planting re-gion around Dongting Lake in Hunan province, Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, the Coastal region in Jiangsu Province and Wuhan district in Hubei Province. Xi-angzamian 2 performanced poorer in both yielding and stability, while Simian 3 ranked first in stability but the last in yielding ability. The dominant character of Xi-angzamian 8 and Xiangzamian 2 were high cotton plants and big bol s. Simian 3 performanced super in lint percentage and fiber length. Ezamian 10 was strong in cotton bol formation ability, lint cotton yielding, fiber strength and seed size, as wel as high micronaire value. [Conclusion] The outstanding performance of Ezamian 10 in high and stable yield in the Yangtze River Val ey in recent years has effectively promoted the high yielding ability of candidate varieties in cotton regional

  5. Improvement of Yield and Its Related Traits for Backbone Hybrid Rice Parent Minghui 86 Using Advanced Backcross Breeding Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-jun; LI Zhi-kang; WANG Hui; YE Guo-you; QIAN Yi-liang; SHI Ying-yao; XIA Jia-fa; LI Ze-fu; ZHU Ling-hua; GAO Yong-ming

    2013-01-01

    How to overcome yield stagnation is a big challenge to rice breeders. An effective method for quickly developing new cultivars is to further improve an outstanding cultivar. In this study, three advanced backcross populations under yield selection that consist of 123 BC2F2:4 introgression lines (ILs) were developed by crossing Minghui 86 (recurrent parent, RP) with three high-yielding varieties (donors), namely, ZDZ057, Fuhui 838, and Teqing, respectively. The progeny testing allowed the identification of 12 promising ILs that had significantly higher mean grain yields than Minghui 86 in two environments. A total of 55 QTLs that affect grain yield and its related traits were identified, which included 50 QTLs that were detected using the likelihood ratio test based on stepwise regression (RSTEP-LRT) method, and eight grain yield per plant (GY) QTLs were detected using chi-squared (c2) test. Among these QTLs, five QTLs were simultaneously detected in different populations and 22 QTLs were detected in both environments. The beneficial donor alleles for increased GY and its related traits were identified in 63.6%(35 out of 55) of the QTLs. These promising ILs and QTLs identified will provide the elite breeding materials and genetic information for further improvement of the grain yield for Minghui 86 through pyramiding breeding.

  6. Mass preparation of primary porcine hepatocytes and the design of a hybrid artificial liver module using spheroid culture for a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, J; Sakiyama, R; Nakazawa, K; Ijima, H; Yamashita, Y; Shimada, M; Shirabe, K; Tsujita, E; Sugimachi, K; Funatsu, K

    2001-11-01

    To isolate a large number of porcine hepatocytes, we originally developed a mass preparation method that combined the usual collagenase perfusion method of a whole liver with a collagenase redigestion method of tissue fragments after liver perfusion. Using a pig of 10kg, collagenase perfusion only resulted in a yield of 63+/-78 x 10(8) total cells with a viability of 69.2+/-25.3 %, but our combined method had a yield of 167+/-31 x 10(8) total cells with a viability of 87.9+/-4.4% (mean +/- SD). Also, the combined method was applied to two pigs of 10kg body weight at the same time, and isolated 387+/-89 x 10(8) hepatocytes with a viability of 87.1+/-6.9% and a purity of 93.6+/-2.8 % in 11 experiments. We designed a large multi-capillary polyurethane foam (MC-PUF) packed-bed module containing 1 x 10(10) porcine hepatocytes on a clinical trial scale. The porcine hepatocytes in the module formed spherical multicellular aggregates (spheroids) of 200 - 500 microm diameter. Most hepatocytes forming spheroids were viable judged by fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide staining. The activities of ammonia removal, albumin secretion and oxygen consumption of the large MC-PUF module were the same as for a small MC-PUF module containing 2 x 10(8) porcine hepatocytes, and were maintained for at least 9 days of culture. These results show that a large MC-PUF module is successfully scaled up 50 times. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing a mass preparation method of porcine hepatocytes and a large hybrid artificial liver module on a clinical trial scale.

  7. Analysis of High Yield and Efficiency Technique in Hybrid Rice Zhongzheyou No.1%杂交水稻中浙优1号高产高效技术途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟明

    2009-01-01

    To understand the high yield and efficiency technique in hybrid rice Zhongzheyou No.1, we conducted the correlation analysis, regression analysis and path analysis of hybrid rice Zhongzheyou No.1 based on the data of its ear, grain and weight at different yield levels. From this study, we put forward the high yield and efficiency technique in Zhongzheyou No.1: on the basis of certain effective ear number, filled grains per ear should be mainly targeted with a consideration to 1 000-grain weight.

  8. Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ranjana

    2003-01-01

    A silvi-herbal trial was conducted in the hot arid region of India to study the performance of a shrub (Cassia angustifolia) in combination with different tree species. The study area was frequented by frost. Leaf yield of C. angustifolia under different treatments was estimated. It was found that the shrubs produced a significantly higher yield of leaves in the vicinity of the tree species as compared to the shrubs at a far distance from the trees. This was perhaps because of more protection of crops near the canopy of the plants during frosts. The yield was not much affected by the variation of tree species indicating that the effect of tree-shrub combination was not profound. C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income.

  9. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Conditioning the Main Biomass Yield Components and Resistance to Melampsora spp. in Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sulima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new opportunities for improving willow yield parameters through selection of desirable recombinants supported with molecular markers. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs linked with biomass yield-related traits and the resistance/susceptibility of Salix mapping population to leaf rust. The experimental material comprised a mapping population developed based on S. viminalis × S. schwerinii hybrids. Phenotyping was performed on plants grown in a field experiment that had a balanced incomplete block design with 10 replications. Based on a genetic map, 11 QTLs were identified for plant height, 9 for shoot diameter, 3 for number of shoots and 11 for resistance/susceptibility to leaf rust. The QTLs identified in our study explained 3%–16% of variability in the analyzed traits. Our findings make significant contributions to the development of willow breeding programs and research into shrubby willow crops grown for energy.

  10. Comparison Between 10- and 14-Day Hybrid Regimens for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metanat, Hassan Ali; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Fakheri, Hafez; Maleki, Iradj; Taghvaei, Tarang; Hosseini, Vahid; Bari, Zohreh

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has always been a concern. In our previous study, 14-day hybrid regimen showed ideal results. Based on these findings, we decided to compare the efficacy of 10- and 14-day hybrid regimens for H. pylori eradication. Two hundred and seventy patients with peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori infection were enrolled in the study. One hundred and thirty-four patients received 10-day hybrid regimen (PACT-10): pantoprazole, 40 mg, and amoxicillin, 1 g, both twice daily for 10 days; plus clarithromycin, 500 mg, and tinidazole, 500 mg, both twice daily just during the last 5 days. One hundred and thirty-six patients received 14-day hybrid regimen (PACT-14): pantoprazole, 40 mg, and amoxicillin, 1 g, both twice a day for 14 days; plus clarithromycin, 500 mg, and tinidazole, 500 mg, both twice daily just for the last 7 days. Eight weeks after treatment, (14) C-urea breath test was performed to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Two hundred and fifty patients (124 patients in PACT-10 and 126 patients in PACT-14 regimens) completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rates were 77.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70.6-84.6%) and 86% (95% CI: 80-92%) for the two regimens, respectively (p = .17). Per-protocol eradication rates were 83.8% (95% CI: 80-86%) and 92.8% (95% CI: 88-96%), respectively (p pylori eradication in Iran. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Patient-Reported Outcomes From the United States Clinical Trial for a Hybrid Cochlear Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, David C; Arnold, Renée J G; Lionnet, Leonard

    2017-10-01

    To assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in individuals with significant residual low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) who received the hybrid cochlear implant (CI). Prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, single-arm repeated measures, single-subject design. Tertiary centers, ambulatory care. Fifty adults with severe-to-profound high-frequency SNHL and residual low-frequency hearing with aided word recognition scores between 10 and 60% in the ear to be implanted, and in the contralateral ear greater than or equal to implant ear less than or equal to 80%. Therapeutic; hybrid CI. Speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale (SSQ), device use questionnaire (DUQ), University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (UW-CAMP) assessed preoperatively and after 6 and 12 (SSQ and DUQ only) months of hybrid CI use. Significant improvements in mean SSQ ratings were demonstrated at 6 and 12 months postactivation overall and for domains related to speech hearing, spatial hearing, and sound quality. Significant improvement was also found for overall satisfaction on the DUQ and across a number of specific listening situations in addition to aspects related to social engagement. UW-CAMP pitch discrimination and melody and timbre recognition abilities were not compromised postoperatively, allowing hybrid subjects to maintain superior music perception abilities than typically observed with standard CIs. Patients who received the hybrid CI demonstrated significant PRO benefits on the SSQ and the DUQ after 6 and 12 months of CI use. In addition, given the opportunity to maintain useful low-frequency acoustic hearing, patients retained music listening abilities, as assessed by the UW-CAMP.

  12. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Characteristics in Relation to Lint Yield Among F1 Hybrids, Their F2 Descendants and Parental Lines of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Guo-yi; GAN Xiu-xia; YAO Yan-di; LUO Hong-hai; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    We compared the photosynthetic characteristics in relation to yield of two F1 cotton hybrids (Shiza 2-F1 and Xinluzao 43-F1), their parental lines (NT2, H2 and 4-14) and their F2 descendants at different growth and development stages. The two F1 exhibited heterobeltiosis in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 8.1-52.1%, canopy apparent photosynthetic rate (CAP) by 8.2-57.6% and canopy respiration rate (CR) by 3.0-78.7% during the growing season. They also exhibited mid-parent heterosis by 2.0-5.2% in leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD) during the late growth and development stages. Regression analysis showed that both parents contributed to increase in Pn, SPAD and CAP in the F1. A low CR in the F1 matched a low CR of the parental line. Photosynthetic characteristics in the F2 were mainly dependent upon the magnitude and degeneration rate of the F1. Mid-parent heterosis in CAP and in CR during the late growth and development stage reduced the degeneration of the F2. Average dry matter accumulation was 10.7-34.7% higher in the parental lines of Xinluzao 43-F1 than in the parental lines of Shiza 2-F1. Heterobeltiosis in dry matter accumulation was 7.0-23.1% greater for Xinluzao 43-F1 than for Shiza 2-F1. Dry matter accumulation in the F1 was affected by either the dry matter accumulation of parents or heterobeltiosis. Dry matter accumulation in the F2 was mainly inlfuenced by dry matter accumulation in the F1. The yields of the two F1 were 39.1-46.3% higher than their respective parents and 26.4-45.9% higher than that of the conventional cultivar Xinluzao 33. The yields of the two F2 were 9.2-12.8% higher than the parents and 14.9-27.4% higher than that of Xinluzao 33. The photosynthetic production and yield of the F1 and F2were higher than that of their parents. The increases in Pn and CAP of the F1 and F2 were dependent on the photosynthetic characteristics of their parents. It is thus concluded that the photosynthetic performance, light use efifciency and yield of the F1

  13. Prediction of Maize Single Cross Hybrids Using the Total Effects of Associated Markers Approach Assessed by Cross-Validation and Regional Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Mateus Costa Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to predict the performance of maize hybrids and assess whether the total effects of associated markers (TEAM method can correctly predict hybrids using cross-validation and regional trials. The training was performed in 7 locations of Southern Brazil during the 2010/11 harvest. The regional assays were conducted in 6 different South Brazilian locations during the 2011/12 harvest. In the training trial, 51 lines from different backgrounds were used to create 58 single cross hybrids. Seventy-nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype these 51 lines. In the cross-validation method the predictive accuracy ranged from 0.10 to 0.96, depending on the sample size. Furthermore, the accuracy was 0.30 when the values of hybrids that were not used in the training population (119 were predicted for the regional assays. Regarding selective loss, the TEAM method correctly predicted 50% of the hybrids selected in the regional assays. There was also loss in only 33% of cases; that is, only 33% of the materials predicted to be good in training trial were considered to be bad in regional assays. Our results show that the predictive validation of different crop conditions is possible, and the cross-validation results strikingly represented the field performance.

  14. Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

  15. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  16. 掺混型缓/控释肥对杂交晚稻产量的影响%Effect of slow/controlled-release fertilizer on yield of late hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉军; 邹应斌; 张夫道

    2009-01-01

    Field experiment was trialed to study effect of slow/controlled-release fertilizer on yield of late hybrid rice and CK1 was no fertilizer and CK2 was same amount of NPK. The results showed that yields of slow/controlled-release fertilizer treatments were higher than NPK treatment Compared to NPK treatment, in Changsha normal fertility paddy soil, the effect was best for 35%polyethylene alcohol mixing for adhesive (CF2) felted fertilizer+65% wasted foam (PS) mixed and coated fertilizer (for short CF2 + PS) that increased yield by 27. 68% , and the second was 35% kaolin-polyesterfelted fertilizer + 65% PS coated fertilizer and yield increased by 24. 70%. In Ningxiang low fertility paddy soil, the effect was best for 35% kaolin-polyesterfelted fertilizer +65% PS coated fertilizer and yield increased by 37. 25% , effect of increasing yield for treatments in Ningxiang were better than that of treatments in Changsha. The lower fertility of soil and the higher of increasing rate of fertilizer. Compared to NPK treatment, yield was higher when amount of blend slow release fertilizer decreased by 20%. According to crop grow period, the effects of blending slow release fertilizer with different nutrient release period in some percentage were better.%采用田间小区试验,以不施肥(CK1)和施用等量NPK化肥(CK2)为对照,研究掺混型缓/控释肥对水稻产量的影响.结果表明,各缓释肥处理的产量均高于等量NPK处理.其中,在长沙点中肥力水稻土上,35%聚乙烯醇混聚物(CF2)胶结复混肥+65%废弃泡沫塑料(PS)混聚物包膜复混肥(简称CF2+PS)效果最好,比等量NPK处理增产27.68%,其次是35%高岭土-聚酯胶结肥+65%PS包膜肥,比等量NPK处理增产24.70%;在宁乡点低肥力水稻土上,35%高岭土-聚酯胶结肥+65%PS包膜肥处理效果最好,比等量NPK处理增产37.25%;宁乡试验点各施肥处理的增产效果均高于长沙点,说明土壤肥力越低,肥料的增产率越高;减少20%掺

  17. Comparative trials on hybrid walking systems for people with paraplegia: An analysis of study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, M.J.; Baardman, G.; Hermens, H.J.; Veltink, P.H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new orthosis (SEPRIX) which combines user friendliness with low energy cost of walking has been developed and will be subject to a clinical comparison with conventional hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses. In designing such comparative trials it was considered it may be worthwhile to use previous clinica

  18. Interrupted time-series analysis yielded an effect estimate concordant with the cluster-randomized controlled trial result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretheim, Atle; Soumerai, Stephen B; Zhang, Fang; Oxman, Andrew D; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    We reanalyzed the data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial (C-RCT) of a quality improvement intervention for prescribing antihypertensive medication. Our objective was to estimate the effectiveness of the intervention using both interrupted time-series (ITS) and RCT methods, and to compare the findings. We first conducted an ITS analysis using data only from the intervention arm of the trial because our main objective was to compare the findings from an ITS analysis with the findings from the C-RCT. We used segmented regression methods to estimate changes in level or slope coincident with the intervention, controlling for baseline trend. We analyzed the C-RCT data using generalized estimating equations. Last, we estimated the intervention effect by including data from both study groups and by conducting a controlled ITS analysis of the difference between the slope and level changes in the intervention and control groups. The estimates of absolute change resulting from the intervention were ITS analysis, 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.5, 13.5); C-RCT, 9.0% (95% CI: 4.9, 13.1); and the controlled ITS analysis, 14.0% (95% CI: 8.6, 19.4). ITS analysis can provide an effect estimate that is concordant with the results of a cluster-randomized trial. A broader range of comparisons from other RCTs would help to determine whether these are generalizable results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reanalyses of the historical series of UK variety trials to quantify the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to trends and variability in yield over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I; Horwell, A; Garner, J; White, J; McKee, J; Philpott, H

    2011-01-01

    Historical datasets have much to offer. We analyse data from winter wheat, spring and winter barley, oil seed rape, sugar beet and forage maize from the UK National List and Recommended List trials over the period 1948-2007. We find that since 1982, for the cereal crops and oil seed rape, at least 88% of the improvement in yield is attributable to genetic improvement, with little evidence that changes in agronomy have improved yields. In contrast, in the same time period, plant breeding and changes in agronomy have contributed almost equally to increased yields of forage maize and sugar beet. For the cereals prior to 1982, contributions from plant breeding were 42, 60 and 86% for winter barley, winter wheat and spring barley, respectively. These results demonstrate the overwhelming importance of plant breeding in increasing crop productivity in the UK. Winter wheat data are analysed in more detail to exemplify the use of historical data series to study and detect disease resistance breakdown, sensitivity of varieties to climatic factors, and also to test methods of genomic selection. We show that breakdown of disease resistance can cause biased estimates of variety and year effects, but that comparison of results between fungicide treated and untreated trials over years may be a means to screen for durable resistance. We find the greatest sensitivities of the winter wheat germplasm to seasonal differences in rainfall and temperature are to summer rainfall and winter temperature. Finally, for genomic selection, correlations between observed and predicted yield ranged from 0.17 to 0.83. The high correlation resulted from markers predicting kinship amongst lines rather than tagging multiple QTL. We believe the full value of these data will come from exploiting links with other experiments and experimental populations. However, not to exploit such valuable historical datasets is wasteful.

  20. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  1. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  2. Genotype-environment interaction and analysis of yield stability in trial with tomato crop in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Boicet Fabre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha -1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha -1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the randomized prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial: added yield from a second screening examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissfeld, Joel L; Schoen, Robert E; Pinsky, Paul F; Bresalier, Robert S; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Church, Timothy; Yokochi, Lance A; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Rathmell, Joshua; Andriole, Gerald L; Buys, Saundra; Crawford, E David; Fouad, Mona; Isaacs, Claudine; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas; Prorok, Philip C; Berg, Christine D

    2012-02-22

    Among randomized trials evaluating flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) for its effect on colorectal cancer mortality, only the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial screened its participants more than one time. We report outcomes from the PLCO screening FSG program and evaluate the increased yield produced by a second FSG. Participants were screened by 60-cm FSG in 10 regional screening centers at study entry and 3 or 5 years later, depending on the time of random assignment. Results from subsequent diagnostic intervention were tracked and recorded in a standardized fashion, and outcomes were compared according to sex and age. The protocol discouraged repeat FSG in persons with colorectal cancer or adenoma diagnosed after the initial FSG. Of 77 447 enrollees, 67 073 (86.6%) had at least one FSG and 39 443 (50.9%) had two FSGs. Diagnostic intervention occurred in 74.9% after a positive first FSG and in 78.7% after a positive repeat FSG. The second FSG increased the screening yield by 32%: Colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma was detected in 37.8 per 1000 persons after first screening and in 49.8 per 1000 persons after all screenings. The second FSG increased the yield of cancer or advanced adenoma by 26% in women and by 34% in men. Of 223 subjects who received a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma within 1 year of a positive FSG, 64.6% had stage I and 17.5% had stage II disease. Repeat FSG increased the detection of colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma in women by one-fourth and in men by one-third. Screen-detected carcinomas were early stage (stage I or II) in greater than 80% of screened persons. Colorectal cancer mortality data from the PLCO, as the definitive endpoint, will follow in later publications.

  4. A randomized hybrid efficacy and effectiveness trial of behavioral activation for Latinos with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Santos, María M; Nagy, Gabriela; López, Marisela; Hurtado, Gabriela Diéguez; West, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Depression presents a significant public health burden for Latinos, the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the United States. The current study performed a randomized controlled trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) for Latinos (BAL, n=21), with relatively minor modifications, compared to treatment as usual (TAU, n=22) in a community mental health clinic setting with a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos. TAU was a strong comparison condition, taking place at the same clinic, under the same guidelines and clinic protocols, with similar levels of ongoing consultation, and using the same pool of therapists as BAL. Results indicated that BAL performed well with respect to treatment engagement and retention. Regarding acute treatment outcomes, an interaction emerged between number of sessions attended and condition. Specifically, only BAL clients who were engaged in treatment and attended more sessions demonstrated significant reductions in depression and improvements in quality of life and mental health functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the balance of efficacy and effectiveness issues addressed in this trial.

  5. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  6. Densidade, teor de óleo e produtividade de grãos em híbridos de milho Kernell density, oil content and yield of maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson Pereira Duarte

    2008-01-01

    ém com valores discrepantes e extremos de óleo dentro dos grupos de menor e maior densidade.There is a great variability of kernel density among corn cultivars in the Brazilian market, but little is known regarding their oil content. The objectives of this study were to assess the oil kernel variability of a wide range of maize hybrids and to verify if there are correlations among kernel oil content, density and yield. Two trials were carried out in Assis and Adamantina (SP in the 2002/03 growing season. Thirty-nine single and three-way crosses hybrids were evaluated following a complete randomized block design. Ten ears per plot were half cut transversely for sampling kernels in the exposed line of rupture. Yield, kernel weight, percentage of floating kernels in sodium nitrate standard solution, test weight and kernel oil content by nuclear resonance spectrophotometer were evaluated. Data from each experiment were submitted to the analysis of variance by the F test and treatments were compared by Skott-Knott test (P<0.05. Pearson correlations between oil content and other parameters were calculated using SAS program. Oil contents ranged from 38 to 60 g kg-1. Test weight average was high (796 e 801 g L-1 due to the predominance of cultivars with flint appearance kernels. The correlations show that hybrids with more dense kernels tend to exhibit higher kernel oil content (r = 0,34 to 0,40, but three hybrids had less dense kernels and higher kernel oil content. The cultivars with highest yield had low oil content, however the correlation was low (r = -0,24. In conclusion, there is genetic variability regarding kernel oil content that is sufficient to separate groups of cultivars with low and high oil level. Oil content correlated positively with density, but within the lowest and the highest density groups there were extreme and discrepant values of oil content.

  7. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  8. Assessing fidelity of cognitive behavioral therapy in rural VA clinics: design of a randomized implementation effectiveness (hybrid type III) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Curran, Geoffrey M; Craske, Michelle G; Abraham, Traci; McCarthur, Michael B; Marchant-Miros, Kathy; Lindsay, Jan A; Kauth, Michael R; Landes, Sara J; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-05-10

    Broadly disseminating and implementing evidence-based psychotherapies with high fidelity, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), has proved challenging for many health-care systems, including the Department of Veterans Affairs, especially in primary care settings such as small or remote clinics. A computer-based tool (based on the coordinated anxiety learning and management (CALM) program) was designed to support primary care-based mental health providers in delivering CBT. The objectives of this study are to modify the CALM tool to meet the needs of mental health clinicians in veterans affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) and rural "veterans", use external facilitation to implement CBT and determine the effect of the CALM tool versus a manualized version of CALM to improve fidelity to the CBT treatment model, and conduct a needs assessment to understand how best to support future implementation of the CALM tool in routine care. Focus groups will inform the redesign of the CALM tool. Mental health providers at regional VA CBOCs; CBT experts; VA experts in implementation of evidence-based mental health practices; and veterans with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, "with or without" depression will be recruited. A hybrid type III design will be used to examine the effect of receiving CBT training plus either the CALM tool or a manual version of CALM on treatment fidelity. External facilitation will be used as the overarching strategy to implement both CBT delivery methods. Data will also be collected on symptoms of the targeted disorders. To help prepare for the future implementation of the CALM tool in VA CBOCs, we will perform an implementation need assessment with mental health providers participating in the clinical trial and their CBOC directors. This project will help inform strategies for delivering CBT with high fidelity in VA CBOCs to veterans with anxiety

  9. Research aimed at improving both mood and weight (RAINBOW) in primary care: A type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Yank, Veronica; Lv, Nan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Lewis, Megan A; Kramer, M Kaye; Snowden, Mark B; Rosas, Lisa G; Xiao, Lan; Blonstein, Andrea C

    2015-07-01

    Effective interventions targeting comorbid obesity and depression are critical given the increasing prevalence and worsened outcomes for patients with both conditions. RAINBOW is a type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness and implementation potential of an integrated, technology-enhanced, collaborative care model for treating comorbid obesity and depression in primary care. Obese and depressed adults (n = 404) will be randomized to usual care enhanced with the provision of a pedometer and information about the health system's services for mood or weight management (control) or with the Integrated Coaching for Better Mood and Weight (I-CARE) program (intervention). The 12-month I-CARE program synergistically integrates two proven behavioral interventions: problem-solving therapy with as-needed intensification of pharmacotherapy for depression (PEARLS) and standardized behavioral treatment for obesity (Group Lifestyle Balance(™)). It utilizes traditional (e.g., office visits and phone consults) and emerging care delivery modalities (e.g., patient web portal and mobile applications). Follow-up assessments will occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We hypothesize that compared with controls, I-CARE participants will have greater improvements in weight and depression severity measured by the 20-item Depression Symptom Checklist at 12 months, which will be sustained at 24 months. We will also assess I-CARE's cost-effectiveness and use mixed methods to examine its potential for reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. This study offers the potential to change how obese and depressed adults are treated-through a new model of accessible and integrative lifestyle medicine and mental health expertise-in primary care.

  10. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  11. Breeding and Application of New Tropical Hybrid Rice Combination SIRAJ with High Yield and Fine Quality%热带优质高产杂交水稻新组合SIRAJ的选育与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 陈俊兴; 李柄华; 唐奕; 刘家龙

    2012-01-01

    SIRAJ, derived from SIRAJ-A(CMS line) and SIRAJ-R(restorer line) , both of which are developed by the RB Biotech Sdn. Bhd. , Malaysia, is a new hybrid rice variety for tropical areas. It is characteristic of fine grain quality, high yield, strong disease resistance and suitable maturity for the tropics. In March, 2010, it was certified and released to commercial production in Malaysia and became the first hybrid rice variety registered local-ly in Malaysia. In the paper, the breeding procedure, main characteristics and techniques for high-yielding cultiva-tion and hybrid seed production of SIRAJ were related in detail.%SIRAJ是马来西亚RB Biotech Sdn.Bhd.用自育的三系不育系SIRAJ -A与恢复系SIRAJ -R配组育成的热带杂交水稻新组合,具有米质优、产量高、抗性较强、熟期适宜、适合热带栽培等特点,2010年3月通过马来西亚国家审定,为马来西亚第1个通过审定的杂交水稻组合.介绍了其选育过程、主要特征特性及栽培、制种技术要点.

  12. Cross-species bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening via overgo-based hybridization and BAC-contig mapping of a yield enhancement quantitative trait locus (QTL) yld1.1 in the Malaysian wild rice Oryza rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Romanov, Michael N; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2005-01-01

    The construction of BAC-contig physical maps is an important step towards a partial or ultimate genome sequence analysis. Here, we describe our initial efforts to apply an overgo approach to screen a BAC library of the Malaysian wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. Overgo design is based on repetitive element masking and sequence uniqueness, and uses short probes (approximately 40 bp), making this method highly efficient and specific. Pairs of 24-bp oligos that contain an 8-bp overlap were developed from the publicly available genomic sequences of the cultivated rice, O. sativa, to generate 20 overgo probes for a 1-Mb region that encompasses a yield enhancement QTL yld1.1 in O. rufipogon. The advantages of a high similarity in melting temperature, hybridization kinetics and specific activities of overgos further enabled a pooling strategy for library screening by filter hybridization. Two pools of ten overgos each were hybridized to high-density filters representing the O. rufipogon genomic BAC library. These screening tests succeeded in providing 69 PCR-verified positive hits from a total of 23,040 BAC clones of the entire O. rufipogon library. A minimal tilling path of clones was generated to contribute to a fully covered BAC-contig map of the targeted 1-Mb region. The developed protocol for overgo design based on O. sativa sequences as a comparative genomic framework, and the pooled overgo hybridization screening technique are suitable means for high-resolution physical mapping and the identification of BAC candidates for sequencing.

