WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid x-ray telescopes

  1. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  2. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  3. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  4. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  5. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Simon, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A.; Semencova, V. [Center for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Prague (Czech Republic); Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  6. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  7. The CAST X-ray telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Madalin M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) is a project at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva, which searches for Axions coming from the Sun. The most sensitive detector system used at CAST is the X-ray Wolter type I telescope. Its two constituents, the X-ray mirror optics and the fully depleted EPIC pn-CCD detector, were originally built for ABRIXAS and XMM-Newton space missions. Their combined use provides the X-ray telescope with the highest axion discovery potential of all CAST detectors, excellent imaging capability and almost 100% data tacking reliability in conditions of low background which is suppressed by a factor of 155 by focusing the photons from the aperture of the magnet of 14.5 cm{sup 2} to a spot of roughly 9.3 mm{sup 2} on the CCD chip. For achieving a high sensitivity the CCD chip is operated at -130 C in a vacuum vessel made of aluminum and a passive shield of copper and led to reduce the external {gamma}-ray. All these combined with a extremely thin and homogeneous entrance window of 20 nm located on the back side of the chip result in a quantum efficiency of >95% in the photon energy range of 1 to 7 keV, which is the interesting region for the axion search with the CAST experiment.

  8. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Cebrián, S; Davenport, M; Elefteriadis, C; Englhauser, J; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Hoffmeister, G; Joux, J N; Königsmann, K C; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lasseur, C; Lippitsch, A; Lutz, G; Morales, J; Papaevangelou, T; Rodríguez, A; Strüder, L; Vogel, J; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  9. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, M.; Bräuninger, H.; Cebrián, S.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J. N.; Kang, D.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Strüder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas

    2007-06-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant gaγγ can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints gaγγ < 1 × 10-10 GeV-1.

  10. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, M.; Bräuninger, H.; Cébrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; R. Hartmann; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J. N.; Kang, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and...

  11. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...... at the Marshall Space Center is participating in these two key aspects of the study....

  12. The X-ray Telescope On Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Edward E.; US-Japan X-Ray Telescope Team

    2007-05-01

    The X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode mission provides an unprecedented combination of spatial and temporal resolution in solar coronal studies. The high sensitivity and broad dynamic range of XRT, coupled with the spacecraft's onboard memory capacity and downlink capability permit a broad range of coronal studies over an extended period of time, for targets ranging from quiet Sun to X-flares. We will give an overview of the first results from XRT and provide information on how to access the Hinode data and information on how to propose joint observations with Hinode. The US XRT team is supported by a contract from NASA to SAO. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, development and operation of the mission.

  13. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Academy of science of Czech Republic, Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Centre for advanced X-ray technologies Reflex sro, Prague (Czech Republic); Pina, L.; Sveda, L. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Nuclear Science

    2005-07-15

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  14. Adaptive Lobster-Eye Hard X-Ray Telescope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for hard X-ray telescopes for starlight detection and wavefront analysis, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Adjustable...

  15. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  16. Measurements of Si Hybrid CMOS X-Ray Detector Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, Stephen D; Burrows, David N; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in con- tention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade read-out architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged latt...

  17. A Transmissive X-ray Polarimeter Design For Hard X-ray Focusing Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hong; Ji, Jianfeng; Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Zeng, Ming; Li, Tenglin; Liu, Yinong; Heng, Peiyin; Wu, Qiong; Han, Dong; Dong, Yongwei; Lu, Fangjun; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) is a mission concept for a future space borne X-ray observatory and is currently selected for early phase study. We present a new design of X-ray polarimeter based on the time projection gas chamber. The polarimeter, placed above the focal plane, has an additional rear window that allows hard X-rays to penetrate (a transmission of nearly 80% at 6 keV) through it and reach the detector on the focal plane. Such a design is to compensate the low detection efficiency of gas detectors, at a low cost of sensitivity, and can maximize the science return of multilayer hard X-ray telescopes without the risk of moving focal plane instruments. The sensitivity in terms of minimum detectable polarization, based on current instrument configuration, is expected to be 3% for a 1mCrab source given an observing time of 10^5 s. We present preliminary test results, including photoelectron tracks and modulation curves, using a test chamber and polarized X-ray sources in the lab.

  18. A Soft X-ray Polarimeter Designed for Broad-band X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Herman L

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for measuring linear X-ray polarization over a broad-band using conventional imaging optics and cameras is described. A new type of high efficiency grating, called the critical angle transmission grating is used to disperse soft X-rays radially from the telescope axis. A set of multilayer-coated paraboloids re-image the dispersed X-rays to rings in the focal plane. The intensity variation around these rings is measured to determine three Stokes parameters: I, Q, and U. By laterally grading the multilayer optics and matching the dispersion of the gratings, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve modulation factors over 50% over the entire 0.2 to 0.8 keV band. A sample design is shown that could be used with the Constellation-X optics.

  19. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey III: X-ray spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Tundo, E; Liu, T; Rosati, P; Borgani, S; Tagliaferri, G; Campana, S; Fugazza, D; D'Avanzo, P

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a spectral analysis of a new, flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies identified with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite down to a flux limit of ~10-14 erg/s/cm2 (SWXCS, Tundo et al. 2012). We carry out a detailed X-ray spectral analysis with the twofold aim of measuring redshifts and characterizing the properties of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM). Optical counterparts and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts are obtained with a cross-correlation with NED. Additional photometric redshifts are computed with a dedicated follow-up program with the TNG and a cross-correlation with the SDSS. We also detect the iron emission lines in 35% of the sample, and hence obtain a robust measure of the X-ray redshift zX. We use zX whenever the optical redshift is not available. Finally, for all the sources with measured redshift, background-subtracted spectra are fitted with a mekal model. We perform extensive spectral simulations to derive an empirical formul...

  20. Proceedings of the "Wide Field X-ray Telescope" workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Rosati, Piero; Gilli, Roberto; Paolillo, Maurizio; Tozzi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We list here the contents of the Proceedings of the "Wide Field X-ray Telescope" conference held in Bologna, Italy on 25-26 Nov 2009. The conference highlighted the scientific potential and discovery space provided by an X-ray mission concept characterized by a wide field-of-view (1 sq.deg.), large effective area (1 sq.mt.) and approximately constant PSF (~5 arcsec HEW) across the whole FOV. The index is in html form with clickable links to the individual contributions.

  1. Hard X-ray telescope using formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    We are planning to have a hard X-ray telescope using a formation flight (FF) that will cover a large sky area (FFAST: formation flight astronomical survey telescope). In particular, it will focus on the energy range above 10 keV. It consists of two small satellites that will go in FF. One is an X-ray telescope satellite and the other is a detector satellite. Two satellites will be simultaneously launched by a single rocket vehicle into a low earth orbit. They are in FF with a separation of 20m +- 10cm. Two satellites are put into a "relatively circular orbit" so that they are in FF in individual Keplerian orbit. Therefore, we only need a small thruster to compensate the perturbation, which is a quite different point from those employed FF in the past projects (XEUS and SimbolX). Since we can not point to the fixed direction, we will survey the sky. The X-ray telescope satellite carries one super-mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV. The telescope is 45-cm diameter and its focal length is 20 m. The telescope is a super mirror that has a multi-layer coating covering the energy range up to 80 keV. The detector satellite carries an SDCCD system. The SDCCD is a CCD with a scintillator that is directly attached to the CCD. The CCD chip is fully depleted which can be a back-illuminated CCD. This project, FFAST, will scan a large sky area at hard X-ray region.

  2. Dark Matter Detection with Hard X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of future hard X-ray observations on the search for indirect signatures of particle dark matter in large extragalactic systems such as nearby clusters or groups of galaxies. We argue that the hard X-ray energy band falls squarely at the peak of the inverse Compton emission from electrons and positrons produced by dark matter annihilation or decay for a large class of dark matter models. Specifically, the most promising are low-mass models with a hard electron-positron annihilation final state spectrum and intermediate-mass models with a soft electron-positron spectrum. We find that constraints on dark matter models similar to the current constraints from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope will be close to the limit of the sensitivity of the near-term hard X-ray telescopes NuSTAR and ASTRO-H for relatively long observations, but an instrument similar to the Wide Field Imager proposed for the International X-ray Observatory would allow significant gains to be made. In the future, the abil...

  3. Metrology Requirements of Future X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness: Programmatic issues are at least as severe

  4. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing or expanding a very thin and brief surface melt in the solder by amounts controlled in the nanoscale range, allowing post assembly correction of the mirror mount points. We believe this technology will be one of the keys to realize a sub-1 arc-sec thin-glass x-ray telescope.

  5. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  6. Segmented X-ray optics for future space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, R. S.

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of ~17 cm2/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  7. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  8. Simulating x-ray telescopes with McXtrace: a case study of ATHENA's optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Desiree D. M.; Knudsen, Erik B.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Massahi, Sonny; Shortt, Brian; Spiga, Daniele; Solstad, Mathias; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-07-01

    We use the X-ray ray-tracing package McXtrace to simulate the performance of X-ray telescopes based on Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technologies. We use as reference the design of the optics of the planned X-ray mission Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) which is designed as a single X-ray telescope populated with stacked SPO substrates forming mirror modules to focus X-ray photons. We show that is possible to simulate in detail the SPO pores and qualify the use of McXtrace for in-depth analysis of in-orbit performance and laboratory X-ray test results.

  9. Segmented glass optics for next generation X-ray telescopes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, L.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    The realization of X-Ray Optical Units, based on the use of slumped thin glass segments to form densely packed modules of mirrors in a Wolter type I optical design, is under investigation since some years at the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB) in collaboration with the Max Planck institute for Extraterrestrial physics (MPE) and the European Space Agency (ESA). In order to reach the challenging requirements posed by next-generation X-ray telescopes, an innovative assembly approach to align and mount the IXO-like mirror segments has been developed, based on the use of glass reinforcing ribs that connect the plates to each-other. One of the most interesting features of this integration scheme is that it guarantees an active correction for existing figure errors: since the glasses are bonded into the optical unit while kept trough vacuum suction on the integration mould surface, they assume the exact shape of the mould itself. The status of the development is reviewed in this paper, from the basic idea to the latest results obtained with prototypes.

  10. Imaging performance and tests of soft x-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, E.; McCorkle, R.; Wilczynski, J. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Golub, L.; Nystrom, G. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA)); Takacz, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Welch, C. (Lockheed Missile and Space Co., Las Cruces, NM (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Photos obtained during 5 min. of observation time from the flight of our 10 in. normal incidence soft x-ray ({lambda} = 63.5{Angstrom}) telescope on September 11, 1989 are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. These tests cover a range of spatial periods from 25 cm to 1{Angstrom}. The photos demonstrate a reduction in the scattering of the multilayer mirror compared to a single surface for scattering angles above 1 arcmin, corresponding to surface irregularities with spatial periods below 10 {mu}m. Our results are used to predict the possible performance of future flights. Sounding rocket observations might be able to reach a resolution around 0.1 arcsec. Higher resolutions will require flights of longer durations and improvements in mirror testing for the largest spatial periods. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Imaging properties of Wolter I type x-ray telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W

    1977-03-01

    By ray-tracing methods we have investigated various configurations of Wolter I type x-ray telescopes. For the criterion of image quality the shape of the line spread function has been chosen. The angular resolution we find herewith in a large region of the basic parameters appears to be more than three times higher than results from the rms blur circle criterion. We have concluded that in most cases of practical interest the paraboloid-hyperboloid combination has to be preferred to the Schwarzschild system. In all cases it is possible to find a solution giving an extra improvement of the angular resolution with a factor between,2 and 4 when we describe the mirror shapes with polynomials.

  12. Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Ahsen M.; Joensen, Karsten D.; Hoeghoej, P.;

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented....... This clearly indicates the effectiveness of the epoxy-replication process for the production of smooth substrates for multilayer deposition to be used in future x-ray telescopes........ The roughness value obtained from the Si wafers and the DURAN glass are in the range 3.0-4.2 angstrom and 4.4-4.6 angstrom, respectively. For the epoxy-replicated Au mirrors roughnesses of 5.0-5.8 angstrom are achieved, while the roughness of the SRG flight mirrors are in the range of 8.5-11.0 angstrom...

  13. Observation constraints of the hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT is a low orbit X-ray space telescope whose main science goals are to accomplish a hard X-ray all sky survey and to study timing and spectral characteristics of X-ray sources.HXMT has three kinds of science instruments:the high energy X-ray detector(HE),the medium energy X-ray detector(ME) and the low energy X-ray detector(LE).The observation schedule of HXMT is a key to achieving the science goal of HXMT,and the analysis of the observation constraints is one of the first tasks in making the observation schedule.This paper analyzes how the observation constraints influence the sky visibility and the visible time distribution of X-ray sources and discusses the schedule strategy with regard to the observation constraints.

  14. Detection of soft X-rays from Alpha Lyrae and Eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Fabricant, D.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Gorenstein, P.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for observations of Alpha Lyr (Vega) and Eta Boo with an imaging X-ray telescope during two rocket flights. It is found that Vega and Eta Boo are soft X-ray sources with respective luminosities of approximately 3 x 10 to the 28th erg/s (0.15-0.8 keV) and 1 x 10 to the 29th erg/s (0.15-1.5 keV). Surface X-ray luminosities of about 640,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Vega and 300,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Eta Boo are estimated and shown to fall within the range of solar coronal X-ray emission. It is concluded that in view of the substantially larger surface areas of these stars, the relatively large total soft X-ray luminosity (as compared with that of the sun) can in both cases be understood as resulting from a moderately active corona, although the Vega observation is in severe conflict with simple models for X-ray emission from single main-sequence stars.

  15. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hongjun An

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission was launched on 2012 June 13 and is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit operating above ~10 keV. NuSTAR flies two co-aligned Wolter-I conical approximation X-ray optics, coated with Pt/C and W/Si multilayers...

  16. Status of the eROSITA Telescope testing and calibrating the x-ray mirror assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwitz, Vadim; Predehl, Peter; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Dennerl, Konrad; Eder, Josef; Friedrich, Peter; Fürmetz, Maria; Grisoni, Gabriele; Hartner, Gisela; Marioni, Fabio; Menz, Benedikt; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    The eROSITA X-ray observatory that will be launched on board the Russian Spectrum-RG mission comprises seven X-ray telescopes, each with its own mirror assembly (mirror module + X-ray baffle), electron deflector, filter wheel, and CCD camera with its control electronics. The completed flight mirror modules are undergoing many thorough X-ray tests at the PANTHER X-ray test facility after delivery, after being mated with the X-ray baffle, and again after both the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. A description of the work done with mirror modules/assemblies and the test results obtained will be reported here. We report also on the environmental tests that have been performed on the eROSITA telescope qualification model.

  17. Space solar telescope in soft X-ray and EUV band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed our achievements in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics. Up to now, the research system of soft X-ray and EUV optics has been established, including light sources, detectors, calibrations, optical testing and machining of super smooth mirrors, and fabrications of multilayer film mirrors. Based on our achievements, we have developed two types of solar space telescopes for the soft X-ray and EUV space solar observations. One is an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope array including 4 different operation wavelength telescopes. The operation wavelengths of the EUV telescope are 13.0, 17.1, 19.5 and 30.4 nm. The other is a complex space solar telescope, which is composed of an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope and a soft X-ray grazing incident telescope. The EUV multilayer normal incident telescope stands in the central part of the soft X-ray grazing incident telescope. The normal incident telescope and the grazing incident telescope have a common detector. The different operation wavelengths can be changed by rotating a filter wheel.

  18. Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Hailey, C.J.; Craig, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a technology to mass-produce ultrathin mirror substrates for x-ray telescopes of near Wolter-I geometry. Thermal glass forming is a low-cost method to produce high-throughput, spaceborne x-ray mirrors for the 0.1-200-keV energy band. These substrates can provide the collecting area...

  19. MT_RAYOR: a versatile raytracing tool for x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2011-01-01

    for detecting celestial X-ray sources. Monte-Carlo raytracing systems have been used in all X-ray telescope missions. MT RAYOR is a system that can be used to analyze any Wolter-1 optics including simulation of extended sources, celestial or in the laboratory, with position dependent spectral properties...

  20. First Images from HERO: A Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Benson, Carl M.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope that utilizes grazing incidence optics. Termed HERO, for High-Energy Replicated Optics, the instrument will provide unprecented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region and will achieve milliCrab-level sensitivity in a typical 3-hour balloon-flight observation and 50 microCrab sensitivity on ultra-long-duration flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight, featuring a small number of mirror shells captured the first focused hard-x-ray images of galactic x-ray sources. Full details of the payload, its expected future performance and its recent measurements are provided.

  1. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time. The...... report on new, thermally-formed glass micro-sheet optics capable of meeting the requirements of the next-generation of astronomical hard X-ray telescopes....

  2. Hard X-rays from hybrid X pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelkovenko, T. A., E-mail: tc50@cornell.edu; Pikuz, S. A., E-mail: tc50@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853, USA and P. N. Lebedev Institute, 53 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Hoyt, C. L.; Cahill, A. D.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States); Tilikin, I. N.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Agafonov, A. V. [P. N. Lebedev Institute, 53 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    X pinches are well known to produce very small, dense plasma pinches (“hot spots”) that emit short bursts of 1.5–8 keV radiation. Hard X-ray radiation in the 8–100 keV range is also emitted, only a small portion of which is associated with the X-pinch hot spot. In hybrid X-pinches, the “long” X-ray pulse is terminated by fast closure of the gap between the two conical electrodes by rapidly expanding electrode plasmas. The temporal, spectral, and spatial properties of this higher energy radiation, 10 – 60 keV, have been studied. This radiation was used for point-projection imaging with magnification between 1.5 and 3, and spatial resolution less than100 micrometers was demonstrated.

  3. Improving the Resolution of X-Ray Telescopes with Occulting Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C J; Copi, Craig J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2000-01-01

    One of the challenges of X-ray astronomy is how to both collect large numbersof photons yet attain high angular resolution. Because X-ray telescopes utilizegrazing optics, to collect more photons requires a larger acceptance anglewhich in turn compromises the angular resolution. All X-ray telescopes thushave angular resolution far poorer than their diffraction limit. Althoughcollecting more photons is a desirable goal, sometimes selective collectingfewer photons may yield more information. Natural (such as lunar) occultationshave long been used to study sources on small angular scales. But naturalocculters are of limited utility because of their large angular velocitiesrelative to the telescope, and because of the serendipity of their transits. Wedescribe here how one can make use of an X-ray Big Occulting SteerableSatellite (X-BOSS) to achieve very-high resolution of X-ray sources. An X-BOSScould significantly improve the resolution of existing X-ray facilities such asthe Chandra telescope, or X-ray Multiple...

  4. Space solar telescope in soft X-ray and EUV band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; LIU Zhen; YANG Lin; GAO Liang; HE Fei; WANG XiaoGuang; NI QiLiang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed our achievements in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics. Up to now, the research system of soft X-ray and EUV optics has been established, including light sources, detectors, calibrations, optical testing and machining of super smooth mirrors, and fabrications of multilayer film mirrors. Based on our achievements, we have developed two types of solar space tele-scopes for the soft X-ray and EUV space solar observations. One is an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope array including 4 different operation wavelength telescopes. The operation wavelengths of the EUV telescope are 13.0, 17.1, 19.5 and 30.4 nm. The other is a complex space solar telescope, which is composed of an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope and a soft X-rey grazing incident telescope. The EUV multilayer normal incident telescope stands in the central part of the soft X-ray grazing inci-dent telescope. The normal incident telescope and the grazing incident telescope have a common de-tector. The different operation wavelengths can be changed by rotating a filter wheel.

  5. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  6. Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope(HXMT) Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tipei; ZHANG Shuangnan; LU Fangjun

    2006-01-01

    The HXMT mission concept consists of a slat-collimated hard X-ray detector assembly sensitive in 20~250 keV with a collection area of about 5000 cm2. Based on the reconstruction technique by direct demodulation developed in recent years, HXMT is mainly devoted to performing a hard X-ray all-sky imaging survey with both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. It can also be used to make pointed observations of X-ray sources to study their spectroscopic and temporal properties in details. The main detector of HXMT consists of 18 individual cylindrical NaI(T1)/CsI(Na) phoswich modules, each with anarea of 283.5 cm2 and a field of view of 5.7°× 1.1° (FWHM). Its spatial resolution and position accuracy are 5′ and 1′ by using the direct demodulation in 1994, and in 2000 its feasibility and technical demonstration study was selected as a project under the Major State Basic Research Program of China. In October 2005, this project entered the full design phase and was listed as a candidate for the first dedicated astronomy satellite around 2010. We are now also considering secondary low energy instruments for this satellite.

  7. Optical module HEW simulations for the X-ray telescopes SIMBOL-X, EDGE and XEUS

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important parameters defining the angular resolution of an X-ray optical module is its Half-Energy Width (HEW) as a function of the photon energy. Future X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities (SIMBOL-X, Constellation-X, NeXT, EDGE, XEUS,...) should be characterized by a very good angular resolution in soft ( 10 keV) X-rays. As a consequence, an important point in the optics development for these telescopes is the simulation of the achievable HEW for a system of X-ray mirrors. This parameter depends on the single mirror profile and nesting accuracy, but also on the mirrors surface microroughness that causes X-ray Scattering (XRS). In particular, owing to its dependence on the photon energy, XRS can dominate the profile errors in hard X-rays: thus, its impact has to be accurately evaluated in every single case, in order to formulate surface finishing requirements for X-ray mirrors. In this work we provide with some simulations of the XRS term of the HEW for some future soft and hard X-ray t...

  8. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X...

  9. The challenge of developing thin mirror shells for future x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Gong, Qingqing; Proserpio, Laura; Winter, Anita; Friedrich, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Previously used mirror technologies are not able to fulfil the requirements of future X-ray telescopes due to challenging requests from the scientific community. Consequently new technical approaches for X-ray mirror production are under development. In Europe the technical baseline for the planned X-ray observatory ATHENA is the radical new approach of silicon pore optics. NASÁs recently launched NuSTAR mission uses segmented mirrors shells made from thin bended glasses, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of the glass forming technology for X-ray mirrors. For risk mitigation also in Europe the hot slumping of thin glasses is being developed as an alternative technology for lightweight X-ray telescopes. The high precision mirror manufacturing requires challenging technical developments; several design trades and trend-setting decisions need to be made and are discussed within this paper. Some new technical and economic aspects of the intended glass mirror serial production are also studied within the recently started interdisciplinary project INTRAAST, an acronym for "industry transfer of astronomical mirror technologies". The goal of the project, embedded in a cooperation of the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics and the University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, is to master the challenge of producing thin mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes. As a first project task the development of low stress coatings for thin glass mirror substrates have been started, the corresponding technical approach and first results are presented.

  10. Design and mathematical analysis of a three-mirror X-ray telescope based on ATM S-056 X-ray telescope hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J. W., Jr.; Cardone, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The mathematical design of the aspheric third mirror for the three-mirror X-ray telescope (TMXRT) is presented, along with the imaging characteristics of the telescope obtained by a ray trace analysis. The present design effort has been directed entirely toward obtaining an aspheric third mirror which will be compatible with existing S-056 paraboloidal-hyperboloidal mirrors. This compatability will facilitate the construction of a prototype model of the TMXRT, since it will only be necessary to fabricate one new mirror in order to obtain a working model.

  11. Effects of Contamination Upon the Performance of X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Particulate and molecular contamination can each impact the performance of x-ray telescope systems. Furthermore, any changes in the level of contamination between on-ground calibration and in-space operation can compromise the validity of the calibration. Thus, it is important to understand the sensitivity of telescope performance, especially the net effective area and the wings of the point spread function to contamination. Here, we quantify this sensitivity and discuss the flow-down of science requirements to contamination-control requirements. As an example, we apply this methodology to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under joint study by ESA, JAXA, and NASA.