  13. Poda da haste principal e densidade de cultivo na produção e qualidade de frutos em híbridos de melão Pruning of main stem and plant density on yield and fruit quality of melon hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hevilásio F. Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos da poda da haste principal e da densidade de cultivo sobre a produção e a qualidade de dois híbridos de melão. Os trabalhos foram desenvolvidos na ESAM em Mossoró-RN, de 01/06 a 11/08/98. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, sendo um com e o outro sem poda da haste principal. Em cada um estudaram-se os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark e as densidades de cultivo de 20.000, 30.000, 40.000 e 50.000 plantas ha-1, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Houve interação significativa entre a poda da haste principal e os híbridos para massa média dos frutos, relação de formato e sólidos solúveis totais e entre a poda da haste principal e a densidade de cultivo para o número de frutos totais e não-comercializáveis. Os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark, quando submetidos à poda, foram mais produtivos apresentando, em média, 25,96 Mg ha-1 de frutos comercializáveis. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos diminuíram com o aumento da densidade de cultivo. O número de frutos totais e comercializáveis aumentaram em função da densidade de cultivo. O híbrido Orange Flesh, submetido à poda, apresentou a maior relação de formato, com índice de 1,09, enquanto o híbrido Hy Mark apresentou a menor, com índice de 1,04. O híbrido Hy Mark submetido à poda da haste principal apresentou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,99%.Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of pruning and planting density on yield and fruit quality of two melon hybrids. The work was done in Mossoró, Brazil, in the period of 06/01 to 08/11/98. The hybrids Orange flesh and Hy Mark were studied and the planting densities of 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 50,000 plants ha-1, in factorial outline 2 x 4. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. There was significant interaction among pruning and hybrid

  14. RECOMMEND OF HIGH-YIELDING HYBRID MILLET DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL ARID ZONE OF NINGXIA%宁夏中部干旱带发展高产杂交谷子产业的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力文; 刘静; 周斌; 刘维斌; 杨立文; 席国术

    2016-01-01

    Ningxia is a severe water scarcity province in China. Under the background of global warming, the drought on central arid zone has intensified, the contradiction between water supply and demand is increasingly prominent, and food production is low and long-term instability. Ecological migrants faced enormous pressure to get rid of poverty, and survival and development problems became prominent. Since 2010, Ningxia meteorological department successfully introduced a series of hybrid millet varieties in the central arid zone, carried out a large se-ries of hybrid millet experimental study, and promoted the planting areas to nearly 667hm2 . In this paper, under the very dry year of 2011 , the comparative cost-effectiveness and prospects of high-yielding hybrid millet with local mainly cultivars was analyzed. The results showed that the cultivation of hybrid millet can save water resources, re-sist heavy drought, and increase more than double yield comparing with the traditional local millet yields. Due to the high price of small grains, farmers' income was generally higher than that planting other crops. Based on the Zhang hybrid millet experiment and demonstration, combined with the distribution of agricultural climate resources, the Ningxia Zhang hybrid millet cultivated climatic suitability zoning map was obtained. Different areas suitable va-rieties for cultivation, methods and planting risks were analyzed. It recommended to actively and steadily develop hybrid millet cultivation in the central arid zone of Ningxia,strengthen hybrid millet yield cultivation and water-saving technology training, and establish millet cultivation-processing-marketing service system becoming a new way for the central arid zone farmers to get rich.%宁夏水资源严重匮乏,在全球气候变暖背景下,中部干旱带干旱有所加剧,水资源供需矛盾日益突出,粮食产量长期低而不稳,生态移民脱贫压力大,生存与发展问题突出.2010

  15. Aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de híbridos de melão cultivados no agropolo Mossoró-Assu Yield and quality aspects of melon hybrids grown in agropolo Mossoró-Assu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de S. Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e qualitativo de híbridos de melão no agropolo Mossoró-Assu. Em ambos os experimentos foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O primeiro experimento foi constituído de seis híbridos de melão Gália e dois do tipo Cantaloupe, e o segundo foi composto de sete híbridos de melão Amarelo, um Pele de sapo e três Orange Flesh. Avaliaram-se a produtividade, peso médio do fruto, cavidade interna, espessura da polpa, aparências externa e interna, perda de peso, teor de sólidos solúveis e firmeza da polpa. Considerando as variáveis utilizadas na avaliação, constatou-se variação entre os híbridos nos dois experimentos. Entre os melões Gália, destacaram-se os híbridos DRG 1531 e DRG 1537. Os melões Red Flesh e AFX 700 foram os mais promissores entre os melões do tipo Orange Flesh. Por fim, entre os melões do tipo Valenciano, destacaram-se os híbridos Gold Mine, Gold Pride e Gold Star.Two experiments were carried out with the objective of evaluating the quality and yield performance of hybrids of melon in agropolo Mossoró-Assu, Brazil. In both experiments a randomized complete blocks design with four replications was used. In the first experiment six Galia and two Cantaloupe hybrids were used and in the second experiment seven Yellow hybrids, one Piel del Sapo and three Orange Flesh hybrids were evaluated. Evaluations of productivity, average fruit weight, internal cavity, pulp thickness, external and internal appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids and pulp firmness were made. Variation among the hybrids in both experiments for the assessed characteristics were observed. Among Gália melons, the hybrids DRG 1531 and DRG 1537 were the most promising while among Orange Flesh melons, the Red Flesh and AFX 700 hybrids were the best. Among Yellow melons, the hybrids Gold Mine, Gold Pride and Gold Star were the

  16. 穗肥施氮量对抛栽杂交中稻抗倒伏性状和产量的影响%Effect of Amount of Panicle Fertilizer Application on Lodging Resistance and Yield of Hybrid Rice by Throwing Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段素梅; 杨安中; 黄义德; 沈树周

    2011-01-01

    采用大田随机区组设计研究了穗肥施氮量对徽两优2115抗倒伏性状及产量的影响.结果表明:穗肥氮肥用量对徽两优2115的株高、抗倒伏系数、产量因素及产量均有不同程度的影响.氮肥施用量以底肥(纯N)69 kg/hm.、蘖肥(纯N)69 kg/hm.、穗肥(纯N)138 kg/hm2的处理N4产量最高,较不施穗肥的对照No(ck)增产3 258.1 kg/hm2,增幅达40.7%,增产达极显著水平.%By methods of field trials and randomized blocks design, the influences of amount of panicle fertilizer application on lodging resistance and yield of hybrid rice‘ Huiliangyou 2115’ by throwing cultivation had been studied. The results indicated that amount of nitrogen fertilizer application had different effects on the plant height, the lodging resistance traits, the yield component and the production. The rice yield of N4 treatment was the highest. The yield increased by 3258.1 kg/hm2 compared with to the CK. The increase amplitude was 40.7% and reached the extreme significant level.

  17. Breeding and High-Yield Cultivation Technology of Good Quality Cross Combination Waxy Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonic)%优质粳型杂交糯稻新组合选育及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 邱美良; 郭萱昊; 殷丽青; 李茂柏; 卢有林; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    为了快速培育高产、优质、抗性强的杂交粳型糯稻新种质,选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯(HFwx),将其与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行育性转换,获得了粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯(HFwxA),并与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合(HFwxA/N2R).小区和示范试验结果表明,选育获得的杂交糯稻新组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点,具有生产应用前景.杂交糯稻新组合的生育特征特性和高产栽培技术的试验总结,对杂交糯稻的推广应用和产业化发展都具有十分重要的参考意义.%In order to quick breed a new high yield,high quality and strong resistance hybrid glutinous rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic) ,japonica rice (HFwxB) with good comprehensive agronomic was obtained and translated into HFwxA by using it's the same type of CMS (HFA), a new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm was gotten and named Nuoza 2 (HFwxA/N2R). The small field test and demonstration trials indicated that the new combination of Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic was high-yield, good quality and strong resistance, which could be applied and extended. The high-yield cultivation techniques and breeding characters of the hybrid new combination are very useful for its application and industrialization development.

  18. Selection of the treatment effect for sample size determination in a superiority clinical trial using a hybrid classical and Bayesian procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Maria M; Arendt, Christopher D; Makuch, Robert W; Peduzzi, Peter N

    2015-03-01

    Specification of the treatment effect that a clinical trial is designed to detect (θA) plays a critical role in sample size and power calculations. However, no formal method exists for using prior information to guide the choice of θA. This paper presents a hybrid classical and Bayesian procedure for choosing an estimate of the treatment effect to be detected in a clinical trial that formally integrates prior information into this aspect of trial design. The value of θA is found that equates the pre-specified frequentist power and the conditional expected power of the trial. The conditional expected power averages the traditional frequentist power curve using the conditional prior distribution of the true unknown treatment effect θ as the averaging weight. The Bayesian prior distribution summarizes current knowledge of both the magnitude of the treatment effect and the strength of the prior information through the assumed spread of the distribution. By using a hybrid classical and Bayesian approach, we are able to formally integrate prior information on the uncertainty and variability of the treatment effect into the design of the study, mitigating the risk that the power calculation will be overly optimistic while maintaining a frequentist framework for the final analysis. The value of θA found using this method may be written as a function of the prior mean μ0 and standard deviation τ0, with a unique relationship for a given ratio of μ0/τ0. Results are presented for Normal, Uniform, and Gamma priors for θ.

  19. COSMOS--improving the quality of life in nursing home patients: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical hybrid trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebo, Bettina S; Flo, Elisabeth; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Testad, Ingelin; Gulla, Christine; Aasmul, Irene; Ballard, Clive

    2015-09-15

    Nursing home patients have complex mental and physical health problems, disabilities and social needs, combined with widespread prescription of psychotropic drugs. Preservation of their quality of life is an important goal. This can only be achieved within nursing homes that offer competent clinical conditions of treatment and care. COmmunication, Systematic assessment and treatment of pain, Medication review, Occupational therapy, Safety (COSMOS) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial that combines and implements organization of activities evidence-based interventions to improve staff competence and thereby the patients' quality of life, mental health and safety. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, content and implementation process of the COSMOS trial. COSMOS includes a 2-month pilot study with 128 participants distributed among nine Norwegian nursing homes, and a 4-month multicenter, cluster randomized effectiveness-implementation clinical hybrid trial with follow-up at month 9, including 571 patients from 67 nursing home units (one unit defined as one cluster). Clusters are randomized to COSMOS intervention or current best practice (control group). The intervention group will receive a 2-day education program including written guidelines, repeated theoretical and practical training (credited education of caregivers, physicians and nursing home managers), case discussions and role play. The 1-day midway evaluation, information and interviews of nursing staff and a telephone hotline all support the implementation process. Outcome measures include quality of life in late-stage dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, pain, depression, sleep, medication, cost-utility analysis, hospital admission and mortality. Despite complex medical and psychosocial challenges, nursing home patients are often treated by staff possessing low level skills, lacking education and in facilities with a high staff turnover

  20. Rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho em duas densidades de plantas com e sem a retirada dos perfilhos Grain yield of maize hybrids at two plant densities with and without tillers removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2009-04-01

    seasons. Three hybrids were tested: AS 1560, Penta and P30F53. Each hybrid was evaluated at the densities of 4 and 7pl m-2, keeping tillers until harvest or removing them when the crop had nine expanded leaves. The percentage of plants with tillers at four growth stages, grain yield and yield components were assessed. Hybrids P30F53 and AS 1560 produced more tillers than Penta at the density of 4pl m-2. Tillers destiny did not affect grain yield during the first growing season. In 2006/2007 tiller maintenance promoted higher grain yield than tiller removal for all hybrids at the lower plant density. The results of this work showed that tiller removal does not enhance maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, they demonstrated that tiller maintenance may increase grain yield when maize is grown under low plant densities.

  1. Prospects of Pigeonpea Hybrids in Indian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Saxena and N Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Stagnant production, soaring prices, and enhanced imports of pigeonpea (red gram have been matter of concern to the primestakeholders in India. A new hybrid pigeonpea breeding technology, developed jointly by the International Crops ResearchInstitute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT and Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR is capable of substantiallyincreasing the productivity of red gram, and thus offering hope of pulse revolution in the country. The hybrid technology,based on cytoplasmic nuclear male-sterility (CMS system, has given an opportunity of achieving the long-cherished goal ofbreaking yield barrier in pigeonpea. In the past two years ICRISAT and ICAR have tested over 1000 experimental hybridsand among these GTH 1 and ICPH 2671 were found the most outstanding. GTH-1 has yielded 32% more yield than bestlocal variety, GT 101. ICPH 2671 is highly resistant to fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic diseases and produced 38% moreyield over the popular variety Maruti in multi-location trials conducted for over four years. In the on-farm trials conducted inthe states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Jharkhand during 2007, 2008 and 2009 havedemonstrated 30% yield advantage over local check varieties. So far the progress in the mission of enhancing theproductivity of pigeonpea has been encouraging and the reality of commercial hybrids is just around the corner. The newhybrid pigeonpea will serve as the platform for the tremendous growth of pulse production in India.

  2. Wear, bone density, functional outcome and survival in vitamin E-incorporated polyethylene cups in reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Veen Hugo C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasties is generally caused by periprosthetic bone resorption due to tissue reactions on polyethylene wear particles. In vitro testing of polyethylene cups incorporated with vitamin E shows increased wear resistance. The objective of this study is to compare vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene with conventional cross-linked polyethylene in “reversed hybrid” total hip arthroplasties (cemented all-polyethylene cups combined with uncemented femoral stems. We hypothesize that the adjunction of vitamin E leads to a decrease in polyethylene wear in the long-term. We also expect changes in bone mineral density, less osteolysis, equal functional scores and increased implant survival in polyethylene cemented cups incorporated with vitamin E in the long-term. Design A double-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included are aged under 70, suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip and are scheduled for a primary total hip arthroplasty. The study group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. The control group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a conventional cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. Radiological follow-up will be assessed at 6 weeks and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively, to determine polyethylene wear and osteolysis. Patient-reported functional status (HOOS, physician-reported functional status (Harris Hip Score and patients’ physical activity behavior (SQUASH will also be assessed at these intervals. Acetabular bone mineral density will be assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at 6 weeks and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Implant survival will be determined at 10 years postoperatively. Discussion In vitro results of vitamin E-stabilized polyethylene are promising

  3. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  4. A mixed methods protocol for developing and testing implementation strategies for evidence-based obesity prevention in childcare: a cluster randomized hybrid type III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren; Johnson, Susan L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Curran, Geoffrey M

    2017-07-18

    Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i.e., key components of the WISE intervention). Informed by the i-PARIHS framework, we will use a stakeholder-driven evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) process to apply information gathered in qualitative interviews on barriers and facilitators to practice to inform the design of implementation strategies. Then, a Hybrid Type III cluster randomized trial will compare a basic implementation strategy (i.e., intervention as usual) with an enhanced implementation strategy informed by stakeholders. All Head Start centers (N = 12) within one agency in an urban area in a southern state in the USA will be randomized to receive the basic or enhanced implementation with approximately 20 classrooms per group (40 educators, 400 children per group). The educators involved in the study, the data collectors, and the biostastician will be blinded to the study condition. The basic and enhanced implementation strategies will be compared on outcomes specified by the RE-AIM model (e.g., Reach to families, Effectiveness of impact on child diet and health indicators, Adoption commitment of agency, Implementation fidelity and acceptability, and Maintenance after 6 months). Principles of formative evaluation will be used throughout the hybrid trial. This study will test a stakeholder-driven approach to improve implementation, fidelity, and maintenance of EBPs for obesity prevention in childcare. Further, this study provides an example of a systematic process to develop

  5. Comparative study of physiological parameter and grain yield on different sunflower hybrid populations%不同向日葵品种群体光合生理参数及产量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔良基; 王德兴; 宋殿秀; 孙恩玉; 刘金刚

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the physiological parameter and grain yield on 3 sunflower hybrid populations. Result showed that leaf area index were developed very fast. The time of the max leaf area index were at 51 d after seedling emergence. The leaf area index varied with different sunflower hybrids with a range of 3.57 ~ 5.64. Biological yield and grain yield had significant positive correlation with the photosynthesis potential of the population. The average net photosynthetic rates were 5.08 to 7.02g/m2 · d, and varied with different sunflower hybrids and years. The trends of biological yield accumulation were "fast - slow - fast", and conformed to the Logistic equation model. Distribution ratio of biomass in various organs was stem (grain) > grain (stem) > leaf >head > petiole. The average percentages of grain ( economical index) were 29.7% and 34.4% in two years. The economical index of early maturity sunflower was higher than that of middle maturity sunflower.%以3个向日葵品种为材料,通过两年的田间试验研究向日葵群体的光合生理特征.结果表明,向日葵群体的叶面积指数(LAI)增长极快,出苗后第51d前后即达到最大值(LAImax)3.57~5.64.群体光合势与生物产量和子实产量呈极显著正相关.平均净光合率因品种和年份而异,范围在5.08~7.02g/m2·d.生物产量积累动态趋势为"慢-快-慢",符合Logistic方程.生物产量在各个器官中的分配比例一般为:茎秆(或子实)>子实(或茎秆)>叶片>葵盘>叶柄,子实所占比例即经济系数两年平均为29.7%和34.4%,因年份而异.早熟品种的经济系数大于中早熟和中熟品种.

  6. Breeding of Zhongyouza 8, a Canola Variety with Large Seeds and High Oil Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chang; HU Qiong; MEI De-sheng; LI Ying-de; XU Yu-song

    2006-01-01

    High oil yield resulted from a combination of high grain yield and high oil content is a prerequisite for the high efficient oilseed rape production. By using irradiation induced mutation and sexual hybridization combined with paired test cross,the fertility, yield and oil content of the three lines of cytoplasmic male sterility have been improved and a new hybrid variety Zhongyouza 8 with high oil yield was developed. It has been testified that the yield of Zhongyouza 8 was significantly higher than that of the control variety Zhongyou 821 with 9.82 and 10.64% increase in the regional trials of Hubei Province and nationwide, respectively. The oil content and oil yield of Zhongyouza 8 were the highest among all the lines involved in Hubei provincial trials, being 42.77% and 1 051.05 kg ha-1 which was raised by 3% and 161.25 kg ha-1compared to the control Zhongyou 821, respectively. The genetic basis for the strong heterosis, and the factors contributing to the yield and oil content increase of Zhongyouza 8 as well as the strategy for high oil yielding variety improvement through increasing seed size were also discussed in this paper.

  7. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to

  8. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, M.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objectives: This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. Methods: A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in

  9. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, M.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. Methods: A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in combinat

  10. Produção e características qualitativas dos frutos de híbridos de maracujazeiro-amarelo Yield and fruit qualitative characteristics of passion fruit hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vicente Contador Zaccheo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A pequena disponibilidade de genótipos melhorados de maracujazeiro-amarelo contribui para a baixa produtividade da cultura no Brasil. Materiais genéticos devem ser desenvolvidos visando ao incremento da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e as características qualitativas dos frutos de 36 híbridos de maracujazeiro-amarelo cultivados no norte do Paraná. As avaliações dos híbridos foram realizadas durante dois ciclos de produção da cultura, de abril a julho de 2007 e de janeiro a julho de 2008, com coletas semanais dos frutos maduros. A produção foi determinada a partir da produção total e do número de frutos por planta. Para as características qualitativas, foram avaliadas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro e relação entre comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos, além de espessura da casca, rendimento de polpa, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/ATT. A produção, em quilos de fruta por planta, situou-se entre 20 e 40 no primeiro ciclo e 54 a 96 no segundo, o que representa uma produtividade de 30 a 53 ton ha-1 para o conjunto das duas safras. Os híbridos '40' e '43'apresentam, respectivamente, maior produção e maior número de frutos no primeiro ciclo de produção Os frutos do híbrido '36' destacaram-se no atendimento das caracteristicas desejáveis de qualidade para o consumo in natura, enquanto os híbridos '43' e '60' apresentaram caracteristicas importantes para a indústria de sucos.The small number of improved genotypes of passion fruit contributes to the low productivity of this crop in Brazil. New genetic materials should be developed to increase yield and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and the qualitative characteristics of 36 passion fruit hybrids grown in northern Paraná. The evaluations were carried out during two production cycles, from April to June 2007 and from January to July

  11. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency? An analysis of winter wheat and spring barley field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields, bu...

  12. Effects of hybrid cycling versus handcycling on wheelchair-specific fitness and physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury : a 16-week randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, A. J. T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; van Kuppevelt, D. J.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Study design: This is an open randomized controlled trial. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week hybrid cycle versus handcycle exercise program on fitness and physical activity in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: The study

  13. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiros portadores de alelos mutantes de amadurecimento e coloração Yield and fruit quality of tomato hybrids heterozygous for ripening and color mutant alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete híbridos de tomateiros quase-isogênicos, à exceção dos locos norª/nor, rin, og c e hp, com as linhagens parentais FloraDade e Mospomorist, e dois híbridos comerciais heterozigotos no loco rin (Carmen F1 e Chronos F1 foram avaliados quanto às características de produção e qualidade de frutos e quanto aos possíveis efeitos do background genotípico empregado nas mesmas características. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Os genótipos nor+/nor e rin+/rin não afetaram as características de produção. O genótipo nor+/norª atuou diminuindo a massa média por fruto. Os genótipos nor+/norª, nor+/nor e rin+/rin, isoladamente, atrasaram a perda de firmeza e a chegada da coloração vermelha nos frutos. O tamanho relativo da cicatriz peduncular não foi afetado significativamente por esses genótipos. A combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp proporcionou maior produção total e maior massa média por fruto no híbrido nor+/norª. A firmeza e a coloração dos frutos nor+/norª não foram afetadas pela combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp. O genótipo nor+/norª reduziu a produção precoce de frutos og c+/og c hp+/hp e aumentou a meia-vida da firmeza desses frutos. O background genotípico e a interação background x mutante de amadurecimento devem ser considerados na produção de híbridos F1 de tomateiro.Seven nearly isogenic tomato hybrids, except for their genotypic constitutions in loci norª/nor, rin, og c and hp, were tested for fruit yield and quality traits along the parental background lines FloraDade and Mosporist and two commercial rin+/rin tomato hybrids (Carmen F1 and Chronos F1. The role of the different genotypic backgrounds on these fruit traits was also studied. The genotypes were tested using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The genotypic constitutions nor+/nor or rin+/rin had no effect on yield related

  14. 优质高产杂交双季晚籼A优338的选育及利用%Breeding and Application of Quality and High-yield Late-season Indica Hybrid Rice A-you 338

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周强; 刘松柏; 郭建新; 涂军明; 张金林; 王欢; 梅凯华; 高正刚; 吕锐玲; 陈蔚; 孙伟

    2009-01-01

    A优338是湖北省黄冈市农业科学院用自育不育系A4A与恢复系R338配组而成的杂交晚稻新组合,该组合具有米质优、产量高、抗倒伏和易制种等特点.阐述了A优338的选育经过、特征特性及栽培制种技术要点.%The new late indica hybrid rice A-you 338 is a combination of sterile line A4A with restoring line R338. This paper reviewed the breeding process,the main features of yield and quality,and the cultivation technologies.

  15. 杂交稻元丰优86在永定种植表现及高产栽培技术%Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Yuanfengyou 86 in Yongding Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游梅兰

    2014-01-01

    Yuanfengyou 86, derived from the CMS line Yuanfeng A and a restorer line Minghui 86, was a new hybrid rice combination. Yuanfengyou 86 was registered and released for commercial production by National Crop Variety Appraisal Committee in Fujian province in 2011. During the year of 2012-1013, Yuanfengyou 86 was introduced and planted in Yongding county of Fujian province. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Yuanfengyou 86.%元丰优86是用元丰A×明恢86配组育成的三系杂交稻新品种,2011年通过福建省品种审定。2012—2013年在永定县仙师乡示范种植,掌握其特征特性和高产栽培技术。

  16. Breeding and High-yield Cultivation Technology of Oil Sunflower Hybrids Longkuiza Series%龙葵杂系列油用向日葵杂交种选育及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永利

    2013-01-01

    龙葵杂系列油用向日葵杂交种由黑龙江省农科院经济作物研究所育成,龙葵杂6号经全国向日葵鉴定委员会鉴定推广;龙葵杂1~5号和7号经黑龙江省农作物品种审定委员会登记推广。介绍了该系列杂交种的选育及高产栽培技术,为广大葵农在品种选择和栽培技术上提供参考依据。%Oil sunflower hybrids Longkuiza series were bred by Industrial Crops Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultual Sciences , Longkuiza No.6 was identified and promoted by The National Sunflower Identification Committee ,Longkuiza No.1~5 and No. 7 were registered and promoted by Heilongjiang Provincial Crop Variety Certification Committee. Breeding and high-yield cultivation techniques of Longkuiza series hybrids were described,in order to provide references for many peasants in the selection of species and cultivation technical guidance.

  17. Research and Application of High-yield Seed Production Techniques of Hybrid Rice in Ecuador%杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志明

    2011-01-01

    The key techniques of seed production of hybrid rice in Ecuador, such as performance of parents' characters, sowing method of female parent, sowing quantity of parents, CA3 dosage, were researched. The results showed that the optimum key techniques are as follows: direct sowing of female parent, sowing quantity of female parent by 45~50 kg/hm2, GA3 dosage with 600~750 g/hm2. Meanwhile, applying this experimental results in field seed production, it successfully supports the high-yield seed production technique of chinese hybrid rice in Ecuador.%对杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔制种的亲本特性表现、母本播种方式、亲本用种量、GA、用量等关键技术进行了研究,确定了采用母本直播方式、母本用种量45~50 kg/hm3、GA3适宜用量600-750 g/hm2等技术要点,并将试验成果应用于大田制种,成功配套了中国杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术.

  18. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  19. Evaluation of new NS maize hybrids using biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Milisav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed two-year results of a testing of 20 new maize hybrids from FAO MG 600 as compared to a standard. Data on the hybrids NS6683, NS6686, NS281633, and NS396432 are discussed in the paper in greater detail. In order to study grain yield, grain moisture, root and stalk lodging, and resistance to pests and diseases, field trials using a RCB design with four replicates were conducted in six locations in 2009 and five locations in 2010. The results were presented in the form of GGE biplots in order to rank hybrids relative to the standard while taking into account the genotype x environment interaction and to identify the highest-yielding genotypes in different environments. It was determined that the new NS hybrids had higher grain yield than the standard by 0.883 to 1.720 tha-1, lower grain moisture by 0.85 to 2.54%, better tolerance to root and stalk lodging, and pest and disease resistance on a par to the standard. The study identified so-called ideal locations for particular hybrids, which may be of use when determining which areas the hybrids are best suited for.

  20. Cocoa and total system yields of organic and conventional agroforestry vs. monoculture systems in a long-term field trial in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, M; Andres, C; Trujillo, G.; Alcon, F.; Amurrios, P.; Perez, E.; Weibel, F.; Milz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is produced in systems of varying complexity ranging from monoculture with temporary shade to highly diverse agroforests. Producers have to weigh high cocoa yields in the short to medium term in monocultures against higher total system yields in the short term and sustainable production systems in the long term in conjunction with ecosystem services in agroforestry systems (AFs). More long-term data on the comparative agronomic, economic and ecological performance o...

  1. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Yiyou 673 in Anxi Country%优质超级稻宜优673在安溪种植表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖全省

    2014-01-01

    Yiyou 673, derived from the CMS line Yixiang 1A and a restorer line Fuhui 673, was a new hybrid rice combination developed by Rice Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was registered and released in 2006 in Fujian province. Yiyou 673 was introduced and planted in Anxi county of Fujian province for extensive adaptability, rice quality, high and stable yield. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Yiyou 673.%宜优673是福建省农业科学院水稻研究所用不育系宜香1A与恢复系福恢673配组而成的三系杂交水稻品种,于2006年通过福建省品种审定。在安溪县种植表现丰产、稳产、米质优、后期转色好等特点。介绍了宜优673在安溪县种植表现及高产栽培技术。

  2. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques for Hybrid Rice Combination Shenliangyou 862 at Yong,an City%深两优862在永安市种植表现与高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增贵

    2016-01-01

    深两优862是由江苏明天种业科技有限公司、南昌穗民农业科技有限公司、临湘市兆农科技研发中心,用深08S与R5662配组育成的杂交水稻新品种。具有长势旺,分蘖力强,成穗率高,有效穗多,高产稳产,米质优等特点。介绍深两优862在永安市种植表现与高产栽培技术。%A new hybrid rice combination Shenliangyou 862 derived from the cross of a sterile line Shen 08S and a restorer line R5662 was developed by Jiangsu Mingtian Seed Science and Technology Co., Ltd, Nan-chang Suimin Agricultural Science and Technology Co., Ltd and Linxiang Zhaonong Science and Technology Research and Development Center. It showed the characteristics of vigorous growth, strong tillering ability, high earbearing tiller percentage, more effective panicle number, high and stable yield, and good quality. Planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques for Shenliangyou 862 at Yong,an city was in-troduced in this paper.

  3. 纳米增效肥对杂交稻的增产效果研究%The Research of Increasing the Yield by Nano-synergistic Fertilizer on Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 刘键; 韩振; 马国辉; 袁隆平

    2012-01-01

    纳米增效肥对杂交稻的研究机理表明,纳米碳遇水后变成超导体,能增加土壤电动电位。纳米碳溶胶可以使土壤胶体重组,释放出大量土壤营养元素。纳米增效肥使杂交稻根系外流NH4+数量减少,内吸NO3-数量增加,促进根系对土壤氮离子的吸收。田间试验结果表明,纳米增效肥不同施肥量与普通高效肥100%施肥量相比,有明显增产效果。施用60%纳米增效肥,增产幅度为4.41%~10.35%;施用70%纳米增效肥,增产幅度为9.53%~21.05%;施用100%纳米增效肥,增产幅度为4.67%~15.83%。可见,纳米增效肥可减少肥料施用量30%~40%,并有明显增产效果。%The mechanism of nano-synergistic fertilizer on hybrid rice showed that nano carbon mixed with water became the superconductor,which increased the electric potential of soil.The nano carbon sol made the soil colloid recombinant and release large amounts of nutrient elements.The nano-synergistic fertilizer made the outflow quantity of NH4+ reduce in hybrid rice root,increase the absorption quantity of NO3-,and promote the absorption of nitrogen ion in root system on soil.The field test results showed that compared with the normal synergistic fertilizer of 100% efficient fertilization,the nano-synergistic fertilizer had obvious yield-increasing effect.The nano-synergistic fertilizer could increase the yield 4.41%~10.35% with 60% fertilization,9.53%~21.05% with 70% fertilization,4.67%~15.83% with 100% fertilization.So the nano-synergistic fertilizer could reduce the amount of fertilizer 30%~40%,and has obvious yield-increasing effect.

  4. Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Peña Ramos

    Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376.The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels

  5. Resistance of Bt-maize (MON810) against the stem borers Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and its yield performance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Mugo, Stephen; Mwimali, Murenga; Anani, Bruce; Tende, Regina; Beyene, Yoseph; Gichuki, Simon; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Nang'ayo, Francis; Okeno, James; Njeru, Evans; Pillay, Kiru; Meisel, Barbara; Prasanna, B M

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013-2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae. In CFT, plants were infested with C. partellus 14 and 24 days after planting; in BGH, plants were infested with B. fusca 21 and 31 days after planting. In CFT, the seven Bt hybrids significantly differed from their non-Bt counterparts for leaf damage, number of exit holes, percent tunnel length, and grain yield. When averaged over three seasons, Bt-hybrids gave the highest grain yield (9.7 t ha(-1)), followed by non-Bt hybrids (6.9 t ha(-1)) and commercial checks (6 t ha(-1)). Bt-hybrids had the least number of exit holes and percent tunnel length in all the seasons as compared to the non-Bt hybrids and commercial checks. In BGH trials, Bt-hybrids consistently suffered less leaf damage than their non-Bt near isolines. The study demonstrated that MON810 was effective in controlling B. fusca and C. partellus. Bt-maize, therefore, has great potential to reduce the risk of maize grain losses in Africa due to stem borers, and will enable the smallholder farmers to produce high-quality grain with increased yield, reduced insecticide inputs, and improved food security.

  6. Cultivation Trial of F1 Hybrids of Several Cabbage Sprouts%几个白菜薹杂种一代试种小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利丹; 王先琳; 林馥芬

    2012-01-01

      为了充分了解6个新选育的白菜薹品种在华南地区的特征特性以及适应性,以雪莹为对照进行品比试验,试验中充分调查了各杂种一代的特征特性,连续采收统计产量,进行多重比较。试验结果表明,组合1002和对照雪莹产量高,适应性强,品质佳,适宜在广东地区推广。%  In order to fully understand the characteristics and adaptability of the six new cabbage sprouts cultivars in south China, we studied the characteristics of their F1 hybrids, and carried out the multiple comparison of their total yields, by taking the cultivar Xueying as control. The results showed that the combination 1002 and the control cultivar Xueying possessed high yield, strong adaptability and good quality, which could be promoted in Guangdong area.

  7. Hybrid Rice Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Blight Developed By Marker Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Li-yong; ZHUANG; Jie-yun; YUAN; Shou-jiang; ZHAN; Xiao-deng; ZHENG; Kang-le; CHENG; Shi-hua

    2003-01-01

    Through recurrént backcrossing in combination with molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), restorer lines R8006 and R1176 carrying Xa-21 , a gene having broad-spectrum resistance to rice bacterial leaf blight, were selected. By crossing the two lines to CMS line Zhong 9A, two new hybrid rice combinations, Zhongyou 6 and Zhongyou 1176 were developed. The hybrids showed high resistance to diseases, good grain quality and high yielding potential in national and provincial adaptability and yield trials.

  8. Biomass production of herbaceous energy crops in the United States: Field trial results and yield potential maps from the multiyear regional feedstock partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current knowledge of yield potential and best agronomic management practices for perennial bioenergy grasses is primarily derived from small-scale and short-term studies, yet these studies inform policy at the national scale. In an effort to learn more about how bioenergy grasses perform at the farm...

  9. Rendimiento y calidad de híbridos de sorgo con y sin nervadura café Yield and quality of sorghum hybrids with and without brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Daniel Bolaños Aguilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento de materia seca (RMS y la calidad de variedades de sorgo de grano y forrajero con o sin nervadura café (bmr, al emplear plantas con concentraciones promedio de 300 g kg-¹ de MS. Se estudiaron tres variedades de grano (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo y tres forrajeras (Sweet Virginia, Big Kauna y Sucrosorgho. Sweet Virginia and Big Kahuna contienen el gen bmr. El RMS varió de 11.10 t, de Topsilo, a 17.12 t ha-1 de Sweet Virginia, relacionada con la altura de planta y con la proporción tallo/planta. Topsilo tuvo mayor número de rebrotes (1.5 m-¹. La relación panícula/planta no fue diferente entre variedades. El número de plantas m-¹ varió entre variedades pero no afectó el RMS. La concentración de proteína varió de 75.45 g kg-¹ MS en Big Kahuna, a 104.3 g kg-¹ MS en Solarius, y tuvo relación inversa con el RMS, con la altura de la planta y con la relación tallo/planta. Las variedades con mayor concentración de proteína (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo, fueron las de menor RMS, menor altura y menor relación tallo/planta. El área foliar por planta fue la fuente de variación de la proteína entre las variedades de grano. La digestibilidad varió de 596 g kg-¹ MS en Aralba, a 720.4 g kg-¹ MS en Sweet Virginia, y estuvo relacionada con la concentración de lignina. Esta última variedad junto con Big Kahuna y Solarius fueron las de mayor digestibilidad. La alta digestibilidad de Solarius (no portador de bmr se debió a su baja proporción (0.35 tallo/planta. La variedad Sweet Virginia es una importante opción en la alimentación animal dado a su elevado RMS y digestibilidad. Solarius tuvo bajo RMS, pero es útil cuando se requieren altos consumos de materia seca digestible por animal (vacas lecheras, además de contar con la mayor concentración de proteína.The aim was to compare yield of dry matter (RMS and quality of grain and foliage sorghum varieties with and without brown midrib (bmr, by

  10. 高原山区高产早熟玉米杂交种康玉1号的选育及栽培技术%Breeding and Cultivation Technologies of High Yield and Early Maturing Corn Hybrid Vareity Kangyu No.1 in Plateau Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祯勇; 高明文; 肖启银

    2014-01-01

    康玉1号是四川省甘孜藏族自治州农业科学研究所选育的适宜川西北高原山区种植的高产、优质、多抗玉米杂交种。在2008-2010年甘孜州杂交玉米早熟组的区试和生产试验中,居参试品种第1位,2年区试平均产量8683.88 kg/hm2,较对照阿单9号增产13.72%;生产试验平均产量9112.14 kg/hm2,比对照阿单9号增产7.82%。5个试点全部增产,其中3个试点是第1位。该品种种子顶土能力强,幼苗生长健壮,耐密植,高产稳产,品质优良。2013年11月已通过四川省农作物品种审定委员会审定。在川西北高原特别是甘孜州玉米产区具有广阔的推广应用前景,将推动川西北高原特别是甘孜州高山区玉米产量水平的大幅提高。%Kangyu No.1,bred by Agricultural Sciences Research Institute of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province ,is a hybrid corn variety with characteristics of high yield ,early maturing and high resistance to diseases. In 2008-2010 early maturing corn regional trial of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ,the performance of Kangyu No.1 ranked first. The average yield of Kangyu No.1 in the two-year reached 8 683.88 kg/hm2,and compared with the control ,the yield of Kangyu No.1 increased by 13.72%. In the production experiment ,its average yield was 9 112.14 kg/hm2,increasing 7.82% by average against the control Adan No.9.Its yield was higher than the control at all 5 experimental sites ,and performed best at the 3 sites. Kangyu No.1 showed excellent performance in many aspects (strong seed emerging vigor from soil ,strong and well-growing seedings,high planted density tolerance,high and stable yield,good quality).In November 2013,Kangyu No.1 passed examination and approval to extension of agricultural variety approval commission in Sichuan Province. The new variety of Kangyu No.1 is a great achievement of highland corn breeding. It has great potential to be extended to northwest

  11. Respuesta en rendimiento de híbridos de maíz a diferentes distancias entre surcos y densidades de plantas Yield response of maize hybrids to different distances between furrows and density plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Soltero-Díaz

    Full Text Available La producción de maíz en surcos angostos, es una técnica nueva que se está evaluando en México. Durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2007, se llevó a cabo este trabajo de investigación en el cultivo de maíz en tres localidades ubicadas en la región Ciénega de Chapala, en el estado de Jalisco. El experimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar el distanciamiento entre surcos (76 y 50 cm, tres densidades de plantas (75 000, 90 000 y 105 000 plantas ha-1 y cinco híbridos; para conocer con cual tratamiento se obtiene el rendimiento más alto. Con las combinaciones de los tres factores estudiados se obtuvo un factorial completo de 30 tratamientos; se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones y un arreglo en parcelas divididas, siendo la parcela grande la distancia entre surcos y como subparcelas a los factores híbridos y densidades de plantas, respectivamente. Se realizó el análisis de varianza en conjunto y comparación de medias para la variable rendimiento de grano utilizando el programa SAS. Los resultados indican que el rendimiento de grano más alto se obtuvo con el surcado angosto a 50 cm y una densidad de al menos 90 000 plantas ha-1; el rendimiento de grano aumentó 9.06% al reducir la distancia entre surcos de 76 a 50 cm; por lo tanto, se sugiere utilizar esta recomendación para aumentar la producción comercial de maíz en la región antes mencionada.Maize farming in narrow furrows is a new technique that is being evaluated in Mexico. This investigation was carried out during the 2007 spring-summer cycle, on maize farming in three locations in the area of Ciénega de Chapala, in the state of Jalisco. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the distance between furrows (76 and 50 cm, three plant densities (75 000, 90 000 and 105 000 plants ha-1 and five hybrids, in order to know which treatment provides the highest yield. With the combination of all three studied factors, a complete factorial

  12. Effects of Reduced Tillage on Crop Yield, Plant Available Nutrients and Soil Organic Matter in a 12-Year Long-Term Trial under Organic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Claupein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed in Southwest Germany to examine the effects of long-term reduced tillage (2000–2012. Tillage treatments were deep moldboard plow: DP, 25 cm; double-layer plow; DLP, 15 + 10 cm, shallow moldboard plow: SP, 15 cm and chisel plow: CP, 15 cm, each of them with or without preceding stubble tillage. The mean yields of a typical eight-year crop rotation were 22% lower with CP compared to DP, and 3% lower with SP and DLP. Stubble tillage increased yields by 11% across all treatments. Soil nutrients were high with all tillage strategies and amounted for 34–57 mg kg−1 P and 48–113 mg kg−1 K (0–60 cm soil depth. Humus budgets showed a high carbon input via crops but this was not reflected in the actual Corg content of the soil. Corg decreased as soil depth increased from 13.7 g kg−1 (0–20 cm to 4.3 g kg−1 (40–60 cm across all treatments. After 12 years of experiment, SP and CP resulted in significantly higher Corg content in 0–20 cm soil depth, compared to DP and DLP. Stubble tillage had no significant effect on Corg. Stubble tillage combined with reduced primary tillage can sustain yield levels without compromising beneficial effects from reduced tillage on Corg and available nutrient content.

  13. High-yield Cultivation of Tongza 411-hybrid Cotton with Fine Quality and Pest Resistance%优质抗虫杂交棉铜杂411高产栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祖荣; 周健; 刘军杰; 何讯

    2014-01-01

    New hybrid cotton variety-Tongza 411,released by the National Commission for Crops Varieties Evaluation, has su-perior features of high yield, good stress resistance coordinating big bolls well with being fruitful in the field demonstrations of recent years. Key points for high-yield cultivation of Tongza 411 were concluded based on its characteristics and practices to speed up its commercialization and to stimulate its potential for increasing cotton growers’ profit. The key points include in-creasing plant density, enhancing K rate, reducing N rate, controlling the plant height, and preventing pest and disease.%铜杂411是通过国家农作物品种审定委员会审定的抗虫杂交棉新品种,几年的大面积示范推广表明,该品种具有结铃性强、铃大、综合抗性和丰产性好等优势。为了充分发挥品种潜力,促进棉农增产增收,结合近年来市场反馈,归纳了铜杂411的品种特性以及高产栽培技术要点,重点针对“增加密度、增施钾肥、控制氮肥、控制株高、防治病虫”5个关键环节提出建议,旨在通过良种良法配套获得高产增收。

  14. Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low.

  15. Agronomic Performance of Flue-Cured Tobacco F1 Hybrids Obtained with Different Sources of Male Sterile Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG, the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.

  16. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  17. Consórcio sorgo-soja. V. Comportamento de híbridos de sorgo e cultivares de soja consorciados na entrelinha no rendimento de forragem Sorghum and soybean intercropping. V. Behavior of hybrids of sorghum and cultivars soybean intercropped between rows forage yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Milanez de Rezende

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento de cultivares de sorgo e soja em cultivo consorciado e o sorgo em monocultivo na produção de forragens, foi conduzido, no ano agrícola 1996/97, um ensaio no Departamento de Agricultura no Campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, em um Latossolo Roxo Distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4x4+4 com três repetições, sendo constituído por quatro híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG 2002, AG 2006, BR 601 e CMSXS 756, quatro cultivares de soja (CAC-1, Doko RC, UFV-16 e UFV-17 e quatro tratamentos adicionais, correspondentes aos respectivos monocultivos de sorgo. Foi realizado apenas um corte, rente ao solo, no consórcio no estádio R5 (início da formação das sementes da cultura da soja e no monocultivo de sorgo, no estádio de grãos farináceos. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a combinação da cultivar UFV-16 com os híbridos AG 2002 e AG 2006 proporcionou os maiores rendimentos de massa verde, matéria seca e proteína bruta total. No consórcio e em monocultivo, o híbrido AG 2002 foi o que mais se destacou para a produção de massa verde e matéria seca. Em geral, o sistema consorciado proporcionou, em relação ao monocultivo, os maiores rendimentos de massa verde, matéria seca e proteína bruta total.With the purpose of evaluating the behavior of sorghum and soybean cultivars in intercropping for forage production and sorghum in monoculture, a trial was conducted in the agricultural year of 1996/1997 at the Department of Agriculture of the Universidade Federal de Lavras- MG, on a distrophic red dusky latosol. The experimental design was that of randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 + 4 factorial scheme, with three replications, being made up of four hybrids of forage sorghum (AG-2002, AG-2006, BR-601 and CMSXS-756, four soybean cultivars (CAC-1, Doko RC, UFV-16 and UFV-17 and four additional treatment corresponding

  18. ESTABILIDADE PRODUTIVA DE HÍBRIDOS E VARIEDADES DE MILHO NO MEIO-NORTE BRASILEIRO YIELD STABILITY OF MAIZE HYBRIDS AND VARIETIES IN THE MIDDLE-NORTH REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanildes Menezes de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram avaliadas 24 cultivares de milho (21 variedades e três híbridos, em doze ambientes da Região Meio-Norte do Brasil (seis no Estado do Piauí e seis no Estado do Maranhão, nos anos agrícolas de 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, objetivando conhecer a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade fenotípica desses materiais para fins de recomendação. Na análise conjunta de variância, observaram-se diferenças entre os ambientes, entre as cultivares e inconsistência no comportamento das cultivares diante das oscilações ambientais. A produtividade média de grãos observada (5.934 kg.ha-1 mostra a potencialidade da região para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, colocando-a em condições de competir com áreas de estados como Mato Grosso e Goiás. Todos os materiais avaliados, à exceção da variedade Sertanejo e do híbrido BRS 2110, mostraram alta estabilidade nos ambientes considerados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Interação genótipo x ambiente; cultivar; Zea mays.

    Twenty-four maize cultivars (21 varieties and three hybrids were evaluated in twelve environments of the Middle-North Region of Brazil (six in Piauí and six in Maranhão, in the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, aiming to obtain regionally adapted materials. The experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In the joint analysis of variance, differences were observed among environments and among cultivars, but no consistent cultivar responses to environmental variations were observed. The mean grain yield (5,934 kg.ha-1 indicates the region has a high potential for maize, able to compete with such states as Mato Grosso and Goias, traditional producers. All the cultivars tested, except the Sertanejo variety and the BRS 2110 hybrid, showed high

  19. Shipping blood to a central laboratory in multicenter clinical trials: effect of ambient temperature on specimen temperature, and effects of temperature on mononuclear cell yield, viability and immunologic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Jonathan H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials of immunologic therapies provide opportunities to study the cellular and molecular effects of those therapies and may permit identification of biomarkers of response. When the trials are performed at multiple centers, transport and storage of clinical specimens become important variables that may affect lymphocyte viability and function in blood and tissue specimens. The effect of temperature during storage and shipment of peripheral blood on subsequent processing, recovery, and function of lymphocytes is understudied and represents the focus of this study. Methods Peripheral blood samples (n = 285 from patients enrolled in 2 clinical trials of a melanoma vaccine were shipped from clinical centers 250 or 1100 miles to a central laboratory at the sponsoring institution. The yield of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC collected before and after cryostorage was correlated with temperatures encountered during shipment. Also, to simulate shipping of whole blood, heparinized blood from healthy donors was collected and stored at 15°C, 22°C, 30°C, or 40°C, for varied intervals before isolation of PBMC. Specimen integrity was assessed by measures of yield, recovery, viability, and function of isolated lymphocytes. Several packaging systems were also evaluated during simulated shipping for the ability to maintain the internal temperature in adverse temperatures over time. Results Blood specimen containers experienced temperatures during shipment ranging from -1 to 35°C. Exposure to temperatures above room temperature (22°C resulted in greater yields of PBMC. Reduced cell recovery following cryo-preservation as well as decreased viability and immune function were observed in specimens exposed to 15°C or 40°C for greater than 8 hours when compared to storage at 22°C. There was a trend toward improved preservation of blood specimen integrity stored at 30°C prior to processing for all time points tested

  20. Breeding progress, variation, and correlation of grain and quality traits in winter rye hybrid and population varieties and national on-farm progress in Germany over 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidig, Friedrich; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Rentel, Dirk; Drobek, Thomas; Meyer, Uwe; Huesken, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Grain yield of hybrid varieties and population varieties in official German variety trials increased by 23.3 and 18.1%, respectively, over the last 26 years. On-farm gain in grain yield (18.9%) was comparable to that of population varieties in variety trials, yet at a level considerably lower than in variety trials. Rye quality is subject to large year-to-year fluctuation. Increase in grain yield and decline of protein concentration did not negatively influence quality traits. Performance progress of grain and quality traits of 78 winter rye varieties tested in official German trials to assess the value for cultivation and use (VCU) were evaluated during 1989 and 2014. We dissected progress into a genetic and a non-genetic component for hybrid and population varieties by applying mixed models, including regression components to model trends. VCU trial results were compared with grain yield and quality data from a national harvest survey (on-farm data). Yield gain for hybrid varieties was 23.3% (18.9 dt ha(-1)) and for population varieties 18.1% (13.0 dt ha(-1)) relative to 1989. On-farm yield progress of 18.9% (8.7 dt ha(-1)) was considerably lagging behind VCU trials, and mean yield levels were substantially lower than in field trials. Most of the yield progress was generated by genetic improvement. For hybrid varieties, ear density was the determining yield component, whereas for population varieties, it was thousand grain mass. Results for VCU trials showed no statistically significant gains or losses in rye quality traits. For on-farm data, we found a positive but non-significant gain in falling number and amylogram viscosity and temperature. Variation of grain and quality traits was strongly influenced by environments, whereas genotypic variation was less than 19% of total variation. Grain yield was strongly negatively associated with protein concentration, yet was weakly to moderately positively associated with quality traits. In general, our results from VCU

  1. 高产多抗杂交棉冀杂999选育研究%Study on Breeding of Hybrid Cotton Jiza 999 with Multi-resistance and High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素恩; 郭宝生; 崔瑞敏; 王兆晓; 刘存敬; 张香云; 王凯辉; 赵存鹏; 耿军义

    2015-01-01

    早熟、抗病虫、增产潜力大、适应性广、管理简便、适于机械化栽培是现代农业发展对棉花品种的基本要求。利用现代转基因技术和传统远缘杂交方法,培育具有海岛棉、陆地棉、野生瑟伯氏棉血统,目标性状突出且综合性状优良的杂交亲本;按照父母本性状互补的选配原则,配制杂交组合;通过重病圃胁迫、干旱胁迫、盐害胁迫、高虫口密度胁迫等高压选择、多点鉴定综合筛选和国家检验监督机构检测等手段,选育出了遗传基础丰富且携带外源抗虫 Bt基因的抗虫杂交棉品种冀杂999。该品种突出表现早熟,生长稳健易管理,抗病虫,抗逆性好,适应性广,高产稳产,吐絮肥畅,含絮适中,纤维品质优良,适于机械化采收。2009年通过了国家农作物品种审定委员会审定(审定编号:国审棉2009008),准予在黄河流域春播棉区推广。该品种的推广,对降低由枯黄萎病引起的损失、控制棉铃虫等鳞翅目害虫为害、推进河北棉花战略东移、提升棉花生产机械化水平和提高植棉效益具有重要意义。%New cotton varieties with early maturity, resistance to diseases and pests, potential yield increase, wide adaptability, easy to manage, suitable for mechanized farming can meet the demands of the rapid developing modern agriculture.The foundation parents from distant hybridization between upland cotton, sea island cotton and wild relatives were developed by modern transgenic technology and traditional distant hybridization method.Based on parent allocation principle of trait complementary and accumulation, local variety were applied as center parent in our selection and extension to get effective combination of goal traits.The cross combination were selected under different environmental pressures, and continuous high stress pressures, such as drought and salt, diseases, pests, then new variety Jiza

  2. The Relationship between Number Change of Rhizosphere Microorganisms and Yield of Super Hybrid Rice%微生物量的变化与超级杂交稻产量的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 袁隆平

    2011-01-01

    对微生物量的变化与超级杂交稻产量的关系进行了研究,结果表明:根际微生物数量在不同施肥处理间差异显著,且受到密度的影响;水稻根际微生物数量在整个生育期内的变化在不同施氮量处理间有差异;各种微生物的活性在经过一季作物后的改变表现不一致,而总微生物活性的下降幅度与施氮量和密度有关,微生物活性随N、P、K施用量增加而降低;水稻分蘖期解磷细菌最因施菌肥而明显增加,解钾细菌数量随生育时期的推进而增多,但不受钾肥影响.%The relationship between number change of rhizosphere microorganisms and yield of super hybrid rice was studied. The results showed that the number of rhizosphere microorganisms was significant different in different nitrogen treatments, and it was affected by density at the same time; the number change of rhizosphere microorganisms during whole growth duration was different in different nitrogen treatments; the activity change of different rhizosphere microorganisms showed disaccord expression after a cropping season, and the decreasing extent of total microorganism activity related to nitrogen rate and density; the activity of microorganism decreased with the increasing application rate of N, P and K; the number of PAM bacteria at tillering stage evidently increased with application of bacterium fertilizer, and the number of K-bacterium increased along with the growth stages but it was not affected by K fertilizer.

  3. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. [corrected]. Outcomes evaluated for all farms included time from SCK until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L [corrected] or until BHBA test ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Individual milk weights for the first 30 d of lactation were evaluated for the 3 farms monitoring daily milk. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate time to event outcomes; repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess milk weights. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. [corrected]. Of these, 372 were assigned to the treatment group and 369 to the control group. Based on hazard ratios, PG-treated cows were 1.50 times more likely (95% confidence interval=1.26 to 1.79) to resolve their SCK and 0.54 times less likely (95% confidence interval=0.34 to 0.86) to develop clinical ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in

  4. Effect of seedling age on yield and population quality of mechanized transplanted hybrid rice%移栽秧龄对机插杂交稻产量及群体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾现文; 朱起超; 杨志远; 孙永健; 郭翔; 石勇; 马均

    2014-01-01

    为探明中、迟熟型杂交稻品种在不同机插秧龄条件下的适应性及品种间生长发育及产量的差异,研究了不同移栽秧龄对机插中、迟熟杂交稻产量及群体质量的影响。结果表明,21 d适龄移栽杂交稻的产量、各生育时期的群体茎蘖数、分蘖成穗率、叶面积指数、抽穗后剑叶光合、群体透光、抽穗期的有效叶面积、高效叶面积、有效叶面积率以及高效叶面积率显著大于迟栽处理。品种选择上,迟熟杂交稻品种无论在产量还是在各群体指标方面均优于中熟品种,尤其是迟熟型中F优498分蘖力中等,株型好,这些特征改善了机插条件下杂交稻群体光合生产和通风透光状况,穗型大且穗粒数较多,茎蘖成穗率较高,秧龄弹性较大,可适当延长秧龄到28 d也能保持较高产量。中熟型中辐优838虽然穗数多,但其穗粒数限制了产量的增加,且其分蘖力过强,导致无效分蘖过多,对机插产量的发挥造成一定影响。研究结果为生产中选择机插适栽秧龄及高产杂交稻品种提供参考。%As a modern and high efficient rice production mode, rice mechanized transplanting has been a principle development trend in China. Subject to geographical conditions, the development of rice mechanized transplanting in Sichuan, the largest rice production region in southwest China, is very slow, only account for 6.2%of total rice planting area in 2012, while the average ratio was 26%across the country. So the development of rice mechanized transplanting in Sichuan is urgent and meaningful. The optimal seedling age and variety is an essential problem should be solved. In this experiment, the effects of different seedling ages on yield and population quality of middle and late maturing hybrid rice in mechanized transplanting were studied. The experiment was conducted in Wenjiang, a representative plain region in Sichuan, from April to October

  5. Effects of Different Applied Time of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield of High Grade Hybridized Rapeseed%不同时期施氮量对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 任廷波; 程国平

    2012-01-01

    为了研究甘蓝型优质杂交油菜获得高产的施氮量和氮肥运筹模式,以‘油研599’和‘三北98’为材料,采用三元二次通用正交旋转组合设计方法,对不同时期施氮量对油菜产量的影响进行研究.结果表明,‘油研599’获得最高产量指标(2898.21 kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥89.27 kg/hm2,开盘肥120 kg/hm2,腊肥101.12 kg/hm2,施氮总量为310.39 kg/hm2.活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为28.76%、38.66%、32.58%;‘三北98’获得最高产量指标(2870.14 kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥120 kg/hm2,开盘肥120 kg/hm2,腊肥37.55 kg/hm2,施氮总量为277.55 kg/hm2,活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为43.24%、43.24%、13.53%.2个品种合并后获得最高产量指标(2813.82 kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥120 kg/hm2,开盘肥120 kg/hm2,腊肥76.23 kg/hm2,施氮总量为316.23 kg/hm2,活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为37.95%、37.95%、24.11%.%In order to study yield of high grade hybridized rapeseed and operation model of nitrogen fertilizer in Brassica napus L., experiment material was 'Youyan 599' and 'SanBei 98', study on effects of different applied time of nitrogen fertilizer on yield of high grade hybridized rapeseed were carried out through quadratic regression orthogonal gyration combination design in Brassica napus L. The results showed that: factor combination when 'Youyan 599' obtained maximum yield target was living rape fertilizer 89.27 kg/hm2, opening fertilizer 120 kg/hm2, 12th lunar month fertilizer 101.12 kg/hm2, total applied amount of nitrogen fertilizer was 310.39 kg/hm2, the percent of living rape fertilizer, opening fertilizer, 12th lunar month fertilizer were 28.76%, 38.66%, 32.58%, respectively. Factor combination when 'SanBei 98' obtained maximum yield target was living rape fertilizer 120 kg/hm2, opening fertilizer 120 kg/hm2, 12th lunar month fertilizer 37.55 kg/hm2, total

  6. Produção e qualidade da moranga híbrida em resposta a doses de nitrogênio Yield and quality of hybrid squash (pumpkin in response to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalva W Pedrosa

    2012-06-01

    increased from 2,498, reaching the fruit maximum number (6,794 ha-1 when applying 219 kg ha-1 N. The fruit yield was also influenced by N rates, the maximum yield (11.55 t ha-1 being achieved when 300 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The diameter and thickness of fruit pulp increased from 14.97 and 2.33 cm to achieve maximum points of 17.74 and 2.80 cm with N doses of 171 and 128 kg ha-1, respectively. The soluble solids content in the fruit pulp increased with increasing N doses and the content of 8ºBrix was observed with the application of 300 kg ha-1 N. Fruit yield was also influenced by N rates being estimated 11.55 kg ha-1 as maximum yield with the application of 300 kg ha-1 N. The estimated dose of N on the maximum economic efficiency was obtained with the application of 262 kg ha-1, considering the prices of R$ 2.41 kg-1 of N and R$ 560.00 t-1 of hybrid squash fruits.

  7. Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilating Properties in High-yield Hybrid Rice Ⅱ You 129%高产杂交籼稻Ⅱ优129光合碳同化特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹树青; 翟虎渠; 盛生兰; 龚红兵; 林添资; 杨图南; 张荣铣; 匡廷云

    2001-01-01

    从光能利用率差异的角度探讨了高产杂交籼稻Ⅱ优129和对照汕优63的光合碳同化特性。结果表明:a)Ⅱ优129的光能利用率和产量显著高于汕优63,但其叶面积指数、消光系数及生育期无显著差异,说明光合效率及光合功能期是导致两组合光能利用率差异的主要原因;b)Ⅱ优129剑叶的CO2日同化量、叶源量及单茎CO2同化量均极显著高于汕优63,说明前者的碳同化能力较后者强;c)提高一个耐光抑制等级即可减少约3%的CO2日同化量的损失,提高品种的耐光抑制等级可进一步提高光能利用率;d)用光合速率高值指数作为衡量叶片一生中光合机构高效运行状态的一个生理指标,有助于揭示光合功能衰退对产量影响的生理机制,提高光合速率高值指数是提高光合效率的一个重要途径。%Photosynthetic carbon assimilating properties were studied in high-yield hybrid rices Ⅱ You 129 and Shanyou 63 (as the check) from the point of view of the difference of their solar energy use efficiency . The results showed that solar energy use efficiency and yield for Ⅱ You 129 were remarkably higher than those of Shanyou 63,but their leaf area index, foliar absorption coefficient and growth duration had not much difference, which suggests that photosynthetic efficiency and time are the important reasons resulting in the difference of their solar energy use efficiency. Daily CO2 assimilation capacity(DCAC), leaf source capacity(LSC) in flag leaf and CO2 assimilation capacity of a stem(CACS) of Ⅱ You 129 were more than those of Shanyou 63, which indicates that the carbon assimilation capacity of the former is better than that of the latter. The improvement of one grade of photoinhibition might reduce 3% loss of DCAC, and solar energy use efficiency could be improved by increasing photoinhibition grade for rice varieties. Active photosynthesis index(API) was used as a physiological

  8. Yield, SDG lignan, cadmium, lead, oil and protein contents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in trials and at different farm conditions in the south-western part of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketta Saastamoinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007−2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Martta’ had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties.The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635−9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. Variety ‘Laser’ had lower SDG lignan content. ‘Abacus’, ‘Helmi’ and ‘Martta’ had the highest SDG lignan contents. Variation in cadmium and lead contents were caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82−1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1−4.5.

  9. Effects of Water Volume and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Air-cured Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascione S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a two-year field trial in the region of Campania (Southern Italy the effects of water volume and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Burley tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L. were investigated with reference to the following traits: cured leaf yield, price index, yield value, leaf area, specific leaf weight, burning capacity, color parameters, total alkaloid, nitrate and chloride leaf content. The experimental design was a factorial comparison among three water volumes (40, 80 and 120% evapotranspiration (ET, four nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 and two genotypes (cv TN86 and the hybrid R7-11. The yield of cured leaves rose with the increase in water and nitrogen availability, albeit at a decreasing rate. With the increase in water volume, the price index, burning capacity, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrate content decreased, while leaf area and chloride content increased. Up to a rate of 160 kg ha-1, nitrogen fertilization increased the price index, yield value, burning capacity, leaf area, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrates, and reduced leaf chloride content especially at 40% ET water volume. Both, nitrogen fertilization and water volume had little influence on leaf color. The year had considerable effects on yield, leaf area and color parameters, with higher values in the rainier season. In the two years, genotype TN86 showed higher stability for yield and yield value, lower alkaloid and higher nitrate content in the leaf than the R7-11 hybrid.

  10. GGE叠图法—分析品种×环境互作模式的理想方法%GGE Biplot-An Ideal Tool for Studying Genotype by Environment Interaction of Regional Yield Trial Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严威凯; 胡跃高; 等

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a GGE biplot as a graphic method foranalyzing the yield data of crop regional trials. First, the average yield at each environment is subtracted from the original yield data so that the derived data contains only genotype main effect G and genotype by environment interaction GE, which are collectively called GGE. The GGE data is then subjected to singular value decomposition and is approximated by the first two principal components. Plotting the first principal component against the second for all genotypes and environments results in a GGE biplot. In light of supplement lines, the following questions can be visually addressed: 1) what is the best cultivar for a given environment; 2) what is the most favorable environment for a given cultivar; 3) how do a pair of cultivars compare at different environments; 4) what is the general pattern of genotype by environment interaction; 5) which are the cultivars that are both high-yielding and stable; and 6) what are the environments that facilitates identification of such cultivars.%本文介绍一种分析作物区域试验结果的方法—GGE叠图法。首先,将原始产量数据减去各地点的平均产量,由此形成的数据集只含品种主效应G和品种-环境互作效应GE,合称为GGE。对GGE作单值分解,并以第一和第二主成分近似之。按照第一和第二主成分值将各品种和各地点放到一个平面图上即形成GGE叠图。借助于辅助线,可以直观回答以下问题:(1)什么是某一特定环境下最好的品种;(2)什么是某一特定品种最适合的环境;(3)任意两品种在各环境下的表现如何;(4)试验中品种×环境互作的总体模式是怎样的;(5)什么是高产、稳产品种;(6)什么是有利于筛选高产、稳产品种的环境。

  11. 甘蔗品种的区试蔗茎产量和蔗糖分与环境互作效应分析%Genotype, Environment and Their Interactive Effects on Yield and Sugar of Sugarcane Regional Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学宽; 刘家勇; 范源洪; 吴才文; 赵俊; 赵培方

    2009-01-01

    利用AMMI(主效可加互作乘积)模型及双标图、D_i(品种稳定性参数)以及相应表现型值与D_i值的聚类分析,对2005~2006年14个甘蔗品种云南5个试点的2年新植1年宿根甘蔗品种区域化试验蔗茎产量和蔗糖分进行基因环境互作研究分析.结果表明:①产量与环境的互作效应显著,稳定性好的品种有云瑞99-113、德蔗93-94等;甘蔗糖分与环境互作效应较小,稳定性好的品种有云瑞99-113、云蔗98-236等.②根据AMMI双标图,提出了参试品种在参试点的适应性.③根据平均产量和糖分及其D_i值聚类分析,参试品种可分为5类.基于AMMI的互作稳定性分析和聚类分析为蔗区甘蔗新品种的推广应用提供了依据.%The yield and sugar of 14 varieties from 5 sites of the Yunnan regional trials in 2004-2006 (2 years of planting and 1 year of ratoon crops) were analyzed using additive main effects multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and its biplot, stability of varieties parameters(represented by D_i),mean yield and sugar and their D_i values. The results of genotype and environment interaction (G×E) showed that (i) Some varieties had the significant effects and good stabilities, such as YR99-113, DZ93-94 based on the interaction between cane yield and environment; and some varieties had the little effects and good stabilities, such as YR99-113,YZ98-236, based on the interaction between sugar and environment; (ii) The adaptabilities of the varieties for trail regions were indicated by analysis of biplot of AMMI model; (iii) The varieties were hierarchically clustered into 5 types based on the mean yield and sugar and their D_i value. The analysis based on AMMI and hierarchical clustering should be good contribution to new sugarcane varieties in appropriate regions.