  12. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design, Characteristics and Performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. P. Singh; G. C. Stewart; N. J. Westergaard; S. Bhattacharayya; S. Chandra; V. R. Chitnis; G. C. Dewangan; A. T. Kothare; I. M. Mirza; K. Mukerjee; V. Navalkar; H. Shah; A. F. Abbey; A. P. Beardmore; S. Kotak; N. Kamble; S. Vishwakarama; D. P. Pathare; V. M. Risbud; J. P. Koyande; T. Stevenson; C. Bicknell; T. Crawford; G. Hansford; G. Peters; J. Sykes; P. Agarwal; M. Sebastian; A. Rajarajan; G. Nagesh; S. Narendra; M. Ramesh; R. Rai; K. H. Navalgund; K. S. Sarma; R. Pandiyan; K. Subbarao; T. Gupta; N. Thakkar; A. K. Singh; A. Bajpai

    2017-06-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT), India’s first X-ray telescope based on the principle of grazing incidence, was launched aboard the AstroSat and made operational on October 26, 2015. X-rays in the energy band of 0.3–8.0 keV are focussed on to a cooled charge coupled device thus providing medium resolution X-ray spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources of various types. It is the most sensitive X-ray instrument aboard the AstroSat. In its first year of operation, SXT has been used to observe objects ranging from active stars, compact binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies in order to study its performance and quantify its characteriztics. Here, we present an overview of its design, mechanical hardware, electronics, data modes, observational constraints, pipeline processing and its in-orbit performance based on preliminary results from its characterization during the performance verification phase.

  13. DynamiX, numerical tool for design of next-generation x-ray telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Maxime; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2010-07-20

    We present a new code aimed at the simulation of grazing-incidence x-ray telescopes subject to deformations and demonstrate its ability with two test cases: the Simbol-X and the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) missions. The code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, accounting for the x-ray interactions and for the telescope motion and deformation. The simulation produces images and spectra for any telescope configuration using Wolter I mirrors and semiconductor detectors. This numerical tool allows us to study the telescope performance in terms of angular resolution, effective area, and detector efficiency, accounting for the telescope behavior. We have implemented an image reconstruction method based on the measurement of the detector drifts by an optical sensor metrology. Using an accurate metrology, this method allows us to recover the loss of angular resolution induced by the telescope instability. In the framework of the Simbol-X mission, this code was used to study the impacts of the parameters on the telescope performance. In this paper we present detailed performance analysis of Simbol-X, taking into account the satellite motions and the image reconstruction. To illustrate the versatility of the code, we present an additional performance analysis with a particular configuration of IXO.

  14. Overview of segmented glass optics development for the Constellation-X hard X-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, C.J; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.;

    2002-01-01

    We report recent work on segmented glass optics for the Constellation-H hard x-ray telescope. This effort seeks to both improve the figure of the free-standing glass substrates, and to refine a newly-developed mounting technology for the substrates. We discuss metrology on recently characterized...

  15. Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Peter H.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing depth-graded, multilayer-coated mirrors for astrophysical hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this paper, we discuss the primary technical challenges associated with the multilayer coatings, and report on progress to date. We have sputtered constant d-spacing and depth-graded W...

  16. Calibration of the Nustar High-Energy Focusing X-Ray Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles...

  17. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard x-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chen, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    A planar magnetron sputtering facility has been established at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis for the hard X-ray telescope on the HEFT balloon project. The facility...

  18. X-ray polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter,radiation ...

  19. Application of an EMCCD camera for calibration of hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaro, Michael J.; Craig, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological innovations make it feasible to construct effcient hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last d...

  20. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Albert; André; Anton; Ardid; Aubert,; Avgitas; Baret; Barrios-Martí; Basa; Bertin; Biagi; Bormuth; Bouwhuis; Bruijn, de, M.E.; Brunner

    2017-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the NorthernHemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources.Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and arethus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A timedependentsearch has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaringactivities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and du...

  1. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; She, R.; Tayabaly, K.; Wen, M.; Banham, R.; Costa, E.; Feng, H.; Giglia, A.; Huang, Q.; Muleri, F.; Pareschi, G.; Soffitta, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Wang, Z.

    2015-09-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers dspacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we present the results of the X-ray reflectivity campaign performed at the BEAR beamline of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste on multilayer coatings of various composition (Cr/C, Co/C), deposited with different sputtering parameters on nickel, silicon, and glass substrates, using polarized X-rays in the spectral range 240 - 290 eV.

  2. Design of the pre-collimator for the NeXT x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Tamura, Keisuke; Kunieda, Hideyo; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Miyazawa, Takuya; Yamashita, Koujun; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Chan, Kai-Wing; Okajima, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    We present the design of the pre-collimator for the X-ray telescopes (XRTs) onboard New X-ray Telescope (NeXT). The optical design adopted for the NeXT XRTs is conically-approximated Wolter-I type optics. The tightly-nested reflectors with thin substrates (150-300 μm) enable us to achieve the large effective area and extremely light weight simultaneously. However, due to the packed reflector shells, X-rays from the outside of the XRT field of view occasionally arrive at the focal plane without the normal double reflection (stray lights), and then produce a ghost image on the detector. Thus, the stray-lights contamination degrades sensitivity of the source detection In order to reduce the stray lights efficiently, we plan to mount a collimator onto each telescope (referred to as pre-collimator), which is similar to that equipped with the Suzaku XRTs. The pre-collimator consists of coaxially-nested cylindrical blades, each of which is aligned radially with the corresponding primary refector. We found the height of the pre-collimator blade to be ~100 mm that is required to block the X-rays with off-axis angles of 30'-50', which are the main ligth pass of the stray lights for the NeXT XRTs.

  3. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time....... The recent development of depth-graded multilayer coatings has made the design of telescopes for this bandpass practical, however the ability to manufacture inexpensive substrates with appropriate surface quality and figure to achieve sub-arcminute performance has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we...... report on new, thermally-formed glass micro-sheet optics capable of meeting the requirements of the next-generation of astronomical hard X-ray telescopes....

  4. Aberrations in square pore micro-channel optics used for x-ray lobster eye telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingale, R.; Pearson, J. F.; Martindale, A.; Feldman, C. H.; Fairbend, R.; Schyns, E.; Petit, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-07-01

    We identify all the significant aberrations that limit the performance of square pore micro-channel plate optics (MPOs) used as an X-ray lobster eye. These include aberrations intrinsic to the geometry, intrinsic errors associated with the slumping process used to introduce a spherical form to the plates and imperfections associated with the plate manufacturing process. The aberrations are incorporated into a comprehensive software model of the X-ray response of the optics and the predicted imaging response is compared with the measured X-ray performance obtained from a breadboard lobster eye. The results reveal the manufacturing tolerances which limit the current performance of MPOs and enable us to identify particular intrinsic aberrations which will limit the ultimate performance we can expect from MPO-lobster eye telescopes.

  5. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  6. Hard x-ray telescopes to be onboard ASTRO-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ishida, Manabu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Babazaki, Yasunori; Demoto, Tadatsugu; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Naoki; Itoh, Masayuki; Iwase, Toshihiro; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kurihara, Daichi; Kuroda, Yuuji; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Meshino, Yoshifumi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyata, Yuusuke; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mori, Hideyuki; Nagano, Housei; Namba, Yoshiharu; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Ogi, Keiji; Okajima, Takashi; Saji, Shigetaka; Shimasaki, Fumiya; Sato, Takuro; Sato, Toshiki; Sugita, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tachibana, Kenji; Tachibana, Sasagu; Takizawa, Shunya; Tamura, Keisuke; Tawara, Yuzuru; Torii, Tatsuharu; Uesugi, Kentato; Yamashita, Koujun; Yamauchi, Shigeo

    2014-11-10

    The new Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, will carry two identical hard x-ray telescopes (HXTs), which cover the energy range of 5 to 80 keV. The HXT mirrors employ tightly nested, conically approximated thin-foil Wolter-I optics, and the mirror surfaces are coated with Pt/C depth-graded multilayers to enhance the hard x-ray effective area by means of Bragg reflection. The HXT comprises foils 120-450 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length, with a focal length of 12 m. To obtain a large effective area, 213 aluminum foils 0.2 mm in thickness are tightly nested confocally. The requirements for HXT are a total effective area of >300  cm2 at 30 keV and an angular resolution of ' in half-power diameter (HPD). Fabrication of two HXTs has been completed, and the x-ray performance of each HXT was measured at a synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 BL20B2 in Japan. Angular resolutions (HPD) of 1.9' and 1.8' at 30 keV were obtained for the full telescopes of HXT-1 and HXT-2, respectively. The total effective area of the two HXTs at 30 keV is 349  cm2.

  7. Development of an ultra high-precision x-ray telescope with an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Shunji; Takano, Haruko; Saitoh, Harue; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Suga, Kazuharu; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2003-06-01

    We are developing an ultra high precision Soft X-ray telescope. The design of the telescope is a normal incident one for 13.5 nm band using Mo/Si multilayers. Two ideas are introduced. One is the optical measurement system in order to monitor the prevision of the optics system. The other is the adaptive optics system with a deformable mirror. Using an x-ray optical separation filter, we can always monitor the deformation of the optics by optical light. With this information, we can control the deformable mirror to compensate the system deformation as a closed loop system. We confirmed that the absolute precision of the wave front sensor was less than 3 nm rms. The preicison of the deformable mirror was roughly 5 nm rms. The shape of the primary mirror was an off-axis paraboloide with an effective diameter of 80mm. This primary mirror was coated by Mo/Si multilayers. The reflectivity of the primary mirror at 13.5 nm was rnaging from 30 to 50%. The x-ray optical separation filter was made from Zr with a thicknness of ~170nm. The transmission of the filter for low energy x-ray was measured and was roughly 50% at 13.5nm.

  8. Measuring optical constants of multilayer materials for current and future hard X-ray space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai

    With the launch of the NuSTAR space telescope in 2012, a new era in X-ray astronomy began. NuSTAR provides astronomers unprecedented sensitivity in the hard X-ray band, operating from 6-79 keV through the use of multilayers. At lower energies, NuSTAR has an effective area comparable to previous missions, such as the XMM-Newton and Chandra. The overlap allows soft X-ray observations to be combined with hard X-ray ones, providing new constraints on theoretical models and allowing accurate determination of the properties of thermal and non-thermal processes. To successfully predict the performance of a hard X-ray multilayer telescope, precise knowledge of the optical properties of the constituent materials of the multilayers is required. Tungsten and platinum are the two high-density, high-Z materials in the NuSTAR multilayer systems, but early observations with NuSTAR showed that essential atomic parameters , i.e. the optical constants, of these materials are not correct. Specifically, there are significant residuals in spectral fits near the L absorption edges of both materials from 10-14 keV. This situation is not a surprise, as the optical constants for these materials are derived from tabulated photon-interaction cross sections, which does not properly capture the physics of the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). As a result, the NuSTAR team is using an empirical correction to predict performance. The correction does not completely remove spectral features in the 10-14 keV region and is only good for weak sources. We propose to accurately measure the optical constants for tungsten and platinum in the hard X-ray region from 6-28.5 keV, replacing the empirical correction and providing a significant improvement to NuSTAR's response model. The improvement will be achieved by two independent and complementary routes to increase accuracy. One method relies on transmission measurements while the other utilizes reflection measurements. The proposing team leverages

  9. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade...... has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments [1] and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) [2] and ASTRO-H [3]. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including...... measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices...

  10. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (approx. = 3 square meters) and fine angular resolution (approx. = 1 inch). Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (approx. = 600 square meters) of lightweight (approx. = 1 kilogram/square meter areal density) high-quality mirrors at an acceptable cost (approx. = 1 million dollars/square meter of mirror surface area). This paper reviews relevant technological and programmatic issues, as well as possible approaches for addressing these issues-including active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction.

  11. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; hide

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  12. X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, H; Ishida, M; Endo, T; Hidaka, Y; Honda, H; Imamura, K; Ishida, J; Maeda, M; Misaki, K; Shibata, R; Furuzawa, A; Haga, K; Ogasaka, Y; Okajima, T; Tawara, Y; Terashima, Y; Watanabe, M; Yamashita, K; Yoshioka, T; Serlemitsos, P J; Soong, Y; Chan, K W

    2001-02-01

    X-ray telescopes (XRT's) of nested thin foil mirrors are developed for Astro-E, the fifth Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Although the launch was not successful, the design concept, fabrication, and alignment procedure are summarized. The main purpose of the Astro-E XRT is to collect hard x rays up to 10 keV with high efficiency and to provide medium spatial resolution in limited weight and volume. Compared with the previous mission, Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), a slightly longer focal length of 4.5-4.75 m and a larger diameter of 40 cm yields an effective area of 1750 cm2 at 8 keV with five telescopes. The image quality is also improved to 2-arc min half-power diameter by introduction of a replication process. Platinum is used instead of gold for the reflectors of one of the five telescopes to enhance the high-energy response. The fabrication and alignment procedure is also summarized. Several methods for improvement are suggested for the reflight Astro-E II mission and for other future missions. Preflight calibration results will be described in a forthcoming second paper, and a detailed study of images will be presented in a third paper.

  13. X-Ray Polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Daniel; Ingram, Adam R; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Madsen, Kristin K; Aaron, Kim M; Aminia, Rashied; Baring, Matthew G; Bodaghee, Arash; Booth, Jeffrey; Borden, Chester; Boettcher, Markus; Christensen, Finn E; Coppi, Paolo S; Davis, Shane; Dexter, Jason; Done, Chris; Dominguez, Luis A; Ellison, Don; English, Robin J; Fabian, Andrew C; Falcone, Abe; Favretto, Jeffrey A; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Kara, Erin; Lee, Chung H; Lyutikov, Maxim; Maccarone, Thomas; McKinney, Jonathan; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miller, Jon M; Narayan, Ramesh; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Oezel, Feryal; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Pravdo, Steven; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Okajima, Takashi; Toma, Kenji; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the technology developed for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission launched in June 2012. In particular, it uses the same X-ray optics, extendable telescope boom, optical bench, and CdZnTe detectors as NuSTAR. The mission has the sensitivity to measure ~1% linear polarization fractions for X-ray sources with fluxes down to ~5 mCrab. This paper describes the PolSTAR design as well as the science drivers and the potential science return.

  14. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.;

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X......-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci......, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 ke...

  15. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less...... than or similar to 80 keV) band. In this paper, we present measurements of the reflectance in the 18-170 keV energy range of a cylindrical prototype nested optic taken at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The mirror segments, mounted in a single bounce stack, are coated with depth......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  16. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Allured, Ryan; Ames, Andrew O.; Biskach, Michael P.; Broadway David M.; Bruni, Ricardo J.; Burrows, David; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Chung, Yip-Wah; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Hertz, Edward; Jackson, Thomas N.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Romaine, Suzanne E.; Saha, Timo T.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Schwartz, Eric D.; Solly, Peter M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Mellville P.; Vikhlilin, Alexey; Wallace, Margeaux L.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-01-01

    In order to advance significantly scientific objectives, future x-ray astronomy missions will likely call for x-ray telescopes with large aperture areas (approx. = 3 sq m) and fine angular resolution (approx. = 1"). Achieving such performance is programmatically and technologically challenging due to the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes and to the need for densely nested grazing-incidence optics. Such an x-ray telescope will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (approx. = 600 sq m) of lightweight (approx. = 2 kg/sq m areal density) high-quality mirrors, at an acceptable cost (approx. = 1 M$/sq m of mirror surface area). This paper reviews relevant programmatic and technological issues, as well as possible approaches for addressing these issues-including direct fabrication of monocrystalline silicon mirrors, active (in-space adjustable) figure correction of replicated mirrors, static post-fabrication correction using ion implantation, differential erosion or deposition, and coating-stress manipulation of thin substrates.

  17. Simulation and modeling of silicon pore optics for the ATHENA x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Bavdaz, M.; Civitani, M. M.; Conconi, P.; Della Monica Ferreira, D.; Knudsen, E. B.; Massahi, S.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Shortt, B.; Tayabaly, K.; Westergaard, N. J.; Wille, E.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA X-ray observatory is a large-class ESA approved mission, with launch scheduled in 2028. The technology of silicon pore optics (SPO) was selected as baseline to assemble ATHENA's optic with more than 1000 mirror modules, obtained by stacking wedged and ribbed silicon wafer plates onto silicon mandrels to form the Wolter-I configuration. Even if the current baseline design fulfills the required effective area of 2 m2 at 1 keV on-axis, alternative design solutions, e.g., privileging the field of view or the off-axis angular resolution, are also possible. Moreover, the stringent requirement of a 5 arcsec HEW angular resolution at 1 keV entails very small profile errors and excellent surface smoothness, as well as a precise alignment of the 1000 mirror modules to avoid imaging degradation and effective area loss. Finally, the stray light issue has to be kept under control. In this paper we show the preliminary results of simulations of optical systems based on SPO for the ATHENA X-ray telescope, from pore to telescope level, carried out at INAF/OAB and DTU Space under ESA contract. We show ray-tracing results, including assessment of the misalignments of mirror modules and the impact of stray light. We also deal with a detailed description of diffractive effects expected in an SPO module from UV light, where the aperture diffraction prevails, to X-rays where the surface diffraction plays a major role. Finally, we analyze the results of X-ray tests performed at the BESSY synchrotron, we compare them with surface finishing measurements, and we estimate the expected HEW degradation caused by the X-ray scattering.

  18. The low Earth orbit radiation environment and its impact on the prompt background of hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Malaguti, G.; Bianchin, V.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.

    2012-07-01

    The background minimization is a science-driven necessity in order to reach deep sensitivity levels in the hard X-ray band, one of the key scientific requirements for hard X-ray telescopes (e.g. NuSTAR, ASTRO-H). It requires a careful modeling of the radiation environment and new concepts of shielding systems. We exploit the Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator (BoGEMMS) features to evaluate the impact of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) radiation environment on the prompt background level for a hybrid Si/CdTe soft and hard X-ray detection assembly and a combined active and passive shielding system. For each class of particles, the spectral distribution of the background flux is simulated, exploring the effect of different materials (plastic vs inorganic active scintillator) and configurations (passive absorbers enclosing or surrounded by the active shielding) on the background count rate. While protons are efficiently removed by the active shielding, an external passive shielding causes the albedo electrons and positrons to be the primary source of background. Albedo neutrons are instead weakly interactive with the active shielding, and they cause an intense background level below 10 keV via elastic scattering. The best shielding configuration in terms of background and active shielding count rates is given by an inorganic scintillator placed inside the passive layers, with the addition of passive material to absorb the intense fluorescence lines of the active shielding and avoid escape peaks on the CdTe detector.

  19. The Microchannel X-ray Telescope for the Gamma-Ray Burst mission SVOM

    CERN Document Server

    Gotz, D; Cordier, B; Paul, J; Evans, P; Beardmore, A; Martindale, A; Willingale, R; O'Brien, P; Basa, S; Rossin, C; Godet, O; Webb, N; Greiner, J; Nandra, K; Meidinger, N; Perinati, E; Santangelo, A; Mercier, K; Gonzalez, F

    2014-01-01

    We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, a new light and compact focussing telescope that will be flying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science. The MXT design is based on the coupling of square pore micro-channel plates with a low noise pnCCD. MXT will provide an effective area of about 50 cmsq, and its point spread function is expected to be better than 3.7 arc min (FWHM) on axis. The estimated sensitivity is adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, and to localize them to better then 60 arc sec after five minutes of observation.

  20. Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, P.H.; Harrison, F.A.; Windt, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a systematic method for optimizing the design of depth-graded multilayers for astronomical hard-x-ray and soft-gamma-ray telescopes based on the instrument's bandpass and the field of view. We apply these methods to the design of the conical-approximation Wolter I optics employed...... by the balloon-borne High Energy Focusing Telescope, using W/Si as the multilayer materials. In addition, we present optimized performance calculations of mirrors, using other material pairs that are capable of extending performance to photon energies above the W K-absorption edge (69.5 keV), including Pt/C, Ni...

  1. Single-Grid-Pair Fourier Telescope for Imaging in Hard-X Rays and gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This instrument, a proposed Fourier telescope for imaging in hard-x rays and gamma rays, would contain only one pair of grids made of an appropriate radiation-absorpting/ scattering material, in contradistinction to multiple pairs of such as grids in prior Fourier x- and gamma-ray telescopes. This instrument would also include a relatively coarse gridlike image detector appropriate to the radiant flux to be imaged. Notwithstanding the smaller number of grids and the relative coarseness of the imaging detector, the images produced by the proposed instrument would be of higher quality.

  2. Wide Field Hard X-ray Survey Telescope: ProtoEXIST1

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Chammas, N; Allen, B; Copete, A; Said, B; Burke, M; Howell, J; Gauron, T; Baker, R G; Barthelmy, S D; Sheikh, S; Gehrels, N; Cook, W R; Burnham, J A; Harrison, F A; Collins, J; Labov, S; Garson, A; Krawczynski, H

    2007-01-01

    We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crys...

  3. Calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXT) Onboard the ASTRO-H Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before landing on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 m, 229 m, and 305 m of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 m. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), FM1 or FM2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. The optical and x-ray calibrations also include

  4. GLASS AND SILICON FOILS FOR X-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MIRRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MIKA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unique observations delivered by space X-ray imaging telescopes have been significantly contributing to important discoveries of current astrophysics. The telescopes’ most crucial part is a high throughput, heavily nested mirror array reflecting X-rays and focusing them to a detector. Future astronomical projects on large X-ray telescopes require novel materials and technologies for the construction of the reflecting mirrors. The future mirrors must be lightweight and precisely shaped to achieve large collecting area with high angular resolution of a few arc sec. The new materials and technologies must be cost-effective as well. Currently, the most promising materials are glass or silicon foils which are commercially produced on a large scale. A thermal forming process was used for the precise shaping of these foils. The forced and free slumping of the foils was studied in the temperature range of hot plastic deformation and the shapes obtained by the different slumping processes were compared. The shapes and the surface quality of the foils were measured by a Taylor Hobson contact profilemeter, a ZYGO interferometer and Atomic Forced Microscopy. In the experiments, both heat-treatment temperature and time were varied following our experiment design. The obtained data and relations can be used for modelling and optimizing the thermal forming procedure.

  5. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D; She, R; Tayabaly, K; Wen, M; Banham, R; Costa, E; Feng, H; Giglia, A; Huang, Q; Muleri, F; Pareschi, G; Soffitta, P; Tagliaferri, G; Valsecchi, G; Wang, Z

    2016-01-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers d-spacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we pres...

  6. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

    2011-11-08

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing

  7. Development of an X-ray Telescope with a Large Effective Area for the Iron K Line Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Tachibana, Sasagu; Yoshikawa, Shun; Tamura, Keisuke; Mori, Hideyuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Kojun

    2015-08-01

    X-ray micro-calorimeters such as the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board ASTRO-H will enable precise spectroscopy of iron K lines even for spatially extended objects. To exploit the full power of the high-energy resolution, X-ray telescopes with a large effective area around 6 keV are essentially important. Conventional Wolter-I X-ray telescopes aimed at X-rays below 10 keV have used the principle of total reflection to collect the X-rays. Enlarging the diameter of this type of telescopes is not effective to obtain the large effective area, since the incident angle of X-rays for the outer part of the telescope exceeds the critical angle, and the X-ray reflectivity of the outer part is significantly low. For example, the critical angle of Ir for an X-ray of 6 keV is 0.748 deg. Thus if we assume a focal length of 6 m for a Wolter-I optics using mirrors covered with Ir as a reflector, the mirrors the radial position of which are larger than 34 cm cannot reflect X-rays above 6 keV effectively. If multi-layer mirrors are applied to the outer part of the telescope, however, the X-ray reflectivity can be enhanced significantly by the principle of Bragg reflection. Our objective is to develop a Wolter-I X-ray telescope with an aperture of 110 cm and a focal length of 6 m, and make all mirrors in the telescope can reflect X-rays around 6 keV effectively by utilizing the multi-layer mirrors. The size of the telescope is determined by a boundary condition that can be launched by the epsilon rocket of ISAS/JAXA. The multi-layer is designed to enhance the reflectivity at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV, or 6.9 keV. Our simulation suggests that the effective area averaged in the 5.7-7.7 keV band could be 2000 cm2, whichis comparable to the effective area of Athena launched in 2028 by ESA. Furthermore, we showed that the Ir/C multi-layers produced by our DC magnetron sputtering machine has a surface roughness of less than 4 angstrom. This value is smaller than the average surface roughness

  8. Optical performance of grazing incidence X-ray/EUV telescopes for space science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick Louis

    In order to improve and expand the field of X-ray astronomy, and imaging in general, we find that these days a comprehensive systems engineering approach to X-ray image formation must be undertaken. While some industrial interests have taken steps in this direction, any academic approach is lacking from within the archival literature to date, and there are virtually no established university courses. Indeed, it would seem that top level, optical-systems-engineering is exclusively reserved for those seasoned professionals who have accumulated (though somewhat artistically) the ``know-how'' to efficiently conceive and implement excellent optical designs. Such expert knowledge is not and should not be mysterious. To this end, we attempt to formulate a highly comprehensive approach to X-ray optical systems engineering and implement it within the context of the Wolter Type-I and Type-II (grazing incidence) telescopes currently utilized for practical X-ray/EUV astronomy. In addition, we will transform the classical paraboloid- hyperboloid designs into `aplanatic' and `isoplanatic', hyperboloid-hyperboloid systems, where certain coma conditions are minimized. As will be shown, one gains little improvement in performance when choosing a quasi-aplanatic mirror design over a classical one, owing to scatter and other image degradation effects. Next we will show that a generalized hyperboloid-hyperboloid design can be comprehensively optimized for any imaging requirement, where the operational field-of-view is weighted according to spatial information content. Our H-H design has been optimized for the GOES Solar X-ray Imager mission and adopted by NASA and NOAA. It is currently undergoing fabrication by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. who is under subcontract to the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. Our design is expected to result in an 80% increase in optical system performance over the original SXI baseline design.