  12. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza yadavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  13. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  14. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with

  15. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  16. 优质高产香型杂交稻新组合香优63%Xiangyou 63, a Quasi-aromatic Hybrid Rice with Good Quality and High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    Xiangyou 63 was developed at HHRRC using aromatic cytoplasmic male sterile line Xiangxiang 2A and non-aromatie restorer line Minghui 63. It was released to farmers in Jan 1995. Xiangyou 63 is the first quasi-aromatie hybrid riee in China, and Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the eross V20A//V20B/MR365 by HHRRC, is

  17. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  18. EFFECTS OF HYBRID CYCLE AND HANDCYCLE EXERCISE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Bishop, Nicolette C.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; van Kuppevelt, Dirk J.; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury. Participants: Nineteen individuals with spinal cord injury >= 8 years. Design: Multicentre randomized controlled

  19. The effects of hybrid cycle training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to stay fit and healthy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hybrid cycle training (hand cycling in combination with functional electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling) on fitness, physic

  20. EFFECTS OF HYBRID CYCLE AND HANDCYCLE EXERCISE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Bishop, Nicolette C.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; van Kuppevelt, Dirk J.; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury. Participants: Nineteen individuals with spinal cord injury >= 8 years. Design: Multicentre randomized controlled tr

  1. Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Rice(Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna LATHA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and magnitude of heterosis and combining ability was studied in 18 F1 hybrids involving three CMS lines and six testers using line × tester analysis. The analysis of variance for combining ability of all the traits showed that variances due to treatments, parents, hybrids were highly significant. The line ‘CRMS 32A’ and testers viz. ‘Super rice-8’, ‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ and ‘Jitpiti’ were identified as good general combiners. The significant differences between lines x testers interaction indicates that SCA attributed heavily in the expression of these traits and demonstrates the importance of dominance or non additive variances for all the traits. The hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ and ‘APMS 6A’/‘Super rice-8’ were promising for grain yield. The magnitude of relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were also estimated for different characters. A high degree of relative heterosis was observed for grain yield (20.45- 82.37% in the hybrids viz., ‘CRMS 32A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘APMS 6A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘APMS 6A’/‘Jitpiti’ and ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’. While, a higher degree of: heterobeltiosis (13.60 -68.37% was observed for grain yield in the hybrids viz., ‘CRMS 32A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’, ‘APMS 6A’/’Super rice-8’ and ‘APMS 6A’/’Jitpiti’. A high degree of standard heterosis was observed for grain yield in the hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’. The hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/ ‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ recorded a high degree of relative heterosis (62.01%, heterobeltiosis (57.35% and standard heterosis (15.05 and 25.51% over check hybrids, ‘Mahamaya’ and ‘Indirasona’, respectively that can be tested on yield trials for its further testing over locations.

  2. Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I. The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive of interaction between parents.

  3. Pulp yield and mineral content of commercial hybrids of yellow passion fruits Conteúdo mineral e rendimento de polpa de híbridos comerciais de maracujá-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical analyses and an analysis of the mineral content were carried out by peroxide-perchloric wet-digestion, taking readings using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES and measurements using an analytical balance and digital paquimeter, of three commercial hybrids of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.: BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho and BRS Gigante Amarelo, cultivated and harvested from the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, in October/2007. Eighteen fruits were evaluated for each hybrid, and presented weights and dimensions superior to those found in the scientific literature, without significant differences between the hybrids. Sol do Cerrado showed less weight loss post storage when compared to the other hybrids, but no significant differences were found with respect to the other physical parameters studied. The mineral contents found in the hybrids were higher than the values found in the scientific literature and in the Brazilian food composition tables (TACO elaborated by NEPA-UNICAMP. The Sol do Cerrado had a higher iron content than the other hybrids. The hybrids are excellent sources of minerals, especially in comparison with the frozen pulp sold in supermarkets.Análises físicas e de conteúdo mineral foram executadas por meio de digestão peróxido/perclórica com leitura em ICP-AES, e medições, com auxílio de balança analítica digital e paquímetro digital, de três híbridos comerciais de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. - BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho e BRS Gigante Amarelo -, cultivados na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF, no período de outubro de 2007. Dezoito frutos de cada híbrido foram avaliados e apresentaram pesos e dimensões superiores àqueles encontrados na literatura científica, sem diferenças significativas entre os híbridos. Sol do Cerrado apresentou menor perda de peso após o armazenamento em relação aos

  4. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  5. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  6. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  7. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Low-Yield Cigarettes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... they compensate when smoking them. Smokers Who Use Low-Yield Cigarettes Many smokers consider smoking low-yield ...

  8. Variation on biomass yield and morphological traits of energy grasses from the genus Miscanthus during the first years of crop establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, S.; Glowacka, K.; Kaczmarek, Z. [Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszynska 34, 60-479 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents the results of investigations of variation, genotype x year interactions and genotype x year x location interactions for the yield and morphological traits of several selected clones of energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. The analyses were performed on the best clones of selected hybrid plants, which were obtained within the species M. sinensis or are the result of interspecific hybridization of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Analyses were conducted on the basis of three-year field trials at two locations. The young plants produced from in vitro cultures were planted at a density of one plant per m{sup 2}. The early stages of plant development, from planting until peak yield in the third year of cultivation, were analysed. Statistical analyses performed on the yield and morphological traits as well as changes in these characteristics over the successive years of the study showed considerable genotypic variation for traits under study. Moreover, significant genotype x year interactions as well as genotype x year x location interactions were observed in terms of yield and morphological traits. Based on the collective results of the study, we suggest that apart from M. x giganteus particularly hybrids of M. sinensis x M. sacchariflorus, should be taken into consideration in genetic and breeding studies on the improvement of yield from energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. (author)

  9. Identification of sorghum hybrids with high phenotypic stability using GGE biplot methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Almeida Filho, J E; Daher, R F; Menezes, C B; Cardoso, M J; Godinho, V P C; Torres, F E; Tardin, F D

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to identify sorghum hybrids that have both high yield and phenotypic stability in Brazilian environments. Seven trials were conducted between February and March 2011. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 25 treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of 20 simple pre-commercial hybrids and five witnesses of grain sorghum. Sorghum genotypes were analyzed by the genotype main effects + genotype environment interaction (GGE) biplot method if significant genotype x environment interaction, adaptability, and phenotypic stability were detected. GGE biplot methodology identified two groups of environments, the first composed of Água Comprida-MG, Montividiu-GO, and Vilhena- RO and the second of Guaíra-SP and Sete Lagoas-MG. The BRS 308 and 1G282 genotypes were found to have high grain yield, adaptability, and phenotypic stability and are thus indicated for cultivation in the first and second groups of environments, respectively.

  10. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  11. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  12. Genotype by environment interactions and yield stability of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... stability of stem borer resistant maize hybrids in Kenya. Yoseph .... additive model with environments as the only main effects. A two- ..... silage dry matter content of 18 Dutch maize varieties. However .... Genetic components of yield ... modification, and protein quality of hybrid and open-pollinated quality.

  13. Características fenológicas, produtivas e qualitativas de híbridos de girassol em diferentes épocas de semeadura para produção de silagem Sowing dates effects on the phenology, yield and qualitative traits of sunflower hybrids for silage making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2006-06-01

    ógica.The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of three sowing dates: October (early, November (normal and December (late, on the phenological, yield and qualitative traits of four sunflower hybrids: Rumbosol-91 (forage, M-734 (double purpose, C-11 (double purpose and BRS-191 (grain grown for silage making. A 4 x 3 factorial treatment combination (four hybrids x three sowing dates was allocated in a randomized block design with four replications. The October sowing brought about longer cycle, higher plant height, and smaller seed head diameter and contribution due to the prevailing climatic conditions of lower temperature, insolation and photoperiod during the crop growth period. The Rumbosol-91 and BRS-191 hybrids sowed in November showed higher lodging plus stalk breaking proportion of about 49.6 and 65.7%, respectively. The BRS-191 and M-734 hybrids sowed in December showed higher biomass yields of 39.71 and 43.76 t ha-1 fresh matter and 11.31 and 11.41 t ha-1 drymatter, respectively. While the CP content increased, the NDF, ADF and ADL contents decreased from the stem, to the leaf and to the head plant fractions. The whole plant DM values ranged from 23.2% in the Rumbosol-91 hybrid sowed in November to 47.9% in the C-11 hybrid sowed in December, indicating that the hybrids have differentiated moisture retention capacity at similar physiologic maturity of the culture (R-9 phase. The CP values ranged from 7.0 to 15.7%, an evidence of the high protein content of the culture. The ADL values of the whole plant ranged among 6.5 to 12.4%, with lowest values for the M-734 hybrid sowed in December and C-11 hybrid sowed in October. The M-734 hybrid sowed in December has better relationship among phenology, yield and bromatological composition, traits required for the making of high quality silage.

  14. Effects of Ensilaged Apple Pomace on Milk Yield and Quality of Simmental Hybrid Dual-Purpose Cattles%青贮苹果渣对西门塔尔牛产奶量及乳品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平

    2016-01-01

    选取年龄、体重相近和首次产犊且处于泌乳后期(200d)的西门塔尔牛60头,采用完全随机区组设计分为6组,对照组饲喂由青贮玉米、苜蓿草粉、小麦秸和精料组成的基础日粮,试验组日粮中分别以5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg的青贮苹果渣替代等量青贮玉米。结果表明,以青贮苹果渣替代青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量和乳品质均有一定程度的提高,替代50%时可显著提高牛的产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白含量(P0.05)。试验表明,青贮苹果渣替代一定比例的青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量、牛奶品质有改善作用。%Selected 60 simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows under the principle of similar age, body weight, body condition at ifrst time parturition, and at about 200 days in lactation period. The cows were divided into 6 experimental groups which have 10 cows each. The basal diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa meal, wheat straw and concentrates. The experimental groups were given diets with different percentage of ensilaged apple pomace instead of same weight of corn silage (5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg). The results showed that, the milk production and milk quality indices, such as milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage of the ensilaged apple pomace added groups improved at different degree. Moreover, the group with 50% ensilaged apple pomace added improved significantly(P0.05)markedly. Ensilaged apple pomace could improve milking performance and milk quality of simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows at certain degree which varies with the amount of ensilaged apple pomace.

  15. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  16. Effects of Site-specific Nitrogen Management on Grain Yield and Physiological Characters of Super Hybrid Rice%实时实地氮肥管理技术对超级杂交稻产量和生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科; 何爱斌; 龙继锐; 田小海; 张运波

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the optimum nutrient management method of two-line super hybrid rice, this experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice “Y-Liangyou 1”to compare the effects of different nitrogen management on yield and physiology of super hybrid rice.Experimental results were as follows:1)The grain yield of super hybrid rice under site-specific nitrogen management (SSNM)increased by 35.7% and 11.9% compared to no N-application treatment and FFP,respectively.And the AEN of super hybrid rice was increased by 150.0% under SSNM than FFP.2 )Chlorophyll content,leaf nitrogen content and SOD of SSNM treatment were higher than FFP by 9.6%,9.3% and 7.9% respectively. Conclusion: SSNM treatment significantly enhanced the root activity, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate during grain filling stage,and improved the soluble sugar content,soluble protein content,nitrate reductase activity and superoxide dismutase activity of flag leaf at flowering.Then the yield was consequently enhanced.%为探索两系超级杂交稻的最佳养分管理措施,以 Y 两优1号为供试材料,比较不同氮肥管理对超级杂交稻产量和高产生理机理的影响。结果表明:1)实地氮肥管理(SSNM)处理的超级杂交稻产量达8900 kg/hm2,比对照(不施氮肥)和农民模式(FFP)分别提高35.7%和11.9%,氮肥的农学利用率比 FFP提高153.0%,SSNM 处理提高超级杂交稻的产量主要在于每穗粒数和结实率大幅度提高;2)叶绿素含量、叶片氮含量和超氧化物歧化酶 SSNM 处理比 FFP 模式分别提高9.6%、9.3%和7.9%。结论:SSNM 处理较 FFP 模式能提高灌浆期根系活力、剑叶叶绿素含量和净光合速率,改善齐穗期剑叶可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、硝酸还原酶和超氧化物歧化酶的含量,从而提高超级杂交稻产量。

  17. 高产多抗玉米杂交种晋单63号述评%Review of the High Yield and Multi-resistances Maize Hybrid Jindan No.63

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单皓; 张久刚; 崔爱民; 张虎

    2013-01-01

      晋单63号是山西省农业科学院小麦研究所农业科技开发中心以自选系PK17为母本、PK8为父本杂交选育而成的夏玉米新品种,经连续6a的各级试验示范,表现出高产稳产、抗逆性强、适应性广、制种产量高等特点,适宜在黄淮海夏玉米区大面积推广种植。%  The new maize variety was bred by the Wheat Research Institute of Shangxi Academy of Agricultual Scinces. The inbred line PK17 was used as female parent and PK8 as the male parent.The result showed that Jindan No.63 had the characteristics of high and stable yields,strong resistance,wide adaptability,high seed yield at all levels of the experimental demonstration in the past six years. The variety is suitable for planting wide⁃spreadly in the summer maize areas of huanghai and huaihai.

  18. A Generalized Yield Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijian YUAN; Dazhi XIAO; Zhubin HE

    2004-01-01

    A generalized yield criterion is proposed based on the metal plastic deformation mechanics and the fundamental formula in theory of plasticity. Using the generalized yield criterion, the reason is explained that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion do not completely match with experimental data. It has been shown that the yield criteria of ductile metals depend not only on the quadratic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J2, but also on the cubic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J3 and the ratio of the yield stress in pure shear to the yield stress in uniaxial tension k/σs. The reason that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion are not in good agreement with the experimental data is that the effect of J3 and k/σs is neglected.

  19. Development and Characterization of Elite Doubled Haploid Lines from Two Indica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukmini MISHRA; Gundimeda Jwala Narashima RAO; Ravi Nageswara RAO; Pankaj KAUSHAL

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant yield advantage over inbred rice, the adoption rate of hybrid rice in India is very low due to the high seed cost and poor quality of the produce. To alleviate the problem, we initiated a doubled haploid (DH) breeding approach to develop new lines from two elite indica rice hybrids (CRHR5 and CRHR7) through rapid fixation of homozygosity in the recombinants.In vitro culture of the rice anthers resulted in 243 and 186 fertile DH lines of CRHR5 and CRHR7, respectively. Flow cytometric and pollen fertility analyses confirmed the DH ploidy status of the regenerations. Morpho-agronomic evaluation revealed 100% uniformity and stability for all the characters in the DH lines of both hybrids. Nineteen promising DH lines of each hybrid were advanced to A2 generation for yield evaluation. The yield levels of the DH lines ranged from 5 097–6 965 kg/hm2 for CRHR5 and 5 141–7 235 kg/hm2 for CRHR7, which were at par or higher than the parental hybrids. Physico-chemicalcharacterization and cooking quality analyses revealed significant and acceptable values for grain length and width, alkali spreading value, amylose content and water uptake ratio of the selected DH lines. Three DH lines, CR5-10, CR5-49, CR5-61 from CRHR5, and four DH lines, CR7-5, CR7-7, CR7-12 and CR7-52 from CRHR7, showed significant grain yield and quality characteristics and have been recommended for multi-location trials for subsequent release as new indicadoubled haploid rice varieties.

  20. 不同施肥方式对两系杂交稻产量和氮肥利用率的影响%Effect of Different Fertilization Methods on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Agronomy Efficiency of Two-Line Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱斌; 刘科; 孙志贵; 龙继锐; 田小海; 张运波

    2014-01-01

    该试验旨在探明尿素撒施和表层集中施肥对两系杂超级交稻产量和氮肥利用率的影响,以两系超级杂交稻 Y两优1号和两优0293为供试材料,以总氮肥施肥量为180 kg/hm2,分别设置为不同施用比例和不同的追肥方式,测定分蘖动态、SPAD值、叶面积指数和干物质积累的变化。结果表明:T3和 T4氮肥运筹模式能显著提产量和氮肥农学利用率,合理的氮肥后移有利于产量和氮肥利用率的提高,而一次性基肥施肥方法(T2)和一次性追肥方法(T5、T6)均不能协调好源和库之间的关系。尿素追肥撒施和表层集中施肥的方法对产量和氮肥的农学利用率影响不显著。%ln order to explore the effect of broadcast application of urea (BR-U) and surface concentrated-fertilization on grain yield and nitrogen agronomy efficiency of two-line super hybrid rice, this experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y-Liangyou 1 and Liangyou 0293 to determine til ering dynamics, SPAD, LAl and dry matter accumulation. lts total N application was 180 kg/hm2 and different application rate and topdressing methods were set respectively. The results showed that grain yield and nitrogen agronomy efficiency were significantly improved with the T3 and T4 nitrogenous fertilizer application model. The improving of grain yield and nitrogen agronomy efficiency was benefited from rational postponing N application. However, neither single application of base fertilizer (T2) nor single application of topdressing fertilizer (T5 and T6) can coordinate the relationship between source and sink. Both grain yield and nitrogen agronomy efficiency were insignificantly under the broadcast application of urea and surface concentrated fertilization.

  1. Comparative Study on Yield Formation and Nutrient Uptake and Utilization between Super Hybrid Rice and Conventional Rice%超级杂交稻与常规稻产量形成及养分吸收利用的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冰; 蒋鹏; 谢小兵; 赵杨; 魏颖娟; 黄敏; 邹应斌

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of yield formation, dry matter production and the nutrient uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) between super hybrid rice and conventional rice, taking similar panicles size of super hybrid rice(Liangyou peijiu, Y Liangyou 1) and conventional rice(Huanghuazhan, Yuxiangyouzhan) as materials, the field experiment with high N level(225(kg/hm2), medium N level(113~161 kg/hm2), and no N level(0 kg/hm2) was conducted in Changsha(N 28°12′) from 2011 to 2013. The results showed that super hybrid rice yield in average 9.55 and 9.57 t/hm 2 rice grains, produced averagely 18.05 and 18.24 t/hm2 dry matter and assimilated averagely 189.5 and 193.9 kg/hm2 N at maturity stage, of which increased signifi-cantly by 5.99%and 9.38%, 7.12%and 11.22%, 5.45%and 4.41% compared with conventional rice, respectively. Both super hybrid rice and conventional rice showed the nonlinear relationship of quadratic function between the grain yield and the N, P, K uptake rates and the multiple correlation coefficient was significant. Requirements for N, P and K of super hybrid rice were up to 19.79 and 20.09 kg, 3.90 and 4.09 kg, 20.57 and 22.37 kg, respectively, of which was significantly lower than that of conventional varieties. Un-der the condition of nitrogen application, there was a significantly linear correlation between the grain yield and the N, P, K nutrient requirements. Nitrogen recovery efficiency and its partial productivity showed the significant difference among tested varieties, but the agronomy efficiency and physiological utilization efficiency did not show the significant difference among the varieties. Nitrogen har-vest index of super hybrid rice was as high as 68.6% and 69.1% and significantly higher than that of conventional rice (62.7% and 64.0%), but no significant difference of N grain production efficiency was observed among the varieties. It is concluded that the high-yielding super hybrid rice was

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for del(5q) in myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia: comparison of EGR1 vs. CSF1R probes and diagnostic yield over metaphase cytogenetics alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Cook, James R

    2010-03-01

    To determine the clinical utility of FISH for del(5q) in MDS/AML, we first compared FISH for 5q31 (EGR1) and 5q33 (CSF1R) in 51 myeloid neoplasms containing del(5q) by metaphase cytogenetics. Next, EGR1 FISH was compared to metaphase cytogenetics alone in 269 cases of known or suspected MDS/AML. These studies show that while metaphase cytogenetics alone can detect del(5q) in most cases, FISH is particularly useful in cases with suboptimal growth. EGR1 FISH detects del(5q) in a broad variety of myeloid neoplasms, including at least most cases of 5q- syndrome, while studies for CSF1R add little to the diagnostic yield.

  3. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  4. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  5. Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; Zhan, Qilin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wenjun; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Chen, Jiaying; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin

    2016-09-29

    Increasing grain yield is a long-term goal in crop breeding to meet the demand for global food security. Heterosis, when a hybrid shows higher performance for a trait than both parents, offers an important strategy for crop breeding. To examine the genetic basis of heterosis for yield in rice, here we generate, sequence and record the phenotypes of 10,074 F2 lines from 17 representative hybrid rice crosses. We classify modern hybrid rice varieties into three groups, representing different hybrid breeding systems. Although we do not find any heterosis-associated loci shared across all lines, within each group, a small number of genomic loci from female parents explain a large proportion of the yield advantage of hybrids over their male parents. For some of these loci, we find support for partial dominance of heterozygous locus for yield-related traits and better-parent heterosis for overall performance when all of the grain-yield traits are considered together. These results inform on the genomic architecture of heterosis and rice hybrid breeding.

  6. Transformation, evaluation of GTGene and multivariate genetic analysis for morpho-physiological and yield attributing traits in Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaliya Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the 3rd major crop grown all over the world that fulfills the needs of millions of people. Various biotic and abiotic factors caused reduction in grain yield of maize, among them weeds show most adverse effects. Objective of this study was to develop glyphosate resistance maize for developing maize hybrids and synthetic varieties with high grain and fodder yield potential. Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide and resistance of crop against the herbicide, allows post emergence application, which otherwise is impossible. Higher GTG crude protein (479.94μg/g was recorded for CIL 194-975 plant. The plant CIL 194-1786 showed higher expression level of GTG protein, indicated that transformation efficiency was better for line CIL-194 than CIL-123. GTGene stably integrated to the genome of the maize lines CIL-194 and CIL-123, these transformed lines showed more ability to cope with herbicides as compared with non-transformed lines in greenhouse and field trials. The transgenic lines were sown in field and data was recorded for various morpho-physiological, grain, fodder yield and quality traits. Data was statistically analyzed to check significance of results at <0.05% probability level. It was concluded from heritability, genetic advance, stepwise multiple linear regression, principle component and factor analysis that the selection on the basis of grain yield, green fodder yield, stem diameter, cob weight, stomata conductance, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, cob length, grain protein, grain oil, embryo percentage and grain starch may be fruitful keeping in view as the major contributing traits to improve crop yield and production. It was suggested that the transgenic lines for glyphosate resistance may be used to develop transgenic hybrids and synthetic varieties with higher grain yield with high quality.

  7. High-yielding Seed Production Techniques for Two-line Good Quality Hybrid Rice Combination Y Liangyou 5866 Planted as Post-tobacco Rice%优质两系杂交稻Y两优5866烟后高产制种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄邵荣

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we introduced the parent,s characteristics of two-line good quality hybrid rice Y Liangyou 5866. At the same time, this paper also summarized the rice high-yielding seed production technology planted as post-tobacco rice, which contained reasonable arrangements for the parents of the sowing gap stage, cultivating more tillers seedlings, scientific field management, integrated pest management, create the parents of high yield population, scientific spraying “920”, improve the outcrossing rate, strictly to miscellaneous go bad, ensure the seed quality and so on several aspects.%介绍了优质两系杂交水稻Y两优5866亲本的特征特性,结合3a制种实践,总结其烟后高产制种技术:合理安排父母本播种差期,培育多蘖壮秧、科学田管、综合防治病虫、创建父母本高产群体,科学喷施“九二○”、提高异交结实率,严格去杂去劣、确保种子质量等几个环节。

  8. 施氮量和时期运筹对超级杂交稻植株氮含量与籽粒产量的影响研究%Effect of Nitrogen Application Amount and Stage Management on Nitrogen Content in Plant and Grain Yield of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽红; 纪雄辉; 李永华; 朱校奇; 李洪顺; 彭华; 刘昭兵

    2011-01-01

    以当前长江中下游稻区具有代表性的高产超级稻品种Y两优1号为材料,采用不同施N量与施N时期分配的田间试验,研究施N对超级稻植株N含量与籽粒产量的影响,从而明确超级稻高产的穗肥N施用量和比例.结果表明:随着施N量的增加,超级稻茎叶和籽粒N含量均呈线性升高,而且施N量对生殖生长阶段茎叶N含量的影响更为显著;与总施N量相比,穗肥N对生殖生长阶段各时期茎叶N含量的影响斜率要高1.88、1.02、1.86和2.28倍,而对成熟期籽粒N含量的影响斜率要高3.59倍.分蘖盛期至抽穗期的茎叶N含量与籽粒产量呈显著线性相关,而成熟期茎叶和籽粒N均与籽粒产量表现为二次抛物线关系;通过模拟方程和不同施N比例处理的叶片外观特征均推算出超级杂交稻达到最高产量的穗肥N用量为59.0 kg/hm2,占总施肥量32.8%.对4个时期施N比例进一步分析表明,各处理籽粒产量与由方程计算的最高产量接近,10-50-25-15处理的籽粒产量要高1.7%,说明合理分配部分N作为粒肥更有利于提高超级杂交稻产量.超级杂交稻合理穗肥(和粒肥)N有利于优化成熟期茎叶和籽粒N含量,从而构建超级稻最大库容量,使其达到最高产量水平.%Two field experiments, I.e., nitrogen-fertilizer amount and ratio in different growth stages, were conducted by using current representative super hybrid rice--No1 Y Liangyou at the middle and down reach of Yangtze River. The dynamics of stem-leaf nitrogen content affected by nitrogen-fertilizer amount and fertilization stage, relationship between nitrogen application and plant nitrogen content, plant nitrogen content and grain yield were studied to understand the amount and ratio of spike nitrogen. The results showed that the nitrogen content in stem-leaf over the whole growth season, especially in generative growth stage were linearly raised as nitrogen-fertilizer amount increased; Compared

  9. High Yield Trial on Cage Culture of Hybrid Snakehead ‘Hang Channa No.1' in a Reservoir%水库网箱养殖杂交鳢“杭鳢1号”高产试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光中; 蔡超凰; 胡辉; 罗世民

    2013-01-01

    水库网箱养殖杂交鳢“杭鳢1号”,2010年7月在网箱中放养尾质量8.4g“杭鳢1号”鱼种,经170 d饲养,平均尾质量达372.5 g;2010年底进行成鱼放养,网箱面积200m2,投入尾质量376.3 g鱼种20 700尾,经一年饲养,净产成鱼19 196 kg,最高单产102.3 kg/m2,平均单产95.98 kg/m2,最大个体2650 g,平均尾质量1573.4 g,成活率82.0%,投入产出比1∶1.74.

  10. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as mayon

  11. Multicentre clinical trials' data management: a hybrid solution to exploit the strengths of electronic data capture and electronic health records systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Dentone, Chiara; Fenoglio, Daniela; Giacomini, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    Clinical Trials (CTs) are indispensable instruments for evidence-based medicine and frequently necessitate the management, sharing and analysis of large amounts of data amongst partners in different locations. To effectively satisfy these requirements, the proposed solution combines a web platform and a Clinical Data Management System (CDMS) to exploit the strengths of Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Electronic Data Capture (EDC) systems. The core of the proposal is a relational database which has high data structuring characteristics and utilises biomedical controlled vocabularies (e.g. LOINC and ICD). In addition, units and normality ranges were collected for data comparison through the application of the Z-score transformation. The obtained CDMS preserves the EDC's flexibility and user autonomy and permits the creation of patient cohorts, as in the EHR. Accordingly, clinical information, after the initial recording, is available for different simultaneous multicentre CTs. Furthermore, interface runtime controls guarantee high data quality during data entering processes. Currently, the proposed system has been developed in the HIV and eye diseases fields in Italy. The proposed solution is flexible and suitable to perform multicentre research within a varying range of medical domains. In the future, the automatic importation of information from hospitals has been planned through an HL7 standard interface which would improve both data quantity and quality.

  12. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  13. 基于 GGE 双标图的水稻区试品种丰产性、稳产性和适应性评价%Use of GGE Biplots in the Yielding Ability,Stability and Adaptation Evaluation for the Varieties in the Rice Regional Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 程本义; 鄂志国; 杨仕华

    2015-01-01

    Crop regional trial is an important part of the crop breeding,registering and extension for new varieties. AMMI models and GGE biplots are very effective in the date analysis of the crop regional trial,especially in the evaluation of yielding ability,stability and adaptation for the tested varieties,while GGE biplots have gain more popularity in recent years.This article introduced GGE biplots,and used a data set from 2012 trial group B of the early maturity for late season indica rice in Southern China Rice Regional Trials as an example to demonstrate its effectiveness in the evaluation of yielding ability,stability and adaptation for the tested varieties.The paper also discussed the points for attentions or precautions in the application of the GGE biplots.%区域试验是作物新品种从选育到审定、推广的重要环节。而对试验数据的分析汇总,尤其是参试品种的丰产性、稳产性和适应性分析,比较流行和有效的方法是 AMMI 模型和 SREG 模型的 GGE 双标图,但基于 SREG 模型的 GGE 双标图的方法应用在近年来更为广泛。本文简要介绍 GGE 双标图,并以2012年南方稻区晚籼早熟 B 组品种区域试验数据为例,利用 GGE 双标图对参试品种进行丰产性、稳产性和适应性评价,并对评价中的注意事项作了讨论。

  14. 不同栽种、施肥对单季杂交粳稻8优161产量的影响%EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PLANTING PATTERNS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS ON YIELD OF SINGLE-CROPPING HYBRID JAPONIC rice var. 8 you 161

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管耀祖; 张镇铭; 等

    2001-01-01

    The effects of various planting patterns and nitrogen fertilizer application methods on yield of single-cropping hybrid Japonic rice var. 8 you 161 were investigated through experiments carried out in Hangzhou. The results showed that under medium soil fertility the highest grain yields were obtained when 210 and 270 kg/ha of pure nitrogen were applied using the medium-stages heavier fertilization method, and the third highest yield was obtained when 270kg N/ha were applied using the early and late-stages heavier fertilization method. The best plant density was 250,000 plants/ha combining one seedling per hole and planting spacing of 24.0cm×16.7cm, followed by the plant density of 250,000 plants/ha combining one seedling per hole and planting spacing of 30.0cm×13.3cm.%通过对单季杂交粳稻8优161不同栽插本数与栽种方式、氮肥用量和施用方法的试验分析,初步明确了获得8优161高产相应的栽插本数和栽种方式、氮肥用量及施用方法。即在中等土壤肥力条件下,施纯氮210~270kg/hm2,以采用平促施肥法为最佳;其次是两头法;在栽插密度为25.0万穴/hm2时,每穴栽1本,以行株距24.0cm×16.7cm最好;30.0cm×13.3cm次之。

  15. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  16. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  17. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante

  18. Effects of Interaction between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Planting Density on Leaf Type,Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Mechanical-transplanting Super Hybrid Rice%氮肥和密度互作对机插超级杂交稻叶型、光合特性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乾; 刘科; 何爱斌; 龙继锐; 卢碧林; 田小海; 张运波

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different nitrogen fertilizer application amount and transplanting density on the leaf type,photosynthetic characteristic and yield of mechanical-transplanting super rice were studied with Quanliangyou 681 as material. The results showed that the interaction between the planting density and ni-trogen fertilizer significantly influenced the rate of effective leaf area,net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance,and did not significantly influenced the intercellular CO2 concentration. The lower planting density and nitrogen fertilizer application amount were beneficial for the increase of effective leaf area rate,lower planting density and higher fertilizer application amount were beneficial for the increase of net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance. The interaction between the planting density and nitrogen fertilizer significantly influenced the yield of super hybrid rice,the yield increased with the increase of the planting density and nitrogen fertilizer application amount,the treatment with high fertilizer application amount(250 kg / ha)and high density(2. 38 × 105 plants/ ha) obtained the highest yiled of 9. 26 t/ ha, which significantly higher than the other treatments. The interaction between the planting density and ni-trogen fertilizer mainly influenced the panicles number per plant and setting percentage,and panicles number per plant was crucial for high yield of mechanical-transplanting super hybrid rice,the proper in-crease of transplanting density was the approach to receive high yield under the suitable nitrogen fertilizer application amount in Jianghan Plain.%以超级杂交稻全两优681为材料,探讨不同氮肥用量和密度对江汉平原地区机插超级杂交稻叶型、光合特性及产量的影响。结果表明,氮肥和密度互作对高效叶面积率、净光合速率和气孔导度影响显著,对胞间 CO2浓度影响不显著。低氮、低密度有利于高效叶面积率的提高,高氮、低密度

  19. Implementation findings from a hybrid III implementation-effectiveness trial of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Reardon, Caitlin M; AuYoung, Mona; Moin, Tannaz; Datta, Santanu K; Sparks, Jordan B; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Steinle, Nanette I; Weinreb, Jane E; Hughes, Maria; Pinault, Lillian F; Xiang, Xinran M; Billington, Charles; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-07-26

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an effective lifestyle intervention to reduce incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, there are gaps in knowledge about how to implement DPP. The aim of this study was to evaluate implementation of DPP via assessment of a clinical demonstration in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). A 12-month pragmatic clinical trial compared weight outcomes between the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Prevention Program (VA-DPP) and the usual care MOVE!® weight management program (MOVE!). Eligible participants had a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) (or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) with one obesity-related condition), prediabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7-6.5% or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100-125 mg/dL), lived within 60 min of their VA site, and had not participated in a weight management program within the last year. Established evaluation and implementation frameworks were used to guide the implementation evaluation. Implementation barriers and facilitators, delivery fidelity, participant satisfaction, and implementation costs were assessed. Using micro-costing methods, costs for assessment of eligibility and scheduling and maintaining adherence per participant, as well as cost of delivery per session, were also assessed. Several barriers and facilitators to Reach, Adoption, Implementation, Effectiveness and Maintenance were identified; barriers related to Reach were the largest challenge encountered by site teams. Fidelity was higher for VA-DPP delivery compared to MOVE! for five of seven domains assessed. Participant satisfaction was high in both programs, but higher in VA-DPP for most items. Based on micro-costing methods, cost of assessment for eligibility was $68/individual assessed, cost of scheduling and maintaining adherence was $328/participant, and cost of delivery was $101/session. Multi-faceted strategies are needed to reach targeted participants and successfully implement DPP. Costs for assessing patients for

  20. Clinical trial to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli prototype vaccine containing CFA/I overexpressing bacteria and recombinantly produced LTB/CTB hybrid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, A; Leach, S; Tobias, J; Carlin, N; Gustafsson, B; Jertborn, M; Bourgeois, L; Walker, R; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-02-06

    We have developed a new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea containing killed recombinant E. coli bacteria expressing increased levels of ETEC colonization factors (CFs) and a recombinant protein (LCTBA), i.e. a hybrid between the binding subunits of E. coli heat labile toxin (LTB) and cholera toxin (CTB). We describe a randomized, comparator controlled, double-blind phase I trial in 60 adult Swedish volunteers of a prototype of this vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of the prototype vaccine, containing LCTBA and an E. coli strain overexpressing the colonization factor CFA/I, was compared to a previously developed oral ETEC vaccine, consisting of CTB and inactivated wild type ETEC bacteria expressing CFA/I (reference vaccine). Groups of volunteers were given two oral doses of either the prototype or the reference vaccine; the prototype vaccine was administered at the same or a fourfold higher dosage than the reference vaccine. The prototype vaccine was found to be safe and equally well-tolerated as the reference vaccine at either dosage tested. The prototype vaccine induced mucosal IgA (fecal secretory IgA and intestine-derived IgA antibody secreting cell) responses to both LTB and CFA/I, as well as serum IgA and IgG antibody responses to LTB. Immunization with LCTBA resulted in about twofold higher mucosal and systemic IgA responses against LTB than a comparable dose of CTB. The higher dose of the prototype vaccine induced significantly higher fecal and systemic IgA responses to LTB and fecal IgA responses to CFA/I than the reference vaccine. These results demonstrate that CF over-expression and inclusion of the LCTBA hybrid protein in an oral inactivated ETEC vaccine does not change the safety profile when compared to a previous generation of such a vaccine and that the prototype vaccine induces significant dose dependent mucosal immune responses against CFA/I and LTB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  3. Efectul aplicării lucrărilor de întreținere a terenului asupra acumulărilor de biomasă din culturile de plop hibrid [The effect of harrowing and weed control on biomass yields of hybrid poplar crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avăcăriței D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive hybrid poplar crops can produce an important biomass if adequate measures of management are being used. During the last years, there is a constant involvement on refining poplar cultivation technology, regarding installation, maintenance and harvesting, in order to obtain superior production at lower costs. The present study has analysed the effect of an experimental maintaining treatment (TI (harrowing and weed control on poplar crops’ biomass yields. The results were obtained after two vegetation seasons and compared with the results recorded in a control plot where no maintaining practices (TN were used. The experimental crop was set up in the spring of 2013, in the vicinity of Dornești site (Suceava County. Three hybrid poplar clones were tested (AF2, AF8 and Pannonia in each plot, and there were installed by long rods, using the 3.0 x 1.5 m spacing. The biomass was assessed for all the harvested individuals and every tree component using the gravimetric method. The experimental maintaining treatment (TI led to important differences between the two plots. The total biomass in TI plot was nearly eight-times superior to the biomass obtained in the control plot. All the three clones reacted significantly to the experimental treatment TI, even though minor differences were observed between the clones’ productivity. The effect of TI treatment was also substantial to the biomass’ structure on tree components. It is considered that the massive biomass increase was encouraged by a consistent shift of biomass proportion in the favour of the crown proportion (branches biomass, rather than subterranean elements.

  4. Productive characteristics of maize hybrids at different cutting heights for silage and organic matter and mineral rates in post-harvest residues - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16642

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simili da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current trial evaluated yield, organic matter and mineral composition of the residual harvest of five maize hybrids at three cutting heights (15, 35 and 55 cm. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block split plot with three replications. Concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, MS, MM and MO in the samples were evaluated. No difference among hybrids occurred in stem diameter (22.4 mm, ear production (8.0 ton DM ha-1, grain harvest index (37.3% and total forage yield (15.0 ton DM ha-1. Hybrid effect occurred for variables of mineral composition of harvest residues. With the exception of calcium, a rise in cutting height from 15 to 55 cm failed to increase the concentration of minerals in the residue. The amount of organic matter and mineral residues that remained in the field increased in proportion to crop height.  

  5. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  6. Comparisons on Forage Yield and Feeding Value Between Zea mexicana,Yucao2 and Chuandan14-Zea mexicana Hybrid%玉草2号、川单14×墨西哥大刍草和墨西哥大刍草产量和饲用价值比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云超; 唐祈林; 荣廷昭

    2011-01-01

    To understand the forage yields in different planting density as well as their feeding value in the optimum density, a field experiment which Zea mexicana and Zea mays -Zea mexicana hybrids (Yucao2 and Chuan-danl4 × Zea mexicana) used as the materials were designed by random block split plot design investigated. The main results were that the fresh and dry matter yields of the three forages, which showed the change of "low-high-low" with the increase of planting density. The fresh and dry matter yields were the highest in the Yucao2 and the lowest in Zea mexicana among all planting density. The yields of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract(EE) in Yucao2 and chuandanl4× Zea Mexicana were higher than in Zea mexicana significantly or high significant, however, the content of CP and EE was the highest in Zea Mexicana. The relative feeding value(RFV) in Yucao2 had no significance with that in Zea mexicana and were higher than in chuandanl4 × Zea mexicana significantly.%采用裂区设计,对不同种植密度下玉草2号、川单14×墨西哥大刍草和墨西哥大刍草产量以及最适密度下饲用价值进行研究.结果表明,在试验设计的密度下,玉草2号鲜、干草产量均最高,川单14×墨西哥大刍草其次,墨西哥大刍草最低;3种饲草其鲜、干草产量随密度增加呈"低-高-低"的变化趋势.最适密度下饲用价值比较表明,玉草2号和川单14×墨西哥大刍草粗蛋白、酸性洗涤纤维、中性洗涤纤维和粗脂肪4种饲用成分产量均显著或极显著高于墨西哥大刍草,其粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量均低于墨西哥大刍草;玉草2号和墨西哥大刍草相对饲用价值差异不显著,均显著高于川单14×墨西哥大刍草.

  7. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  8. Stacked -gene hybrids were not found to be superior to glyphosate resistant or Non-GMO corn hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed costs of modern corn hybrids genetically modified with multiple traits for insect and herbicide resistance “stacked-gene” are in excess of $100.00 US per acre. Yields and net returns per acre along with yield component data were determined for ten hybrids, four stacked-gene, four glyphosate re...

  9. H-70: híbrido de maíz de alto rendimiento para temporal y riego del Altiplano central de México H-70: high yield maize hybrid for rainfed and irrigated of the central Highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arellano Vázquez

    2011-08-01

    representan de 7 a 14 mil pesos por ha. Este incremento hace rentable la producción de maíz.The genetic improvement of maize in Valles Altos, has allowed the development of hybrids with high yield, low bearing and resistance to lodging disease in the past decade; which have been products of the parent lines combination of Valles Altos of INIFAP and CIMMYT (Arellano et al., 1997. H-70 resulted from that combination as a trilinear hybrid, with white grains and semi-crystalline texture, with favorable adaptation to elevations of 2 200 to 2 600 m, intermediate maturity, as it achieves male flowering or tasseling at 100 days and female or silking at 102 days, on average. Presents plant height of 2.4 m and cob height of 1.4 m. It is resistant to lodging disease and plant and cob diseases. Yield fluctuates from 4 to 13.3 t ha-1, under a density of 65 000 plants ha-1. The cob has an average length of 16 cm, with 18 rows and 34 grains per row. Cob weight is 180 g and the grain/cob ratio is 86%. The average weight of 100 grains is 43.3 g. Harvesting can be done at 180 days, with a grain moisture content of 25 to 26%, so the cob must undergo a drying process to reduce moisture down to 14%. If the producer does not have a dry storage, he can harvest at 210 days with a grain moisture content of 18% to 19% and continue with the natural cob drying. The yields obtained with H-70 exceeded in 13% the yield of commercial hybrids. The genetic constitution of this hybrid allows it to positively thrive at different rainfall levels and planting in areas with rainfall delay until May 15th. Its plant bearing provides intensive planting with 70 000 plants ha-1 for grain production and it has potential for forage production in irrigated areas and a good rainfall. The main economic impact of H-70 is the difference of 3 and 7 t ha-1 over the yield of native seeds, representing 7 to 14 thousand pesos per hectare. This increase makes proftable the maize production.

  10. Disaggregating sorghum yield reductions under warming scenarios exposes narrow genetic diversity in US breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Lingenfelser, Jane; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-08-29

    Historical adaptation of sorghum production to arid and semiarid conditions has provided promise regarding its sustained productivity under future warming scenarios. Using Kansas field-trial sorghum data collected from 1985 to 2014 and spanning 408 hybrid cultivars, we show that sorghum productivity under increasing warming scenarios breaks down. Through extensive regression modeling, we identify a temperature threshold of 33 °C, beyond which yields start to decline. We show that this decline is robust across both field-trial and on-farm data. Moderate and higher warming scenarios of 2 °C and 4 °C resulted in roughly 17% and 44% yield reductions, respectively. The average reduction across warming scenarios from 1 to 5 °C is 10% per degree Celsius. Breeding efforts over the last few decades have developed high-yielding cultivars with considerable variability in heat resilience, but even the most tolerant cultivars did not offer much resilience to warming temperatures. This outcome points to two concerns regarding adaption to global warming, the first being that adaptation will not be as simple as producers' switching among currently available cultivars and the second being that there is currently narrow genetic diversity for heat resilience in US breeding programs. Using observed flowering dates and disaggregating heat-stress impacts, both pre- and postflowering stages were identified to be equally important for overall yields. These findings suggest the adaptation potential for sorghum under climate change would be greatly facilitated by introducing wider genetic diversity for heat resilience into ongoing breeding programs, and that there should be additional efforts to improve resilience during the preflowering phase.

  11. Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Forage Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the effect of growth-promoting bacteria on yield and some traits of maize. This experiment was performed as a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at research farm of Islamic Azad University, Izeh branch, Iran. The experimental factors included four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescent 169 (B1, Pseudomonas fluorescent 79 (B2, Pseudomonas putida 108 (B3, Pseudomonas putida 159 (B4 and without bacteria (control, B5 and two corn varieties namely sc 704 (A1 and Bolson (A2. Before planting corn seeds were soaked with liquid inoculation. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and dry matter digestibility of leaf, stem and ear, crude protein and cell wall without hemicellulose in the leaf, stem and ear were evaluated. Analysis of variances showed that the effects of varieties, bacteria and their interaction on all traits were significant. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and stem dry matter digestibility were higher in Bolson. Moreover, dry matter digestibility of leaf and ear, crude protein and cell wall without hemicellulose in the leaf, stem and ear of sc 704 were greater, compared to hybrid Bolson. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and dry matter digestibility of stem and ear were greater in at the presence of fluorescent strains than those of putida strains. The results revealed that bacterial inoculation enhances the grain yield, yield components and quality of forage maize. Bolson seemed potent to outperform sc 704, though this proposition needs further examination in future field trials.

  12. INDUSTRIAL YIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HIGH QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE AS COMPARED TO COMMERCIAL HYBRIDS RENDIMENTO INDUSTRIAL E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DE MILHO DE ALTA QUALIDADE PROTÉICA EM RELAÇÃO A HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The hardness of corn endosperm is an essential attribute for farmers and industries that use this cereal as a raw material. However, Quality Protein Maize (QPM presents alterations in the grain texture, which hinder its commercial use. This study evaluated the industrial yield in the kernel degerming and endosperm fractionation, and chemical composition of a QPM variety, regarding commercial common corn hybrids. QPM and common corn genotypes were processed using the dry degerming method, and the resulting yield was expressed as the ratio of the weight of fractions obtained to the initial weight of the whole corn. Compared to commercial corn hybrids, QPM presented lower endosperm yield, higher germ and fine fraction (< 0.425 mm yield and the same hominy yield in endosperm fractionation. QPM showed similar protein, lipid, and ash levels and higher levels of dietary fiber and iron in the germ, when compared to common corn hybrids. QPM and its fractions have potential as a nutritious raw material for use by the food industry.

    KEY-WORDS: QPM corn; corn germ; degermed corn yield; corn chemical composition; corn nutrients.

  13. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  14. Genetic Effects and Heterosis of Yield and Yield Component Traits Based on Gossypium Barbadense Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Two Gossypium Hirsutum Backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Li

    Full Text Available We hybridized 10 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs each from two CSSL populations and produced 50 F1 hybrids according to North Carolina Design II. We analyzed the genetic effects and heterosis of yield and yield components in the F1 hybrids and parents in four environments via the additive-dominance genetic model. Yield and yield components of the CSSLs were controlled by combined additive and dominance effects, and lint percentage was mainly controlled by additive effects, but boll weight, boll number, seedcotton yield and lint yield were mainly controlled by dominance effects. We detected significant interaction effects between genetics and the environment for all yields traits. Similar interactions were detected between two CSSL populations (Pop CCRI 36 and Pop CCRI 45. Significant positive mid-parent heterosis was detected for all yield traits in both populations, and significant positive better-parent heterosis was also detected for all yield traits except lint percentage. The differences among parents were relatively small, but significant heterosis was detected for yield and yield components. Therefore, the relationship between heterosis and genetic distance for yield traits is complicated and requires further study. These CSSLs represent useful tools for improving yield and yield components in cotton.

  15. YIELD OF AMARANTH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. (Received 28 ... properties, growth and shoot yield of large-green leafy amaranth (Amaranth sp.). Soil moisture ... microorganisms which stimulate the physical processes ... to plants and, consequently, crop establishment ... sustainable soil structure.

  16. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate new interspecific genotypes for intensified double cropping of irrigated rice. The experimental ... the performance of the new irrigated .... nursing at a spacing of 20 cm between plants ..... if new technologies, comprising high yielding.

  17. 杂交稻新品种Ⅱ优5928亲本特征特性及高产制种技术%Parent Characteristics and High-yield Seed Production Techniques for New Late Indica Hybrid Rice Combination , Ⅱ you 5928

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 徐淑英

    2012-01-01

    Ⅱ You 5928 is a late indica hybrid rice combination derived from CMS line Ⅱ-32A and restore line longhui 5928 by Longyan Agricultural institution,Fujian province,and authorized by the Fujian Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2008.The characteristics of the combination was high yield,disease resistance,wide adaptability,high seed production.The parental characteristics and seed production techniques were summarized in the paper.%Ⅱ优5928是福建省龙岩市农科所用不育系Ⅱ-32A与自育恢复系龙恢5928配组育成的晚籼杂交稻新品种,2008年通过福建省农作物品种审定。具有产量高、抗病性强、广适性好、制种产量高等特色优势性状。概括了Ⅱ优5928亲本的特征特性,总结了该品种的高产制种技术。

  18. Breeding and Cultivation Technique of High-yield and High-quality Hybrid Maize Yundan 20 with Multiple Resistances%高产・多抗・优质玉米杂交种郧单20的选育及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 李永学; 吴承国; 唐余成; 陈光勇; 王致云; 柯磊

    2016-01-01

    Yundan 20 is a high-yield and high-quality hybrid maize variety with multiple resistances , which is bred by Shiyan Academy of Agri-culture Sciences.Its female parent is WD01 bred by Shiyan Academy of Agriculture Sciences and male parent is T259 which is introduced.In 2016, Yundan 20 was approved by the Crop Variety Approval Committee of Hubei Province, with a variety approval number 2016005.The breed-ing process, integral characteristics, cultivation techniques and seed production techniques of Yundan 20 were summarized and analyzed , which aimed to promote the variety and meet market demand .%郧单20是湖北省十堰市农业科学院采用自选系WD01作母本、外引系T259作父本选育的高产、多抗、品种优良的玉米新品种,2016年通过湖北省农作物品种审定委员会审定,品种审定编号为2016005。通过对郧单20选育过程、综合特性、栽培技术、制种技术等方面进行总结和分析,以期推广该品种,满足市场需求。

  19. Influência da adubação nas relações entre constituintes químicos dos grãos, dos grãos e das folhas, e a produção de milho Effect of fertilizer on chemical composition of kernels, leaves and yield of a corn hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Dados do ano agrícola 1972-73 de dois ensaios permanentes de adubação em milho foram utilizados para determinar os efeitos da aplicação anual continuada de sulfato de amônio, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio na produção e composição química dos grãos. A análise química foliar foi utilizada para determinar os efeitos dessas variações nutricionais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a adubação e as condições ambientes (localidade afetaram significativamente a produção e a composição das folhas e dos grãos.Data of a continuous fertilization yield trial were analysed in two locations in 1972-73, to study the effect of continuous annual application of ammonium sul-phate, simple superphosphate and potassium chloride on yield and composition of kernels. The foliar chemical analysis was utilized to determine the plant response to the fertilizer application. Data showed a significant effect of local conditions on the yield and composition of plant material. Ammonium sulphate and superphosphate increased yield in both locations whereas potassium chloride was a factor only in Mococa. Phosphate application was the main factor to explain yield in any condition. In Mococa the nitrogen dosage, the contents of N, S, P, Mn, Cu, Zn in the leaf +4 and yield were positively correlated with protein and negatively associated with starch percentage of the seed. All the above cited nutrients increased with ammonium sulphate application. Both phosphate fertilizer and P in leaves correlated positively with seed oil content. Potassium fertilizer and K in leaves were positively correlated with percent oil and negatively associated with linoleic acid. Total oil content and linoleic acid showed negative correlation. There was a tendency for potassium fertilizer decrease starch in the grain. This was evidenced by negative correlation between K and CI in the leaves and kernel starch. Both locations showed significant correlation between

  20. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp. Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pospišil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L., and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense. In all three trial years, forage sorghum gave the highest green mass and dry matter yield at the tasselling stage. In 2003, also amaranth, cultivar 1008, gave a high green mass yield at the flowering, which was in the same rank as forage sorghum. Decline of biomass quality was observed at later development stages due to a decrease in the concentration of crude and digestible proteins and an increase in NDF (neutral detergent fibre and ADF (acid detergent fibre concentrations. High quality of amaranth biomass was determined. Higher concentrations of crude and digestible proteins were found in amaranth aboveground biomass compared to forage sorghum while sorghum had a higher NDF concentration.

  1. Analysis of yield stability and test site representativeness of sugarcane trials using combined AMMI and HA-GGE biplot models%应用AMMI和HA-GGE双标图分析甘蔗品种产量稳定性和试点代表性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洲涛; 苏炜华; 阙友雄; 许莉萍; 张华; 罗俊

    2016-01-01

    对甘蔗区域试验数据进行基因型与环境互作分析,有利于全面了解参试品种的丰产性和各试点的代表性,对优良新品种的推广和品种的区域分布也有着重要意义.本文综合利用AMMI模型和HA-GGE双标图对2014年国家甘蔗第10轮区域试验11个品种和13个试点的蔗茎产量和蔗糖产量数据进行产量稳定性和丰产性分析,评价试点的代表性和分辨力.结果表明:蔗茎产量和蔗糖产量在不同品种和试点间存在极显著差异,品种和试点存在极显著互作效应.'福农40号'综合表现最佳,是产量高、丰产性好且蔗茎产量和蔗糖产量的稳定性均较强的品种;'云蔗08-2060'的产量略低于'福农40号',但蔗茎产量和蔗糖产量的稳定性强于'福农40号';与对照品种'ROC22'相比,'粤甘43号'、'粤甘46号'和'闽糖02-205'的蔗茎产量和蔗糖产量较高,稳定性中等,'福农40号'、'粤甘43号'、'粤甘46号'和'云蔗08-2060'均具有较强的适应性,可在适宜蔗区推广应用.综合AMMI和HA-GGE双标图分析结果表明,广东遂溪、云南开远和福建福州具有较高的地点分辨力和试点代表性.因此,AMMI和HA-GGE双标图的综合运用,可更准确直观地评价出各品种的丰产性、稳定性和适应性以及各试点的分辨力和代表性.本研究可为甘蔗新品种的鉴定与推广提供有价值的理论参考.%Knowledge on yield stability of sugarcane varieties and representativeness of test sites during national regional trials of sugarcane varieties is critical for rationally regional distribution and guiding sugarcane breeding. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and heritability adjusted GGE (HA-GGE) biplot models are the two widely used statistical methods in analyzing data on crop variety trials. Using experimental data from regional trials, the interactions between crop genotype and environment can be analyzed to determine yield potential of

  2. Beyond trial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Conventional wisdom on psychological experiments has held that when one or more independent variables are manipulated it is essential that all other conditions are kept constant such that confounding factors can be assumed negligible (Woodworth, 1938). In practice, the latter assumption is often questionable because it is generally difficult to guarantee that all other conditions are constant between any two trials. Therefore, the most common way to check for confounding violations of this assumption is to split the experimental conditions in terms of "trial types" to simulate a reduction of unintended trial-by-trial variation. Here, we pose a method which is more general than the use of trial types: use of mathematical models treating measures of potentially confounding factors and manipulated variables as equals on the single-trial level. We show how the method can be applied with models that subsume under the generalized linear item response theory (GLIRT), which is the case for most of the well-known psychometric models (Mellenbergh, 1994). As an example, we provide a new analysis of a single-letter recognition experiment using a nested likelihood ratio test that treats manipulated and measured variables equally (i.e., in exactly the same way) on the single-trial level. The test detects a confounding interaction with time-on-task as a single-trial measure and yields a substantially better estimate of the effect size of the main manipulation compared with an analysis made in terms of trial types.

  3. Estimativas de herdabilidade e correlações quanto à produção de grãos e outras características agronômicas em populações de trigo Variance, heritability and correlations in wheat hybrid populations for grain yield and other agronomic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE OLIVEIRA CAMARGO

    2000-02-01

    between these characteristics. Degrees of dominance were also estimated for all characteristics except for grain yield. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Center, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, under a screen house condition on crosses of the standard height cultivar IAC-227 (P1 with four mexican lines: CMH 78.390/ CMH 77 A.917// CMH 79.215 (P2, CMH 79.959/2* CNO 79 (P3, CMH 79.481/CMH 77A.917 (P4 and CMH 80A. 747 (P5. The narrow sense heritability values for plant height (0.608-0.861, spike length (0.406-0.667, rachis internode length (0.545-0.781 and grain yield (0.421-0.550 indicated that the great part of the verified genetic variability in the hybrid populations for these traits were due to additive gene action. The phenotypic correlations between plant height with grain yield and between spike length and rachis internode length were positive and significant to all crosses, showing to have associations between these characters; however the obtained results suggest that large F2 populations will be required to ensure the frequency of desired recombinants, showing semidwarf plants with high yield potential.

  4. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  5. 不同时期施氮量对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜产量的影响(英文)%Effects of Nitrogen Application Amount during Various Periods on Yield of High Grade Hybrid Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 任廷波; 程国平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究甘蓝型优质杂交油菜获得高产的施氮量和氮肥运筹模式。[方法]以‘油研599’和‘三北98’为材料,采用三元二次通用正交旋转组合设计方法,对不同时期施氮量对油菜产量的影响进行研究。[结果‘]油研599’获得最高产量指标(2898.211kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥89.27kg/hm2,开盘肥120kg/hm2,腊肥101.12kg/hm2,施氮总量为310.39kg/hm2。活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为28.76%、38.66%、32.58%‘;三北98’获得最高产量指标(2870.14kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥120kg/hm2,开盘肥120kg/hm2,腊肥37.55kg/hm2,施氮总量为277.55kg/hm2,活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为43.24%、43.24%、13.53%。2个品种合并后获得最高产量指标(2813.82kg/hm2)时的各个因素组合为活棵肥120kg/hm2,开盘肥120kg/hm2,腊肥76.23kg/hm2,施氮总量为316.23kg/hm2,活棵肥、开盘肥、腊肥所占比例分别为37.95%、37.95%、24.11%。[结论]该研究为优质杂交油菜的高产栽培提供理论依据。%[Objective] The paper was to study the nitrogen application amount and nitrogen application model for high grade hybrid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to get high yield. [Method] With "Youyan 599" and "Sanbei 98" as materials, using quadratic regression orthogonal gyration combination design, the impact of nitrogen application amount during various periods on rapeseed yield was studied. [Result] The combinations of factors to obtain the highest yield index (2 898.211 kg / hm 2 ) of "Youyan 599" were as follows: living rape fertilizer 89.27 kg / hm 2 , opening fertilizer 120 kg / hm 2 , 12 th lunar month fertilizer 101.12 kg / hm 2 , total nitrogen application amount 310.39 kg / hm 2 . The proportions of living rape fertilizer, opening fertilizer and 12th lunar month fertilizer were 28.76%, 38.66% and 32.58%, respectively. The combinations of factors to obtain the highest

  6. Early Yields of Biomass Plantations in the North-Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Hansen

    1990-01-01

    A network of hybrid poplar short-rotation plantations was established across the north-central region of the U.S. during 1986-1988. This paper documents the greater than expected early yields from these plantations and dicusses potential yields and uncertainties surrounding potential yield estimates.

  7. Sugarcane genotype variation in leaf photosynthesis properties and yield as affected by mill mud application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variability in yield among sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) genotypes grown with and without mill mud application on sand soils in Florida has been documented, but little is known about what causes yield differences and if there are any relationships between yield components and physio...