  9. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K., E-mail: jlee@khu.ac.kr [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  10. Optical design for ATHENA X-ray telescope based on slumped mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Laura; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita

    2014-07-01

    The Hot and Energetic Universe will be the focus of future ESA missions: in late 2013 the theme was selected for the second large-class mission in the Cosmic Vision science program. Fundamental questions on how and why ordinary matter assemble into galaxies and clusters, and how black holes grow and influence their surroundings can be addressed with an advanced X-ray observatory. The currently proposed ATHENA mission presents all the potentiality to answer the outstanding questions. It is based on the heritage of XMM-Newton and on the previous studies for IXO mission. The scientific payload will require state of the art instrumentations. In particular, the baseline for the X-ray optical system, delivering a combination of large area, high angular resolution, and large field of view, is the Silicon Pore Optics technology (SPO) developed by ESA in conjunction with the Cosine Measurement Systems. The slumping technology is also under development for the manufacturing of future X-ray telescopes: for several years the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial physics (MPE) has been involved in the analysis of the indirect slumping approach, which foresees the manufacturing of segmented X-ray shells by shaping thin glass foils at high temperatures over concave moulds so to avoid any contact of the optical surface with other materials during the process, preserving in this way the original X-ray quality of the glass surface. The paper presents an alternative optical design for ATHENA based on the use of thin glass mirror segments obtained through slumping.

  11. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade...... (EMCCDs) [4] are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator [5] via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle...... high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays [6]. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization...

  12. Optimization of geometrical design of nested conical Wolter-I X-ray telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhong Mu; Hongying Liu; Huijun Jin; Xiajun Yang; Fangfang Wang; Wenbin Li; Hong Chen; Zhanshan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Optical design of nested conical Wolter I X-ray telescope covering energy band from 1 to 30 keV is investigated systematically.Recurrence relation of the nested structure is deduced,and the impact of the initial parameters on the performance is analyzed.Due to the need for hard X-ray astronomical observations in China,the initial structure is presented,for which six groups of W/B4C aperiodic multilayer coatings between the innermost and the outermost shell of the mirror are designed.The effective area,resolution,and field of view are calculated in the simulation.The results show that the effective area can achieve 71 cm2 and the field of view can achieve 13' at 30 keV.The resolution is estimated to be ~10" in half-power diameter.

  13. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results from our archival Spitzer Space Telescope program aimed at characterizing the mid-IR properties of compact objects, both isolated and in binary systems, i.e. white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and magnetars. Most of these sources are too faint at mid-IR wavelengths to be observable from the ground, so this study provides the very first comprehensive look at the mid-IR emission of these objects. Here we present our results for the low mass X-ray binaries. We considered all of the systems listed in the most recent catalog of Liu et al. (2007) that have known optical counterparts. The particular goals of our projects encompass: to establish the mid-IR spectral energy distribution, to search for the signatures of jets, circumbinary disks, low mass or planetary companions and debris disks, and to study the local environment of these sources.

  14. Aligning, bonding, and testing mirrors for lightweight x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William W.; Saha, Timo T.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Niemeyer, Jason; Schofield, Mark J.; Mazzarella, James R.; Kolos, Linette D.; Hong, Melinda M.; Numata, Ai; Sharpe, Marton V.; Solly, Peter M.; Riveros, Raul E.; Allgood, Kim D.; McKeon, Kevin P.

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy entails fabrication of well-formed mirror segments and their integration with arc-second precision. In this paper, we address issues of aligning and bonding thin glass mirrors with negligible additional distortion. Stability of the bonded mirrors and the curing of epoxy used in bonding them were tested extensively. We present results from tests of bonding mirrors onto experimental modules, and on the stability of the bonded mirrors tested in x-ray. These results demonstrate the fundamental validity of the methods used in integrating mirrors into telescope module, and reveal the areas for further investigation. The alignment and integration methods are applicable to the astronomical mission concept such as STAR-X, the Survey and Time-domain Astronomical Research Explorer.

  15. Evidence For Reconnection In A Flare Observed With The X-ray Telescope On Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Kathy; Metcalf, T.; Ishibashi, B.; Weber, M.

    2007-05-01

    A long duration flare observed at the limb on December 17th with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode exhibits many features characteristic of reconnection. Cusp-shaped loops are clearly resolved by XRT, and these loops show convincing evidence of field line shrinkage. In addition, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) detects a hard X-ray loop top source that extends into the cusp structure visible in the XRT images. The implications of these observations for reconnection theories of solar flares will be discussed. The US XRT team is supported by a contract from NASA to SAO. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, development and operation of the mission.

  16. A large area telescope for balloon-borne hard X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. E.; Barbaglia, G.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Bussini, A.; Carzaniga, A.; Court, A.; Dean, A. J.; Dipper, N. A.; Ferrandi, G.; Haskell, N.; La Padula, C.; Lewis, R. A.; Maccagni, D.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Perotti, F.; Polcaro, V. F.; Quadrini, E.; Ramsden, D.; Sembay, S.; Spicer, R.; Ubertini, P.; Villa, G.; Whatley, D.

    1984-12-01

    A balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope is described that has been designed to make highly sensitive observations of cosmic sources in the energy range 15 to 300 keV. The payload is characterized by a combination of NaI(Tl) based detector of a novel design and spectroscopic proportional counters, providing a total sensitive area of 5000 cm2 and a 1 standard deviation sensitivity at the level of about 4 × 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 keV-1. All of the telescope sub-systems are described including the micro-processor based orientation platform that provides a pointing stability of better than 10 arc min. The physical characteristics of the detectors are included along with a summary of the telescope performance during a balloon flight in 1982.

  17. Coronal Temperature Diagnostic Capability of the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope Based on Self-Consistent Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Kano, Ryouhei; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimojo, Masumi; Bando, Takamasa; Urayama, Fumitaka; DeLuca, Edward; Golub, Leon; Weber, Mark; Grigis, Paolo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Tsuneta, Saku

    2010-01-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode satellite is an X-ray imager that observes the solar corona with unprecedentedly high angular resolution (consistent with its 1" pixel size). XRT has nine X-ray analysis filters with different temperature responses. One of the most significant scientific features of this telescope is its capability of diagnosing coronal temperatures from less than 1 MK to more than 10 MK, which has never been accomplished before. To make full use of this capability...

  18. Off-axis effects on the performance of a scattering polarimeter at the focus of an X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Kaaret, P.; Novick, R.; Silver, E.

    1990-01-01

    Scattering from bound electrons in a suitable material placed at the focus of an X-ray telescope can be exploited to measure the linear polarization of radiation emitted from cosmic X-ray sources. Among the factors that affect the performance of such an instrument is a spurious polarization signal from unpolarized sources that lie within the field of view but are offset from the telescope pointing direction. This paper presents the results of analytical and Monte Carlo studies of this effect and provides means of evaluating its impact on realistic polarimeters for X-ray astronomy.

  19. Hard X-rays for processing hybrid organic-inorganic thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Carboni, Davide; Pinna, Alessandra; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-rays, deriving from a synchrotron light source, have been used as an effective tool for processing hybrid organic-inorganic films and thick coatings up to several micrometres. These coatings could be directly modified, in terms of composition and properties, by controlled exposure to X-rays. The physico-chemical properties of the coatings, such as hardness, refractive index and fluorescence, can be properly tuned using the interaction of hard X-rays with the sol-gel hybrid films. The changes in the microstructure have been correlated especially with the modification of the optical and the mechanical properties. A relationship between the degradation rate of the organic groups and the rise of fluorescence from the hybrid material has been observed; nanoindentation analysis of the coatings as a function of the X-ray doses has shown a not linear dependence between thickness and film hardness.

  20. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray/ MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T; Pelc, Norbert J

    2008-09-01

    In this x-ray/MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is approximately 0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner.

  1. Industrialization scenario for X-ray telescopes production based on glass slumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Laura; Döhring, Thorsten; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita

    2014-07-01

    Large X-ray segmented telescopes will be a key element for future missions aiming to solve still hidden mysteries of the hot and energetic Universe, such as the role of black holes in shaping their surroundings or how and why ordinary matter assembles into galaxies and clusters as it does. The major challenge of these systems is to guarantee a large effective area in combination with large field of view and good angular resolution, while maintaining the mass of the entire system within the geometrical and mass budget posed by space launchers. The slumping technology presents all the technical potentiality to be implemented for the realization of such demanding systems: it is based on the use of thin glass foils, shaped at high temperature in an oven over a suitable mould. Thousands of slumped segments are then aligned and assembled together into the optical payload. An exercise on the mass production approach has been conducted at Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) to show that the slumping technology can be a valuable approach for the realization of future X-ray telescopes also from a point of view of industrialization. For the analysis, a possible design for the ATHENA mission telescope was taken as reference.

  2. Examining the angular resolution of the ASTRO-H's soft x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari

    2016-10-01

    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed "Hitomi" after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to ˜12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with "spot scan" measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made "maps" of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm×8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be ˜0.9 to 1.0 and ˜0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  3. Hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating...... theoretical reflectivities for candidate multilayer material combinations up to 400 keV including effects of incoherent scatter has given an experimental base for extending this type of designs to the soft λ-ray range. At the same time, the calibration of the in-flight performance of the NuSTAR mission has...

  4. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  5. Potential of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing telescope for the search for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neronov, A.; Boyarsky, A.; Iakubovskyi, D.; Ruchayskiy, O.

    2014-12-01

    Large observatory for x-ray timing (LOFT) is a concept of a next-generation x-ray telescope considered in the context of the "Cosmic Vision" program of the European Space Agency. The Large Area Detector on board of LOFT will be a collimator-type telescope with an unprecedentedly large collecting area of about 1 05 cm2 in the energy band between 2 and 100 keV. We demonstrate that LOFT will be a powerful dark matter detector, suitable for the search of the x-ray line emission expected from decays of light dark matter particles in galactic halos. We show that LOFT will have sensitivity for dark matter line search more than an order of magnitude higher than that of all existing x-ray telescopes. In this way, LOFT will be able to provide a new insight into the fundamental problem of the nature of dark matter.

  6. Wide-field hard x-ray survey telescope: ProtoEXIST1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Chammas, N.; Allen, B.; Copete, A.; Said, B.; Burke, M.; Howell, J.; Gauron, T.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Sheikh, S.; Gehrels, N.; Cook, W. R.; Burnham, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Collins, J.; Labov, S.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.

    2007-09-01

    We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crystal units (DCUs) to a full detector module (DM). We have built the first units of each component for the detector plane and have completed a few Rev2 DCUs (2x2 cm2), which are under a series of tests. Bare DCUs (pre-crystal bonding) show high, uniform ASIC yield (~70%) and ~30% reduction in electronics noise compared to the Rev1 equivalent. A Rev1 DCU already achieved ~1.2% FWHM at 662 keV, and preliminary analysis of the initial radiation tests on a Rev2 DCU shows ~ 4 keV FWHM at 60 keV (vs. 4.7 keV for Rev1). We therefore expect about <=1% FWHM at 662 keV with the Rev2 detectors.

  7. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from x-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, A; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Avgitas, T; Baret, B; Barrios-Martí, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bormuth, R; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Celli, S; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coleiro, A; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Di Palma, I; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Bojaddaini, I El; Elsässer, D; Enzenhöfer, A; Felis, I; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geiÿelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Glotin, H; Gracia-Ruiz, R; Graf, K; Hallmann, S; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Höÿl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; Illuminati, G; James, C W; de Jong, M; Jongen, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kieÿling, D; Kouchner, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lachaud, C; Lahmann, R; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loucatos, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Mathieu, A; Melis, K; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Moussa, A; Mueller, C; Nezri, E; Pavalas, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Roensch, K; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schnabel, J; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Turpin, D; Tönnis, C; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; Wilms, J; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2016-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A timedependent search has been applied to a list of 33 x-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008-2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter predictions for s...

  8. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Civitani, Marta; Brizzolari, Claudia; Basso, Stefano; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Proserpio, Laura; Suppiger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla® glass (produced by Corning®), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla® glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the overall shape changes in the final resolution performance of the glass mirrors was studied by simulating the glass foils integration with our innovative approach based on glass reinforcing ribs. The preliminary tests performed so far suggest that this approach has the potential to be applied to the X-ray telescopes of the next generation.

  9. Stress manipulated coating for figure reshape of light weight X-ray telescope mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Graham, Michael E.; Vaynman, Semyon; Grogans, Shannon E.; Cao, Yifang; Ulmer, Melville P.

    2015-09-01

    We present our idea to correct the surface profile of X-ray telescope mirrors by employing a spatially distributed variable stress coating. Future X-ray telescope missions require light weight optics with an angular resolution ≤. 1" . However, the typical desired thickness of a light weight mirror shell is ≤ 0.4mm, and to date such thin shelled mirrors that have been fabricated cannot meet the required figure accuracy. Therefore most the common approach is to modify the figure of the initially produced mirror shell. In this paper, we describe one such approach. Our approach uses a DC magnetron sputtering process with a variable electrical bias. The end result is a locally variable stress which has the potential to improve the figure of the initially fabricated thin . In this work we report out first results. These include: reproducibility, important technical details of the coating process, and the results of stability tests on several samples monitored. Further, as a proof of concept, we applied a coating with a modulated bias to demonstrate the feasibility to manipulate the surface profile.

  10. Hybrid object detection system for x-ray radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Joshua A.; Wantuch, Andrew C.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Bray, Iliana E.

    2016-10-01

    While object detection is a relatively well-developed field with respect to visible light photographs, there are significantly fewer algorithms designed to work with other imaging modalities. X-ray radiographs have many unique characteristics that introduce additional challenges that can cause common image processing and object detection algorithms to begin to fail. Examples of these problematic attributes include the fact that radiographs are only represented in gray scale with similar textures and that transmission overlap occurs when multiple objects are overlaid on top of each other. In this paper we not only analyze the effectiveness of common object detection techniques as applied to our specific database, but also outline how we combined various techniques to improve overall performance. While significant strides have been made towards developing a robust object detection algorithm for use with the given database, it is still a work in progress. Further research will be needed in order to deal with the specific obstacles posed by radiographs and X-ray imaging systems. Success in this project would have disruptive repercussions in fields ranging from medical imaging to manufacturing quality assurance and national security.

  11. Solar quiescent Active Region temperature distribution inferred from the Miniature Solar X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat soft X-ray spectra, Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) soft X-ray filter images and EUV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. S.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Mason, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Soft X-rays serve as an important diagnostic tool for hot (T > 106 K) solar coronal plasma elemental composition, elemental ionization states, density of emitting plasma and dynamical events triggered by magnetic field structures. Spectrally resolved, solar disc averaged, soft X-ray spectra from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat combined with spatially resolved soft X-ray filter images from the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and complimentary EUV data can yield unique inferences of the quiescent (non-flaring) active regions' emitting plasma temperature distribution and chemical composition. This talk will discuss how the MinXSS spectra and Hinode XRT images from the sparsely measured 0.7 - 10 keV ( 0.124 - 1.77 nm) region, can augment estimations of active region temperature distribution and elemental abundance variations that are currently being assessed primarily from typical EUV and hard X-ray observations.

  12. The Microchannel X-ray Telescope on Board the SVOM Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Gotz, D; Basa, S; Beckmann, V; Burwitz, V; Chipaux, R; Cordier, B; Evans, P; Godet, O; Goosmann, R; Meidinger, N; Meuris, A; Motch, C; Nandra, K; O'Brien, P; Osborne, J; Perinati, E; Rau, A; Willingale, R; Mercier, K; Gonzalez, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the Micro-channel X-ray Telescope (MXT), a new narrow-field (about 1{\\deg}) telescope that will be flying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science, scheduled for launch in 2021. MXT is based on square micro pore optics (MPOs), coupled with a low noise CCD. The optics are based on a "Lobster Eye" design, while the CCD is a focal plane detector similar to the type developed for the seven eROSITA telescopes. MXT is a compact and light (<35 kg) telescope with a 1 m focal length, and it will provide an effective area of about 45 cmsq on axis at 1 keV. The MXT PSF is expected to be better than 4.2 arc min (FWHM) ensuring a localization accuracy of the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs to better than 1 arc min (90\\% c.l. with no systematics) provided MXT data are collected within 5 minutes after the trigger. The MXT sensitivity will be adequate to detect the afterglows for almost all the SVOM GRBs as well as to perform observations of non-GRB astrophysical objects. These performan...

  13. Calibration of the NuSTAR High Energy Focusing X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Kristin K; Markwardt, Craig; An, Hongjun; Grefenstette, Brian W; Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Kitaguchi, Takao; Bhalerao, Varun; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fuerst, Felix; Walton, Dominic J; Hailey, Charles J; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels-Jørgen; Zhang, William

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than +/-2% up to 40 keV and 5--10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical 2D point spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half power diameter (HPD) has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of +/-3ms. Finally we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories Chandra, Swift, Suzaku and XMM-Newton, conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the s...

  14. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the world’s highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  15. Optimizing the Search for High-z GRBs: The JANUS X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, D N; Palmer, D; Romano, P; Mangano, V; La Parola, V; Falcone, A D; Roming, P W A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z > 5 and fluence Sx > 3 {\\times} 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  16. Calibration of the NuSTAR High-energy Focusing X-ray Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Markwardt, Craig B.; An, Hongjun; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Kitaguchi, Takao; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steve; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J.; Jørgen Westergaard, Niels; Zhang, William W.

    2015-09-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%-10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ˜10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  17. CALIBRATION OF THE NuSTAR HIGH-ENERGY FOCUSING X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Markwardt, Craig B. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Kitaguchi, Takao [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Boggs, Steve; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektronvej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%–10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ∼10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  18. Timing accuracy of the Swift X-Ray Telescope in WT mode

    CERN Document Server

    Cusumano, G; Capalbi, M; Perri, M; Beardmore, A P; Burrows, D N; Campana, S; Kennea, J A; Osborne, J P; Sbarufatti, B; Tagliaferri, G

    2012-01-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board Swift was mainly designed to provide detailed position, timing and spectroscopic information on Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows. During the mission lifetime the fraction of observing time allocated to other types of source has been steadily increased. In this paper, we report on the results of the in-flight calibration of the timing capabilities of the XRT in Windowed Timing read-out mode. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to evaluate the accuracy of the pulse period determination by comparing the values obtained by the XRT timing analysis with the values derived from radio monitoring. We also check the absolute time reconstruction measuring the phase position of the main peak in the Crab profile and comparing it both with the value reported in literature and with the result that we obtain from a simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observation. We find that the accuracy in period determination for the Crab pulsar is of the order of a few picoseconds for the...

  19. Moduli Dark Matter and the Search for Its Decay Line using Suzaku X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    Light scalar fields called moduli arise from a variety of different models involving supersymmetry and/or string theory; thus their existence is a generic prediction of leading theories for physics beyond the standard model. They also present a formidable, long-standing problem for cosmology. We argue that an anthropic solution to the moduli problem exists in the case of small moduli masses and that it automatically leads to dark matter in the form of moduli. The recent discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson implies a lower bound on the moduli mass of about a keV. This form of dark matter is consistent with the observed properties of structure formation, and it is amenable to detection with the help of x-ray telescopes. We present the results of a search for such dark matter particles using spectra extracted from the first deep x-ray observations of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are darkmatter- dominated systems with extreme mass-to-light ratios and low intrinsic backgrounds. No emission line is positively detected, and we set new constraints on the relevant new physics.

  20. Detecting quasars at very high redshift with next generation X-ray telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rhook, Kirsty J

    2008-01-01

    The next generation of X-ray telescopes have the potential to detect faint quasars at very high redshift and probe the early growth of massive black holes (BHs). We present modelling of the evolution of the optical and X-ray AGN luminosity function at 2 6 for a range of BH growth scenarios. We predict significant numbers of sources at z ~ 6 with fluxes just an order of magnitude below the current detection limits and thus detectable with XEUS and Constellation-X, relatively independently of the fading law chosen. The predicted number of sources at even higher redshift depends sensitively on the early growth history of BHs. For passive evolution models in which BHs grow constantly at their Eddington limit, detectable BHs may be rare beyond z ~ 8 even with Generation-X. However, in the more probable scenario that BH growth at z > 6 can be described by passive evolution with a small duty cycle, or by our merger driven accretion model, then we predict that XEUS and Generation-X will detect significant numbers of...

  1. X-ray Hybrid CMOS Detectors : Recent progress in development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.

    2017-08-01

    PennState high energy astronomy laboratory has been working on the development and characterization of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for last few years in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS). HCDs are preferred over X-ray CCDs due to their higher and flexible read out rate, radiation hardness and low power which make them more suitable for next generation large area X-ray telescopic missions. An H2RG detector with 36 micron pixel pitch and 18 micron ROIC, has been selected for a sounding rocket flight in 2018. The H2RG detector provides ~2.5 % energy resolution at 5.9 keV and ~7 e- read noise when coupled to a cryo-SIDECAR. We could also detect a clear Oxygen line (~0.5 keV) from the detector implying a lower energy threshold of ~0.3 keV. Further improvement in the energy resolution and read noise is currently under progress. We have been working on the characterization of small pixel HCDs (12.5 micron pixel; smallest pixel HCDs developed so far) which is important for the development of next generation high resolution X-ray spectroscopic instrument based on HCDs. Event recognition in HCDs is another exciting prospect which have been successfully shown to work with a 64 X 64 pixel prototype SPEEDSTAR-EXD which use comparators at each pixel to read out only those pixels having detectable signal, thereby providing an order of magnitude improvement in the read out rate. Currently, we are working on the development of a large area SPEEDSTAR-EXD array for the development of a full fledged instrument. HCDs due to their fast read out, can also be explored as a large FOV instrument to study GRB afterglows and variability and spectroscopic study of other astrophysical transients. In this context, we are characterizing a Lobster-HCD system at multiple energies and multiple off-axis angles for future rocket or CubeSate experiments. In this presentation, I will briefly present these new developments and experiments with HCDs and the analysis techniques.

  2. Calibrating Data from the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope and Associated Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelski, Adam R; Weber, Mark A; McKenzie, David E; Reeves, Katharine K

    2013-01-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode satellite, launched 23 September 2006 by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is a joint mission between Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom to study the solar corona. In particular XRT was designed to study solar plasmas with temperatures between 1 and 10 MK with $\\approx1''$ pixels ($\\approx2''$ resolution). Prior to analysis, the data product from this instrument must be properly calibrated and data values quantified in order to assess accurately the information contained within. We present here the standard methods of calibration for these data. The calibration is performed on an empirical basis which uses the least complicated correction that accurately describes the data while suppressing spurious features. By analyzing the uncertainties remaining in the data after calibration, we conclude that the procedure is successful, as the remaining uncertainty after calibration is dominated by photon noise. This calibration software is availab...

  3. On-Orbit Performance and Calibration of the Soft X-Ray Telescope on Yohkoh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Loren W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper documents details of the on-orbit performance, data problem solving, and calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) experiment on Yohkoh. This information is important to a full understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the SXT data set. The paper begins with summaries of SXT calibration issues and how they have been addressed, operational anomalies experienced during the mission, and a brief discussion of the SXT optical train. The following section on the accuracy of Yohkoh pointing determination provides information important for alignment of SXT images with each other and with other solar data. The remainder of the paper gives details of work by the experiment team to understand and ameliorate the many instrument anomalies and changes which impacted the scientific data.

  4. Ion implantation for figure correction of thin X-ray telescope mirror substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, Brandon; Wright, Graham; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    Figure correction of X-ray telescope mirrors will be critical for future missions that require high angular resolution and large collecting areas. In this paper, we show that ion implantation offers a method of correcting figure errors by imparting sub-surface in-plane stress in a controllable magnitude and location in Schott D-263 glass, Corning Eagle XG glass, and crystalline silicon substrates. In addition, we can in theory achieve nearly exact corrections in Schott D-263 glass, by controlling the direction of the stress. We show that sufficient stress may be applied to Schott D-263 glass to achieve figure correction in mirrors with simulated initial figure errors. We also report on progress of a system that will be capable of correcting conical shell mirror substrates.

  5. Micro-roughness improvement of slumped glass foils for x-ray telescopes via dip coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, B.; Bianco, A.; Citterio, O.; Pareschi, G.; Pariani, G.; Preserpio, L.; Spiga, D.; Mandelli, D.; Negri, M.

    2013-09-01

    The large effective area requirement for future X-ray telescopes demands the production of thousands of segments made of a light material, shaped and integrated into the final optics. At INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, to replicate the shape of a mould onto the optical surface of a glass mirror segment. To date, the best results were achieved with a mould in Zerodur K20 and glass foils made of aluminumborosilicate glass type AF32 by Schott. Nevertheless, several factors in the fabrication process trigger deviations from the desired surface micro-roughness. A dip-coating technique is investigated to improve the surface smoothness and consequently the imaging properties of the mirror. In this paper we describe the coating technique, the different implemented processes and the results obtained.

  6. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing...... multilayer structure in a way that higher energies are reflected from the deepest layers in the stack. The specific design presented in this paper is based on Ni/C and Mo/C structures with dspacings ranging from 25A to 100 A. X-ray reflectivity data obtained with Cu Kc1 (8. 05 keV) are presented from...... the first graded d-spacing structures of this kind....

  7. New Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the counterparts to six ultraluminous X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, T P; Goad, M R

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the positions of six ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Using images in three ACS filters we detect good candidate counterparts to four out of six ULXs, with one more possible detection, and observed magnitudes in the range m ~ 22 - 26 in the F606W filter. The extinction-corrected colours and absolute magnitudes vary from source to source, even after correcting for additional extinction in the host galaxy, and only one counterpart is readily explained as an OB star. Nevertheless, these counterparts are decent candidates for future follow-up in pursuit of dynamical mass constraints on the likely black holes powering these sources.

  8. A hard X-ray telescope/concentrator design based on graded period multilayer coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.;

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that compact designs of multifocus, conical approximations to highly nested Wolter I telescopes, as well as single reflection concentrators, employing realistic graded period W/Si or Ni/C multilayer coatings, allow one to obtain more than 1000 cm2 of on-axis effective area at 40 keV a....../cm2/s/keV which demonstrates the great potential of this hard X-ray imaging telescope in the energy range up to 100 keV....... of the telescope configuration provided that mirrors can be coated to an inner radius of 3 cm. Specifically we find that a change of focal length from 5 to 12 m affects the effective area by less than 10%. In addition the result is insensitive to the thickness of the individual mirror shell provided...... that it is smaller than roughly 1 mm. The design can be realized with foils as thin (≤0.4 mm) as used for ASCA and SODART or with closed, slightly thicker (∼1.0 mm) mirror shells as used for JET-X and XMM. The effect of an increase of the inner radius is quantified on the effective area for multilayered mirrors up...

  9. X-ray study of a SODART flight telescope using the expanded beam x-ray optics beamline at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P. K.;

    1995-01-01

    The on- and off-axis imaging properties of the first of two SODART flight telescopes have been studied using the expanded beam x-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. From on- axis measurements the encircled power distribution and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 ke......V, and 11.046 keV have been measured using a one dimensional position sensitive detector. The data have been used to calculate the half power diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors, the high energy proportional counter (HEPC), the low energy proportional counter (LEPC) and the 19...... element solid state array detector (SIXA). We found that the HPD decreases with increasing energy due to poorer figure error of the outermost mirrors. The HPD falls in the range from 2.3 to 3 arcmin for all detectors. Residual misalignment of the individual quadrants of the telescope was found...

  10. X-ray study of a test quadrant of the SODART telescopes using the expanded beam x-ray optics facility at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.;

    1994-01-01

    The imaging properties of a test model of the SODART telescopes have been studied using an expanded beam X-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. The encircled power and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using 1D and 2D position......V the HPD is 2.5 - 3.0 arcmin for all detectors whereas it is somewhat larger at 11.046 keV for HEPC and LEPC but essentially unchanged for SIXA. Finally, the data are used to point to improvements that can be introduced during the manufacture of the flight telescopes....

  11. Development of x-ray multilayer telescope optics for XTP mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Kun; Ma, Bin; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Haifeng; Dai, Ying; He, Pengfei; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) satellite is dedicated to study black hole, neutron star and magnetar and then get more information in the physics under extreme gravity, density and magnetism. With an effective area of about 1 square meter and angular resolution of 1 arcminute, XTP is expected to make the most sensitive temporal and polarization observations with good energy resolution in 1-30 keV. Large collecting areas are obtained by tightly nesting layers of grazing incidence mirrors in a conical approximation Wolter-I design. The segmented mirrors that form these layers are formed by thermally slumping glass substrates coated with depth-graded W/Si multilayers for enhanced reflectivity in higher energy region. In order to force the overall shape of the nominally cylindrical substrates to the appropriate conic form, an over-constraint method was used to assemble the mirrors to a telescope. We will present performance on the XTP optics and report the current status of the telescope.

  12. Analytical computation of stray light in nested mirror modules for X-ray telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Stray light in X-ray telescopes is a well-known issue. Unlike rays focused via a double reflection by usual grazing-incidence geometries such as the Wolter-I, stray rays coming from off-axis sources are reflected only once by either the parabolic or the hyperbolic segment. Although not focused, stray light may represent a major source of background and ghost images especially when observing a field of faint sources in the vicinities of another, more intense, just outside the field of view of the telescope. The stray light problem is faced by mounting a pre-collimator in front of the mirror module, in order to shade a part of the reflective surfaces that may give rise to singly-reflected rays. Studying the expected stray light impact, and consequently designing a pre-collimator, is a typical ray-tracing problem, usually time and computation consuming, especially if we consider that rays propagate throughout a densely nested structure. This in turn requires one to pay attention to all the possible obstructions,...

  13. Slumping monitoring of glass and silicone foils for x-ray space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, M.; Pina, L.; Landova, M.; Sveda, L.; Havlikova, R.; Semencova, V.; Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.

    2011-09-01

    We developed a non-contact method for in-situ monitoring of the thermal slumping of glass and silicone foils to optimize this technology for the production of high quality mirrors for large aperture x-ray space telescopes. The telescope's crucial part is a high throughput, heavily nested mirror array with the angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. Its construction requires precise and light-weight segmented optics with surface micro-roughness on the order of 0.1 nm. Promising materials are glass or silicon foils shaped by thermal forming. The desired parameters can be achieved only through optimizing the slumping process. We monitored the slumping by taking the snapshots of the shapes every five minutes at constant temperature and the final shapes we measured with the Taylor Hobson profilometer. The shapes were parabolic and the deviations from a circle had the peak-to-valley values of 20-30 μm. The observed hot plastic deformation of the foils was controlled by viscous flow. We calculated and plotted the relations between the middle part deflection, viscosity, and heat-treatment time. These relations have been utilized for the development of a numerical model enabling computer simulation. By the simulation, we verify the material's properties and generate new data for the thorough optimization of the slumping process.

  14. ATHENA: system design and implementation for a next generation x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Lumb, D.; Linder, M.

    2015-08-01

    ATHENA, Europe's next generation x-ray telescope, has recently been selected for the 'L2' slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, with a mandate to address the 'Hot and Energetic Universe' Cosmic Vision science theme. The mission is currently in the Assessment/Definition Phase (A/B1), with a view to formal adoption after a successful System Requirements Review in 2019. This paper will describe the reference mission architecture and spacecraft design produced during Phase 0 by the ESA Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), in response to the technical requirements and programmatic boundary conditions. The main technical requirements and their mapping to resulting design choices will be presented, at both mission and spacecraft level. An overview of the spacecraft design down to subsystem level will then be presented (including the telescope and instruments), remarking on the critically-enabling technologies where appropriate. Finally, a programmatic overview will be given of the on-going Assessment Phase, and a snapshot of the prospects for securing the `as-proposed' mission within the cost envelope will be given.

  15. Analytical computation of stray light in nested mirror modules for x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Stray light in X-ray telescopes are a well-known issue. Unlike rays focused via a double reflection by usual grazing-incidence geometries such as the Wolter-I, stray rays coming from off-axis sources are reflected only once by either the parabolic or the hyperbolic segment. Although not focused, stray light may represent a major source of background and ghost images especially when observing a field of faint sources in the vicinities of another, more intense, just outside the field of view of the telescope. The stray light problem is faced by mounting a pre-collimator in front of the mirror module, in order to shade a part of the reflective surfaces that may give rise to singly-reflected rays. Studying the expected stray light impact, and consequently designing a pre-collimator, is a typical ray-tracing problem, usually time and computation consuming, especially if we consider that rays propagate throughout a densely nested structure. This in turn requires one to pay attention to all the possible obstructions, increasing the complexity of the simulation. In contrast, approaching the problems of stray light calculation from an analytical viewpoint largely simplifies the problem, and may also ease the task of designing an effective pre-collimator. In this work we expose an analytical formalism that can be used to compute the stray light in a nested optical module in a fast and effective way, accounting for obstruction effects.

  16. Coronal Temperature Diagnostic Capability of the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope Based on Self-Consistent Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryouhei; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimojo, Masumi; Bando, Takamasa; Urayama, Fumitaka; DeLuca, Edward; Golub, Leon; Weber, Mark; Grigis, Paolo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Tsuneta, Saku

    2010-01-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode satellite is an X-ray imager that observes the solar corona with unprecedentedly high angular resolution (consistent with its 1" pixel size). XRT has nine X-ray analysis filters with different temperature responses. One of the most significant scientific features of this telescope is its capability of diagnosing coronal temperatures from less than 1 MK to more than 10 MK, which has never been accomplished before. To make full use of this capability, accurate calibration of the coronal temperature response of XRT is indispensable and is presented in this article. The effect of on-orbit contamination is also taken into account in the calibration. On the basis of our calibration results, we review the coronal-temperature-diagnostic capability of XRT.

  17. Monte Carlo-based multiphysics coupling analysis of x-ray pulsar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liansheng; Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Zuo, Fuchang; Zhou, Hao

    2015-10-01

    X-ray pulsar telescope (XPT) is a complex optical payload, which involves optical, mechanical, electrical and thermal disciplines. The multiphysics coupling analysis (MCA) plays an important role in improving the in-orbit performance. However, the conventional MCA methods encounter two serious problems in dealing with the XTP. One is that both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray can't be taken into consideration, which always misunderstands the essence of XPT. Another is that the coupling data can't be transferred automatically among different disciplines, leading to computational inefficiency and high design cost. Therefore, a new MCA method for XPT is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method and total reflective theory. The main idea, procedures and operational steps of the proposed method are addressed in detail. Firstly, it takes both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray into consideration simultaneously. And formulate the thermal-structural coupling equation and multiphysics coupling analysis model based on the finite element method. Then, the thermalstructural coupling analysis under different working conditions has been implemented. Secondly, the mirror deformations are obtained using construction geometry function. Meanwhile, the polynomial function is adopted to fit the deformed mirror and meanwhile evaluate the fitting error. Thirdly, the focusing performance analysis of XPT can be evaluated by the RMS. Finally, a Wolter-I XPT is taken as an example to verify the proposed MCA method. The simulation results show that the thermal-structural coupling deformation is bigger than others, the vary law of deformation effect on the focusing performance has been obtained. The focusing performances of thermal-structural, thermal, structural deformations have degraded 30.01%, 14.35% and 7.85% respectively. The RMS of dispersion spot are 2.9143mm, 2.2038mm and 2.1311mm. As a result, the validity of the proposed method is verified through

  18. BEaTriX, expanded x-ray beam facility for testing modular elements of telescope optics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliciari, C.; Spiga, D.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-01

    We present in this paper an update on the design of BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility), an X-ray apparatus to be realized at INAF/OAB and that will generate an expanded, uniform and parallel beam of soft X-rays. BEaTriX will be used to perform the functional tests of X-ray focusing modules of large X-ray optics such as those for the ATHENA X-ray observatory, using the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) as a baseline technology, and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) as a possible alternative. Performing the tests in X-rays provides the advantage of an in-situ, at-wavelength quality control of the optical modules produced in series by the industry, performing a selection of the modules with the best angular resolution, and, in the case of SPOs, there is also the interesting possibility to align the parabolic and the hyperbolic stacks directly under X-rays, to minimize the aberrations. However, a parallel beam with divergence below 2 arcsec is necessary in order to measure mirror elements that are expected to reach an angular resolution of about 4 arcsec, since the ATHENA requirement for the entire telescope is 5 arcsec. Such a low divergence over the typical aperture of modular optics would require an X-ray source to be located in a several kilometers long vacuum tube. In contrast, BEaTriX will be compact enough (5 m x 14 m) to be housed in a small laboratory, will produce an expanded X-ray beam 60 mm x 200 mm broad, characterized by a very low divergence (1.5 arcsec HEW), strong polarization, high uniformity, and X-ray energy selectable between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV. In this work we describe the BEaTriX layout and show a performance simulation for the X-ray energy of 4.5 keV.

  19. Direct X-ray detection with hybrid solar cells based on organolead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hardeep Singh; Elshahat, Bassem; Sajo, Erno; Kumar, Jayant; Kokil, Akshay; Zygmanski, Piotr; Li, Lian; Mosurkal, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials are attracting considerable interest due to their exceptional opto-electronic properties, such as, high charge carrier mobilities, high exciton diffusion length, high extinction coefficients and broad-band absorption. These interesting properties have enabled their application in high performance hybrid photovoltaic devices. The high Z value of their constituents also makes these materials efficient for absorbing X-rays. Here we will present on the efficient use of hybrid solar cells based on organolead perovskite materials as X-ray detectors. Hybrid solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3 were fabricated using facile processing techniques on patterned indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The solar cells typically had a planar configuration of ITO/CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT/Ag. High sensitivity for X-rays due to high Z value, larger carrier mobility and better charge collection was observed. Detecting X-rays with energies relevant to medical oncology applications opens up the potential for diagnostic imaging applications.

  20. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  1. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  2. X-Ray Pore Optics Technologies and Their Application in Space Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Max; Beijersbergen, Marco; Wallace, Kotska; Wille, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a new X-ray optics technology under development in Europe, forming the ESA baseline technology for the International X-ray Observatory candidate mission studied jointly by ESA, NASA, and JAXA. With its matrix-like structure, made of monocrystalline-bonded Silicon mirrors, it can achieve the required angular resolution and low mass density required for future large X-ray observatories. Glass-based Micro Pore Optics (MPO) achieve modest angular resolution compared t...

  3. Reflectivity around the gold M-edges of x-ray reflector of the Soft X-ray Telescope onboard ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Sho; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Iizuka, Ryo; Okajima, Takashi; Mori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Hayashi, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Maejima, Masato; Yoshikawa, Shun

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H are equipped with two equivalent soft X-ray telescopes (SXT-I and SXT-S) which cover the energy band 0.3{12 keV. The X-ray reflectors of the SXTs are coated with a gold monolayer by means of the replication technique (Okajima et al. in this volume). A series of gold M absorption edges in the 2-4 keV band causes complex structures in the energy response of the SXTs. In the same band, there are astrophysically important emission lines from Si, Ar and S. Since the SXS has unprecedentedly high spectral resolution, we have measured the reflectivity around the gold M-edges in an extremely fine energy pitch at the synchrotron radiation facility KEK PF BL11-B, with the 2 eV pitch in 2100 eV to 4100 eV band that covers the entire series of the absorption edges (M-I through M-V) at grazing incident angles to the reflectors of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 degree, and with a finer pitch of 0.25 eV in the 2200 eV to 2350 eV band where the two deepest M-IV and M-V edges are included. In the resultant reflectivity curves, we have clearly identified the fine structures associated with all the M-edges. Using these data, we calculated atomic scattering factor f1 as a function of X-ray energy, with which we have built the mirror response function which can be applied to the Suzaku spectra. As a result, we have found that discrepancy of the spectral model to the Suzaku data of 4U1630-472 (a black hole transient) and the Crab nebula around the M-edges are significantly reduced from those with the official Suzaku response.

  4. Studies on the Background of the Wide Field Imager aboard the IXO and ATHENA X-Ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hauf, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The planned International X-ray Observatory (IXO) was the designated successor to the extremely suc- cessful XMM Newton and Chandra X-ray observatories. Aiming to provide high sensitivity, high spatial, spectral and timing resolution observations in the 0.1 keV – 40 keV energy range, the mission would have greatly extended our knowledge of the universe. The international project was canceled due to the pullout of NASA in 2010. Subsequently, ESA pursued an European-only mission: A Telescope fo...

  5. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  6. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes for the Constellation-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Bolognese, Jeffrey; Saha, Timo; Sturm, James; Zhang, William

    2007-01-01

    Area and mass requirements for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescopes restrict the thickness of the mirror segment to below a mm. Requirement of angular resolution of 15" over the soft x-ray band implies that allowable optic deformation is sub-micrometer for these thin segments. These requirements place stringent constraint on the mounting, alignment and affixing of these mirror segments in both the metrology and integration processes. We present analyses and optimization of the Constellation-X mirrors under relevant mechanical and thermal environments.

  7. Temperature dependent calibration products of the SWIFT x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David C.; Burrows, David N.; Hill, Joanne E.; Kennea, Jamie; Racusin, Judith; Wood, Paul; Mangels, Chris; Klar, Robert; Angelini, Lorella; Tamburelli, Francesca

    2005-08-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite is a sensitive imaging spectrometer utilizing a MAT-22 CCD at the Focal plane. The system was designed to operate the CCD at -100 °C +/- 1 °C for the duration of the mission. Due to a failure of the temperature control sub-system, the CCD operates under variable thermal conditions dictated by the view factor of the radiator- heatpipe sub-system to the Earth and sun. A temperature variation of up to 5° C is seen during a single orbit due to the satellite transition from sun light into eclipse and the full operational regime of the instrument ranges from temperatures of -75°C to -45°C due to the persistent heating/cooling effects of satellite orientation to the sun and earth. To maintain the highest quality data products possible from the XRT data stream, a recalibration of the XRT is required to account for this variable thermal environment. We present the methodology for and results from a temperature dependent analysis of on-orbit XRT data, collected during the Swift commissioning phase, used to produce gain, bias and warm pixel calibration products. We also discuss the quality of XRT science products capable with these temperature dependent calibration files and future plans for updates to these calibration products.

  8. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Salmaso, B; Brizzolari, B; Basso, S; Ghigo, M; Pareschi, G; Spiga, D; Proserpio, L; Suppiger, Y

    2015-01-01

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla glass (produced by Corning), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the ov...

  9. Hard x-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Christensen, Finn E.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Brejnholt, Nicolai; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen S.; Jakobsen, Anders C.; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina; Vogel, Julia K.

    2013-09-01

    We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating theoretical reflectivities for candidate multilayer material combinations up to 400 keV including effects of incoherent scatter has given an experimental base for extending this type of designs to the soft λ-ray range. At the same time, the calibration of the in-flight performance of the NuSTAR mission has given a solid understanding and modelling of the relevant effects influencing the performance, including optical constants, roughness, scatter, non-uniformities and figure error. This allows for a realistic extension for designs going to much higher energies. Similarly, both thin slumped glass and silicon pore optics has been developed to a prototype stage which promises imaging resolution in the sub 10 arcsecond range. We present designs based on a 20 m and 50 m focal lengths with energy ranges up to 200 keV and 600 keV.

  10. The impact of the in-orbit background and the X-ray source intensity on the centroiding accuracy of the Swift X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Hill, J.; Cheruvu, C.; Abbey, A. F.; Short, A. D. T.

    2002-11-01

    The optical components of the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer X-ray Telescope (XRT), consisting of the JET-X spare flight mirror and a charge coupled device of the type used in the EPIC program, were used in a re-calibration study carried out at the Panter facility, which is part of the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The objective of this study was to check the focal length and the off axis performance of the mirrors and to show that the half energy width (HEW) of the on-axis point spread function (PSF) was of the order of 16arcsec at 1.5keV (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543; SPIE 4140 (2000) 64) and that a centroiding accuracy better that 1arcsec could be achieved within the 4arcmin sampling area designated by the Burst Alert Telescope (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The centroiding accuracy of the Swift XRT's optical components was tested as a function of distance from the focus and off axis position of the PSF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The presence of background events in the image frame introduced errors in the centroiding process, making the choice of centroiding algorithm important (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). Since the objective of Swift is to rapidly investigate the X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts the possibility of detecting a bright source with intensity greater than 25 Crab could not be excluded and therefore the impact of a saturated PSF core on the centroiding accuracy was investigated by experimental methods.

  11. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    By analysing the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst in the X-ray light, scientists produced the first ever evidence of the presence of chemical elements which were the unmistakable remnants of a supernova explosion which had occurred just a few days before. "We can now confidently say that the death of a massive star, a supernova, was the cause of a gamma-ray burst. However we still don't know exactly how and why these bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe, are triggered," says ESA astronomer Norbert Schartel, a co-author of the original paper, published today in Nature. Gamma-ray bursts were first discovered in 1967 by chance, when satellites designed to look for violations of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty detected strong gamma-ray emissions coming from sources not in the vicinity of Earth, but from outer space. They have been a mystery ever since. They occur as often as several times a day but last for no longer than a couple of minutes, and there is no way to predict when or where the next burst will occur. Consequently they are very difficult to study. For three decades it was not even known whether the explosions were close, in our own Milky Way galaxy, or far away in distant galaxies. But astronomers set up an 'alert system'. This allows them to see the 'afterglow' of the burst before it fades away, by quickly aiming their telescopes at the precise location in the sky shortly after a detector triggers the alert. It is now clear that the bursts occur in galaxies millions of light-years away. The longest burst Technically called 'GRB 011211', it was first detected on 11 December 2001 at 19:09:21 (Universal Time), by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. The burst lasted for 270 seconds - the longest one observed by the satellite. A few hours afterwards, when a first analysis confirmed that a burst had indeed been registered, the BeppoSAX team alerted the rest of the astronomical community. ESA's XMM-Newton arrived on the scene 11 hours after the

  12. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, Vladimir, E-mail: tichyvl1@fel.cvut.cz [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, CZ-12135, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Barbera, Marco [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ad Astronomiche, Via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy); Collura, Alfonso [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy); Hromcik, Martin [Centre for Applied Cybernbetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, CZ-12135, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hudec, Rene [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov, Czech Repubic (Czech Republic); Department of Radioelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prahue, Technicka 4, CZ-16607, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Inneman, Adolf [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe s.r.o., Novodvorska 994, CZ-14221, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Marsik, Jiri [Division of Precision Mechanics and Optics, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, CZ-16607, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Marsikova, Veronika [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe s.r.o., Novodvorska 994, CZ-14221, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Pina, Ladislav [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-11519, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Varisco, Salvatore [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. We present preliminary results of tests of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics in quasi parallel beam full imaging mode conducted using the 35 m long X-ray beam-line of INAF-OAPA in Palermo (Italy). X-ray images at the focal plane have been taken with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector at several energy values from 0.3 to 8 keV. The gain, the field of view and the angular resolution have been measured and compared with theoretical values.

  13. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive detection system.

  14. The impact of the in-orbit background and the X-ray source intensity on the centroiding accuracy of the Swift X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, R M; Hill, J; Cheruvu, C; Abbey, A F; Short, A D T

    2002-01-01

    The optical components of the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer X-ray Telescope (XRT), consisting of the JET-X spare flight mirror and a charge coupled device of the type used in the EPIC program, were used in a re-calibration study carried out at the Panter facility, which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The objective of this study was to check the focal length and the off axis performance of the mirrors and to show that the half energy width (HEW) of the on-axis point spread function (PSF) was of the order of 16 arcsec at 1.5 keV (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543; SPIE 4140 (2000) 64) and that a centroiding accuracy better that 1 arcsec could be achieved within the 4 arcmin sampling area designated by the Burst Alert Telescope (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The centroiding accuracy of the Swift XRT's optical components was tested as a function of distance from the focus and off axis position of the PSF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The presence ...

  15. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  16. Low-Stress Iridium Coatings for Thin-Shell X-Ray Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new type of low-stress iridium (Ir) X-ray mirror coating technology that can be used for the construction of...