  8. Components of genetic variability and heritability of grain yield of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters for the grain yield of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and components of genetic variability and heritability on the basis of the diallel set. The two-year four-replicate trial was set up according to the randomized complete-block design at Zemun Polje. It was determined that a genotype, year and their interaction significantly affected variability of this trait. The highest. i.e. the lowest grain yield, on the average for both investigation years. was recorded in the silage maize inbred lines ZPLB402 and ZPLB405. respectively. The analysis of components of genetic variance for grain yield shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variance, while a positive component F and the frequency of dominant (u and recessive (v genes for this observed trait point to prevalence of dominant genes over recessive ones. Furthermore. this is confirmed by the ratio of dominant to recessive genes in parental genotypes for grain yield (Kd/Kr> 1 that is greater than unity in both years of investigation. The estimated value of the average degree of dominance (H1/D1/2 exceeds unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation. Results of Vr/Vr regression analysis indicate superdominance in inheritance of grain yield. Moreover. a registered presence of non-allelic interaction points out to the need to study effects of epistasis, as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high values of broad-sense heritability for grain yield in both investigation years (98.71%, i.e. 97.19% in 1997, i.e. 1998, respectively. and low values of narrow-sense heritability (11.9% in 1997 and 12.2% in 1998.

  9. Genome wide association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits of maize hybrids in the sub-tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Ivan D Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N; Murray, Seth C; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.

  10. Genome wide association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits of maize hybrids in the sub-tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Barrero Farfan

    Full Text Available The primary maize (Zea mays L. production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.

  11. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  12. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  13. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  14. Effects of Density and Slow Controlled Release Fertilizer on Growth Progress and Yield of HB Cotton Hybrid Lu 05 H9%密度和缓控释肥对红花标记杂交棉鲁05H9生育进程及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜辉; 赵军胜; 王家宝; 高明伟; 王秀丽; 陈莹; 王留明

    2014-01-01

    本试验以红花标记杂交棉鲁05 H9为材料,研究不同密度条件下缓控释肥对其生育进程及产量的影响。结果表明:鲁05 H9在不同处理条件下生育进程稳定,施缓控释肥四桃比例更为合理,伏桃和早秋桃所占比例较大;随着密度增大,总产量提高,群体铃数也增加,但单株铃数和平均铃重降低,密度对单株铃数的影响达到显著水平;与常规施肥相比,施缓控释肥可以提高平均铃重,同时影响产量及其构成因素;密度和施肥方式的交互作用对产量及其构成因素的影响未达到显著水平。在产量最高的4.2万株/hm2密度条件下,缓控释肥处理每公顷可以增收472元。因此,综合经济及环保效益,鲁05 H9在黄河流域棉区可以结合较高密度和缓控释肥方式加以推广应用。%With the HB hybrid Lu 05H9 as experiment material, the effects of slow controlled release fertilizer on growth progress and yield of cotton were studied under different densities .The results showed that the growth progress of Lu 05 H9 was stable under different treatment conditions .The treatment with slow con-trolled release fertilizer made the percentage of four kinds of boll more reasonable , and increased the percent-age of summer boll and early-autumn boll .The number of population bolls and total yield increased with the increase of density , but the number of bolls per individual plant and average single boll weight decreased . Plant density had the significant influences on the boll number per plant .Compared with the conventional fer-tilizer, the slow controlled release fertilizer could improve the average weight of single boll , but reduce the yield and its components .The interaction effect of density and fertilizer was insignificant on yield and its com-ponents .The economic benefit could increase by 472 yuan per hectare with slow controlled release fertilizer at the density of 42 thousand plants per

  15. 缓释氮肥施用量对超级杂交早稻株两优02产量和生理特性的影响%Effects of Application Amount of Slow-release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Early Super Hybrid Rice Zhuliangyou 02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 孟桂元; 龙继锐; 马国辉; 万宜珍

    2011-01-01

    在常规栽培和优化栽培模式下,分别设置施氮量折合成纯氮0,105,142.5,180 kg/hm2的4个缓释氮肥用量处理,研究了缓释氮肥用量对超级杂交早稻株两优02产量和生理特性的影响.结果表明:在优化栽培模式下,各施氮量处理的产量均高于相应的常规栽培处理,其中纯氮用量142.5 kg/hm2的处理产量最高,而常规栽培各处理的产量则随施氮量的增加而提高;在优化栽培和常规栽培模式下,各时期叶片中的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、可溶性糖含量和根系活力均以施氮量180 kg/hm2的处理较高;施用纯氮142.5 kg/hm2的处理乳熟期-成熟期叶片中能保持较高的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和较低的丙二醛(MDA)含量,有利于延缓水稻功能叶片的衰老.%The effects of application amount of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer were studied on the physiological characteristics and grain yield of Zhuliangyou 02, a widely-used early-cropping super hybrid rice variety. The research was conducted with two cultivation modes, I. E. , the optimized and conventional modes, and four nitrogen application levels of the slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at the pure N rates of 0 ( N0) , 105 ( N1 ) , 142.5 ( N2) and 180 kg/hm2 ( N3 ) , respectively. The results showed that the grain yields of all N rates under the optimized cultivation mode were higher than those of the conventional cultivation mode, with the rate of 142. 5 kg/hm2 (N2) yielding highest at 8.05 t/hm2. However, under the conventional cultivation mode, the grain yields of different treatments increased with the N rates applied. Under both optimized and conventional cultivation modes, the treatment of N3 with the N rate of 180 kg/hm2 had highest CAT activity, soluble sugar content and root activity in the whole growing period from full tillering to ripening stages among all treatments of nitrogen application levels. Moreover, the treatment of N2 (142.5 kg/hm2) maintained a higher SOD

  16. Agronomic Performance of Two Tetraploid Hybrid Plantains in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Beloved Mensah Dzomeku; Asieduwa Agnes Ankomah; Solomon Kodjo Darkey

    2009-01-01

    Field performance of two IITA plantain hybrids (‘PITA-1’, ‘PITA-4’) were assessed at two locations in Ghana alongside two local landraces (False Horn ‘Brodeyuo’, Intermediate French ‘Oniaba’) and a hybrid cultivar ‘Apem Hemaa’ (‘FHIA-21’). The objective of the study was to identify high yielding and disease resistant hybrids for growers in Ghana. The hybrids were evaluated for their agronomic performance and yield, tolerance to Black Sigatoka disease, number of functional leaves at flowering ...

  17. Rice fertility affected by lower temperature in intersubspecific hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Intersubspecific hybrids of indica-japonica show strong heterosis on yield,and the partial sterility in F1 hybrids can be mitigated by using the wide-compatibility gene, S5n. In the past decade, such hybrids showed normal fertility and high level of heterosis on grain yield, but some of them showed unstable seed-setting rate at low temperature. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of low temperature on fertility of intersubspecific hybrids and to investigate the male gamete abortion at some markers.

  18. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids .... national variety trial in the case of open pollinated varieties ...... Principles of field crop production. 3rd Ed., Macmillan. Publishing Co.

  19. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  20. GGE-Biplot Analysis on Yield Stability and Testing-site Representativeness of Soybean Lines in Multi-environment Trials%双标图法分析大豆多点试验中品系产量稳定性及试点代表性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长军; 田中艳; 李建英; 杨柳; 吴耀坤; 杜志强; 唐金华; 师臣

    2011-01-01

    In this study, GGE-biplot method was used to analyze the data of soybean multi-environment trials from 2008 to 2009. Nine lines of soybean were tested in five sites. The results showed that Nen 00-2111 had higher yield and better yield stability than other lines. Qingnong 05-1071 and Qingnong 05-1028 possessed special adaptabilities, so it had promotional values in some areas. ‘ Dumeng’ testing-site of Heilongjiang province was the best representative testing site and had better discrimination than other sites.%采用GGE双标图法对2008~2009年黑龙江省5个试验地点的9个大豆品系试验数据进行分析.结果表明:嫩00-2111属于高产、稳产性较好的品系,平均产量2 508.1 kg·km-1;庆农05-1071和庆农05-1028在大庆试点表现较好,其产量分别是3 513.8和3 434.8 kg·km-2,具有特殊适应性,在局部地区有推广价值.在5个试点中,杜蒙试点最好,既具有代表性又具有较强的鉴别力.

  1. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE AND YIELD UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL Sabagh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of maize hybrids under water deficit condition by measuring of stomatal conductance with the corresponding yield of maize hybrids. Seven maize hybrids were grown at two different irrigation regimes (well water and deficit water conditions at the agricultural research area of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey. The results of study indicated that at drought stress (deficit water remarkably influenced maize yield. The hybrid Sancia produced maximum grain yield under water deficient condition while 71May69 hybrid achieved the higher yield under wellwatered condition. Stomatal conductance was strongly correlated with grain yield in this study and higher stomatal conductance indicates higher grain yield, higher stomatal conductance at 7 days after pollination helps to increase grain yield. A positive and significant correlation between grain yield and stomatal conductance was observed at 7th and 21st days after anthesis (DAA. Moderately high stomatal conductance under stress condition helps to produce the highest grain yield. Based on the results, stomatal conductance can be used as selection criterion to identify the drought stress genotypes in maize under Mediterranean condition.

  3. Studies on the Recross Heterosis Effect of Male-sterile Single-hybrids in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liang-yue; HU YAN-min; LI Yong-liang; HUANG Su-xiang; JI Hong-qiang; HUANG Xi-lin

    2002-01-01

    Re-cross was conducted between five ES cytoplasm male-sterile hybrids and four high-oil hybrids, and five normal hybrids, respectively. The oil content, yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size were estimated. Results were as follows: The average kernel oil content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was 1.6 % higher than that of the female parent. The xenia effect value of oil genes was 0.30. The yield and 1000-kernel weight of male-sterile hybrids were 10.1% and 5.8 % higher than that of corresponding fertile hybrids respectively, which showed significant cytoplasm effect. The yield of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was similar to that of the female parent, but its 1000-kernel weight was 7.3% lower than that of the female parent. Compared with the high-oil male parent, grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid were higher. Seed-filling rate, the days of seed-filling and IAA content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid showed average heterosis tending the female parent, which may be perhaps one of the reasons resulting in the average heterosis tending to the female parent on kernel oil content,yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size.

  4. Agronomic and chemical characteristics of hybrid corn to ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Borges de Assis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate agronomic and chemical characteristics of corn hybrids to ensiling. It were evaluated nine corn hybrids (MX 300, RB 9308, 2B655, XB 6012, GNZ 2500, PL6890, PRE 32D10, PRE 22T10 e AG 1051, with three replicates. The higher fresh matter yield were observed in the hybrids PL6890 and PRE 32D10, while the dry matter yield was observed in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (13.43 t ha-1. The hybrids PRE 32D10 and PRE 22T10 stood out to present higher percent of leaf in relation to whole plant, while the lower percent of stems was found in the hybrids MX 300, 2B655 and XB 6012, however the higher leaves: stems relation was found in XB 6012 (0.49. There was higher CP content in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (9.10% of DM, while the lower NDF (57.78% of DM and cellulose content (24.27% of DM were observed in the hybrid GNZ 2500. The hybrid PL6890 presented higher ADF and lignin contents, the others hybrids had values lower. The lower NDIN content was observed in the hybrid RB 9308, while the lower AIDN content occurred on the hybrid 2B655. The lower buffer capacity was observed in the hybrid 2B655 (0.29. There are some differences on chemical composition among the corn hybrids used in this study, however, it is recommended to use the hybrids MX 300, PL6890 and PRE 32D10 for showing higher dry matter yield, which may reflect in the amortization of silage production costs.

  5. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  6. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  7. Analysis on Dry Matter Production Characteristics of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Six middle-season indica hybrid rice combinations,including five super hybrid rice combinations with the high yield about 10.5 t/ha and a check hybrid rice combination Shanyou 63 with a yield potential about 9.5 t/ha,were used as materials to study the dry matter production characteristics.The super hybrid rice showed a high ability in dry matter production and accumulation and its yield enhanced with the increase of dry matter accumulation.The advantage period of dry matter production in the super hybrid rice was mainly at the middle and late growth stages compared with the check.The grain yield had no significant correlation with the dry matter accumulation before the elongation stage while had a significantly positive correlation with the dry matter accumulation from the elongation to maturity stages in super hybrid rice.There were more dry matter in vegetative organs at the heading stage in the super hybrid rice but its contribution to yield (apparent conversion percentage) was averagely 4.3 percent points lower than that in the check.For crop growth rate (CGR),the comparative advantage of super hybrid rice was at the middle and late stages,especially after flowering.Moreover,as the rising of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD),CGR enhanced.The total LAD and the mean of LAD per day of super hybrid rice was about 14.79% and 10.31% higher than those of the check,respectively.The results indicate that the high yield of super hybrid rice mostly comes from the products of photosynthesis after heading,which is shown by the increased CGR at middle and later stages.It is suggested that LAD character might be used to better explain the advantage in the dry matter production of super hybrid rice than LAI.

  8. Alcobaça allele and genotypic backgrounds affect yield and fruit shelf life of tomato hybrids O alelo alcobaça e o background genotípico afetam a produtividade e a conservação de híbridos de tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio José Mendes Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest shelf life of tomato fruit may be increased by deploying mutant alleles which affect the natural ripening process and/or by a favorable genotypic background. Among the several ripening mutant genes, alcobaça (alc has proved to be highly efficient in increasing shelf life of commercial tomato fruits, especially in heterozygosis, a state at which no limiting deleterious effects upon fruit color occur. The effects of heterozygosity in the alcobaça locus (alc+/alc on yield and fruit quality traits of tomato hybrids with three genotypic backgrounds. We evaluated three pairs of hybrids obtained from crosses between the near-isogenic pollen source lines Flora-Dade (alc+/alc+ and TOM-559 (alc/alc, and three maternal lines (Stevens, NC-8276 and Piedmont. The six treatments were factorial combinations of two different status in the alc locus (alc+/alc and alc+/alc+ versus three different genotypic backgrounds (maternal lines. Fruits were harvested at the breaker stage of maturation and stored in shelves at 21ºC for 14 days. Yield and fruit quality traits were then evaluated. Regardless of the background, the alc allele in heterozygosis (alc+/alc did not interfere with the total yield, commercial yield, average mass per fruit, average mass per commercial fruit, fruit shape, or with fruit peduncular scar diameter. The alc+/alc genotype reduced the rate of firmness loss and delayed evolution of the red color of the fruit, thus contributing to an increase of the post-harvest shelf life for all three genotypic backgrounds.A vida de prateleira dos frutos de tomate pode ser extendida, seja empregando-se alelos mutantes que afetam o processo natural de amadurecimento, seja por meio de background genotípico favorável. O alelo alcobaça (alc em heterozigose tem-se mostrado bastante eficiente no sentido de prolongar o período de conservação dos frutos em pós-colheita, sem que ocorra prejuízo na coloração. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do alelo

  9. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  10. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  11. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 differ...

  12. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix hybridized with secondary S-glass or Kevlar 49 fiber composites is presented. The specimen stress-strain behavior was determined, showing that mechanical properties of intraply hybrid composites can be measured with available methods such as the ten-degree off-axis test for intralaminar shear, and conventional tests for tensile, flexure, and Izod impact properties. The results also showed that combinations of high modulus graphite/S-glass/epoxy matrix composites exist which yield intraply hybrid laminates with the best 'balanced' properties, and that the translation efficiency of mechanical properties from the constituent composites to intraply hybrids may be assessed with a simple equation.

  13. The role of epigenetics in hybrid vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K; Fujimoto, Ryo; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2013-12-01

    Hybrid vigour, or heterosis, refers to the increased yield and biomass of hybrid offspring relative to the parents. Although this has been exploited in plants for agriculture and horticulture, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying hybrid vigour are largely unknown. Genetic analyses show that there are a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to the heterotic phenotype, indicating that it is a complex phenomenon. Gene expression in hybrids is regulated by the interactions of the two parental epigenetic systems and the underlying genomes. Increasing understanding of the interplay of small RNA (sRNA) molecules, DNA methylation, and histone marks provides new opportunities to define the basis of hybrid vigour and to understand why F1 heterosis is not passed on to subsequent generations. We discuss recent findings that suggest the existence of several pathways that alter DNA methylation patterns, which may lead to transcriptional changes resulting in the heterotic phenotype.

  14. Hybrid rice achievements, development and prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guo-hui; YUAN Long-ping

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history and progress of hybrid rice development. Hybrid rice research was initiated back in 1964, and commercialized in 1976. Three-line and two-line system hybrid rice were developed in 1974 and 1995, respectively. Research on super hybrid rice, which was ifrst launched by Ministry of Agriculture, China in 1996, is discussed, and the great progress of super hybrid rice had been achieved with a new yield record by 15.4 t ha–1 in the 6.84 ha demonstration location in Xupu, Hunan Province, China in 2014. And the mechanism of heterosis, the techniques of hybrid seed production and the modern ifeld managements in hybrid rice over the past decades are also discussed. Additional y, this article dealt with the intel ectual property protection (IPR) and development of hybrid rice seed industry in China. Major factors that constrain hybrid rice development are analyzed and possible solutions to this problems are proposed. Final y, the authors present methods to further increase production yield, and propose an improvement for breeding super high-yielding hybrid rice based on these methods.

  15. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  16. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  17. Interspecific pine hybrids II. genotype by environment interactions across Australia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. S. Dungey; M. J. Dieters; D. P. Gwaze; P. G. Toon; D. G. Nikles

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative research trials of Queensland-bred pine hybrids have been established in many sites outside Australia. These trials enable the estimation of genotype x environment effects, which are important in determining the level of regionalisation needed in any breeding program. Correlations across sites testing hybrids between Pinus caribaea var...

  18. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  19. The Effects of Plant Density on the Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Van

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted in the experimental area of Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty in 1994-1995. The trial was carried out in a randomized block desing with four replications. In this study, three chickpea lines and three plant densities (28, 42 and 56 seed/m2) were examined for their effects on yield components. According to the results over 2 years, the effects of plant density were significant on the yields and yield components in chickpea. The highest grain yield per unit a...

  20. Identification of crowding stress tolerance co-expression networks involved in sweet corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerance to crowding stress has played a crucial role in improving agronomic productivity in field corn; however, commercial sweet corn hybrids vary greatly in crowding stress tolerance. The objectives were to 1) explore transcriptional changes among sweet corn hybrids with differential yield under...

  1. Parameterizing sorption isotherms using a hybrid global-local fitting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matott, L. Shawn; Singh, Anshuman; Rabideau, Alan J.

    2017-05-01

    Predictive modeling of the transport and remediation of groundwater contaminants requires an accurate description of the sorption process, which is usually provided by fitting an isotherm model to site-specific laboratory data. Commonly used calibration procedures, listed in order of increasing sophistication, include: trial-and-error, linearization, non-linear regression, global search, and hybrid global-local search. Given the considerable variability in fitting procedures applied in published isotherm studies, we investigated the importance of algorithm selection through a series of numerical experiments involving 13 previously published sorption datasets. These datasets, considered representative of state-of-the-art for isotherm experiments, had been previously analyzed using trial-and-error, linearization, or non-linear regression methods. The isotherm expressions were re-fit using a 3-stage hybrid global-local search procedure (i.e. global search using particle swarm optimization followed by Powell's derivative free local search method and Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg non-linear regression). The re-fitted expressions were then compared to previously published fits in terms of the optimized weighted sum of squared residuals (WSSR) fitness function, the final estimated parameters, and the influence on contaminant transport predictions - where easily computed concentration-dependent contaminant retardation factors served as a surrogate measure of likely transport behavior. Results suggest that many of the previously published calibrated isotherm parameter sets were local minima. In some cases, the updated hybrid global-local search yielded order-of-magnitude reductions in the fitness function. In particular, of the candidate isotherms, the Polanyi-type models were most likely to benefit from the use of the hybrid fitting procedure. In some cases, improvements in fitness function were associated with slight ( 50%) changes in parameter values were noted. Despite

  2. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  3. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  4. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  5. Yield And Yield Characters of Differrent Confectionery Sunflower Varieties in Conditions of Tekirdag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ergen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This research which was performed for the purpose of determining the yield and yield characters of six different kinds confectionery sunflowers in the conditions of Tekirdağ was established in the simulation field at Field Plants Department of Thrace University Tekirdağ Agriculture Faculty. In the research were used, T.T.A.E. 1, T.T.A.E. 2 was hybrid varieties, Kıbrıs, İnegöl Alası, and Tekirdağ was local varieties The field experiments was layout at the randomized complete blocks with four replication.In the experiment, some of the characters related to yield such as the plant height, the head diameter, the weight of 1000 seed, the seed yield, seed lenght, the ratio of hull, ratio of oil and protein were examined. The highest seed yield (364.55 kg/da and the lowest hull ratio (%42.77 were determined at T.T.A.E. 2. The highest protein percentage (%17.18 was found İnegöl Alası and the tallest seed lengths (1.61cm was determined Kıbrıs sort. Through the dual relationship between the characters which were examined, a positive and important correlation was found between yield of seed and the seed lenght (0.624**, important but negative correlation was found between the yield of seed and hull ratio (-0.488*. Important and positive correlation was determined between the protein ratio and the plant height (0.575** and important but negative relation was determined between the weight of the 1000 seed (-0.508* and the hull ratio (-0.488*. As a results of Path Analysis, it was determined that the direct influences of the seed and plant height is especially important for the yield of seed and the protein ratio confectionery sunflowers

  6. Assessment the effects of different tillage methods on chickpea yield and some yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KASAP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods on crop yield and some yield components in chickpea cultivation. For this reason, experimental trials were performed in Çayköy and Güzelpınar in Tokat-Kazova during 2008, 2009 and 2010. In this trials Gökçe cultivar of chickpea was used. Six different soil tillage methods were applied which were, mouldboard plough tillage in fall + cultivator in the spring + tooth harrow (Method A, mouldboard plough tillage in spring + cultivator + tooth harrow (Method B, rotary tiller in the spring (Method C, chisel in the spring + disc harrow and slider (Method D, strip tillage with router rotary hoe (Method E and direct seeding (Method F. Trials were set up in completely randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that the highest average plant and seed yield per square meter was obtained with method A (470.74 g and 260.63 g and followed by method B (459.43 g and 254.18 g and method D (447.82 g and 247.23 g. In terms of factors evaluated; A, B and D methods were superior compared to the other methods.

  7. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  8. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  9. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  10. Agronomic Performance of Two Tetraploid Hybrid Plantains in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah Dzomeku

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field performance of two IITA plantain hybrids (‘PITA-1’, ‘PITA-4’ were assessed at two locations in Ghana alongside two local landraces (False Horn ‘Brodeyuo’, Intermediate French ‘Oniaba’ and a hybrid cultivar ‘Apem Hemaa’ (‘FHIA-21’. The objective of the study was to identify high yielding and disease resistant hybrids for growers in Ghana. The hybrids were evaluated for their agronomic performance and yield, tolerance to Black Sigatoka disease, number of functional leaves at flowering and at harvest, crop cycle, plant height and pseudostem girth. The results showed that the hybrids were tolerant/resistant to the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fi jiensis disease with high number of functional leaves at flowering and at harvest. This characteristic of the hybrids was an important feature that could fit well into the smallholder cropping system. The crop cycles were comparable to that of ‘False Horn’ plantains. The yield performance of the hybrids was better compared to the landraces. The number of hands per bunch produced by the hybrids was also higher than those of the landraces except the intermediate French plantain (‘Oniaba’. The finger lengths of the IITA hybrids were however shorter compared to the landraces and this could hinder their acceptance by consumers.

  11. Effects of rates of nitrogen on yield and yield components of winter triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalević Dragana N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high genetic potential for yield and favourable nutritional value, triticale is a promising plant species. For achieving high and stable yields, it is necessary to have favorable agroclimatic conditions of the locality, variety and advanced agricultural techniques, with special emphasis on fertilizing. This study examines the effect of increasing rates of nitrogen on yield and yield components of five cultivars of winter triticale: Odisej, Kg-20, Triumph, Rtanj and Tango. The three-year trial (2009-2012, which was set up in a randomized block system with three replications, included control and three different doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1. In all variants of fertilization, 80 kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O were added beside nitrogen. The obtained results showed that the use of nitrogen had a positive effect on yield and yield components in all variants and in all cultivars. The variety Tango had the highest average grain yield, while the variety Kg-20 had the lowest. Also, Tango had the highest value of the 1000 grain mass and the number of grains per spike, while Triumph had the highest value of hectoliter weight. The application of fertilizers led to a very large and significant increase of yield compared with the control. Accordingly, all studied cultivars had the highest yield with the highest quantities of nitrogen (120 kg ha-1. Considering that triticale is intended mainly for feeding livestock, the results of these studies would be valuable in terms of its growing as a forage crop as well as in terms of its breeding for grain quality and productivity.

  12. The state of infectious diseases clinical trials: a systematic review of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Neela D; Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Horton, John R; Chiswell, Karen; Tasneem, Asba; Tsalik, Ephraim L

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of clinical trials informing specific questions faced by infectious diseases (ID) specialists. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry offers an opportunity to evaluate the ID clinical trials portfolio. We examined 40,970 interventional trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007-2010, focusing on study conditions and interventions to identify ID-related trials. Relevance to ID was manually confirmed for each programmatically identified trial, yielding 3570 ID trials and 37,400 non-ID trials for analysis. The number of ID trials was similar to the number of trials identified as belonging to cardiovascular medicine (n = 3437) or mental health (n = 3695) specialties. Slightly over half of ID trials were treatment-oriented trials (53%, vs. 77% for non-ID trials) followed by prevention (38%, vs. 8% in non-ID trials). ID trials tended to be larger than those of other specialties, with a median enrollment of 125 subjects (interquartile range [IQR], 45-400) vs. 60 (IQR, 30-160) for non-ID trials. Most ID studies are randomized (73%) but nonblinded (56%). Industry was the funding source in 51% of ID trials vs. 10% that were primarily NIH-funded. HIV-AIDS trials constitute the largest subset of ID trials (n = 815 [23%]), followed by influenza vaccine (n = 375 [11%]), and hepatitis C (n = 339 [9%]) trials. Relative to U.S. and global mortality rates, HIV-AIDS and hepatitis C virus trials are over-represented, whereas lower respiratory tract infection trials are under-represented in this large sample of ID clinical trials. This work is the first to characterize ID clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, providing a framework to discuss prioritization, methodology, and policy.

  13. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Correlation, Wheat; growth, yield, yield components, grain quality. INTRODUCTION. Wheat ... macaroni, biscuits, cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous; beer, many .... and 6 WAS which ensured weed free plots. Fertilizer was ...

  14. Immobilized Palladium on Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials: A Novel and Reusable Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Yuan; WANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The immobilized palladium on organic-inorganic hybrid materials catalyzing the copper-free Sonogashira cou pling reaction has been described.Terminal alkynes were reacted with aryl iodides and aryl bromides in the pres ence of 3-[N,N-bis(diphenylphosphino)amino]propyl functionalized silica gel immobilized palladium catalyst.The protocol involved the use of ethylene glycol as a solvent,and triethylamine as a base.The reactions generated the corresponding cross-coupling products in excellent yields.Furthermore,the silica-supported phosphine palladium complexes and ethylene glycol could be recovered and recycled for six consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  15. Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  16. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  17. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  18. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  19. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  1. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  2. Maximizing ROI with yield management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil Snyder

    2001-01-01

    .... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...

  3. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.

    2012-06-01

    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  4. RESPONSE OF CORN HYBRIDS ON TWO SOIL TYPES OF SLATINA PODRAVINA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Antunović

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten corn hybrids were grown on two soil types of Drava Valley in Slatina area (alluvial soil and pseudogley during two growing seasons (1998 and 1999. The field trials were sown by pneumatic sowing machine in four replicates (exp. plot 14 m2. Planned plant density (PPD depends on the hybrids and it was 71428, 63493 or 58310 plants/ha. Grain yields were calculated on 14% moisture and 90% realization of PPD basis. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage was taken for chemical analysis. The total amount of N was determined by Kjeldahl procedure, while P and K in corn leaves samples were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soils was also determined by ICP-AES technique after their extraction by ammonium acetate-EDTA. Alluvial soil is neutral reaction and contains considerable higher levels of total and mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, as well as lower levels of potassium in comparison with pseudogley. The growing seasons 1998 and 1999 were favourable for corn growing under conditions of the eastern Croatia. In both year of testing, corn yields on acid soil were about 25% lower in comparison with alluvial soil. The yields of individual hybrids (2-year means were from 10.40 to 12.35 t/ha The higher yields (2-year means on alluvial soil were found by 3 hybrids (OsSK554, OsSK458 and OsSK568exp.: mean 14,01 t/ha, OsSK332, OsSK444, OsSK458exp found Yields above 10 t/ha on acid soil were found by four corn hybrids (OsSK 332, OsSK 444, OsSK458 and OsSK490exp. : mean 10,84 t/ha. Significant influences of growing season on ear-leaf composition were found for N and K, while P concentrations were similar in both years of testing. The higher concentrations of N and K, as well as the lower P concentrations were found in leaves when corn was grown on alluvial soil (means 3.75 and 3.56% N, 2.44 and 2.62% K, 0.344 and 0.327% P, for alluvial soil and

  5. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  6. INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF (Zea mays L. MAIZE GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three years’ research (from 2010 to 2012, conducted on a trial field of the Institute of Agriculture in Osijek, is a part of a long stationary experiment. The objective of the research was the impact of irrigation (main factor, A, nitrogen fertilization (second factor, B, and the genotype (third factor, C on the grain yield and the quality of maize hybrids (Zea mays L. The irrigation scheduling was the main factor where A1 treatment was the control, rain-fed plot. In A2 treatment the soil water content was 60-100% of the field water capacity (FWC, while in the A3 treatment the soil water content was 80 to 100% FWC. Nitrogen fertilization as a sub factor, consisted of the three levels where B1 was the control treatment (0 kg N ha-1. In B2 treatment 100 kg N ha-1 was added, while in B3 treatment 200 kg N ha-1. Fall application (1/3 of all nitrogen was in the form of UREA. The same amount of nitrogen was applied in the pre-sowing period. During the vegetation period, two side dressings with CAN were carried out. The first side dressing (1/6 of nitrogen was done by cultivating the maize in 6-8 leaves phase, while the second one in 8 to 10 leaves phase (1/6 of nitrogen. Four maize hybrids (FAO 500 and 600 were used in the research, C1=OSSK596, C2=OSSK617, C3=OSSK602 and C4=OSSK552. The maize was irrigated by a traveling sprinkler system. The moment of irrigation was set by measuring soil moisture with the Watermark sensor (gypsum block. During the period of the research the weather conditions significantly varied, especially concerning the amount of precipitation. The year 2010 stands out as extremely wet (rainy, when a natural disaster of flood was proclaimed, due to high amount of precipitation, which had an influence on the results of the research. Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in yield in all three years of the research. Grain yield was higher as amount of irrigation water was higher, with an exception of

  7. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  8. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  9. Experimental precision in corn trials using the Papadakis method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storck, Lindolfo; Lopes, Sidinei José; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Lúcio, Alessandro Dal'Col; Toebe, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify whether the use of the Papadakis method in competing corn hybrid trials would lead to modifications in the validity of assumptions for the mathematical model...