  17. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  18. The front-end electronics of the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX) on the ESA Solar Orbiter satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Commichau, V.; Graczyk, R.; Gröbelbauer, H. P.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.; Viertel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is an ESA mission to study the heliosphere in proximity to the Sun, scheduled for launch in January 2017. It carries a suite of ten instruments for comprehensive remote-sensing and in-situ measurements. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX), one of the remote sensing instruments, images X-rays between 4 and 150keV using an Fourier technique. The angular resolution is 7 arcsec and the spectral resolution 1keV full-width-half-maximum at 6keV. X-ray detection uses pixelized Cadmium Telluride crystals provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The crystals are bonded to read-out hybrids developed by CEA Saclay, called Caliste-SO, incorporating a low-noise, low-power analog front-end ASIC IDeF-X HD. The crystals are cooled to -20°C to obtain very low leakage currents of less than 60pA per pixel, the prerequisite for obtaining the required spectral resolution. This article briefly describes the mission goals and then details the front-end electronics design and main challenges, resulting in part from the allocation limit in mass of 7kg and in power of 4W. Emphasis is placed on the design influence of the cooling requirement within the warm environment of a mission approaching the Sun to within the orbit of Mercury. The design for the long-term in-flight energy calibration is also explained.

  19. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey: data reduction and cluster catalog for the GRB fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tundo, Elena; Tozzi, Paolo; Teng, Liu; Rosati, Piero; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) We present a new sample of X-ray selected galaxy groups and clusters serendipitously observed with Swift and the X-ray Telescope (XRT). We searched the XRT archive for extended sources among 336 GRB fields with galactic latitude |b|>20{\\deg}. Our selection algorithm yields a flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray groups and clusters with a well defined selection function and negligible contamination. The sky coverage of the survey goes from the total 40 deg^2 to 1 deg^2 at a flux limit of 10^-14 erg/s/cm^-2 (0.5-2 keV). Here we describe the XRT data processing, the statistical calibration of the survey, and the catalog of detected cluster candidates. All the X-ray sources are detected in the Swift-XRT soft (0.5-2 keV) band. A size parameter defined as the half power radius (HPR) measured inside a box of 45x45 arcsec, is assigned to each source. We select extended sources by applying a threshold on the Half Power Radius and we calibrate its dependence on the measured net counts and on the image background ...

  20. Mirrors for X-ray telescopes: Fresnel diffraction-based computation of Point Spread Functions from metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Raimondi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. In order to ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is represented by the prediction of the mirror Point Spread Function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness [...] The aim of this work is to overcome this limit, providing analytical formulae, valid at any light wavelength, to compute the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness Power Spectral Density (PSD), without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffr...

  1. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  2. ART-XC: A Medium-energy X-ray Telescope System for the Spectrum-R-Gamma Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, V.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.; Thachenko, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Semena, N.; Buntov,M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Gubarev, M.; ODell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Romaine, S.; Swartz. D/; Weisskopf, M.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Strueder, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ART-XC instrument is an X-ray grazing-incidence telescope system in an ABRIXAS-type optical configuration optimized for the survey observational mode of the Spectrum-RG astrophysical mission which is scheduled to be launched in 2011. ART-XC has two units, each equipped with four identical X-ray multi-shell mirror modules. The optical axes of the individual mirror modules are not parallel but are separated by several degrees to permit the four modules to share a single CCD focal plane detector, 1/4 of the area each. The 450-micron-thick pnCCD (similar to the adjacent eROSITA telescope detector) will allow detection of X-ray photons up to 15 keV. The field of view of the individual mirror module is about 18 x 18 arcminutes(exp 2) and the sensitivity of the ART-XC system for 4 years of survey will be better than 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over the 4-12 keV energy band. This will allow the ART-XC instrument to discover several thousand new AGNs.

  3. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

  4. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  5. Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, Melville

    2015-11-02

    In this paper wepresent a method to correct the surface profile of an X-ray mirror by using a stress manipulated coating on the back side of mirror shells. The ability to fabricate a thin walled mirror by some replication process is required if future affordable X-ray space missions are to have ~30 times the effective area of the current best X-ray observatory, i.e., the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). Thus, some process is necessary for using replicated X-ray optics to make the next generation X-ray observatory. However, although the surface roughness of sub-100 μm length scales can be replicated, no known replication technique can make 1 arc-second or better CXO-like optics. Yet, because the images produced by the CXO are so exquisite, many X-ray astronomers are not willing to settle for less in the future. Therefore, a post replication technique must be developed to make future major X-ray astronomy missions possible. In this paper, we describe a technique based on DC magnetron sputtering. For figure correction, we apply a controlled bias voltage on the surface during the sputtering. We show that we can produce, in 1-D, shape changes large enough (1 μm over 10 mm) to correct the typical figure errors in replicated optics. We demonstrate reproducibility on an order of 0.6%, and stability over weeks on a scale of less than 1 μm over 10 mm. For these tests, we used 200 μm thick pieces of D263 Schott glass, about 5 mm x 20 mm. In addition to the basic concept of controlling the stress with the coating, we describe a new optimization software design to calculate the stress distribution for a desired surface profile. We show that the combination of the stress optimization software coupled with the coating process, can reduce the slope error of a 5 mm x 20 mm glass sample by a factor of ten.

  6. Assessment of asthmatic inflammation using hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaopeng; Prakash, Jaya; Ruscitti, Francesca; Glasl, Sarah; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Villetti, Gino; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging plays a critical role in asthma research but is limited in its readings of biology due to the short-lived signals of radio-isotopes. We employed hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) for the assessment of asthmatic inflammation based on resolving cathepsin activity and matrix metalloproteinase activity in dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus species-challenged mice. The reconstructed multimodal fluorescence distribution showed good correspondence with ex vivo cryosection images and histological images, confirming FMT-XCT as an interesting alternative for asthma research.

  7. Imaging Analysis of the Hard X-Ray Telescope ProtoEXIST2 and New Techniques for High-resolution Coded-aperture Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jaesub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Barthelmy, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Wide-field (≳100 deg{}2) hard X-ray coded-aperture telescopes with high angular resolution (≲2‧) will enable a wide range of time domain astrophysics. For instance, transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts can be precisely localized without the assistance of secondary focusing X-ray telescopes to enable rapid followup studies. On the other hand, high angular resolution in coded-aperture imaging introduces a new challenge in handling the systematic uncertainty: the average photon count per pixel is often too small to establish a proper background pattern or model the systematic uncertainty in a timescale where the model remains invariant. We introduce two new techniques to improve detection sensitivity, which are designed for, but not limited to, a high-resolution coded-aperture system: a self-background modeling scheme which utilizes continuous scan or dithering operations, and a Poisson-statistics based probabilistic approach to evaluate the significance of source detection without subtraction in handling the background. We illustrate these new imaging analysis techniques in high resolution coded-aperture telescope using the data acquired by the wide-field hard X-ray telescope ProtoEXIST2 during a high-altitude balloon flight in fall 2012. We review the imaging sensitivity of ProtoEXIST2 during the flight, and demonstrate the performance of the new techniques using our balloon flight data in comparison with a simulated ideal Poisson background.

  8. The pre-collimator for the ASTRO-H x-ray telescopes: shielding from stray lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Sato, Takuro; Ichihara, Kou; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kunieda, Hideyo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Sugita, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Tachibana, Kenji; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Okajima, Takashi; Mochida, Masayuki; Kawabata, Eiji

    2012-09-01

    We report recent progresses on the fabrication of pre-collimators (PCs). The PCs are designed to mitigate stray lights for X-ray telescopes to be onboard ASTRO-H. Each PC consists of cylindrical aluminum shells (blades) wiht varying radii of 60-225 mm, alignment frames to guilde the blade positions, and the bade housing body. The alignment frame and the housing are made of Aluminum 6061 and 7075 alloy, respectively. Heat-forming process is introduced to the production to stabilize the blade shape in orbit. Precise curvature of radius (tolerance of 1mm) and the linearity along with the direction of incident X-rays (P.V. shell to reduce off-axis X-ray photons that leads to a "ghost" image within the detector field of view. In September 2010, the PC design--its height, thickness, and material of blades--was fixed and we produced the engineering model (EM) for the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs). Since then, vibration tests for the EM PC unit are carried out twice, verifying that the PC has sufficient structural strength to withstand severe conditions during its launch. The EM PC is also installed onto the SXT mirror housing fabricated at the NASA's GSFC to validate our PC assembly method without any loss of thetelescope's effective aperture area. Since August 2011, we have been manusfacturing the PC blades for the flight models. We hereby show the manufacturing processes and also results of stray-light measurement without PCs for the SXT EM (obtained at ISAS 30m beamline facility) and the HXT FM (obtained at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility).

  9. Imaging Analysis of the Hard X-ray Telescope ProtoEXIST2 and New Techniques for High Resolution Coded Aperture Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jaesub; Grindlay, Jonathan; Barthelmy, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Wide-field (> 100 deg$^2$) hard X-ray coded-aperture telescopes with high angular resolution (< 2') will enable a wide range of time domain astrophysics. For instance, transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts can be precisely localized without assistance of secondary focusing X-ray telescopes to enable rapid followup studies. On the other hand, high angular resolution in coded-aperture imaging introduces a new challenge in handling the systematic uncertainty: average photon count per pixel is often too small to establish a proper background pattern or model the systematic uncertainty in a time scale where the model remains invariant. We introduce two new techniques to improve detection sensitivity, which are designed for, but not limited to high resolution coded-aperture system: a self-background modeling scheme which utilizes continuous scan or dithering operations, and a Poisson-statistics based probabilistic approach to evaluate the significance of source detection without subtraction in handling the ...

  10. Comparison of CCD, CMOS and Hybrid Pixel x-ray detectors: detection principle and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, P.; Wenger, E.; Dahaoui, S.; Schaniel, D.; Lecomte, C.

    2016-06-01

    We compare, from a crystallographic point of view, the data quality obtained using laboratory x-ray diffractometers equipped with a Molybdenum micro-source using different detector types: CCD, CMOS and XPAD hybrid pixel. First we give an overview of the working principle of these different detector types with a focus on their principal differences and their impact on the data quality. Then, using the example of an organic crystal, a comparison between the detector systems concerning the raw data statistics, the refinement agreement factors, the deformation electron density maps, and the residual density after multipolar refinement is presented. It is found that the data quality obtained with the XPAD detector is the best, even though the detection efficiency at the Mo energy (17.5 keV) is only 37% due to the Si-sensor layer thickness of 300 μm. Finally, we discuss the latest x-ray detector developments with an emphasis on the sensor material, where replacing Si by another material such as GaAs would yield detection efficiencies close to 100%, up to energies of 40 keV for hybrid pixel detectors.

  11. An accelerated direct demodulation method for image reconstruction using spherical data from the hard X-ray modulation telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo-Xi Huo; Jian-Feng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The hard X-ray modulation telescope (HXMT) mission is mainly devoted to performing an all-sky survey at 1-250 keV with both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution.The observed data reduction as well as the image reconstruction for HXMT can be achieved by using the direct demodulation method (DDM).However the original DDM is too computationally expensive for multi-dimensional data with high resolution to be employed for HXMT data.We propose an accelerated direct demodulation method especially adapted for data from HXMT.Simulations are also presented to demonstrate this method.

  12. Comparing Data from Telescopic X-Ray Instruments: Can We Trust All Satellites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Quianah T.; Fortenberry, Alexander; Gendre, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    In astronomy and astrophysics, X-ray emissions from cosmic entities aid in revealing what type of sources they emanate from. Swift, NASA’s latest X-ray satellite, has not been operating at its intended configurations. The satellite is experiencing difficulties maintaining a stable temperature in its charge capture device. This research intends to determine if this complication causes discrepancies in Swift’s collected data by using gamma-ray burst data. Gamma-ray bursts are excellent comparison candidates due to their brightness and fluctuations. We compared archived data of GRB 130427A and GRB 090423A from Swift and the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton observatory. Next, we reduced the data and produced the respective spectra. We then analyzed and compared the spectra to one another to find any discrepancies. We have determined, based on data analysis of the spectra, that Swift is working properly despite the cooling malfunction.

  13. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE AND SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RADIO MAGNETAR SGR J1745–2900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Archibald, Robert F.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Scholz, Paul, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2015-06-20

    We present results from eight months of Green Bank Telescope 8.7 GHz observations and nearly 18 months of Swift X-ray telescope observations of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900. We tracked the radio and X-ray flux density, polarization properties, profile evolution, rotation, and single-pulse behavior. We identified two main periods of activity. The first is characterized by approximately 5.5 months of relatively stable evolution in radio flux density, rotation, and profile shape, while in the second these properties varied substantially. Specifically, a third profile component emerged and the radio flux also became more variable. The single pulse properties also changed, most notably with a larger fraction of pulses with pulse widths ∼5–20 ms in the erratic state. Bright single pulses are well described by a log-normal energy distribution at low energies, but with an excess at high energies. The 2–10 keV flux decayed steadily since the initial X-ray outburst, while the radio flux remained stable to within ∼20% during the stable state. A joint pulsar timing analysis of the radio and X-ray data shows a level of timing noise unprecedented in a radio magnetar, though during the time covered by the radio data alone the timing noise was at a level similar to that observed in other radio magnetars. While SGR J1745–2900 is similar to other radio magnetars in many regards, it differs by having experienced a period of relative stability in the radio that now appears to have ended, while the X-ray properties evolved independently.

  14. Super-smooth processing x-ray telescope application research based on the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Hou, Xi; Yang, Jinshan

    2016-09-01

    Nickel is the unique material in the X-ray telescopes. And it has the typical soft material characteristics with low hardness high surface damage and low stability of thermal. The traditional fabrication techniques are exposed to lots of problems, including great surface scratches, high sub-surface damage and poor surface roughness and so on. The current fabrication technology for the nickel aspheric mainly adopt the single point diamond turning(SPDT), which has lots of advantages such as high efficiency, ultra-precision surface figure, low sub-surface damage and so on. But the residual surface texture of SPDT will cause great scattering losses and fall far short from the requirement in the X-ray applications. This paper mainly investigates the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques for the super-smooth processing on the nickel optics. Through the study of the MRF polishing techniques, we obtained the ideal super-smooth polishing technique based on the self-controlled MRF-fluid NS-1, and finished the high-precision surface figure lower than RMS λ/80 (λ=632.8nm) and super-smooth roughness lower than Ra 0.3nm on the plane reflector and roughness lower than Ra 0.4nm on the convex cone. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the state-of-the-art nickel material processing level for the X-ray optical systems applications.

  15. Surface smoothness requirements for the mirrors of the IXO X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a very ambitious mission, aimed at the X-ray observation of the early Universe. This makes IXO extremely demanding in terms of effective area and angular resolution. In particular, the HEW requirement below 10 keV is 5 arcsec Half-Energy Width (HEW). At higher photon energies, the HEW is expected to increase, and the angular resolution to be correspondingly degraded, due to the increasing relevance of the X-ray scattering off the reflecting surfaces. Therefore, the HEW up to 40 keV is required to be better than 30 arcsec, even though the IXO goal is to achieve an angular resolution as close as possible to 5 arcsec also at this energy. To this end, the roughness of the reflecting surfaces has to not exceed a tolerance, expressed in terms of a surface roughness PSD (Power-Spectral-Density). In this work we provide such tolerances by simulating the HEW scattering term for IXO, assuming a specific configuration for the optical module and different hypotheses on the PSD...

  16. Science Driven arguments for a 10 sq.meter, 1 arcsecond X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Elvis, Martin; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1996-01-01

    X-ray astronomy needs to set bold, science driven goals for the next decade. Only with defined science goals can we know what to work on, and a funding agency appreciate the need for significant technology developments. To be a forefront science the scale of advance must be 2 decades of sensitivity per decade of time. To be stable to new discoveries these should be general, discovery space, goals. A detailed consideration of science goals leads us to propose that a mirror collecting area of 10 sq.meters with arcsecond resolution, good field of view (>10 arcmin), and with high spectral resolution spectroscopy (R=1000-10,000) defines the proper goal. This is about 100 times AXAF, or 30 times XMM. This workshop has shown that this goal is only a reasonable stretch from existing concepts, and may be insufficiently bold. An investment of roughly $10M/year for 5 years in X-ray optics technologies, comparable to NASA's investment in ASTRO-E or a SMEX, is needed, and would pay off hugely more than any small X-ray mis...

  17. THE SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE CLUSTER SURVEY. III. CLUSTER CATALOG FROM 2005-2012 ARCHIVAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei, Anhui (China); Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Moretti, Alberto [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Rosati, Piero [Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Via Saragat 1, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Giavalisco, Mauro, E-mail: liuteng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, LGRT-B 619E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ∼3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ∼400 deg{sup 2}. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.

  18. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  19. Design of hybrid sol gel films for direct x-ray and electron beam nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatin, Giovanna; Della Giustina, Gioia; Romanato, Filippo; Guglielmi, Massimo

    2008-04-01

    New epoxy based sol-gel organic inorganic materials, showing lithographic resist-like properties without the addition of any photocatalysts, are presented. To obtain a material sensitive to radiation, specific sol-gel syntheses based on an organically modified alkoxide containing an epoxy ring, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), have been developed. The synthesis and the patternability of hybrid materials have been obtained controlling the inorganic crosslinking degree and with an almost total absence of organic polymerization. Two examples of directly patternable hybrid films, called GB and GGe, have been synthesized using acidic (GGe) and basic (GB) conditions and obtaining different compositions. After electron beam lithography (EBL) or x-ray synchrotron radiation lithography (XRL) the polymerization of the organic component of the sol-gel film occurs, generating a hardening of the structure after post-exposure baking. The exposed polymerized material becomes insoluble, determining a negative resist-like behaviour of the film: the lithographic process of nanopatterning results from the dissolution of the unexposed areas in proper solvents (developers). Spatial resolution of the order of 200 nm is reported and a contrast of 2.2 is achieved. The novelty of this work is that epoxy based materials, which have enhanced thermomechanical stability with respect to the more usual acrylic based resins, are directly nanopatterned for the first time by electron beam (EB) and/or x-ray beam radiation exposure without the aid of catalysts for polymerization. In contrast to common resists that are sacrificial layers of the fabrication process, direct patternable sol-gel hybrids constitute the final material of the devices. In fact, an example of doping with a light emitting dye is reported together with the achievement of directly patterned structures by EBL and XRL.

  20. The process of data formation for the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) in Solar Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Sara; Piana, Michele; Massone, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is a hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy device to be mounted in the Solar Orbiter cluster with the aim of providing images and spectra of solar flaring regions at different photon energies in the range from a few keV to around 150 keV. The imaging modality of this telescope is based on the Moire pattern concept and utilizes 30 sub-collimators, each one containing a pair of co-axial grids. This paper applies Fourier analysis to provide the first rigorous description of the data formation process in STIX. Specifically, we show that, under first harmonic approximation, the integrated counts measured by STIX sub-collimators can be interpreted as specific spatial Fourier components of the incoming photon flux, named visibilities. Fourier analysis also allows the quantitative assessment of the reliability of such interpretation. The description of STIX data in terms of visibilities has a notable impact on the image reconstruction process, since it fosters the applic...

  1. Characterization of Si Hybrid CMOS Detectors for use in the Soft X-ray Band

    CERN Document Server

    Prieskorn, Zachary; Bongiorno, Stephen D; Falcone, Abraham D; Burrows, David N

    2013-01-01

    We report on the characterization of four Teledyne Imaging Systems HAWAII Hybrid Si CMOS detectors designed for X-ray detection. Three H1RG detectors were studied along with a specially configured H2RG. Read noise measurements were performed, with the lowest result being 7.1 e- RMS. Interpixel capacitive crosstalk (IPC) was measured for the three H1RGs and for the H2RG. The H1RGs had IPC upper limits of 4.0 - 5.5 % (up & down pixels) and 8.7 - 9.7 % (left & right pixels), indicating a clear asymmetry. Energy resolution is reported for two X-ray lines, 1.5 & 5.9 keV, at multiple temperatures between 150 - 210 K. The best resolution measured at 5.9 keV was 250 eV (4.2 %) at 150 K, with IPC contributing significantly to this measured energy distribution. The H2RG, with a unique configuration designed to decrease the capacitive coupling between ROIC pixels, had an IPC of 1.8 +/- 1.0 % indicating a dramatic improvement in IPC with no measurable asymmetry. We also measured dark current as a function of ...

  2. The speedster-EXD - A new event-triggered hybrid CMOS x-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Christopher V; Prieskorn, Zachary R; Burrows, David N

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary characterization of the Speedster-EXD, a new event driven hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) developed in collaboration with Penn State University and Teledyne Imaging Systems. HCDs have advantages over CCDs including lower susceptibility to radiation damage, lower power consumption, and faster read-out time to avoid pile-up. They are deeply depleted and able to detect x-rays down to approximately 0.1 keV. The Speedster-EXD has additional in-pixel features compared to previously published HCDs including: (1) an in-pixel comparator that enables read out of only the pixels with signal from an x-ray event, (2) four different gain modes to optimize either full well capacity or energy resolution, (3) in-pixel CDS subtraction to reduce read noise, and (4) a low-noise, high-gain CTIA amplifier to eliminate interpixel capacitance crosstalk. When using the comparator feature, the user can set a comparator threshold and only pixels above the threshold will be read out. This feature can be run in two mode...

  3. Multi-keV x-ray sources from HYBRID targets on GEKKO and OMEGA facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primout M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of efficient X-ray sources for radiography on the LMJ (Laser MégaJoule in the multi-kJ/ns range was demonstrated on the OMEGA laser facility (Univ. Rochester from 2002 to 2004 [1,2]. We significantly enhanced the conversion efficiency of titanium (4–6 keV, copper (8–10 keV and germanium (9–13 keV foils by using an optimized pre-pulse/pulse combination. Since higher X-ray energy and therefore electronic temperature need hydroconfinement, plastic cylindrical hohlraums internally coated with titanium, copper and germanium with various OMEGA beam configurations were successfully tested from 2005 to 2009 [3–5]. In addition, many shots with metal-doped aerogel (Ti, Fe, Ge were tested on OMEGA [6]. Recently we tested a new concept of “HYBRID sources” based on the combination of a thin titanium foil at the exit hole of a plastic cylinder filled with very low density SiO2 aerogel (2 and 5 mg/cc. The benefit of the underdense medium is, first, to transport the laser energy to the titanium foil after its conversion into a supersonic ionization front and, second, to prevent foil expansion and excessive kinetic energy losses by longitudinal hydroconfinement.

  4. Mass and energy of erupting solar plasma observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Reeves, Katharine K; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2014-01-01

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light CME features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the XRT temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ~3x10 13 - 5x10 14 g, are smaller in their upper limit than total masse...

  5. Miniaturized X-ray telescope for VZLUSAT-1 nanosatellite with Timepix detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, T.; Platkevic, M.; Jakubek, J.; Inneman, A.; Stehlikova, V.; Urban, M.; Nentvich, O.; Blazek, M.; McEntaffer, R.; Daniel, V.

    2016-10-01

    We present the application of a Timepix detector on the VZLUSAT-1 nanosatellite. Timepix is a compact pixel detector (256×256 square pixels, 55×55 μm each) sensitive to hard X-ray radiation. It is suitable for detecting extraterrestrial X-rays due to its low noise characteristics, which enables measuring without special cooling. This project aims to verify the practicality of the detector in conjunction with 1-D Lobster-Eye optics to observe celestial sources between 5 and 20 keV. A modified USB interface (developed by IEAP at CTU in Prague) is used for low-level control of the Timepix. An additional 8-bit Atmel microcontroller is dedicated for commanding the detector and to process the data onboard the satellite. We present software methods for onboard post-processing of captured images, which are suitable for implementation under the constraints of the low-powered embedded hardware. Several measuring modes are prepared for different scenarios including single picture exposure, solar UV-light triggered exposure, and long-term all-sky monitoring. The work has been done within Medipix2 collaboration. The satellite is planned for launch in April 2017 as a part of the QB50 project with an end of life expectancy in 2019.

  6. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; Bonis; Distefano, C.; Palma; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Bojaddaini; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Elewyck; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the NorthernHemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources.Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and arethus well-suited to detect neutrinos

  7. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert; André; Anton; Ardid; Aubert; Avgitas; Baret; Barrios-Martí; Basa; Bertin; Biagi; Bormuth; Bouwhuis; Bruijn; Brunner; Busto; Capone; Caramete; Carr; Celli; Chiarusi; Circella; Coleiro; Coniglione; Costantini; Coyle; Creusot; Deschamps; Bonis; Distefano; Palma; Donzaud; Dornic; Drouhin; Eberl; Bojaddaini; Elsässer; Enzenhöfer; Felis; Fusco; Galatà; Gay; Geißelsöder; Geyer; Giordano; Gleixner; Glotin; Gracia-Ruiz; Graf; Hallmann; van Haren, H.; Heijboer; Hello; Hernández-Rey; Hößl; Hofestädt; Hugon; Illuminati; James; de Jong; Jongen; Kadler; Kalekin; Katz; Kießling; Kouchner; Kreter; Kreykenbohm; Kulikovskiy; Lachaud; Lahmann; Lefèvre; Leonora; Loucatos; Marcelin; Margiotta; Marinelli; Martínez-Mora; Mathieu; Melis; Michael; Migliozzi; Moussa; Mueller; Nezri; Pavalas; Pellegrino; Perrina; Piattelli; Popa; Pradier; Racca; Riccobene; Roensch; Saldaña; Samtleben; Sánchez-Losa; Sanguineti; Sapienza; Schnabel; Schüssler; Seitz; Sieger; Spurio; Stolarczyk; Taiuti; Trovato; Tselengidou; Turpin; Tönnis; Vallage; Vallée; Elewyck; Vivolo; Wagner; Wilms; Zornoza; Zúñiga

    2017-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the NorthernHemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources.Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and arethus well-suited to detect neutrinos produce

  8. X-ray detection with a scintillating YAP-window hybrid photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    A YAP(YAlO/sub 3/:Ce)-scintillating window, coated on its inner surface with an S20-photocathode, seals a cross-focusing hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) equipped with a small p-i-n anode of 2-mm diameter. This new radiation detector separates X-ray lines down to about 2-keV peak energy from the HPMT noise. Its detection efficiency for high gamma energies depends on the YAP-window thickness and amounts to about 18% attenuation at 400-keV energy in the present version. Competitive radiation detectors like Si photodiodes and Si drift chambers are discussed and compared to our prototype, with particular attention given to their energy resolution and noise performance, which limits their active area considerably. (19 refs).

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Bright Galactic X-Ray Binaries in Crowded Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Margon, Bruce; Wachter, Stefanie; Anderson, Scott F.

    1996-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution HST imagery and photometry of three well-studied, intense Galactic X-ray binaries, X2129+470, CAL 87, and GX 17+2. All three sources exhibit important anomalies that are not readily interpreted by conventional models. Each source also lies in a severely crowded field, and in all cases the anomalies would be removed if much of the light observed from the ground in fact came from a nearby, thus far unresolved superposed companion. For V1727 Cyg (X2129+470), we find no such companion. We also present an HST FOS spectrum and broadband photometry which is consistent with a single, normal star. The supersoft LMC X-ray source CAL 87 was already known from ground-based work to have a companion separated by O.9 minutes from the optical counterpart; our HST images clearly resolve these objects and yield the discovery of an even closer, somewhat fainter additional companion. Our photometry indicates that contamination is not severe outside eclipse, where the companions only contribute 20% of the light in V, but during eclipse more than half of the V light comes from the companions. The previously determined spectral type of the CAL 87 secondary may need to be reevaluated due to this significant contamination, with consequences on inferences of the mass of the components. We find no companions to NP Ser (= X1813-14, = GX 17+2). However, for this object we point out a small but possibly significant astrometric discrepancy between the position of the optical object and that of the radio source which is the basis for the identification. This discrepancy needs to be clarified.

  10. 1SXPS: A Deep Swift X-Ray Telescope Point Source Catalog with Light Curves and Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Mountford, C. J.; Pagani, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Perri, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1SXPS (Swift-XRT point source) catalog of 151,524 X-ray point sources detected by the Swift-XRT in 8 yr of operation. The catalog covers 1905 sq deg distributed approximately uniformly on the sky. We analyze the data in two ways. First we consider all observations individually, for which we have a typical sensitivity of approximately 3 × 10(exp -13) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Then we co-add all data covering the same location on the sky: these images have a typical sensitivity of approximately 9 × 10(exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Our sky coverage is nearly 2.5 times that of 3XMM-DR4, although the catalog is a factor of approximately 1.5 less sensitive. The median position error is 5.5 (90% confidence), including systematics. Our source detection method improves on that used in previous X-ray Telescope (XRT) catalogs and we report greater than 68,000 new X-ray sources. The goals and observing strategy of the Swift satellite allow us to probe source variability on multiple timescales, and we find approximately 30,000 variable objects in our catalog. For every source we give positions, fluxes, time series (in four energy bands and two hardness ratios), estimates of the spectral properties, spectra and spectral fits for the brightest sources, and variability probabilities in multiple energy bands and timescales.

  11. Hybrid echo and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures by using a robotic arm: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yingliang; Penney, Graeme P; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Bos, Dennis; Frissen, Peter [Philips Applied Technologies, High Tech. Campus 7, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rinaldi, C Aldo, E-mail: y.ma@kcl.ac.u [Department of Cardiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    We present a feasibility study on hybrid echocardiography (echo) and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures. A self-tracked, remotely operated robotic arm with haptic feedback was developed that attached to a standard x-ray table. This was used to safely manipulate a three-dimensional (3D) trans-thoracic echo probe during simultaneous x-ray fluoroscopy and echo acquisitions. By a combination of calibration and tracking of the echo and x-ray systems, it was possible to register the 3D echo images with the 2D x-ray images. Visualization of the combined data was achieved by either overlaying triangulated surfaces extracted from segmented echo data onto the x-ray images or by overlaying volume rendered 3D echo data. Furthermore, in order to overcome the limited field of view of the echo probe, it was possible to create extended field of view (EFOV) 3D echo images by co-registering multiple tracked echo data to generate larger roadmaps for procedure guidance. The registration method was validated using a cross-wire phantom and showed a 2D target registration error of 3.5 mm. The clinical feasibility of the method was demonstrated during two clinical cases for patients undergoing cardiac pacing studies. The EFOV technique was demonstrated using two healthy volunteers. (note)

  12. High-resolution imaging X-ray detector. [using microchannel plates and electronic readout for spaceborne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E.; Henry, P.; Murray, S.; Van Speybroeck, L.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an X-ray detector using microchannel plates as a photocathode surface and imaging photoelectron multiplier, and a crossed wire grid as a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. The position resolution is 10 microns. The crossed wire grid consists of 100-micron-diam wires on 200-micron centers. Position sensing is accomplished by electronic interpolation to 1/20 of the wire spacing. The quantum efficiency of the microchannel plates varies from 29% at 0.28 keV to 5% at 3 keV. This detector will provide second-of-arc X-ray imaging in the focal plane of the 342.9-cm focal length grazing-incidence telescope being prepared for the HEAO-B observatory. By addition of suitable photocathodes, it can be used for single-photon imaging light detection in the UV, visible, and near-IR-ranges. In all cases, it gives a very low dark counting rate, allows timing of individual events to 1 microsec or less, and can handle counting rates up to 10,000 per sec.

  13. Cold and Hot Slumped Glass Optics with interfacing ribs for high angular resolution x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Basso, S.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Vecchi, G.; Banham, R.; Breuning, E.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G.; Menz, B.

    2016-07-01

    The Slumped Glass Optics technology, developed at INAF/OAB since a few years, is becoming a competitive solution for the realization of the future X-ray telescopes with a very large collecting area, e.g. the approved Athena, with more than 2 m2 effective area at 1 keV and with a high angular resolution (5'' HEW). The developed technique is based on modular elements, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs), made of several layers of thin foils of glass, previously formed by direct hot slumping in cylindrical configuration and then stacked in a Wolter-I configuration, through interfacing ribs. The latest advancements in the production of thin glass substrates may allow a great simplification of this process, avoiding the preforming step via hot slumping. In fact, the strength and the flexibility of glass foils with thickness lower than 0.1 mm allow their bending up to very small radius of curvature without breaking. In this paper we provide an update of the project development, reporting on the last results achieved. In particular, we present the results obtained on several prototypes that have been assembled with different integration approaches.

  14. Quasi-periodic outflows observed by the X-Ray Telescope onboard Hinode in the boundary of an active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Jia; Tian, Hui; He, Jian-Sen

    2010-12-01

    Persistent outflows have recently been detected at the boundaries of some active regions. Although these outflows are suggested to be possible sources of the slow solar wind, the nature of these outflows is poorly understood. Through an analysis of an image sequence obtained by the X-Ray Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft, we found that quasi-periodic outflows are present in the boundary of an active region. The flows are observed to occur intermittently, often with a period of 5-10 min. The projected flow speed can reach more than 200 km s-1, while its distribution peaks around 50 km s-1. This sporadic high-speed outflow may play an important role in the mass loading process of the slow solar wind. Our results may imply that the outflow of the slow solar wind in the boundary of the active region is intermittent and quasi-periodic in nature.

  15. Structure of biomembrane-on-silicon hybrids derived from X-ray reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, M. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: birkholz@ihp-microelectronics.com; Zaumseil, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Germany); Kittler, M. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Germany); Wallat, I. [Fachbereich Physik, FU Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heyn, M.P. [Fachbereich Physik, FU Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The organic-inorganic interface and its proper structural adjustment are of central importance for the fabrication of hybrid material systems from biomolecules and semiconductors. Such material hybrids are currently under development for several advanced applications, in particular for biomolecular sensing. An investigation of biomolecular immobilization on semiconductor surfaces by X-ray reflectometry (XRR) will be presented. Complete biomembrane patches of purple membrane (PM) from Halobacterium salinarum were immobilized on oxidized and nitrided silicon wafers. A covalent immobilization protocol based on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and glutaric dialdehyde (GD) was applied for cross-linking the biomolecules to the semiconductor surface. XRR could be shown to yield the relevant morphological parameters of biomolecular monolayers such as layer thickness, interface roughness and coverage. Synchrotron radiation was not required, but a laboratory rotating anode set-up was sufficient to study the prepared stacking of organic monolayers. According to the measurement and analysis of XRR patterns both cross-linking layers APTS and GD are required for bonding purple membrane patches to SiO{sub 2}/Si, whereas GD alone suffices for cross-linking to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si. This distinct behavior offers a pathway for nanopatterning of biomolecules on Si surfaces by selective passivation.

  16. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  17. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multi...

  18. Hubble Space Telescope far-ultraviolet imaging of the jet in 3C273: a common emission component from optical to X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Jester, Sebastian; Martel, Andre'; Perlman, Eric; Sparks, Bill

    2007-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet (UV) observations at 150 nm of the jet of the quasar 3C 273 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Survey's Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. While the jet morphology is very similar to that in the optical and near-ultraviolet, the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the jet's sub-regions show an upturn in nu f_nu at 150 nm compared to 300 nm everywhere in the jet. Moreover, the 150 nm flux is compatible with extrapolating the X-ray power-law down to the ultra-violet region. This constitutes strong support for a common origin of the jet's far-UV and X-ray emission. It implies that even a substantial fraction of the *visible light* in the X-ray brightest parts of the jet arises from the same spectral component as the X-rays, as had been suggested earlier based on Spitzer Space Telescope observations. We argue that the identification of this UV/X-ray component opens up the possibility to establish the synchrotron origin of the X-ray emission by opti...

  19. Development of high angular resolution x-ray telescopes based on slumped glass foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Borsa, F.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Zambra, A.; Parodi, G.; Martelli, F.; Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) were based on a large number of high quality segments, aiming at achieving a global spatial resolution better than 5” HEW while giving a large collecting area (around 3m2@ 1 keV). A study concerning the hot slumping of thin glass foils was started in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB), for the development of a replication technology based on glass material. The study is currently continuing even after the IXO program has been descoped and renamed ATHENA, in the perspective of using the technology under development for other future missions or applications. INAF-OAB efforts have been focused on the "Direct" slumping approach with convex moulds, meaning that during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface. The single mirror segments are made of thin glass plates (0.4 mm thick), with a reflecting area of 200 mm × 200 mm. The adopted integration process foresees the use of glass reinforcing ribs for bonding together the plates in such a way to form a rigid and stiff stack of segmented mirror shells; the stack is supported by a thick backplane. During the bonding process, the plates are constrained in close contact with the surface of a precisely figured integration master by the application of vacuum pump suction. In this way, the springback deformations and the low frequency errors still present in the plates' profile after slumping can be corrected. The status of the technology development is presented in this paper, together with the description and metrology of the prototypes already realized or under construction at the Observatory laboratories.

  20. Liquid metal actuators: correctable mounting and assembly of thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Klingensmith, Martin; Chalifoux, Brandon; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    An ideal bonding agent for thin-shell x-ray mirrors could be quickly applied to joints and set with deterministic and stable properties. Unfortunately, mirror assembly methods have typically utilized various epoxy formulations which are messy, slow to apply and cure, and far from deterministic or stable. Problems include shrinkage, creep and high thermal and humidity sensitivity. Once the bond is set errors are frozen in and cannot be corrected. We are developing a new method for bonding thin-foil mirrors that has the potential to solve these problems. Our process to bond mirrors to housing reference points is achieved via small beads of a low-melting-point bonding agent (such as solder or thermoset). The mirror is bonded to small contact surface points under real-time metrology. If the position of the mirror needs to be adjusted after bonding, a small force is applied normal or parallel to the contact surface and a pulsed fiber laser is used to melt an ultrathin layer of the solder for a very short time. The joint is then compressed, stretched or sheared while molten before refreezing in a new position, enabling repeatable and stable mirror position adjustments along the direction of the force in nm-level steps with minimal heat input. We present results from our prototype apparatus demonstrating proof of principle. The initial experiment includes developing a technique to bond D263 glass to Kovar, designing and building a one-dimensional stage to precisely apply force, and using an infrared laser pulse to heat the joint while measuring position and force.

  1. A camera for imaging hard x-rays from suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Goeler, S.; Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Fishman, H.; Gettelfinger, G.; Ignat, D.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Stodiek, W. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Jones, S.; Paoletti, F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center); Petravich, G. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics); Rimini,

    1993-05-01

    During lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), suprathermal electrons are generated that emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung. A pinhole camera has been installed on the PBX-M tokamak that records 128 [times] 128 pixel images of the bremsstrahlung with a 3 ms time resolution. This camera has identified hollow radiation profiles on PBX-M, indicating off-axis current drive. The detector is a 9in. dia. intensifier. A detailed account of the construction of the Hard X-ray Camera, its operation, and its performance is given.

  2. X-Ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band soft X-ray polarimeters based on Bragg reflection. Developments in scintillator and solid-state hard X-ray detectors facilitate construction of both modular, large area Compton scattering polarimeters and compact devices suitable for use with focusing X-ray telescopes.

  3. The x-ray telescope eROSITA: qualification of the thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter

    2014-07-01

    eROSITA is the core instrument on the Spektrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission, scheduled for launch in 2016. The main tasks of the thermal control system are heating of the mirror modules, cooling of the camera electronics, cooling of the CCD detectors and temperature control of the telescope structure in general. Special attention is paid to the camera cooling, since it is the most critical one. The complex assembly with the sevenfold symmetry of the eROSITA telescope requires an innovative design. Large distances and a very low operating temperature (-90°C to -100°C) place high demands on the cooling chain. In total, three different types of low-temperature ethane heat pipes are used to transport the heat from the cameras to two radiators outside the telescope structure. Extreme environmental temperature gradients with the Sun on the one side and the cold space on the other present a real challenge not only to the camera cooling systems, but to the overall thermal control. A thermal model of the complete telescope was used to predict the thermal behavior of the telescope and its subsystems. Through various tests, this model could be improved step by step. The most complex test was the space simulation test of the eROSITA qualification model in January 2013 at the IABG facilities in Ottobrunn, Germany. About 50 heaters, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled chamber and a Sun simulator provided realistic mission conditions. Approximately 200 temperature sensors monitored the relevant temperatures during the test. The results were predominantly within the predicted intervals and therefore not only verified the complete concept but also enabled a further refining of the thermal model. This, in turn, allows for reliable predictions of the thermal behavior during the mission. Some deviations required minor changes in the final design which were implemented and re-qualified in a separate test of the thermal control system flight model in March 2014 in the PANTER test facility of MPE

  4. In situ micro-focused X-ray beam characterization with a lensless camera using a hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachatkou, Anton, E-mail: anton.kachatkou@manchester.ac.uk [The University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Marchal, Julien [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Silfhout, Roelof van, E-mail: anton.kachatkou@manchester.ac.uk [The University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-04

    Position and size measurements of a micro-focused X-ray beam, using an X-ray beam imaging device based on a lensless camera that collects radiation scattered from a thin foil placed in the path of the beam at an oblique angle, are reported. Results of studies on micro-focused X-ray beam diagnostics using an X-ray beam imaging (XBI) instrument based on the idea of recording radiation scattered from a thin foil of a low-Z material with a lensless camera are reported. The XBI instrument captures magnified images of the scattering region within the foil as illuminated by the incident beam. These images contain information about beam size, beam position and beam intensity that is extracted during dedicated signal processing steps. In this work the use of the device with beams for which the beam size is significantly smaller than that of a single detector pixel is explored. The performance of the XBI device equipped with a state-of-the-art hybrid pixel X-ray imaging sensor is analysed. Compared with traditional methods such as slit edge or wire scanners, the XBI micro-focused beam characterization is significantly faster and does not interfere with on-going experiments. The challenges associated with measuring micrometre-sized beams are described and ways of optimizing the resolution of beam position and size measurements of the XBI instrument are discussed.

  5. ProtoEXIST: The Development of Advanced Tiled CZT Detector Planes for Wide Field Hard X-Ray Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-05-01

    ProtoEXIST is a technology development program for a coded aperture hard X-ray telescope with a large area (1-5 m^2) CZT detector plane for use in a future hard X-ray wide field sky monitor and survey telescope. The successful flight of the ProtoEXIST1 (P1) coded-aperture telescope concluded the first phase of the program on October 9, 2009. The black hole binary Cyg X-1 was imaged and its spectrum measured at the end of the (6h) flight. The P1 detector plane is comprised of a 8x8 array of detector crystal units (DCUs); each made up of a single 20 mm x 20 mm, 5 mm thick Redlen CZT crystal with a 8x8 pixilated anode (pixel pitch of 2.5 mm) bonded to an interposer board connecting each of the individual 64 anode pixels to a single input channel on a RadNET ASIC, forming a 256 cm^2 contiguous CZT imaging array with 4096 individual pixels. P1 was successfully recovered and has undergone further characterization in the interim. The program continues with the ongoing development ProtoEXIST2 (P2) utilizing a closely tiled 8x8 array of DCUs now with a reduced anode pixel pitch of 0.6 mm. Each DCU in P2 will consist of a CZT crystal, identical to that utilized in P1 now with a 32x32 pixelated anode, directly bonded to a single NuSTAR ASIC (Nu-ASIC). The fully assembled P2 imaging detector will be comprised of a semi-contiguous 256x256 array of pixels on 256 cm^2 of CZT. With its finer pixelation the P2 detector plane will enable 5' (FWHM) imaging with a 70 cm focal length and will be flown side-by-side with P1 from Ft. Sumner in the Spring of 2012. Results from the characterization of the P1 detector are discussed as well as current progress in the development of the P2 detector plane.

  6. Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Studies of Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael; Whitfield, Pamela; Jalarvo, Niina; Ehlers, Georg; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Herron, Norman; Johnson, Lynda; Guise, William; Milas, Ivan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal; Page, Katharine; Wang, Xiaoping; Ye, Feng

    Hybrid perovskites (ABX3) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as light absorbers for photovoltaics. In these materials the A site is occupied by organic cations, for example methyl ammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) cations, the B site is occupied by metals, for example Pb or Sn, and the X anions are halogens (I, Br, or Cl). Typical of perovskites, these materials exhibit a series of structural phase transitions involving rotations or tilts of the BX6 octahedra, but with the added complexity that the inorganic framework is coupled to order-disorder transitions of the organic cations. We have used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structures and dynamics of several of these compounds as a function of temperature. In addition, high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to investigate the structural phase transitions. These studies yield a detailed picture of the structures, dynamics, and structural phase transitions of these compounds, and provide a firm basis for understanding their excellent photovoltaic properties.

  7. The Speedster-EXD- A New Event-Driven Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Burrows, David N.

    2016-01-01

    The Speedster-EXD is a new 64×64 pixel, 40-μm pixel pitch, 100-μm depletion depth hybrid CMOS x-ray detector with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain capacitive transimpedance amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel correlated double sampling subtraction to reduce reset noise. We measure the best energy resolution on the Speedster-EXD detector to be 206 eV (3.5%) at 5.89 keV and 172 eV (10.0%) at 1.49 keV. The average IPC to the four adjacent pixels is measured to be 0.25%±0.2% (i.e., consistent with zero). The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is measured to be 0.80%±0.03%, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to better characterize the contributions to the energy resolution.

  8. The Speedster-EXD- A New Event-Driven Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Christopher V; Prieskorn, Zachary R; Burrows, David N

    2016-01-01

    The Speedster-EXD is a new 64x64 pixel, 40 $\\mu$m pixel pitch, 100 $\\mu$m depletion depth hybrid CMOS X-ray detector (HCD) with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain CTIA amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) subtraction to reduce reset noise. We measure the best energy resolution on the Speedster-EXD detector to be 206 eV (3.5 %) at 5.89 keV and 172 eV (10.0 %) at 1.49 keV. The average IPC to the four adjacent pixels is measured to be 0.25 $\\pm$ 0.2 % (i.e. consistent with zero). The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is measured to be 0.80 $\\pm$ 0.03 %, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to better chara...

  9. Thin monolithic glass shells for future high angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M. M.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most difficult requests to be accomplished from the technological point of view for next generation x-ray telescopes is to combine high angular resolution and effective area. A significant increase of effective area can be reached with high precision but at the same time thin (2-3 mm thickness for mirror diameters of 30-110 cm) glass mirror shells. In the last few years the Brera Observatory has lead a development program for realizing this kind of monolithic thin glass shell. The fused silica has been chosen as shell substrate due to its thermal and mechanical properties. To bring the mirror shells to the needed accuracy, we have adopted a deterministic direct polishing method (already used for past missions as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra) to ten time thinner shells. The technological challenge has been solved using a temporary stiffening structure that allows the handling and the machining of so thin glass shells. The results obtained with a prototype shell at an intermediate stage of its development (17'' HEW measured in full illumination mode with x-ray) indicate that the working concept is feasible and can be further exploited using the very large Ion Beam Facility available in our labs for the final high accuracy figuring of the thin shells. In this paper we present the required tolerances for the shell realization, the shells production chain flow and the ion beam facility up grading. Forecast on figuring time and expected performances of the figuring will also be given on the basis on the metrological data collected during past shell development.

  10. Progress report on air bearing slumping of thin glass mirrors for x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark L.; Chalifoux, Brandon; DeTienne, Michael D.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Zuo, Heng

    2015-09-01

    The successful NuSTAR telescope was fabricated with thin glass mirrors formed into conic shapes by thermal slumping of thin glass sheets onto high precision mandrels. While mirrors generated by this process have very good figure, the best mirrors to date have a resolution limited to ~7 arc sec, due primarily to mid-range scale spatial frequency errors. These mid-range errors are believed to be due to clumping and particulates in the anti-stick coatings used to prevent sticking between mandrel and mirrors. We have developed a new slumping process which avoids sticking and surface-induced mid-range error by floating hot glass substrates between a pair of porous air bearing mandrels through which compressed nitrogen is forced. We report on the design and testing of an improved air bearing slumping tool and show results of short and long slumping cycles.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Mirrors During Optical Testing in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tim; Sutherlin, Steven

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents Thermal Analysis of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Mirrors During Optical Testing in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The contents include: 1) NGST Spacecraft Concept; 2) NGST Mirror Development Testing; 3) NGST Development Mirror; 4) Knudsen Number; 5) Free-Molecular Conduction; 6) Accomodation Coefficient; and 7) Results and Recommendations. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Very large telescope/X-shooter spectroscopy of the candidate black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, R.; Kaper, L.; Ellerbroek, L.E.; Russell, D.M.; Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.J.; D'Avanzo, P.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Flores, H.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Goldoni, P.; Thöne, C.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; van der Klis, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Kuulkers, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the optical to near-infrared spectrum of MAXI J1659-152 during the onset of its 2010 X-ray outburst. The spectrum was obtained with X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope early in the outburst simultaneous with high-quality observations at both shorter and longer wavelengths. At the

  13. Thermal Analysis of Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Mirrors During Optical Testing in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tim; Sutherlin, Steven

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents Thermal Analysis of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Mirrors During Optical Testing in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The contents include: 1) NGST Spacecraft Concept; 2) NGST Mirror Development Testing; 3) NGST Development Mirror; 4) Knudsen Number; 5) Free-Molecular Conduction; 6) Accomodation Coefficient; and 7) Results and Recommendations. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchut, C.; Visschers, J. L.; Fornaini, A.; Graafsma, H.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Calvet, D.