  10. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  11. Effects of Nitrogen Rates and Application Method on Grain Yield and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Babazadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper application of N fertilizer and its optimization for increasing the economic yield of rice is definitely important. In order to determine the best N application method and amount according to growth stages of hybrid rice, an experiment was carried out at experimental farm of RRII in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The treatments included 6 application methods as follow: total nitrogen at transplanting stage ,50% at transplanting stage +50% at early tillering , 50% at transplanting stage +50% at panicle initiation , 50% at transplanting stage +25% at maximum tillering +25% at booting ,34% at transplanting stage + 33% at early tillering + 33% at booting and 70% at transplanting + 30% at panicle initiation. 3 levels of nitrogen (90,120 and 150 kg/ha from urea source were also used. Recorded traits were grain yield and yield component. Results showed the significant interactions between split methods and N rates on yield, flag leaf area, filled and unfilled grain number per panicle and percentage fertility (p

  12. Hybrid Rice Research and Development in China and Its New Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid rice's history and its development up to date are described in the paper. Compared with the conventional rice, hybrid rice can increase grain yield by about 20%. Hybrid rice breeding in China has been advancing along the three-line method, to two-line method, to super high-yielding rice application strategically and its success in higher degree will be seen by the utilization of distant heterosis cooperated with biotechnology.

  13. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-11-01

    . The narrow-sensefamily heritability estimates were 0.657 for diameter, 0.586 for height, 0.505 for volume, 0.705 for stem straightness and 0.734 for tree survival. The individual-tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.336 for diameter, 0.253 for height, 0.205 for volume and 0.121 for stem straightness. Assuming selection of 5, 10, or 15 familiesout of the 28 tested ones and sexual propagation, a genetic gain of 9.5%, 6.8% and 4.8% in diameter, and 11.2%, 8.1% and 5.7% in volume and 16.4%, 11.8% and 8.4% in tree survival, respectively, might be achieved. Selecting the most outstanding 5%, 10%, or 15% individual F1 hybrids would yield a genetic progress of 9.7%, 8.3% and 7,4% in diameter and 10.2%, 8.8% and 7.8% in volume growth rate. The hybrid population mean surpassed in tree survival the open pollinated eastern white pine mean by 70.7% while the eastern white pine, surpassed the hybrid in all growth traits. The F1 hybrid and P. strobus open pollinated parent species averaged 0.993 and 1.069 m3 volume per tree, respectively. By extrapolation the yield results from the hybrid trial area to 1 ha results in a yield of 559.9 m3 per hectare for hybrids and 602.5 m3 for P. strobus female parent species. In conclusion, hybrids should be taken into consideration and used in plantation programs in high-blister-rust-hazard areas.

  14. Unused natural variation can lift yield barriers in plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gur

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented by the pyramided genotypes was more than 50% higher than that of a control market leader variety under both wet and dry field conditions that received 10% of the irrigation water. This demonstration of the breaking of agricultural yield barriers provides the rationale for implementing similar strategies for other agricultural organisms that are important for global food security.

  15. Application of AMMI Model and GGE-biplot for Yield Analysis in the Xinjiang Regional Trials of Winter Wheat%AMMI模型和GGE双标图法在新疆冬小麦区域试验产量分析上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂迎彬; 穆培源; 桑伟; 徐红军; 庄丽; 相吉山; 邹波; 田笑明

    2012-01-01

    [目的]客观、准确评价区域试验中冬小麦新品系的丰产性和稳定性,探明适合新疆冬小麦区域试验分析的统计模型.[方法]利用AMMI模型和GGE双标图分析2010、2011年北疆冬小麦区域试验中5个试点、12个新品系的产量结果.[结果]基因型、环境及基因型×环境互作的平方和分别占总平方和的6.96%、32.62%和26.82%,均达到极显著水平.通过模型分析,垦冬杂1号和垦冬00(2)号具有较好的稳产性和丰产性,适合在伊宁、塔城和奇台等地区种植;08/7148在安宁渠点和塔城地区种植可获得高产.同时,GGE双标图对新品系丰产性分析结果与田间试验结果趋于一致,相对于AMMI模型能够直观、简单提供新品系的稳定性和适种区域.[结论]GGE双标图法比较适合分析北疆冬小麦区域试验的结果.%[ Objective] The aim of this research is to study the yield ability and stability of winter wheat of northern Xinjiang. [ Method] In this study, AMMI model and GGE - biplot were used to analyze the data of winter wheat in Xinjiang multi - environment trials from 2010 - 2011. Twelve lines of wheat were tested in five sites. [ Result] The results showed that the proportions of the sum of squares of genotype, environment and G x E interactive effects on total sum of squares was 6. 96% , 32. 62% , 26. 8% , respectively. And there were significant effects in genotype, environment and G X E interaction. Kendongza 1 and Kendong 00 ( 2 ) had higher yield and better yield stability than other lines. 08/7148 possessed special adaptabilities, so it had promotional values in Tacheng region. Meanwhile, when comparing these two modes between AMMI model and GGE - biplot, the latter model could provide direct and simply high yield area and stability of winter wheat. [ Conclusion] The GGE - biplot model was superior to the AMMI model to analyze the Xinjiang winter wheat regional test.

  16. Diallel analysis of yield and quality traits of melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Katherine de Araújo Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of melon hybrids to identify thebest combinations. Six parents and their respective hybrids were evaluated in a complete randomized block design with threereplications. The following traits were assessed: total number of fruits, average fruit weight, yield, longitudinal diameter, transversaldiameter, flesh thickness, internal cavity size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids. The traits total fruit number, yield, flesh firmnessand soluble solids content are controlled by additive and non-additive effects, while average fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, fleshthickness, internal cavity size are controlled by additive effects. The most appropriate crosses for breeding of Cantaloupe, Honeydew, Piel del sapo, Meloa and Amarelo melon are, respectively: Gold Mine x Hy Mark, AF-646 x AF-1749, Meloa x Rochedo andAF-646 x Rochedo.

  17. Genetic relationship between yield and yield components of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and yield components, in S1 and HS progenies of one early synthetic maize population. Grain yield was in high significant, medium strong and strong association with all studied yield components, in both populations. The strongest correlation was recorded between grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (S1 progenies rg = 0.684; HS progenies rg = 0.633. Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic coefficient of correlations were found between 1000-kernel weight and kernel depth in S1 population, and 1000-kernel weight and ear length in HS population. Also, objective of this research was founding the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for 1000-kernel weight and kernel row number, and in S1 and HS progenies, and for ear length in population of S1 progenies. Kernel depth has undesirable direct effect on grain yield, in both populations.

  18. Análise da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção em ensaios regionais de feijoeiro para o Estado de São Paulo Analysis of adaptability and yield stability in regional trials of common bean for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Peres Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos, superiores em produtividade, adaptabilidade e estabilidade, na produção de grãos de feijoeiro, por meio da análise Lin & Binns (1988, modificada por Carneiro (1998. Foram avaliados vinte e dois genótipos pertencentes aos principais programas de melhoramento do país. Essas avaliações constaram de dados dos ensaios de VCU 2007/2008/2009 para o Estado de São Paulo, que seguiram as normas estabelecidas pelo MAPA/SNPC, para ensaios de campo. Estes ensaios foram instalados em vinte e quatro ambientes, nas épocas das águas de 2007 e 2008, seca de 2008 e 2009 e inverno de 2008 e 2009. Os resultados obtidos no conjunto dos anos e ambientes de 2007/2008/2009 demonstraram que os genótipos 'Gen C2-1-3', 'CNFC 10408', 'Juriti Claro' e 'LP 04-72' comportaram-se como os mais estáveis e adaptados. O método Lin & Binns (1988, modificado por Carneiro (1998, mostrou-se adequado para análise dos dados, identificando os genótipos mais estáveis, produtivos e adaptados aos ambientes de cultivo.The objective of the present study was to identify superior genotypes for yield, adaptability and stability in common bean yield using the Lin & Binns (1988 analysis modified by Carneiro (1998. Twenty-two genotypes were analyzed from the main Brazilian plant breeding programs. The assessments consisted of data from the VCU 2007/2008/2009 experiments for São Paulo State that followed the norms established by the MAPA/SNPC for field trials. The experiments were set up in twenty-four environments, in the 2007 and 2008 wet growing seasons, the 2008 and 2009 dry growing seasons, and 2008 and 2009 winter growing seasons. The results obtained in the set of years and environments of 2007/2008/2009 showed that the genotypes 'Gen C2-1-3', 'CNFC 10408', 'Juriti Claro' and 'LP 04-72' performed with the greatest stability. The Lin & Binns (1988 analysis modified by Carneiro (1998 was shown to be suitable to analyze the

  19. Ecological plasticity and stability of new sugar beet hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. І. Коровко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To аnalyze modern sugar beet hybrids in terms of plasticity and stability indices. To identify genotypes adapted to different soil and climatic zones on the territory of Ukraine with subsequent recommendations related to the production. Methods. Field study, laboratory testing, analy­tical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. Features of productivity formation in new sugar beet hybrids in different soil and climatic zones of Ukraine has been studied with further recommendations for hybrids distribution in regions of sugar beet production. Response of genotype to environmental conditions change, degree of their impact on yield level, sugar content, sugar yield by hybrids evaluation in terms of ecological plasticity and stability indices was defined. According to calculations, such hybrids as ‘Novela’ (b = 1,15, ‘Protekta’ (b = 1,12, ‘Monsan’ (b = 1,09, ‘Proteus’ (b = 1,03 can be considered as highly adaptive for yield level, they require advanced agrotechnology, and only in case of observing all requirements they will produce maximum yield. ‘Proteus’ (b = 1,29, ‘Bizon’ (b = 1,26, ‘Si Belana’ (b = 1,20, ‘Protekta’ (b = 1,12 hybrids were highly adaptive for sugar content. Almost all hybrids showed high plasticity for sugar yield index, except ‘Monsan’ (b = 0,45, ‘Highland’ (b = 0,96, ‘Glorianna KWS’ (b = 0,96. Conclusions. According to the results of investigation, one can recommend producers to use ‘Proteus’ and ‘Protekta’ hybrids that revealed a positive res­ponse to improvement of growing conditions for all studied parameters. ‘Highland’ and ‘Glorianna KWS’ hybrids are advisable to grow on extensive background where at minimum cost they will form the maximum parameter values.

  20. Effect of cultivation measures on index of photosynthesis and yield of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Aksyonov I.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity is the decisive factor of yield increase in sunflower plants. This activity determines the application of agrotechnical measures such as row spacing and plant density. Experiments have proved that agrotechnical measures allow to control the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids and varieties. Row spacing and plants density affect the index of photosynthesis and the yield of sunflower agrophytocoenoses. Cultivation of sunflower at the row spacing of 15 cm i...

  1. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Miklič Vladimir; Mijić Anto; Jocić Siniša; Miladinović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio) on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflow...

  2. Embryogenic calli induced in interspecific (Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera hybrid zygotic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and caiaué (E. oleifera plants is directed to obtainprogenies presenting high yields like oil palm but with reduced shoot height and resistance to lethal yellowing like caiaué.Cloning F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies can make the replication of selection trials easier. The objective of this work was to inducesomatic embryogenesis in interspecific zygotic embryos collected 100 days after pollination. Three progenies were cultivatedin an induction medium developed for Tenera (E. guineensis tp. dura x pisifera embryos. The number of embryos bearing calliand germinating was recorded and submitted to the Z test. Calli were weighted and submitted to histological analysis.Progenies differed in the number of embryos presenting plumules and calli simultaneously. By the ninth month, the apices ofincompletely developed somatic embryos were observed protruding from the surfaces of nodular calli. Highly embryogenicand friable secondary calli producing globular somatic embryos were not observed.

  3. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  4. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  5. Phase I Trial of Bortezomib (PS-341; NSC 681239) and “Non-Hybrid “(Bolus) Infusion Schedule of Alvocidib (Flavopiridol; NSC 649890) in Patients with Recurrent or Refractory Indolent B-cell Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkova, Beata; Kmieciak, Maciej; Perkins, E. Brent; Bose, Prithviraj; Baz, Rachid C.; Roodman, G. David; Stuart, Robert K.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Wan, Wen; Peer, Cody J; Dawson, Jana; Kang, Loveleen; Honeycutt, Connie; Tombes, Mary Beth; Shrader, Ellen; Weir-Wiggins, Caryn; Wellons, Martha; Sankala, Heidi; Hogan, Kevin T.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Doyle, L. Austin; Figg, William D.; Coppola, Domenico; Roberts, John D.; Sullivan, Daniel; Grant, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This phase I study was conducted to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for the combination of bortezomib and alvocidib in patients with B-cell malignancies (multiple myeloma [MM], indolent lymphoma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and mantle cell lymphoma). Experimental Design Patients received bortezomib (intravenous push), followed by alvocidib (1-hour infusion), on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day treatment cycle. Patients experiencing responses or stable disease continued on treatment at the investigator's discretion. A standard 3+3 dose-escalation design was used to identify the MTD based on DLTs, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were conducted. Results A total of 44 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients assessed for response. The MTD was established as 1.3 mg/m2 for bortezomib and 40 mg/m2 for alvocidib. The most common hematologic toxicities included leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. The most common non-hematologic toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and sensory neuropathy. Three complete remissions (8%) and 10 partial remissions (26%) were observed for a total response rate of 33%. Pharmacokinetic findings with the current dosing regimen were consistent with the comparable literature and the hybrid dosing regimen. Pharmacodynamic study results did not correlate with clinical responses. Conclusions The combination of bortezomib and alvocidib is tolerable and an MTD has been established for this schedule. The regimen appears to be efficacious in patients with relapsed/refractory MM or indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As the non-hybrid regimen is less cumbersome than the previous hybrid dosing schedule regimen, the current schedule is recommended for successor studies. PMID:25248382

  6. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  7. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  9. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  10. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  11. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  12. Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnond, C.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

  13. Effect of nitroxin and humic acid on yield and yield components of faba bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholdi Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality and quantity improvement of crops using organic matter and low-cost method in the field is very important. Bio-fertilizer nitroxin and humic acid can increase root and shoot biomass through improved intake of nutrition and they can lead to quality and quantity improvement of product. An experiment was carried out as a completely randomized block design with 4 treatments to study the effect of nitroxin and humic acid on faba bean (Vicia faba L. traits. Trial treatments included control, nitroxin, humic acid and nitroxin + humic acid. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of combination of nitroxin + humic acid was significant (p< 1% on some traits such as stem height and yield of faba bean. The highest yield (2,315 kg ha-1 was obtained under nitroxin + humic acid treatment.

  14. Cacao yield in different planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of six planting densities on cacao yield of a commercial hybrid mixture as well as the interaction of planting densities with the years were investigated. Crop data collected over a 14-year period (1977-1990 showed that it was possible to optimise the regional cacao yields by implementing high planting densities (2500 and 1736 trees ha-1. This was however only true for the first half of the crop period. In the second half, low planting density (1059 trees ha-1 attained the best yields. This change in the ranking of planting densities over the years confirmed the presence of density-year interaction. Alternatives to achieve high productivity in high planting density systems were presented and discussed.O efeito de seis densidades de plantio sobre a produção de um híbrido comercial de cacau, bem como a interação das densidades com os anos, foi investigado. Dados coletados do cultivo por 14 anos (1977-1990 mostraram que é possível otimizar a produção de cacau da região implementando uma alta densidade populacional (2500 e 1736 plantas ha-1. Todavia, isto se verificou apenas para a primeira metade do período de cultivo. Na segunda metade, a baixa densidade (1059 plantas ha-1 foi superior em produção. Esta mudança na densidade com o passar dos anos foi confirmada pela presença da interação densidades por anos. Alternativas para alcançar elevadas produtividades nos sistemas com altas densidades foram apresentadas e discutidas.

  15. Heterosis for seed yield and yield components over environments in castor (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Chaudhari, R.F. Chaudhary, D.K. Patel, Ashish Kanwal, H.N. Patel, H.C. Pathak and B.H. Prajapari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation with 10 diverse inbreds, their 45 hybrids (generated by diallel mating design excluding reciprocals along with two standard checks viz; GCH-4 and GCH-5 was taken up over four environments (two fertility levels and two sowing dates to determine the extent of heterosis of seed yield and eight component traits. The heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis over GCH-4 and GCH-5 for seed yield/plant across the environments ranged from -13.71% to 47.89%, -25.08% to 22.77% and -31.62% to 12.04% respectively. SKI-280 x SH-41, SKI-280 x SKI-288, SH-41 x SKI-285, SKI-280 x SKI-215, SKI-288 x SH-41, SKI-288 x SKI-232, SKI-218 x SKI-232, SKI-215 x SH-41, SKI-288 x SKI-285, SKI-215 x SKI-285, SKI-232 x DCS-9 and SKI-215 x SKI-232 had significantly out yielded their better parent while SKI-232 x DCS-9 was significantly superior over GCH-4. Across the locations, the cross SKI-232 x DCS-9 produced the highest 182.28g of seed/plant and registered 30.49%, 22.77% and 12.04% superiority over better parent, GCH-4 and GCH-5 respectively. Magnitudes of heterosis vary from character to character and cross to cross. In general, for seed yield/plant across the locations magnitude of desirable heterosis was high over batter parent but low over standard checks. For developing high yielding and earlier maturing genotypes, selection of crosses on the basis of per se performance with considerable per cent heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis would be more desirable.

  16. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  17. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  18. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  19. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  20. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  1. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth

  2. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.I.

    1967-01-01

    Specific yield is defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water that a saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to (2) the total volume of the rock or soft. Specific yield is usually expressed as a percentage. The value is not definitive, because the quantity of water that will drain by gravity depends on variables such as duration of drainage, temperature, mineral composition of the water, and various physical characteristics of the rock or soil under consideration. Values of specific yields nevertheless offer a convenient means by which hydrologists can estimate the water-yielding capacities of earth materials and, as such, are very useful in hydrologic studies. The present report consists mostly of direct or modified quotations from many selected reports that present and evaluate methods for determining specific yield, limitations of those methods, and results of the determinations made on a wide variety of rock and soil materials. Although no particular values are recommended in this report, a table summarizes values of specific yield, and their averages, determined for 10 rock textures. The following is an abstract of the table. [Table

  3. Incorporating phenology into yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Because the yields of many crops are sensitive to meteorological forcing during specific growth stages, phenological information has potential utility in yield mapping and forecasting exercises. However, most attempts to explain the spatiotemporal variability in crop yields with weather data have relied on growth stage definitions that do not change from year-to-year, even though planting, maturity, and harvesting dates show significant interannual variability. We tested the hypothesis that quantifying temperature exposures over dynamically determined growth stages would better explain observed spatiotemporal variability in crop yields than statically defined time periods. Specifically, we used National Agricultural and Statistics Service (NASS) crop progress data to identify the timing of the start of the maize reproductive growth stage ("silking"), and examined the correlation between county-scale yield anomalies and temperature exposures during either the annual or long-term average silking period. Consistent with our hypothesis and physical understanding, yield anomalies were more correlated with temperature exposures during the actual, rather than the long-term average, silking period. Nevertheless, temperature exposures alone explained a relatively low proportion of the yield variability, indicating that other factors and/or time periods are also important. We next investigated the potential of using remotely sensed land surface phenology instead of NASS progress data to retrieve crop growth stages, but encountered challenges related to crop type mapping and subpixel crop heterogeneity. Here, we discuss the potential of overcoming these challenges and the general utility of remotely sensed land surface phenology in crop yield mapping.

  4. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  5. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  6. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  7. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  8. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  9. Source-Sink Relationship in Intersubspecific Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-hang; XIANG Xun-chao; HE Li-bin; LI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Three indica restorer lines (Mianhui 725, Shuhui 527, Shuhui 881), an American rice variety Lemont and a javanica rice variety Xiangdali were crossed with japonica Kitaake, and five F1 hybrids were obtained to study the photosynthetic and agronomic traits. The data on photosynthetic characteristics indicated that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the five F1 hybrids was significantly higher than that of their parents (or one of them) under high photosynthetic flux density (PFD); while the overall performance of hybrids was better than their respective parents in apparent quantum yield (AQY), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and CO2compensation point (CCP). Moreover, the photosynthetic performance of the five F1 were different due to the variation in heredity and the typical indica-japonica hybrids, Mianhui 725/Kitaake and Shuhui 527/Kitaake, were better than the others on this aspect. The agronomic traits revealed that the five F1 exhibited different heterosis, with Shuhui 881/Kitaake the largest sink followed by Mianhui725/Kitaake, Shuhui 527/Kitaake, Lemont/Kitaake and Xiangdaii/Kitaake. The production potential of indica-japonica hybrids was higher than that of the other two hybrids, which was consistent with the performance of Pn. However, the superior trait of indica-japonica hybrids on sink size has not been fully turned into high yield because of abnormal seed setting. Therefore, attention should be paid to the proper genome coordination and appropriate genetic distance so as to achieve super high yielding.

  10. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  11. Progress and future development of hybrid rapeseed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Tingdong; Zhou Yongming

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid growth of rapeseed now has reached to 4.7 × 106 hm2,accounting for 70%of total rapeseed growth area in China. Over the last 40 years,the researches and utilizations of hybrid rapeseed in China have sig-nificantly contributed to the development of rapeseed industry in China. The production of hybrid rapeseed mainly utilizes cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS),combined at the same time with nuclear male sterility and other pollinat-ing-control systems in China. The hybrid rapeseed studies in China are also characterized by the improvement of quality and oil content in hybrid breeding. Future studies to enhance the heterosis of rapeseed will be focused on several important issues,including the combination of heterosis and ideotype breeding,further increase of oil con-tent in hybrids,utilization of sub-genomic heterosis and resistance improvement. The paper will discuss the follow-ing perspectives in hybrid rapeseed studies:relationships among heterosis,quality and disease traits,solutions for excessive source and pool in hybrids compared with open-pollinated cultivars,and the importance of increasing harvest index of hybrids to achieve a better yield in hybrids.

  12. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. A Gurson-type criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal voids—II: Determination of yield criterion parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madou, Komlanvi; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to fully determine the parameters of the approximate homogenized yield criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal cavities proposed in Part I. This is done through improvements of the limit-analysis of some representative hollow cell presented there. The improvements are of two kinds. For hydrostatic loadings, the limit-analysis is refined by performing micromechanical finite element computations in a number of significant cases, so as to replace Leblond and Gologanu (2008)'s trial velocity field representing the expansion of the void by the exact, numerically determined one. For deviatoric loadings, limit-analysis is dropped and direct use is made of some general rigorous results for nonlinear composites derived by Ponte-Castaneda (1991), Willis (1991) and Michel and Suquet (1992) using the earlier work of Willis (1977) and the concept of "linear comparison material". This hybrid approach is thought to lead to the best possible expressions of the yield criterion parameters. The criterion proposed reduces to (variants of) classical approximate criteria proposed by Gurson (1977) and Gologanu et al. (1993, 1994, 1997) in the specific cases of spherical or spheroidal, prolate or oblate cavities. An overview of the validation of this criterion through micromechanical finite element computations is finally presented.

  14. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  15. Dissecting Maize Productivity: Ideotypes Associated with Grain Yield under Drought Stress and Well-watered Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jill E.Cairns; Ciro Sanchez; Mateo Vargas; Raziel Ordo(n)ez; Jose Luis Araus

    2012-01-01

    To increase maize (Zea mays L.) yields in drought-prone environments and offset predicted maize yield losses under future climates,the development of improved breeding pipelines using a multi-disciplinary approach is essential.Elucidating key growth processes will provide opportunities to improve drought breeding progress through the identification of key phenotypic traits,ideotypes,and donors.In this study,we tested a large set of tropical and subtropical maize inbreds and single cross hybrids under reproductive stage drought stress and well-watered conditions.Patterns of biomass production,senescence,and plant water status were measured throughout the crop cycle.Under drought stress,early biomass production prior to anthesis was important for inbred yield,while delayed senescence was important for hybrid yield.Under well-watered conditions,the ability to maintain a high biomass throughout the growing cycle was crucial for inbred yield,while a stay-green pattern was important for hybrid yield.While new quantitative phenotyping tools such as spectral reflectance (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI) allowed for the characterization of growth and senescence patterns as well as yield,qualitative measurements of canopy senescence were also found to be associated with grain yield.

  16. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  17. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  18. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  19. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie C M Gaudin

    Full Text Available Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple

  20. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  1. Characterization of photosynthesis, photoinhibition and the activities of C4 pathway enzymes in a superhigh-yield rice,Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiang(王强); LU; Congming(卢从明); ZHANG; Qide(张其德); HAO; Naibin(郝迺斌); GE; Qiaoying(戈巧英); DONG; Fengqin(董凤琴); BAI; Kezhi(白克智); KUANG; Tingyun(匡廷云)

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange, photoinhibition and C4 pathway enzyme activities in both flag leaves and lemma were compared between a superhigh-yield rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrid, Liangyoupeijiu and a traditional rice hybrid, Shanyou63. Liangyoupeijiu had a similar light saturated assimilation rate (Asat) to Shanyou63, but a much higher apparent quantum yield (AQY), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and quantum yield of CO2 fixation (φCO2). Liangyoupeijiu also showed a higher resistance to photoinhibition and higher non-radiative energy dissipation associated with the xanthophyll cycle than Shanyou63 when subjected to strong light. In addition, Liangyoupeijiu had higher activities of the C4 pathway enzymes in both flag leaves and lemmas than Shanyou63. These results indicate that higher light and CO2 use efficiency, higher resistance to photoinhibition and C4 pathway in both flag leaf and lemma may contribute to the higher yield of the superhigh-yield rice hybrid, Liangyoupeijiu.

  2. Multiaxial yield behaviour of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the yield behavior of polypropylene as a function of pressure and to verify the applicability of the Drucker-Prager yield function, various tests were conducted to cover a wide range of stress states from uniaxial tension and compression to multiaxial tension and confined compression. Tests were performed below and above the glass transition temperature, to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature. The pressure sensitivity coefficient as an intrinsic material parameter was determined as a function of temperature. Increasing pressure sensitivity values were found with increasing temperature, which can be related to the change in the free volume and thus, to the enhanced molecular mobility. A best-fit Drucker-Prager yield function was applied to the experimental yield stresses and an average error between the predictions and the measurements of 7 % was obtained.

  3. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  4. Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Tuhin

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

  5. Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, José Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

  6. Simultaneous covalent and noncovalent hybrid polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhilin; Tantakitti, Faifan; Yu, Tao; Palmer, Liam C.; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

    2016-01-28

    Covalent and supramolecular polymers are two distinct forms of soft matter, composed of long chains of covalently and noncovalently linked structural units, respectively. We report a hybrid system formed by simultaneous covalent and supramolecular polymerizations of monomers. The process yields cylindrical fibers of uniform diameter that contain covalent and supramolecular compartments, a morphology not observed when the two polymers are formed independently. The covalent polymer has a rigid aromatic imine backbone with helicoidal conformation, and its alkylated peptide side chains are structurally identical to the monomer molecules of supramolecular polymers. In the hybrid system, covalent chains grow to higher average molar mass relative to chains formed via the same polymerization in the absence of a supramolecular compartment. The supramolecular compartments can be reversibly removed and re-formed to reconstitute the hybrid structure, suggesting soft materials with novel delivery or repair functions.

  7. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  8. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  9. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  10. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-02-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  11. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  12. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks and Benefits ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study ...

  13. Fresh Market Tomato Pruning Trial for Northern Indiana, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pruning tomatoes is known to increase average fruit size and decrease total yield. Effects on marketable yield and early yield vary among cultivars and with the degree of pruning. This trial was conducted to evaluate a range of pruning treatments on two cultivars grown in the Midwest: Mountain Spring and Florida 91. Florida 91 has a larger vine and is later-maturing than Mountain Spring. The trial was conducted at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.

  14. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  15. Closing the cassava yield gap: an analysis from small-holder farms in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava yields in Africa are small and it remains unclear which factors most limit yields. Using a series of farm surveys and on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda and western Kenya, we evaluated the importance of abiotic, biotic and associated crop management constraints for cassava production in

  16. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  17. Non-adaptive and adaptive hybrid approaches for enhancing water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Ineke M.; Peralta, Richard C.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryUsing optimization to help solve groundwater management problems cost-effectively is becoming increasingly important. Hybrid optimization approaches, that combine two or more optimization algorithms, will become valuable and common tools for addressing complex nonlinear hydrologic problems. Hybrid heuristic optimizers have capabilities far beyond those of a simple genetic algorithm (SGA), and are continuously improving. SGAs having only parent selection, crossover, and mutation are inefficient and rarely used for optimizing contaminant transport management. Even an advanced genetic algorithm (AGA) that includes elitism (to emphasize using the best strategies as parents) and healing (to help assure optimal strategy feasibility) is undesirably inefficient. Much more efficient than an AGA is the presented hybrid (AGCT), which adds comprehensive tabu search (TS) features to an AGA. TS mechanisms (TS probability, tabu list size, search coarseness and solution space size, and a TS threshold value) force the optimizer to search portions of the solution space that yield superior pumping strategies, and to avoid reproducing similar or inferior strategies. An AGCT characteristic is that TS control parameters are unchanging during optimization. However, TS parameter values that are ideal for optimization commencement can be undesirable when nearing assumed global optimality. The second presented hybrid, termed global converger (GC), is significantly better than the AGCT. GC includes AGCT plus feedback-driven auto-adaptive control that dynamically changes TS parameters during run-time. Before comparing AGCT and GC, we empirically derived scaled dimensionless TS control parameter guidelines by evaluating 50 sets of parameter values for a hypothetical optimization problem. For the hypothetical area, AGCT optimized both well locations and pumping rates. The parameters are useful starting values because using trial-and-error to identify an ideal combination of control

  18. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  19. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  20. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents), 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass,...

  1. INFLUENCE OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON VARIABILITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND DIGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; P ONDRIŠÍK

    2004-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different doses of Atonik application on sugar beet root yield and digestion (cultivar Ranger) were studied in the field trial. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of trial year weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. Comparing received results in the year 1998 to results in 1999 we found out lower root yield (- 7,6 t.ha-1) and digestion (- 0,2 t.ha-1) comparing with year 1999. We found out a signifi...

  2. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  3. Nitrogen fertilization for young established hybrid hazelnuts in the Upper Midwest of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrids of Corylus avellana, C. americana, and C. cornuta are proposed as a new crop for the Upper Midwest. Anecdotal information from midwestern growers suggests that these hybrid hazelnuts have high N requirements, but this has not been confirmed in replicated trials. Current nitrogen (N) recommen...