    2002-05-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64×64 independent photon-counting cells of 170×170 μm 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7×10 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individual pixels. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors and particularly of the Medipix-1 chip for a wide range of X-ray imaging applications, including those using synchrotron X-ray beams.

  15. hybridMANTIS: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-21

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code MANTIS, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fastDETECT2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the MANTIS code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify PENELOPE (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in MANTIS) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fastDETECT2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybridMANTIS approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to MANTIS and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybridMANTIS, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical tox-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than MANTIS and, asa result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  16. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-Ray Balloon-Borne Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Apple, Jeff; StevensonChavis, Katherine; Dietz, Kurt; Holt, Marlon; Koehler, Heather; Lis, Tomasz; O'Connor, Brian; RodriquezOtero, Miguel; Pryor, Jonathan; Ramsey, Brian; Rinehart-Dawson, Maegan; Smith, Leigh; Sobey, Alexander; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Rodriquez, Marcello; Shih, Albert; Gregory, Don; Jasper, John; Bohon, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist

  17. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  18. Compton polarimeter as a focal plane detector for hard X-ray telescope: sensitivity estimation with Geant4 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Pendharkar, J.

    2013-04-01

    X-ray polarimetry can be an important tool for investigating various physical processes as well as their geometries at the celestial X-ray sources. However, X-ray polarimetry has not progressed much compared to the spectroscopy, timing and imaging mainly due to the extremely photon-hungry nature of X-ray polarimetry leading to severely limited sensitivity of X-ray polarimeters. The great improvement in sensitivity in spectroscopy and imaging was possible due to focusing X-ray optics which is effective only at the soft X-ray energy range. Similar improvement in sensitivity of polarisation measurement at soft X-ray range is expected in near future with the advent of GEM based photoelectric polarimeters. However, at energies >10 keV, even spectroscopic and imaging sensitivities of X-ray detector are limited due to lack of focusing optics. Thus hard X-ray polarimetry so far has been largely unexplored area. On the other hand, typically the polarisation degree is expected to increase at higher energies as the radiation from non-thermal processes is dominant fraction. So polarisation measurement in hard X-ray can yield significant insights into such processes. With the recent availability of hard X-ray optics (e.g. with upcoming NuSTAR, Astro-H missions) which can focus X-rays from 5 KeV to 80 KeV, sensitivity of X-ray detectors in hard X-ray range is expected to improve significantly. In this context we explore feasibility of a focal plane hard X-ray polarimeter based on Compton scattering having a thin plastic scatterer surrounded by cylindrical array scintillator detectors. We have carried out detailed Geant4 simulation to estimate the modulation factor for 100 % polarized beam as well as polarimetric efficiency of this configuration. We have also validated these results with a semi-analytical approach. Here we present the initial results of polarisation sensitivities of such focal plane Compton polarimeter coupled with the reflection efficiency of present era hard X-ray

  19. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  20. Wolter-I-like X-ray telescope structure using one conical mirror and one quadric mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hao; Wang, Zhan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Nested multilayer mirrors are commonly used in X-ray telescope structures to increase the collecting area. To balance the difficulty and cost of producing these mirrors, the classical Wolter-I structure has previously been replaced with a conical Wolter-I structure, but it can lead to significantly poorer angular resolution. In this paper, we consider changing one of the mirror shapes (paraboloid or hyperboloid) of the Wolter-I structure to a conical mirror shape, while the other mirror shape remains a quadric surface-type structure, which could thus ensure the imaging quality. Based on a theoretical analysis and the results of simulations, the cone-hyperboloid and paraboloid-cone structures are found to provide the best angular resolutions, and the cone-hyperboloid structure is shorter than the paraboloid-cone structure at the focal length. The cone-hyperboloid structure is then nested to obtain the best on-axis angular resolution and off-axis images.

  1. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  2. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Sen [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-11

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  3. BEaTriX, expanded X-ray beam facility for testing modular elements of telescope optics: an update

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliciari, Carlo; Bonnini, Elisa; Buffagni, Elisa; Ferrari, Claudio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    We present in this paper an update on the design of BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility), an X-ray apparatus to be realized at INAF/OAB and that will generate an expanded, uniform and parallel beam of soft X-rays. BEaTriX will be used to perform the functional tests of X-ray focusing modules of large X-ray optics such as those for the ATHENA X-ray observatory, using the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) as a baseline technology, and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) as a possible alternative. Performing the tests in X-rays provides the advantage of an in-situ, at-wavelength quality control of the optical modules produced in series by the industry, performing a selection of the modules with the best angular resolution, and, in the case of SPOs, there is also the interesting possibility to align the parabolic and the hyperbolic stacks directly under X-rays, to minimize the aberrations. However, a parallel beam with divergence below 2 arcsec is necessary in order to measure mirror elements that are expected to reach ...

  4. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  5. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  6. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  7. Swift X-ray Telescope study of the Black Hole Binary MAXI J1659-152: Variability from a two component accretion flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamkar, M; Heil, L; Homan, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an energy dependent X-ray variability study of the 2010 outburst of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The broad-band noise components and the quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the power spectra show a strong and varied energy dependence. Combining Swift XRT data with data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we report, for the first time, an rms spectrum (fractional rms amplitude as a function of energy) of these components in the 0.5-30 keV energy range. We find that the strength of the low-frequency component ( 0.1 Hz) whose strengths increase with energy. In the context of the propagating fluctuations model for X-ray variability, we suggest that the low-frequency component originates in the accretion disk (which dominates emission below ~ 2 keV) and the higher frequency components are formed in the hot flow (which dominates emission above ~ 2 keV). As the properties of the QPO suggest that it may have a different driving mechanism, we i...

  8. Beyond Chandra (towards the X-ray Surveyor mission): possible solutions for the implementation of very high angular resolution X-ray telescopes in the new millennium based on fused silica segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M. M.; Ghigo, M.; Parodi, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Vecchi, G.

    2016-07-01

    An important challenge for the X-ray astronomy of the new millennium is represented by the implementation of an Xray telescope able to maintain the exquisite angular resolution of Chandra (with a sub-arcsec HEW, on-axis) but, at the same time, being characterized by a much larger throughput and grasp. A mission with similar characteristics is represented by the X-ray Surveyor Mission. The project has been recently proposed in USA and is being currently studied by NASA. It will host an X-ray telescope with an effective area of more than 2 square meters at 1 keV (i.e. 30 times greater than Chandra) and a 15-arcminutes field-of-view, with 1-arcsecond or better half-power diameter (versus the 4 arcmin diameter of Chandra). While the scientific reasons for implementing a similar mission are clear, being related to compelling problems like e.g. the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift or the identification of the first galaxy groups and proto-clusters, the realization of a grazing-angle optics system able to fulfil these specs remain highly challenging. Different technologies are being envisaged, like e.g. the use of adjustable segmented mirrors (with use of piezoelectric or magneto-restrictive film actuators on the back surface) or the direct polishing of a variety of thin substrates or the use of innovative correction methods like e.g. differential deposition, ionfiguring or the correction of the profile via controlled stress films. In this paper we present a possible approach based on the direct polishing (with final ion figuring correction of the profile) of thin SiO2 segmented substrates (typically 2 mm thick), discussing different aspects of the technology under implementation and presenting some preliminary results.

  9. Grating-based interferometry and hybrid photon counting detectors: Towards a new era in X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkoumas, Spyridon, E-mail: spyridon.gkoumas@psi.ch [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Wang, Zhentian; Abis, Matteo; Arboleda, Carolina [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering,University and ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Tudosie, George; Donath, Tilman; Brönnimann, Christian; Schulze-Briese, Clemens [Dectris Ltd., Neuenhoferstrasse 107, Baden 5400 (Switzerland); Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering,University and ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-11

    Progress in X-ray medical imaging and advances in detector developments have always been closely related. Similarly, a strong connection exists between innovations in synchrotron imaging and their implementation on table-top X-ray tube setups. The transfer of phase-based imaging to X-ray tubes can provide table-top setups with improved contrast between areas of low attenuation differences, by exploiting the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index. Medical imaging is a potential application for such a system. Originally developed for synchrotron experiments, the novel generation of hybrid photon counting detectors is becoming increasingly popular due to their unique characteristics, such as small pixel size, negligible dark noise, fast counting and adjustable energy thresholds. Furthermore, novel room temperature semiconductor materials such as Cd(Zn)Te can provide higher quantum efficiency. In the first part of this article we review phase-contrast techniques and recent research towards medical applications. In the second part we present results and evaluate the potential of combining a table-top Talbot grating interferometry system with latest generation hybrid photon counting detectors.

  10. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Decker, T A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Garcia, J A; Giomataris, I; Gracia, J G; Hailey, C J; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Luzon, G; Mirallas, H; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas (micromesh gaseous structure) detector of the microbulk technique. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a $\\sim$~5 cm diameter, 1.3 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) comprised of thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for s...

  11. Iodinated silica/porphyrin hybrid nanoparticles for X-ray computed tomography/fluorescence dual-modal imaging of tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Hayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles containing covalently linked iodine and a near-infrared (NIR fluorescence dye, namely porphyrin, have been synthesized through a one-pot sol–gel reaction. These particles are called iodinated silica/porphyrin hybrid nanoparticles (ISP HNPs. The ISP HNPs have both high X-ray absorption coefficient and NIR fluorescence. The ISP HNPs modified with folic acid (FA and polyethylene glycol (PEG, denoted as FA-PEG-ISP HNPs, enabled the successful visualization of tumors in mice by both X-ray computed tomography (CT and fluorescence imaging (FI. Thus, the FA-PEG-ISP HNPs are useful as contrast agents or probes for CT/FI dual-modal imaging.

  12. The simulation of hard x-ray images obtained during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeler, S. von; Fishman, H.; Ignat, D. [and others

    1994-10-01

    During lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M suprathermal electrons in the 30 to 150 keV range are generated. These electrons emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung in collisions with plasma ions; the radiation creates images in a hard X-ray pinhole camera. In order to interpret the hard X-ray images, a computer simulation code has been written, the PBXRAY code. It represents an extension of the STEVENS code that calculates the free-free and free-bound radiation for non-Maxwellian relativistic electron tail distributions. The PBXRAY code provides the chord integration in the bean-shaped plasma geometry on PBX-M and integrates over photon energy. The simulations show that the location of the suprathermal electrons can be determined with an accuracy of approximately two centimeters in the plasma. In particular, the authors analyzed discharges whose characteristic ``hollow`` images indicate off-axis LH current drive. A comparison of images taken with different absorber foils reveals that the suprathermal electrons have less than 150 keV parallel energy for the hollow discharges.

  13. Status Of The Development Of A Thin Foil High Throughput X-Ray Telescope For The Soviet Spectrum X-Gamma Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WESTERGAARD, NJ; BYRNAK, BP; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    1989-01-01

    The first satellite in a planned series of Soviet X- and gamma ray satellites will be equipped with two high throughput telescopes to be delivered by the Danish Space Research Institute. The thin foil tech-nology was originally developed by P. Serlemitsos at Goddard Space Flight Center, U.S.A. Our...... modification of this design is optimized with respect to high energy throughput of the telescope. The mechanical design and the status of the surface preparation technologies are described. Various X-ray and optical test facilities for the measurement of surface roughness, "orange peel", and figure errors...

  14. X-ray imaging with scintillator-sensitized hybrid organic photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchele, Patric; Richter, Moses; Tedde, Sandro F.; Matt, Gebhard J.; Ankah, Genesis N.; Fischer, Rene; Biele, Markus; Metzger, Wilhelm; Lilliu, Samuele; Bikondoa, Oier; MacDonald, J. Emyr; Brabec, Christoph J.; Kraus, Tobias; Lemmer, Uli; Schmidt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Medical X-ray imaging requires cost-effective and high-resolution flat-panel detectors for the energy range between 20 and 120 keV. Solution-processed photodetectors provide the opportunity to fabricate detectors with a large active area at low cost. Here, we present a disruptive approach that improves the resolution of such detectors by incorporating terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator particles into an organic photodetector matrix. The X-ray induced light emission from the scintillators is absorbed within hundreds of nanometres, which is negligible compared with the pixel size. Hence, optical crosstalk, a limiting factor in the resolution of scintillator-based X-ray detectors, is minimized. The concept is validated with a 256 × 256 pixel detector with a resolution of 4.75 lp mm-1 at a MTF = 0.2, significantly better than previous stacked scintillator-based flat-panel detectors. We achieved a resolution that proves the feasibility of solution-based detectors in medical applications. Time-resolved electrical characterization showed enhanced charge carrier mobility with increased scintillator filling, which is explained by morphological changes.

  15. Dual-energy X-ray micro-CT imaging of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, T.; Kumpová, I.; Koudelka, P.; Zlámal, P.; Vavřík, D.; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we employ dual-energy X-ray microfocus tomography (DECT) measurement to develop high-resolution finite element (FE) models that can be used for the numerical assessment of the deformation behaviour of hybrid Ni/Al foam subjected to both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading. Cubic samples of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam with an edge length of [15]mm were investigated by the DECT measurement. The material was prepared using AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foam with a mean pore size of [0.85]mm, coated with nanocrystalline nickel (crystallite size of approx. [50]nm) to form a surface layer with a theoretical thickness of [0.075]mm. CT imaging was carried out using state-of-the-art DSCT/DECT X-ray scanner developed at Centre of Excellence Telč. The device consists of a modular orthogonal assembly of two tube-detector imaging pairs, with an independent geometry setting and shared rotational stage mounted on a complex 16-axis CNC positioning system to enable unprecedented measurement variability for highly-detailed tomographical measurements. A sample of the metal foam was simultaneously irradiated using an XWT-240-SE reflection type X-ray tube and an XWT-160-TCHR transmission type X-ray tube. An enhanced dual-source sampling strategy was used for data acquisition. X-ray images were taken using XRD1622 large area GOS scintillator flat panel detectors with an active area of [410 × 410]mm and resolution [2048 × 2048]pixels. Tomographic scanning was performed in 1,200 projections with a 0.3 degree angular step to improve the accuracy of the generated models due to the very complex microstructure and high attenuation of the investigated material. Reconstructed data was processed using a dual-energy algorithm, and was used for the development of a 3D model and voxel model of the foam. The selected parameters of the models were compared with nominal parameters of the actual foam and showed good correlation.

  16. HERO: Program Status and Fist Images from a Balloon-Borne Focusing Hard-X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Alexander, C. D.; Apple, J. A.; Benson, C. M.; Dietz, K. L.; Elsner, R. F.; Engelhaupt. D. E.; Ghosh, K. K.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; ODell, S. L.; hide

    2001-01-01

    HERO is a balloon payload featuring shallow-graze angle replicated optics for hard-x-ray imaging. When completed, the instrument will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, giving thousands of sources to choose from for detailed study on long flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight captured the first hard-x-ray focused images of the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105. Full details of the HERO program are presented, including the design and performance of the optics, the detectors and the gondola. Results from the recent proving flight are discussed together with expected future performance when the full science payload is completed.

  17. Shaped silicon wafers obtained by hot plastic deformation: performance evaluation for future astronomical x-ray telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Shirata, Takayuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2009-07-01

    In order to develop lightweight and high angular resolution x-ray mirrors, we have investigated hot plastic deformation of 4 in. silicon (111) wafers. A sample wafer was deformed using hemispherical dies with a curvature radius of 1000 mm. The measured radius of the deformed wafer was 1030 mm, suggesting that further conditioning is indispensable for better shaping. For the first time to our knowledge, x-ray reflection on a deformed wafer was detected at Al K(alpha) 1.49 keV. An estimated surface roughness of <1 nm from the x-ray reflection profile was comparable to that of a bare silicon wafer without deformation. Hence, no significant degradation of the microroughness was seen.

  18. Flight Performance of an advanced CZT Imaging Detector in a Balloon-borne Wide-Field Hard X-ray Telescope - ProtoEXIST1

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Grindlay, J; Barthelemy, S; Baker, R; Garson, A; Krawczynski, H; Apple, J; Cleveland, W H

    2011-01-01

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes. The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8 x 8 array of closely tiled 2 cm x 2 cm x 0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8 x 8 pixels, covering a 256 cm^2 active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30 - 600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9 Deg x 9 Deg with an angular resolution of 20 arcmin. To reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. ...

  19. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    -approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector......) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end...... of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10−3 counts per hour in the energy...

  20. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, S. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch (Switzerland); Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley (United States); Bednarzik, M. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Grimm, O., E-mail: oliver.grimm@phys.ethz.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch (Switzerland); ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Hurford, G.J. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch (Switzerland); Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley (United States); Limousin, O.; Meuris, A. [CEA Saclay (France); Orleański, P. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch (Switzerland); Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Warsaw (Poland); Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R. [Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  1. Observations of X-ray transient source GS2023+338 with the TTM coded mask telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H. C.; in 't Zand, J. J. M.; Skinner, G. K.; Borozdin, K. N.; Gil'Fanov, M. R.; Siuniaev, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    TTM observations in which the bright X-ray transient source GS2023+338 (=V404 Cyg) in the period June-August 1989 are reported. The observed spectral structure can be modeled using a model of a power-law source with a photon index of about 1.5, surrounded by partially ionized material. The observed X-rays consist of a component from the power-law source and those reflected (down-scattered) by the partially ionized material. Varying the clumpy structure or changing the ionization state of the circumstellar matter will cause the low-energy absorption to fluctuate.

  2. Validation of columnar CsI x-ray detector responses obtained with hybridMANTIS, a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo code for coupled x-ray, electron, and optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2013-03-01

    hybridMANTIS is a Monte Carlo package for modeling indirect x-ray imagers using columnar geometry based on a hybrid concept that maximizes the utilization of available CPU and graphics processing unit processors in a workstation. The authors compare hybridMANTIS x-ray response simulations to previously published MANTIS and experimental data for four cesium iodide scintillator screens. These screens have a variety of reflective and absorptive surfaces with different thicknesses. The authors analyze hybridMANTIS results in terms of modulation transfer function and calculate the root mean square difference and Swank factors from simulated and experimental results. The comparison suggests that hybridMANTIS better matches the experimental data as compared to MANTIS, especially at high spatial frequencies and for the thicker screens. hybridMANTIS simulations are much faster than MANTIS with speed-ups up to 5260. hybridMANTIS is a useful tool for improved description and optimization of image acquisition stages in medical imaging systems and for modeling the forward problem in iterative reconstruction algorithms.

  3. Centroiding and point response function measurements of the mirror/detector combination for the x-ray telescope on the SWIFT gamma-ray burst explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Richard M.; Abbey, Anthony F.; Hutchinson, Ian; Willingale, Richard; Campana, Sergio; Cusumano, G.; Burkert, Wolfgang; Wells, Alan A.; Short, Alexander T.; Citterio, Oberto; Ghigo, Mauro; Tagliaferri, G.; Braeuninger, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    The essential optical components of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) are already developed items. They are: the flight spare x-ray mirror from the JET-X/Spectrum-X program and a MOS CCD (CCD22) of the type currently operating in orbit as part of the EPIC focal plane camera on the XMM- Newton. The JET-X mirrors were first calibrated at the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' (MPE) Panter facility, Garching, Germany in 1996. Half energy widths (HEW) of 16 arc seconds at 1.5 keV were confirmed for the two flight mirrors and the flight spare. The calibration of the flight spare was repeated at Panter in July 2000 in order to establish whether any changes had occurred during the four years that the mirror had been in storage at the OAB, Milan, Italy. This results reported in this paper, confirm that the resolution of the JET-X mirrors has remained stable over this storage period. In an extension of this test program, the flight spare EPIC camera was installed at the focus of the JET-X mirror to simulate the optical system of the Swift X-ray telescope. On-axis and off-axis point spread functions (PSFs) were measured and calibration data sets were used to obtain centroid positions of X-ray point sources. The results confirmed Swift's ability to determine the centroid positions of sources at 100mCrab brightness to better than 1 arc second and provided a calibration of the centroiding process as a function of source flux and off axis angle. The presence of background events in the image frame introduced errors in the centroiding process, making the choice of centroiding algorithm important. Algorithm performance and the trade-off between processing speed and centroiding accuracy were investigated.

  4. X-Ray and Optical Correlation of Type I Seyfert NGC 3516 Studied with Suzaku and Japanese Ground-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hirofumi; Minezaki, Takeo; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Morihana, Kumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Hikaru; Imai, Masataka; Moritani, Yuki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Takagi, Yuhei; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoichi; Yamada, Shin'ya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    From 2013 April to 2014 April, we performed X-ray and optical simultaneous monitoring of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. We employed Suzaku and five Japanese ground-based telescopes—the Pirka, Kiso Schmidt, Nayuta, MITSuME, and the Kanata telescopes. The Suzaku observations were conducted seven times with various intervals ranging from days or weeks to months, with an exposure of ˜50 ks each. The optical B-band observations not only covered those of Suzaku almost simultaneously, but also followed the source as frequently as possible. As a result, NGC 3516 was found in its faint phase with a 2-10 keV flux of 0.21-2.70 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2. The 2-45 keV X-ray spectra were composed of a dominant variable hard power-law (PL) continuum with a photon index of ˜1.7 and a non-relativistic reflection component with a prominent Fe-Kα emission line. Producing the B-band light curve by differential image photometry, we found that the B-band flux changed by ˜2.7 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2, which is comparable to the X-ray variation, and we detected a significant flux correlation between the hard PL component in X-rays and the B-band radiation, for the first time in NGC 3516. By examining their correlation, we found that the X-ray flux preceded that in the B band by {2.0}-0.6+0.7 days (1σ error). Although this result supports the X-ray reprocessing model, the derived lag is too large to be explained by the standard view, which assumes a “lamppost”-type X-ray illuminator located near a standard accretion disk. Our results are better explained by assuming a hot accretion flow and a truncated disk.

  5. A comparison study of mass-area ratio for large size x-ray telescope optics in pore and very thin glass sheets configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.

    2006-06-01

    Dealing with very large size optics for the next generation of X-ray telescopes, like XEUS or ConX/SXT, it's necessary to build segmented mirrors which are assembled in petals because it's impossible to realize them in a monolithic form. The shape of these petals can be square or circular. The main problem is that such optics must have a very low weight compared to past X-ray telescopes, but assuring optimal imaging capabilities. In this paper I compare two different techniques that can achieve this so low weight. One is known as High Precision pore Optics (HPO) and the other one is based on a more classical shaped segments, assembled together, but built with very thin (in the 100-300 μm range) glass sheets that are stiffened with ribs. In this study, the main geometrical differences between the two approaches assumed, is that the first one has a pore size that doesn't change along the optics radius while the second one is based on a constant length. The main purpose of this study is to understand when one concept can be better than the other, depending on a given set of parameters, such as the focal length of the telescope, the filling factor of optic, the thickness of the walls, the radius of the segment, etc. The final goal is to achieve the best optimization of the mass to area ratio.

  6. SIMBOL-X, a new generation X-ray telescope for the 0.5-70 keV range

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, P

    2002-01-01

    SIMBOL-X is a high energy "mini" satellite class mission that is proposed by a French-Italian-English collaboration for a launch in 2009. SIMBOL-X is making use of a classical X-ray mirror, of ~ 600 cm2 maximum effective area, with a 30 m focal length in order to cover energies up to several tens of keV. This focal length will be achieved through the use of two spacecrafts in a formation flying configuration. This will give to SIMBOL-X unprecedented spatial resolution (20" HEW) and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range. By its coverage, from 0.5 to 70 keV, and sensitivity, SIMBOL-X will be an excellent instrument for the study of high energy processes in a large number of sources, as in particular accreting black-holes, extragalactic jets and AGNs.