  4. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  5. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  6. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  7. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  9. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  10. Effect of NS-nitragin application on soybean yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils of Serbia are low in soybean symbiotic bacteria and application of bacteriological preparations has been introduced as a regular cultivation practice when growing soybean. A trial was set up on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad on chernozem soil using a randomized block design with four replicates. Mineral nitrogen fertilizers were used in rates of 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg ha-1 in the experiment. Each of the nitrogen treatments had two variations, with and without inoculation. The effects of inoculation and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield components were determined based on the pod number, seed number, 1000 seed mass and protein and oil content in seeds. Significantly higher pod number was observed in inoculated plants with the application of 30 kg N ha-1. Inoculation with NS-Nitragin increased seed number per plant. In treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied and with application of 30 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg N ha-1, 1000 seed mass was statistically higher in inoculated plants than in uninoculated ones. Inoculation produced statistically significant difference in soybean yield only in the treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied. Inoculation and applied mineral nitrogen rates had no significant effect on protein content in soybean grain.

  11. Preliminary Study on Mechanized Cultivation Technologies of Male Parent in Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice Seed Production%籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 马寅超

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduced the trials and demonstration of male parent machine transplanting and machine harvesting in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed production in Ningbo City about four years. The costs and seed yield of male parent with different cultivation method were analyzed, and put forward the mechanized cultivation techniques of male parent in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed pro-duction.%介绍了宁波市4年来籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收的试验示范情况,分析比较了父本机插机收与人工插种收割的成本和制种产量,提出了杂交水稻父本机插机收的配套栽培技术。

  12. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  13. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflower hybrids created in the breeding program at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Strong and very strong correlations were found among the largest number of examined traits. A weak negative interdependence was determined between kernel oil content, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, hull ratio, and protein yield using the analysis of simple correlation coefficients. Positive but weak correlation was determined between protein yield and seed oil content, and kernel ratio. Very strong positive correlation was determined between protein yield and seed yield (0.468**. The seed oil content had a very strong direct negative effect on protein yield (DE=-0.734**. The mass of 1000 seeds had a weak negative direct effect on protein yield. Kernel protein content and kernel oil content demonstrated a weak direct positive effect on protein yield. Path coefficient analysis of protein yield showed a very strong positive direct effect of kernel ratio (DE=1.340**, seed yield (DE=0.657** and hull ratio (DE=0.992*. These findings confirm the effect of seed yield, kernel ratio, and hull ratio on protein yield, and their importance as the selection criteria in confectionary sunflower breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31025: Development of new varieties and production technology improvement of oil crops for different purposes

  15. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  16. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  17. Metabolic and Phenotypic Responses of Greenhouse-Grown Maize Hybrids to Experimentally Controlled Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Witt; Luis Galici; Jan Lisec; Jill Cairns; Axel Tiessen; Jose Luis Araus; Natalia Palacios-Rojas; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to abiotic stresses like drought is an important acquirement of agriculturally relevant crops like maize.Development of enhanced drought tolerance in crops grown in climatic zones where drought is a very dominant stress factor therefore plays an essential role in plant breeding.Previous studies demonstrated that corn yield potential and enhanced stress tolerance are associated traits.In this study,we analyzed six different maize hybrids for their ability to deal with drought stress in a greenhouse experiment.We were able to combine data from morphophysiological parameters measured under well-watered conditions and under water restriction with metabolic data from different organs.These different organs possessed distinct metabolite compositions,with the leaf blade displaying the most considerable metabolome changes following water deficiency.Whilst we could show a general increase in metabolite levels under drought stress,including changes in amino acids,sugars,sugar alcohols,and intermediates of the TCA cycle,these changes were not differential between maize hybrids that had previously been designated based on field trial data as either drought-tolerant or susceptible.The fact that data described here resulted from a greenhouse experiment with rather different growth conditions compared to natural ones in the field may explain why tolerance groups could not be confirmed in this study.We were,however,able to highlight several metabolites that displayed conserved responses to drought as well as metabolites whose levels correlated well with certain physiological traits.

  18. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  19. Yield statistics of interpolated superoscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Eytan; Perlsman, Ehud; Schwartz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Yield optimized interpolated superoscillations have been recently introduced as a means for possibly making the use of the phenomenon of superoscillation practical. In this paper we study how good is a superoscillation that is not optimal. Namely, by how much is the yield decreased when the signal departs from the optimal one. We consider two situations. One is the case where the signal strictly obeys the interpolation requirement and the other is when that requirement is relaxed. In the latter case the yield can be increased at the expense of deterioration of signal quality. An important conclusion is that optimizing superoscillations may be challenging in terms of the precision needed, however, storing and using them is not at all that sensitive. This is of great importance in any physical system where noise and error are inevitable.

  20. Production of Fine Metallic Powders by Hybrid Atomization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kazumi; Liu, Yunzhong; Kakisawa, Hideki; Halada, Kohmei

    Hybrid Atomization is a recently developed powder-making process that combines effectively free-fall gas atomization and centrifugal atomization. This technique can produce very fine spherical powders with mean diameters of around 10 micrometers, and in high yields. The present report discusses the concept and basic principles of hybrid atomization. Process experiments were carried out and the optimal processing conditions were obtained. The results show that the influences of processing parameters and optimum conditions differ greatly between the proposed and the conventional atomization processes. A new correlation of atomization equation applicable to hybrid atomization is proposed and discussed.

  1. Design automation for complex CMOS/SOS LSI hybrid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P. W.; Smiley, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A design automated approach used to develop thick-film hybrid packages is described. The hybrid packages produced combine thick-film and silicon on sapphire (SOS) laser surface interaction technologies to bring the on-chip performance level of SOS to the subsystem level. Packing densities are improved by a factor of eight over ceramic dual in-line packing; interchip wiring capacitance is low. Due to significant time savings, the design automated approach presented can be expected to yield a 3:1 reduction in cost over the use of manual methods for the initial design of a hybrid.

  2. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  3. Evaluation of a radioactive and fluorescent hybrid tracer for sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck malignancies: prospective randomized clinical trial to compare ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid hybrid tracer versus {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Ingo; Leyh, Julia; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim [University Hospital Essen University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Essen (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten [University Hospital Essen University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    There is some controversy about the value of sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) in patients with head and neck malignancies. The gold standard for detection and targeted extirpation of the SLN is lymphoscintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to analyse the feasibility and clinical benefit of a hybrid tracer comprising the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent indocyanine green (ICG) and {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid) in direct comparison with standard {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid for guiding SLNE in patients with head and neck cutaneous malignancies. We analysed the data from 40 clinically lymph node-negative patients with melanoma, high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma or sweat gland carcinoma who underwent SLNE with ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (cohort A) or with the standard {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (cohort B). Overall SLNs were identified preoperatively in all 20 patients (100 %) in cohort A and in 18 of 20 patients (90 %) in cohort B. The SLN basin was detected preoperatively in 18 patients (90 %) in cohort A and also in 18 patients (90 %) in cohort B. SLNs were identified intraoperatively in all 20 patients (100 %) in cohort A and in 19 patients (95 %) in cohort B (p = 0.487). Metastatic SLNs were detected in 9 patients (22.5 %), 3 (15.0 %) in cohort A and 6 (30.0 %) in cohort B (p = 0.228). The hybrid tracer ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid is an innovative imaging tracer, reliably and readily providing additional information for the detection and excision of SLN in the head and neck region. Therefore, SLNE with combined radioactive and NIR fluorescence guidance is an attractive option for improving the SLN detection rate in patients with cutaneous head and neck malignancies. (orig.)

  4. Variety trial Results and Analysis of Hybrid Rice Combination in Anxi Country%安溪县杂交晚稻新品种区试结果与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖全省

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 44 high quality rice combinations, which contained 11 middle varieties and 33 later varieties, were planted in Anxi country, and we summarized planting performance, yield result, and the evaluation of the varieties of regional test of new varieties later in Fujian province in 2013.%引进晚稻中熟组品种11个、晚稻迟熟组品种33个在安溪县进行区域试验,总结了2013年福建省晚稻区试新品种在安溪县的种植表现、产量结果及品种评价。

  5. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  6. Heterosis and combining ability studies in upland cotton for yield characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pushpam, K. Thangaraj and T. S. Raveendran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten Gossypium hirsutum lines tolerant to jassids were selected as donors along with three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7, MCU 12 for crossing programme. This study indicated the predominance of non additive gene effects for all the yield and yield contributing characters which signifies the scope for exploitation of heterosis. Among the lines, DHY 286, Badnawar 1 and SVPR 2 were found to be good general combiners for single plant yield. Among the jassid resistant parents, DHY 286 was found to possess more favourable genes for number of bolls per plant, boll weight, single plant yield and seed index. The highly resistant parent KC 2 was observed as good general combiner for bolls per plant and this parent can be used in breeding programme for improving yield coupled with resistance. The tester MCU 5 is a good general combiner for yield contributing traits. By hybridizing the resistant genotypes with MCU 5, favourable gene combinations could be accomplished for the yield and yield contributing characters. The hybrids showing high per se performance for yield, DHY 286 x MCU 5, Badnawar 1 x MCU 5, Badnawar 1 x MCU 7 and Badnawar 1 x MCU 12 also showed resistance to jassids and deserve further exploitation.

  7. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  8. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  9. Progress Towards Genetics and Breeding for Minor Genes Based Resistance to Ug99 and Other Rusts in CIMMYT High-Yielding Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet

    2014-01-01

    Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the

  10. Factors predicting publication of spinal cord injury trials registered on www.ClinicalTrials. gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, J Mason; Park, Sara; Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-08-11

    Treatment options for spinal cord injuries are currently limited, but multiple clinical trials are underway for a variety of interventions, drugs, and devices. The Food and Drug Administration website www.ClinicalTrials.gov catalogues these trials and includes information on the status of the trial, date of initiation and completion, source of funding, and region. This investigation assesses the factors associated with publication and the publication rate of spinal cord injury trials. Retrospective analysis of publically available data on www.ClinicalTrials.gov. The www.ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for all trials on patients with spinal cord injury, and these trials were assessed for status, type of intervention, source of funding, and region. Multiple literature searches were performed on all completed trials to determine publication status. There were 626 studies identified concerning the treatment of patients with spinal cord injury, of which 250 (39.9%) were completed. Of these, only 119 (47.6%) were published. There was no significant difference in the rate of publication between regions (p> 0.16) or by study type (p> 0.29). However, trials that were funded by the NIH were more likely to be published than trials funded by industry (p= 0.01). The current publication rate of spinal cord injury trials is only 47.6%, though this rate is similar to the publication rate for trials in other fields. NIH-funded trials are significantly more likely to become published than industry-funded trials, which could indicate that some trials remain unpublished due to undesirable results. However, it is also likely that many trials on spinal cord injury yield negative results, as treatments are often ineffective.

  11. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  12. PARENTAL DROUGHT AND DEFOLIATION EFFECT ON YIELD, GRAINS BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS AND DROUGHT PERFORMANCE OF SORGHUM PROGENY

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Ibrahim; El-Shahaby, O. A.; Abo-Hamed, S. A.; Younis, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113). Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive...

  13. Resistance to insect and bird damage in sorghum hybrids - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 80 (7 for pearl millet and 73 for grain and forage sorghum) hybrids and a pair of sugarcane aphid resistant and susceptible controls were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. Sugarcane aphid resistance also was evaluated in a separate trial near Griffin, ...

  14. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  15. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  16. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment, screening, diagnostic, prevention, and supportive care trials. Treatment Trials In treatment trials, researchers may gather information about experimental treatments, ...

  17. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  18. The Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jen

    2004-01-01

    Growing up in Flemington, New Jersey, put Jen Bryant in the heart of the lore behind the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Family stories of the events of the day and extensive research led to "The Trial," a novel in verse. The first several parts of this novel are included here.

  19. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  1. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  2. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  3. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  4. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.

  5. Heterosis in locally adapted sorghum genotypes and potential of hybrids for increased productivity in contrasting environments in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taye T. Mindaye; Emma S. Mace; Ian D. Godwin; David R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Increased productivity in sorghum has been achieved in the developed world using hybrids. Despite their yield advantage, introduced hybrids have not been adopted in Ethiopia due to the lack of adaptive traits, their short plant stature and small grain size. This study was conducted to investigate hybrid performance and the magnitude of heterosis of locally adapted genotypes in addition to introduced hybrids in three contrasting environments in Ethiopia. In total, 139 hybrids, derived from introduced seed parents crossed with locally adapted genotypes and introduced R lines, were evaluated. Overall, the hybrids matured earlier than the adapted parents, but had higher grain yield, plant height, grain number and grain weight in all environments. The lowland adapted hybrids displayed a mean better parent heterosis (BPH) of 19%, equating to 1160 kg ha−1 and a 29%mean increase in grain yield, in addition to increased plant height and grain weight, in comparison to the hybrids derived from the introduced R lines. The mean BPH for grain yield for the highland adapted hybrids was 16%in the highland and 52%in the intermediate environment equating to 698 kg ha−1 and 2031 kg ha−1, respectively, in addition to increased grain weight. The magnitude of heterosis observed for each hybrid group was related to the genetic distance between the parental lines. The majority of hybrids also showed superiority over the standard check varieties. In general, hybrids from locally adapted genotypes were superior in grain yield, plant height and grain weight compared to the high parents and introduced hybrids indicating the potential for hybrids to increase productivity while addressing farmers' required traits.

  6. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  7. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  8. Comparison of breast muscle traits and meat quality characteristics in 2 commercial chicken hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were

  9. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, H.C.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crop yields are a result of interactions between genetics, environment and management (G × E × M). As in the Netherlands differences between potential yield and actual farm yields (yield gaps) are relatively small, progress in genetic potential is essential to further increase farm yields. In this p

  10. Estimation of heterosis and dominance deviation for seed cotton yield, its components characters in upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Patel, S. S. Jaiwar, N. A. Patel, V. R. Akbari and P. B. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester analysis was undertaken to estimates the magnitude of heterosis and dominance deviation in Gossypium hirsutum L. for yield, its components and other matricate characters in 60 test entries including (44 F1s along with 15 parents and 1 standard check hybrid. Analysis of variance indicated the significant difference among the parents and hybrids for all 12 characters studied which revealed existence of variability among the genotypes. Studies revealed that out of 44 cross combinations, only 3 hybrids viz., BC-68-2 x MCU 11, BC-68-2 x AC 738 and BN 1 x Reba-B-50 depicted significant and positive heterosis over standard check hybrid G. Cot. Hy. 12. The hybrid BC-68-2 x MCU 11 exhibited significant positive standard heterosis for seed cotton yield per plant and other attributing characters i.e. total number of bolls per plant, average boll weight, lint yield per plant and lint index. The mean values of potence ratio in all twelve characters suggested that degree of dominance was governed by over dominance genes for the expression of all the characters under study.

  11. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability ... test locations possessed high discriminating ability. ... many inbred lines that combine earliness with ...... quality protein maize cultivars in stress and.

  12. The effect of the weight of cloves on the growth and the yield of fall-planted garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In three years trials (1990-1993 the effect of diameter of bulbilson growth and yield of local garlic ecotype R was studied. Nine size classes of bulbils were investigated. Significant effect of diameter of bulbils on biometric propeities and yield of local garlic was found out. The plants grown from big bulbils gave higher and better quality yield then those grown from smaller bulbils. There was no difference in yield of plants grown from big and medium bulbils.

  13. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  14. Effects of Different Cultivation Methods on Yield and Dry Matter Production of Late Hy-brid Rice%不同栽培方式对连作晚稻产量和物质生产特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 陈少杰

    2015-01-01

    以中熟晚粳宁81为材料,对机插、抛秧和手插3种栽培方式水稻的产量、干物质积累、茎蘖动态、成穗规律等进行比较研究。结果表明,3种栽培方式稻谷产量表现为手插>抛秧>机插,与机插相比,手插和抛秧分别增产4.25%和2.00%;在茎蘖利用上,抛秧方式的苗峰较高但成穗率低,手插和机插成穗率较高,均大于70%,机插和抛秧以利用主茎第4~7叶位上的分蘖穗为主,而手插主茎第6~8叶位上的分蘖穗对产量的贡献更大;在物质生产上,前期抛秧物质积累量较多,至拔节期干物质量抛秧>手插>机插,拔节至抽穗期,手插方式的干物质积累量显著超过抛秧,抽穗至成熟期干物质积累量机插略高于抛秧和手插。%The yield, dry matter accumulation and growth characteristics of medium maturing late japonica rice variety Ning 81 were studied under different cultivation methods. The results showed that the yield of Ning 81 with hand-transplanting was higher than that of the other two cultivation methods. Hand-transplanting and machine-transplanting rice got higher spike rate of over 70%. The tiller spikes on the main stem 4 to 7 leaf position had more contribution to yield in throw seedlings and machine-transplanting rice, while the 6 to 8 leaf position had more contribution to yield in hand-transplanting rice. Throw seedlings had more dry matter accumulation in jointing stage than others, in jointing to heading stage, hand-transplanting method performed best, in heading to maturity stage, ma-chine-transplanting method had higher dry matter accumulation.

  15. Fast hybridization solution for the detection of immobilized nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T T; Kain, S R

    1995-03-01

    We have developed a fast hybridization solution, termed ExpressHyb, for the rapid and sensitive detection of nucleic acids immobilized on membrane supports. This solution reduces typical hybridization times of 12-24 h to as little as 1 h while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of detection in many applications. Using ExpressHyb, human beta-actin mRNA was detected on a human multiple tissue Northern (MTN) blot following a 30-min hybridization, with optimal detection occurring with a 1-h hybridization interval. The moderately abundant human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA was detected using similar hybridization conditions and yielded improved signal-to-background characteristics relative to overnight hybridizations in conventional solutions. ExpressHyb can be used with either 32P- or digoxigenin-labeled probes and works effectively with both cDNA and oligonucleotide probes. For non-isotopic detection in particular, ExpressHyb reduces the nonspecific background commonly encountered with this technique. In cDNA library screening, ExpressHyb was found to both reduce the time required for effective hybridizations and to increase the number of positive colonies obtained relative to conventional overnight procedures. Taken together, these results illustrate the broad capability of ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution to improve nucleic acid detection in a variety of important techniques.

  16. Hybrid heat pump technoloy for industrial waste heat; Concept hybride warmtepomp. Meer Industriele restwarmte herbruikbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; Van den Heuvel, K. [Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Infante Ferreira, C. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    ECN has recently started research on a hybrid adsorption-compression heat transformer concept. Using this technology low-temperature waste heat can be reused, yielding considerable primary energy savings. A study in cooperation with the Delft University of Technology shows the hybrid technology can already be used with waste heat temperatures of 70C, e.g. in the drying process in a paper factory. The technology is also economically feasible. [Dutch] ECN is onlangs begonnen met onderzoek naar hybride adsorptiecompressie warmtetransformatoren. Deze technologie kan worden gebruikt om restwarmte op te waarderen naar nuttige warmte. Hiermee kunnen grote besparingen worden behaald op primair energiegebruik. Een studie uitgevoerd in samenwerking met de TU Delft toont aan dat deze technologie bruikbaar is met restwarmte vanaf 70C, bijvoorbeeld van een papierfabfiek. Naast technologisch is de technologie ook economisch haalbaar gebleken.

  17. Effect of secondary structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of PNA hybridization to DNA hairpins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushon, S A; Jordan, J P; Seifert, J L

    2001-01-01

    structures in both target and probe molecules are shown to depress the melting temperatures and free energies of the probe-target duplexes. Kinetic analysis of hybridization yields reaction rates that are up to 160-fold slower than hybridization between two unstructured strands. The thermodynamic and kinetic...

  18. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  19. What Are Clinical Trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Clinical ... conducted all the time. The Different Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials related to drugs are classified into ...

  20. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  1. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually, trial participants must show signs of the disease or condition before they can join this type of trial. Prevention Trials Click for more information In prevention trials, ...

  2. Combining ability for seed yield traits of Chenopodium quinoa breeding lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Loo, van E.N.; Dolstra, O.

    2002-01-01

    For a better understanding of the inheritance of seed yield traits in Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa) Willd., a half-diallelic crossing experiment with six diverse but uniform breeding lines was conducted. True hybrid plants were detected by means of differences in panicle colour in 14 out of the 15 cr

  3. Combining ability analysis for yield and its attributes in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.S. Durga Prasad and E. Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization in Line x Tester mating design was conducted with 11 MYMV susceptible lines and three resistant testers in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper to understand the nature of gene action, combining ability of the parents (gca and to assess the potential for the exploitation of heterosis (sca in hybrids. Data on nine quantitative characters viz.,days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight (g and seed yield per plant (g were collected on 33 hybrids and their 11 parents. Among the genotypes, PU 31, LBG 645, ADT 3, CO 6 and LBG 709 recorded relatively high per se performance and gca effects for majority of seed yield attributing traits. The hybrid, LBG 709 x PU 31 followed by CO 6 x PU 31 and LBG 645 x VBN (Bg 6 exhibited significant high per se and sca for most of the traits viz., number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and seed yield per plant .The crosses involving the parents, LBG 645 x PU 31 and ADT 3 x PU 31 recorded significant gca and non-significant sca effect for most of the characters inferring that these crosses would produce superior recombinants for seed yield.

  4. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Moinul Haque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2 and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45 rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (% declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties.

  5. Water-responsive shape memory hybrid: Design concept and demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory materials are featured by their ability to recover their original shapes when a particular stimulus, such as heat, light, magnetic field, even moisture/water, etc. is applied. However, it is not an easy task for non-professionals to synthesize a shape memory material which can meet all the requirements of a particular application. Even for professionals, like materials researchers, it could involve tedious trial and error procedures. In this paper, the concept of water-responsive shape memory hybrid is proposed and the advantages are demonstrated by two examples. The hybrid concept is versatile and can be easily accessed by those even without much polymer/chemistry background. Moreover, the performance of such hybrids can be well-predicted. This concept can be further extended into solvent-responsive shape memory hybrids, which can be routinely designed and realized in a Do-It-Yourself manner by almost anyone.

  6. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  7. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  8. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  9. THE EFFECT OF BROILER CHICKEN ORIGIN ON CARCASE AND MUSCLE YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWA GORNOWICZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the influence of broiler chicken origin on dressing percentage, meat yield and physicochemical traits of breast muscle quality. The comparative study was carried out in the period from 05.01. to 16.02.2007 on three commercial: Cobb 500 (group I, Hybro G+ (group II and Ross 308 (group III meat chicken hybrids. The observed differences in the quality of carcases and meat of the examined commercial meat hybrids were statistically significant (p≤0.05, and indicate that origin of the chickens is the main modifying factor. Meat chicken hybrids, which constitute the basis for commercial production of poultry our country, do not constitute a homogeneous material. Due to the variability over time in the offered sets of commercial meat hybrids should be monitored taking into consideration their meatness traits and basic physicochemical characteristics of meat.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  11. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  12. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  13. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  14. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  15. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation.

  16. Data collection in pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Welsing, Paco; Kafatos, George; Burke, Des; Trelle, Sven; Kubin, Maria; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Egger, Matthias; Zuidgeest, Mira

    2017-07-14

    Pragmatic trials can improve our understanding of how treatments will perform in routine practice. In a series of eight papers, the GetReal Consortium has evaluated the challenges in designing and conducting pragmatic trials and their specific methodological, operational, regulatory, and ethical implications. The present final paper of the series discusses the operational and methodological challenges of data collection in pragmatic trials. A more pragmatic data collection needs to balance the delivery of highly accurate and complete data with minimizing the level of interference that data entry and verification induce with clinical practice. Furthermore, it should allow for the involvement of a representative sample of practices, physicians, and patients who prescribe/receive treatment in routine care. This paper discusses challenges that are related to the different methods of data collection and presents potential solutions where possible. No one-size-fits-all recommendation can be given for the collection of data in pragmatic trials, although in general the application of existing routinely used data-collection systems and processes seems to best suit the pragmatic approach. However, data access and privacy, the time points of data collection, the level of detail in the data, and the lack of a clear understanding of the data-collection process were identified as main challenges for the usage of routinely collected data in pragmatic trials. A first step should be to determine to what extent existing health care databases provide the necessary study data and can accommodate data collection and management. When more elaborate or detailed data collection or more structured follow-up is required, data collection in a pragmatic trial will have to be tailor-made, often using a hybrid approach using a dedicated electronic case report form (eCRF). In this case, the eCRF should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the burden for practitioners and minimize influence on

  17. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  18. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  19. Identification of additional trials in prospective trial registers for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynanda A van Enst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publication and selective outcome reporting bias are a threat to the validity of systematic reviews. Extensive searching for additional trials in prospective trial registers could reduce this problem. We have evaluated how authors of Cochrane systematic reviews currently make use of trial registers as an additional source for the identification of potentially eligible trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 210 systematic Cochrane reviews of interventions published between 2008 and 2010 of which the protocol was first published in 2008. When prospective trial registers were searched we recorded the names of the register(s, the authors' motive(s and if they yielded any extra trials. In 80 reviews (38.1% the authors had searched in one or more prospective trial register(s of which 55% had searched in overlapping search portals and individual registers. Most frequently assessed were the MetaRegister (66.3% and Clinicaltrials.gov (60% which is in sharp contrast of other registers or portals like the WHO ICTRP Search Portal (20%. Reported motives to use registers were to identify ongoing trials (83.3%, to identify unpublished outcomes or trials (23.5%, to identify recently published trials (11.8%, or to identify any relevant trial (3.9%.In 28 reviews (35% the authors had selected (ongoing trials identified in trial registers as potentially eligible. DISCUSSION: Trial registers as an additional source of information are gaining acknowledgement amongst Cochrane reviewers. Nevertheless, searches seem to be inefficient as overlapping databases are frequently consulted, while the WHO ICTRP Search Portal that includes the data from all approved registers worldwide is being underused. Moreover, the emphasis is now on the identification of ongoing trials, although the prospective registers offer a broader potential. Further familiarity of registers and guidance how to search and to report will help to implement this as a common method

  20. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  1. HETEROSIS AND HETEROBELTIOSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD COMPONENTS IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate heterosis and heterobeltiosis for four grain yield components in soybean and to compare performances of the F1 hybrids with those of the parents. The research involved 29 genotypes: 11 parental and 18 F1 hybrids. Positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis were evaluated for the pod number per plant (18.75%; 7.9%, seed number per plant (16.14%; 3.98% and for the seed weight per plant (25.72%; 11.8%. Low positive heterosis (6.62% and negative heterobeltiosis (-1.08% were determined for the trait harvest index per plant. The cross combinations characterized by high mean values and positive evaluations of heterosis for most analyzed traits (Ika x Vita, Podravka 95 x Ika, Ika x OS-1212-05 are populations from which selection of new superior lines are expected. Generally, the obtained results of this study will contribute to the efficiency of the breeding process to the increasing of yield genetic potential in the domestic soybean germplasm.

  2. Reproductive isolation and the expansion of an invasive hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michael J.; Walters, David M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Freeman, Byron J.; Porter, Brady A.

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions involving hybridization proceed according to prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms. Yet few comparisons of reproductive isolation have been carried out to understand how different mechanisms prevent or promote invasions involving hybridization. Here we present a study of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation between non-native red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) from the Coosa River basin (USA) to better understand the formation and expansion of invasive hybrid swarms. We conducted spawning trials to measure mating preferences and raised broods from crosses to assay hybrid viability through early juvenile development. Females of both species were more responsive to conspecific mates, although blacktail shiner females responded more often to heterospecific mates than did red shiner females. Fecundity of red shiner females was also higher than blacktail shiner females. Heterospecific crosses resulted in lower fertilization and egg hatching rates, but we found no other evidence of inviability. Rather, we found comparatively low larval mortality of F1 hybrids, which is suggestive of heterosis. These findings support prior inferences of assortative mating from genetic descriptions of hybridization, and that the invasion in the Coosa River is likely proceeding due to interspecific competition and intrinsic hybrid viability.

  3. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  4. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  5. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

  6. PHENOTYPIC GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OSCULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield as well as adaptability level of several domestic soybean cultivars. The trials were conducted on three locations in the region of the eastern Croatia (Osijek, Brijest, Donji Miholjac in the period from 1998-2002 and involved 14 soybean cultivars. Tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. They belong to maturity groups 0, 0-I and I according to vegetation period length. Two parameters are used in the analysis of yield stability and cultivar adaptability: portion of variance of genotype x environment interaction of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2 GxE and regression coefficient (bi. Obtained results indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield as well as level of cultivar adaptability. Six of the 14 tested cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Smiljana, Kuna, Anica and Tisa had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Other tested cultivars had unstable grain yield and narrow (specific adaptability.

  7. Biomolecule/nanomaterial hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Yehezkeli, Omer; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The integration of biomolecules with metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes yields new hybrid nanostructures of unique features that combine the properties of the biomolecules and of the nano-elements. These unique features of the hybrid biomolecule/nanoparticle systems provide the basis for the rapid development of the area of nanobiotechnology. Recent advances in the implementation of hybrid materials consisting of biomolecules and metallic nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots will be discussed. The following topics will be exemplified: (i) The electrical wiring of redox enzymes with electrodes by means of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, and the application of the modified electrodes as amperometric biosensors or for the construction of biofuel cells. (ii) The biocatalytic growth of metallic nanoparticles as a means to construct optical or electrical sensors. (iii) The functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomolecules and the application of the hybrid nanostructures for developing different optical sensors, including intracellular sensor systems. (iv) The use of biomolecule-metallic nanoparticle nanostructures as templates for growing metallic nanowires, and the construction of fuel-driven nano-transporters.

  8. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  9. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  10. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  11. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  12. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  13. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  16. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  17. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  18. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  19. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  20. Building complex hybrid carbon architectures by covalent interconnections: graphene-nanotube hybrids and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ruitao; Cruz-Silva, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio

    2014-05-27

    Graphene is theoretically a robust two-dimensional (2D) sp(2)-hybridized carbon material with high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. However, due to the existence of grain boundaries and defects, experimentally synthesized large-area polycrystalline graphene sheets are easily broken and can exhibit high sheet resistances; thus, they are not suitable as flexible transparent conductors. As described in this issue of ACS Nano, Tour et al. circumvented this problem by proposing and synthesizing a novel hybrid structure that they have named "rebar graphene", which is composed of covalently interconnected carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with graphene sheets. In this particular configuration, CNTs act as "reinforcing bars" that not only improve the mechanical strength of polycrystalline graphene sheets but also bridge different crystalline domains so as to enhance the electrical conductivity. This report seems to be only the tip of the iceberg since it is also possible to construct novel and unprecedented hybrid carbon architectures by establishing covalent interconnections between CNTs with graphene, thus yielding graphene-CNT hybrids, three-dimensional (3D) covalent CNT networks, 3D graphene networks, etc. In this Perspective, we review the progress of these carbon hybrid systems and describe the challenges that need to be overcome in the near future.