  7. Pixel readout ASIC for an APD based 2D X-ray hybrid pixel detector with sub-nanosecond resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thil, Ch., E-mail: christophe.thil@ziti.uni-heidelberg.d [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Baron, A.Q.R. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Fajardo, P. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Graafsma, H. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rueffer, R. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-01

    The fast response and the short recovery time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in linear mode make those devices ideal for direct X-ray detection in applications requiring high time resolution or counting rate. In order to provide position sensitivity, the XNAP project aims at creating a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond time resolution based on a monolithic APD sensor array with 32 x32 pixels covering about 1 cm{sup 2} active area. The readout is implemented in a pixelated front-end ASIC suited for the readout of such arrays, matched to pixels of 280{mu}mx280{mu}m size. Every single channel features a fast transimpedance amplifier, a discriminator with locally adjustable threshold and two counters with high dynamic range and counting speed able to accumulate X-ray hits with no readout dead time. Additionally, the detector can be operated in list mode by time-stamping every single event with sub-nanosecond resolution. In a first phase of the project, a 4x4 pixel test module is built to validate the conceptual design of the detector. The XNAP project is briefly presented and the performance of the readout ASIC is discussed.

  8. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Ponchut, C; Fornaini, A; Graafsma, H; Maiorino, M; Mettivier, G; Calvet, D

    2002-01-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64x64 independent photon-counting cells of 170x170 mu m sup 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7x10 sup 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows <2% crosstalk between neighboring pixels. Fine scanning of the detector surface with a 10 mu m beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individu...

  9. Testing of the Mirrors for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope with a Refractive Null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, John; Hadimichael, T.; Skocik, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present an introduction to the use of a refractive null lens for testing grazing incidence x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission. The singular role of mirror mounting in glass shell mirror metrology is also touched upon. We compare results achieved to date with mission requirements along with some of the unique properties of the null lens. Additionally, uses beyond mirror metrology are briefly discussed.

  10. Detection of VHE γ-Rays from HESS J0632+057 during the 2011 February X-Ray Outburst with the MAGIC Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jankowski, F.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a γ-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 days with a high eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE γ-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no γ-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits γ-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the γ-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar γ-ray binary LS I +61°303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  11. Detection of VHE \\gamma-rays from HESS J0632+057 during the 2011 February X-ray outburst with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Gimenez, I Puerto; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; de Lausanne, now at: Ecole polytechnique fédérale; Lausanne,; Switzerland,; Padova, supported by INFN; Energéticas, now at: Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y; Madrid,; Spain,; KIPAC, now at:; Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator; USA,; ESO, now at: Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku, University of; Finland),

    2012-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE) \\gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a \\gamma-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 d with a high eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE \\gamma-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no \\gamma-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus HESS J0632+057 exhibits \\gamma-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore our measurements provide for the first time the \\gamma-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar \\gamma-ray binar...

  12. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Monitoring of the Black Hole X-Ray Binary, V404 Cygni during Its 2015 June Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam; Kanekar, Nissim

    2017-09-01

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) monitoring campaign of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its 2015 June outburst. The GMRT observations were carried out at observing frequencies of 1280, 610, 325, and 235 MHz, and extended from June 26.89 UT (a day after the strongest radio/X-ray outburst) to July 12.93 UT. We find the low-frequency radio emission of V404 Cygni to be extremely bright and fast-decaying in the outburst phase, with an inverted spectrum below 1.5 GHz and an intermediate X-ray state. The radio emission settles to a weak, quiescent state ≈11 days after the outburst, with a flat radio spectrum and a soft X-ray state. Combining the GMRT measurements with flux density estimates from the literature, we identify a spectral turnover in the radio spectrum at ≈1.5 GHz on ≈ June 26.9 UT, indicating the presence of a synchrotron self-absorbed emitting region. We use the measured flux density at the turnover frequency with the assumption of equipartition of energy between the particles and the magnetic field to infer the jet radius (≈4.0 × 1013 cm), magnetic field (≈0.5 G), minimum total energy (≈7 × 1039 erg), and transient jet power (≈8 × 1034 erg s‑1). The relatively low value of the jet power, despite V404 Cygni’s high black hole spin parameter, suggests that the radio jet power does not correlate with the spin parameter.

  13. X-ray and Optical Correlation of Type I Seyfert NGC 3516 Studied with Suzaku and Japanese Ground-Based Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Morihana, Kumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Hikaru; Imai, Masataka; Moritani, Yuki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Takagi, Yuhei; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoichi; Yamada, Shin'ya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    From 2013 April to 2014 April, we performed an X-ray and optical simultaneous monitoring of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. It employed Suzaku, and 5 Japanese ground-based telescopes, the Pirka, Kiso Schmidt, Nayuta, MITSuME, and the Kanata telescopes. The Suzaku observations were conducted seven times with various intervals ranging from days, weeks, to months, with an exposure of $\\sim50$ ksec each. The optical $B$-band observations not only covered those of Suzaku almost simultaneously, but also followed the source as frequently as possible. As a result, NGC 3516 was found in its faint phase with the 2-10 keV flux of $0.21-2.70 \\times 10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. The 2-45 keV X-ray spectra were composed of a dominant variable hard power-law continuum with a photon index of $\\sim1.7$, and a non-relativistic reflection component with a prominent Fe-K$\\alpha$ emission line. Producing the $B$-band light curve by differential image photometry, we found that the $B$-band flux changed by $\\sim2.7 \\times...

  14. pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Rodriquez, A.; Kotthaus, R.; Brauninger, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Lutz, G.; Struder, L.

    2005-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I ty...

  15. 1SXPS: A deep Swift X-ray Telescope point source catalog with light curves and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, P A; Beardmore, A P; Page, K L; Willingale, R; Mountford, C J; Pagani, C; Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Perri, M; Tagliaferri, G; Gehrels, N

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1SXPS (Swift-XRT Point Source) catalog of 151,524 X-ray point-sources detected by the Swift-XRT in 8 years of operation. The catalog covers 1905 square degrees distributed approximately uniformly on the sky. We analyze the data in two ways. First we consider all observations individually, for which we have a typical sensitivity of ~3e-13 erg/cm2/s (0.3--10 keV). Then we co-add all data covering the same location on the sky: these images have a typical sensitivity of ~9e-14 erg/cm2/s (0.3--10 keV). Our sky coverage is nearly 2.5 times that of 3XMM-DR4, although the catalog is a factor of ~1.5 less sensitive. The median position error is 5.5" (90% confidence), including systematics. Our source detection method improves on that used in previous XRT catalogs and we report >68,000 new X-ray sources. The goals and observing strategy of the Swift satellite allow us to probe source variability on multiple timescales, and we find ~30,000 variable objects in our catalog. For every source we give position...

  16. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  17. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew

    2017-08-01

    The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) is a diffuse soft X-ray spectrometer that will launch on a sounding rocket from the Kwajalein Atoll. WRX-R has a field of view of >10 deg2 and will observe the Vela supernova remnant. A mechanical collimator, state-of-the-art off-plane reflection grating array and hybrid CMOS detector will allow WRX to achieve the most highly-resolved spectrum of the Vela SNR ever recorded. In addition, this payload will fly a hard X-ray telescope that is offset from the soft X-ray spectrometer in order to observe the pulsar at the center of the remnant. We present here an introduction to the instrument, the expected science return, and an update on the state of the payload as we work towards launch.

  18. Influence of hybridization in the magnetic circular X-ray dichroism at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M; deGroot, FMF; Dias, AM; Kappler, JP; Schulte, O; Felsch, W; Krill, G

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  19. Influence of hybridization in the Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism at the Ce-M4,5 absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M.; de Groot, F.M.F.; Dias, A.-M.; Kappler, J.-P.; Schulte, O.; Felsch, W.; Krill, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M*,s absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that th

  20. Influence of hybridization in the magnetic circular X-ray dichroism at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M; deGroot, FMF; Dias, AM; Kappler, JP; Schulte, O; Felsch, W; Krill, G

    1996-01-01

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  1. Small d-spacing WC/SiC multilayers for future hard X-ray telescope designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.P.; Madsen, K.K.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2005-01-01

    interfacial roughness. With the new material combinations of WC/SiC the interface roughness can be reduced down to between 0.23 nm and 0.25 nm enabling bi-layer thicknesses down to 1.0 nm to reflect efficiently. The production of thinner period coatings thus enables the possibility for focusing optic designs......Multilayer coatings for reflecting hard X-rays up to 80keV, like W/Si and Pt/C, have been studied for several years. To go to higher energies, in the range of 100 keV to 250 keV, one needs coatings with smaller d-spacings than can currently be made with these material combinations, and a lower...

  2. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  3. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  4. Point spread function and centroiding accuracy measurements with the JET-X mirror and MOS CCD detector of the Swift gamma ray burst explorer's X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Abbey, A. F.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Willingale, R.; Wells, A.; Short, A. D. T.; Campana, S.; Citterio, O.; Tagliaferri, G.; Burkert, W.; Brauninger, H.

    2002-08-01

    The optical components of the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) are already developed items. They are the flight spare X-ray mirror from the JET-X/Spectrum-X program and an MOS CCD (CCD22) of the type currently operating in orbit as part of the EPIC focal plane camera on XMM-Newton (SPIE 4140 (2000) 64). The JET-X mirrors were first calibrated at the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' (MPE) Panter facility, Garching, Germany in 1996 (SPIE 2805 (1996) 56; SPIE 3114 (1997) 392). Half-energy widths of 16arcsec at 1.5keV were confirmed for the two flight mirrors and the flight spare. The calibration of the flight spare was repeated at Panter in July 2000 in order to establish whether any changes had occurred during the 4yr that the mirror had been in storage at the OAB, Milan, Italy. The results reported in this paper confirm that the resolution of the JET-X mirrors has remained stable over this storage period. In an extension of this test program, the flight spare EPIC camera was installed at the focus of the JET-X mirror to simulate the optical system of the Swift XRT. Tolerances in the mirror focal length, the on-axis and off-axis point spread functions were measured and calibration data sets were used to obtain centroid positions of X-ray point sources. The results confirmed Swift's ability to determine the centroid positions of sources at 100mCrab brightness to better than 1arcsec and provided a calibration of the centroiding process as a function of source flux and off-axis angle. The presence of background events in the image frame introduced errors in the centroiding process and this was accounted for by reducing the sampling area used for the centroiding algorithm.

  5. VERY LARGE TELESCOPE/X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CANDIDATE BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARY MAXI J1659-152 IN OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaper, Lex; Ellerbroek, Lucas E.; Russell, David M.; Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy; Yang Yijung; Van der Horst, Alexander; Van der Klis, Michiel [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); D' Avanzo, Paolo [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (Italy); De Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Fynbo, Johan P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Flores, Hector [GEPI, Paris Observatory, CNRS, University of Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Goldoni, Paolo [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Thoene, Christina C. [IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Wiersema, Klaas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Kuulkers, Erik, E-mail: r.kaur@uva.nl [European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-02-20

    We present the optical to near-infrared spectrum of MAXI J1659-152 during the onset of its 2010 X-ray outburst. The spectrum was obtained with X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope early in the outburst simultaneous with high-quality observations at both shorter and longer wavelengths. At the time of the observations, the source was in the low-hard state. The X-shooter spectrum includes many broad ({approx}2000 km s{sup -1}), double-peaked emission profiles of H, He I, and He II, characteristic signatures of a low-mass X-ray binary during outburst. We detect no spectral signatures of the low-mass companion star. The strength of the diffuse interstellar bands results in a lower limit to the total interstellar extinction of A{sub V} {approx_equal} 0.4 mag. Using the neutral hydrogen column density obtained from the X-ray spectrum we estimate A{sub V} {approx_equal} 1 mag. The radial velocity structure of the interstellar Na I D and Ca II H and K lines results in a lower limit to the distance of {approx}4 {+-} 1 kpc, consistent with previous estimates. With this distance and A{sub V} , the dereddened spectral energy distribution represents a flat disk spectrum. The two 10 minute X-shooter spectra show significant variability in the red wing of the emission-line profiles, indicating a global change in the density structure of the disk, though on a timescale much shorter than the typical viscous timescale of the disk.

  6. SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE TIMING OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE BINARY SWIFT J1753.5-0127: DISK-DILUTED FLUCTUATIONS IN THE OUTBURST PEAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalamkar, M.; Van der Klis, M.; Uttley, P.; Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy, E-mail: m.n.kalamkar@uva.nl [Astronomical Institute, ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-01

    After a careful analysis of the instrumental effects on the Poisson noise to demonstrate the feasibility of detailed stochastic variability studies with the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), we analyze the variability of the black hole X-ray binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127 in all XRT observations during 2005-2010. We present the evolution of the power spectral components along the outburst in two energy bands: soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV), and in the hard band we find results consistent with those from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The advantage of the XRT is that we can also explore the soft band not covered by RXTE. The source has previously been suggested to host an accretion disk extending down to close to the black hole in the low hard state, and to show low-frequency variability in the soft-band intrinsic to this disk. Our results are consistent with this, with stronger low-frequency variability at low intensities in the soft than in the hard band. From our analysis, we are able to present the first measurements of the soft-band variability in the peak of the outburst. We find the soft band to be less variable than the hard band, especially at high frequencies, opposite to what is seen at low intensity. Both results can be explained within the framework of a simple two emission-region model where the hot flow is more variable in the peak of the outburst and the disk is more variable at low intensities.

  7. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buton, C., E-mail: clement.buton@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dawiec, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Bérar, J.F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Clémens, J.C.; Debarbieux, F. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Gastaldi, T. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Hustache, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Morel, C.; Pangaud, P. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Perez-Ponce, H. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Vigeolas, E. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France)

    2014-09-11

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and {sup 241}Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  8. Optical Counterparts of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources identified from Archival Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2

    CERN Document Server

    Ptak, A; Van der Marel, R; Roye, E; Heckman, T; Towne, B

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of archival HST WFPC2 ``Association'' data sets that correlate with the Chandra positions of a set of 44 ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) of nearby galaxies. We have improved the Chandra-HST relative astrometry whenever possible. Disparate numbers of potential ULX counterparts are found, and in some cases none are found. The lack of or low number of counterparts in some cases may be due to insufficient depth in the WFPC2 images. Particularly in late-type galaxies, the HST image in the ULX region was often complex or crowded. We therefore address various scenarios for the nature of the ULX since it is not known which, if any, of the sources found are true counterparts. The optical luminosities of the sources are typically in the range 10^4-6 L_sun. In several cases color information is available, with the colors roughly tending to be more red in early-type galaxies. This suggests that, in general, the (potential) counterparts found in early-type galaxies are likely to be old...

  9. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    ) studies by Albrow et al. The X-ray properties of these objects (luminosity, hardness ratios, and variability) are consistent with those of active binaries found in field studies, and the FX/Fopt distribution is significantly different from those of the CVs and the MSPs that are detected (or possibly detected) in the optical. Despite these results, we examine the possibility that a few of the active binaries are MSPs with main-sequence companions resulting from double exchanges in the crowded core of 47 Tuc. No solid evidence is found for a significant population of such objects, and therefore, using the methods of Grindlay et al., we estimate that the number of MSPs in 47 Tuc with luminosities above 1030 ergs s-1 is ~30-40, near the previous lower limit. We present the results of a new, deeper search for faint low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in quiescence. One reasonable and one marginal candidate for optical identification of a quiescent LMXB was found (one is already known). Finally, it is shown that the periods of the blue variables showing little or no evidence for X-ray emission are too long for Roche lobe filling (if the variations are ellipsoidal). These blue variables also show no evidence for the large flickering levels seen in comparably bright CVs. At present we have no satisfactory explanation for these objects, although some may be detached white dwarf-main-sequence star binaries. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    CERN Document Server

    Kalemci, E; Maccarone, T J; Dincer, T; Russell, T D; Bailyn, C; Tomsick, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also in...

  11. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, E.; Begelman, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Dinçer, T.; Russell, T. D.; Bailyn, C.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also investigated the radio to optical spectral energy distribution, tracking the radio spectral evolution through the quenching of the compact jet and rise of the optically thin flare, and interpreted all data using state transition models.

  12. Identification of strain fields in pure Al and hybrid Ni/Al metal foams using X-ray micro-tomography under loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, T.; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.; Kumpová, I.

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid foams are materials formed by a core from a standard open cell metal foam that is during the process of electrodeposition coated by a thin layer of different nanocrystalline metals. The material properties of the base metal foam are in this way modified resulting in higher plateau stress and, more importantly, by introduction of strain-rate dependence to its deformation response. In this paper, we used time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography for the mechanical characterization of Ni/Al hybrid foams (aluminium open cell foams with nickel coating layer). To fully understand the effects of the coating layer on the material's effective properties, we compared the compressive response of the base uncoated foam to the response of the material with coating thickness of 50 and 75 μm. Digital volume correlation (DVC) was applied to obtain volumetric strain fields of the deforming micro-structure up to the densification region of the deforming cellular structure. The analysis was performed as a compressive mechanical test with simultaneous observation using X-ray radiography and tomography. A custom design experimental device was used for compression of the foam specimens in several deformation states directly in the X-ray setup. Planar X-ray images were taken during the loading phases and a X-ray tomography was performed at the end of each loading phase (up to engineering strain 22%). The samples were irradiated using micro-focus reflection type X-ray tube and images were taken using a large area flat panel detector. Tomography reconstructions were used for an identification of a strain distribution in the foam using digital volumetric correlation. A comparison of the deformation response of the coated and the uncoated foam in uniaxial quasi-static compression is summarized in the paper.

  13. Studies of the Origin of High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of Mass Accreting Black Holes in X-ray Binaries with Next-Generation X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-01-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar mass Black Holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the strong gravity regime. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing-spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment like the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), P...

  14. 太阳硬X射线成像望远镜模拟研究%A Simulation Research on the Solar Hard X-Ray Imaging Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕藤; 伍健; 常进

    2011-01-01

    High-energy phenomena always play an important role in solar research field. Observations of hard X-ray/gamma-ray can be divided into images and spectra, both of which give clues to reveal the secret of the energy release of solar flares. Instead of conventional imaging technique using mirrors or lens, which cannot work in energy above a few keV, direct imaging, coded aperture and Fourier transform are used for high-energy imaging. Fourier transform technique stands out because of its high sensitivity and high reliability. It can be implemented in various hardware configurations, among which spatial modulation collimator and rotating modulation collimator are widely used. Modulation collimator type hard X-ray imaging telescope is currently widely used in solar observation. For the possible Chinese solar mission in the near future, we make a design of hard X-ray imaging telescope using the common simulation software, GEANT4. The results are closer to the fact compared with the traditional geometric algorithm. An executable design is also proposed at last.%调制准直器型太阳硬X射线成像望远镜是目前较为通用的太阳观测设备.空间调制望远镜是基于中心轴不旋转的望远镜,适用于3轴稳定的卫星.针对我国可能的太阳观测计划,给出并比较了两组空间调制望远镜的配置方案,然后利用GEANT4高能物理通用软件模拟实际光子的计数情况,使用MATLAB实现图像重建.比较模拟光子计数得到的重建图与几何方法计算光子数得到的重建图,结果表明GEANT4仿真模拟得到的结果更接近实际.最后,还给出了初步可行的方案.

  15. Thermal Analysis of Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Mirrors During Optical Testing in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tim; Sutherlin, Steven; Hunt, Patrick L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program and industry partners are developing extremely lightweight mirror designs. NGST development mirrors are being tested at Marshall Space Flight Center. Target temperature for development mirror testing is 35 K. Conduction and radiation are not sufficient to conduct thermal vacuum testing in a reasonable time. Helium gas is injected into the vacuum chamber to accelerate temperature transitions during testing. Free-molecular conduction can be modeled by adapting present thermal analysis techniques.

  16. Chest X Ray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Chest X Ray A chest x ray is a fast and painless imaging test ... tissue scarring, called fibrosis. Doctors may use chest x rays to see how well certain treatments are ...

  17. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  18. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benefits The discovery of X-rays and the invention of CT represented major advances in medicine. X- ... in X-ray and CT Examinations — X-ray definition, dose measurement, safety precautions, risk, and consideration with ...

  19. Active and passive shielding design optimization and technical solutions for deep sensitivity hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Malaguti, G; Ferrando, P; Caroli, E; Cocco, G D; Foschini, L; Basso, S; Del Sordo, S; Fiore, F; Bonati, A; Lesci, G; Poulsen, J M; Monzani, F; Stevoli, A; Negri, B

    2005-01-01

    The 10-100 keV region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains the potential for a dramatic improvement in our understanding of a number of key problems in high energy astrophysics. A deep inspection of the universe in this band is on the other hand still lacking because of the demanding sensitivity (fraction of microCrab in the 20-40 keV for 1 Ms integration time) and imaging (~15" angular resolution) requirements. The mission ideas currently being proposed are based on long focal length, grazing incidence, multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with few hundreds microns spatial resolution capability. The required large focal lengths, ranging between 8 and 50 m, can be realized by means of extendable optical benches (as foreseen e.g. for the HEXIT-SAT, NEXT and NuSTAR missions) or formation flight scenarios (e.g. Simbol-X and XEUS). While the final telescope design will require a detailed trade-off analysis between all the relevant parameters (focal length, plate scale value, angular resoluti...

  20. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  1. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We have developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. These thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transport code FCI2.

  2. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  3. X-ray dose detector based on color changing of light-emitting polymer–metal complex hybrid material.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a poly (2-methoxy-5(2_-ethylhexyloxy)- p-phenylenevinylene)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (MEH-PPV/Alq3) X-ray dose detector for improving safety for cancer patients shortly before radiation therapy. The detector consists of an inexpen-sive (

  4. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-05-01

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnified TEM images, high resolution TEM images and the particle size distributions of the samples, the STXM results of a thick tube at different positions, XPS results, stability test. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01168j

  5. Miniature lightweight X-ray optics (MiXO) for surface elemental composition mapping of asteroids and comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jaesub; Romaine, Suzanne

    2016-02-01

    The compositions of diverse planetary bodies are of fundamental interest to planetary science, providing clues to the formation and evolutionary history of the target bodies and the solar system as a whole. Utilizing the X-ray fluorescence unique to each atomic element, X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of diverse planetary bodies. Until now the mass and volume of focusing X-ray optics have been too large for resource-limited in situ missions, so near-target X-ray observations of planetary bodies have been limited to simple collimator-type X-ray instruments. We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions. We illustrate the need for focusing X-ray optics in observing relatively small planetary bodies such as asteroids and comet nuclei. We present a few example configurations of MiXO telescopes and demonstrate their superior performance in comparison to an alternative approach, micro-pore optics, which is being employed for the first planetary focusing X-ray telescope, the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer-T onboard Bepicolumbo. X-ray imaging spectroscopy using MiXO will open a large new discovery space in planetary science and will greatly enhance our understanding of the nature and origin of diverse planetary bodies.

  6. SU-F-18C-13: Low-Dose X-Ray CT Reconstruction Using a Hybrid First-Order Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L; Lin, W [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Jin, M [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel reconstruction method for X-ray CT that can lead to accurate reconstruction at significantly reduced dose levels combining low X-ray incident intensity and few views of projection data. Methods: The noise nature of the projection data at low X-ray incident intensity was modeled and accounted by the weighted least-squares (WLS) criterion. The total variation (TV) penalty was used to mitigate artifacts caused by few views of data. The first order primal-dual (FOPD) algorithm was used to minimize TV in image domain, which avoided the difficulty of the non-smooth objective function. The TV penalized WLS reconstruction was achieved by alternated FOPD TV minimization and projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity constraints. The proposed FOPD-POCS method was evaluated using the FORBILD jaw phantom and the real cadaver head CT data. Results: The quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), demonstrate the superior denoising capability of WLS over LS-based TV iterative reconstruction. The improvement of RMSE (WLS vs. LS) is 15%∼21% and that of CNR is 17%∼72% when the incident counts per ray are ranged from 1×10{sup 5} to 1×10{sup 3}. In addition, the TV regularization can accurately reconstruct images from about 50 views of the jaw phantom. The FOPD-POCS reconstruction reveals more structural details and suffers fewer artifacts in both the phantom and real head images. The FOPD-POCS method also shows fast convergence at low X-ray incident intensity. Conclusion: The new hybrid FOPD-POCS method, based on TV penalized WLS, yields excellent image quality when the incident X-ray intensity is low and the projection views are limited. The reconstruction is computationally efficient since the FOPD minimization of TV is applied only in the image domain. The characteristics of FOPD-POCS can be exploited to significantly reduce radiation dose of X-ray CT without compromising accuracy for diagnosis

  7. HYBRID Simulations of Diffraction-Limited Focusing with Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for a Next-Generation In Situ Hard X-ray Nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Jörg; Shi, Xianbo; Reininger, Ruben; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation hard X-ray nanoprobe beamlines such as the In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN) beamline being planned at the Advanced Photon Source aim at providing very high spatial resolution while also enabling very high focused flux, to study complex materials and devices using fast, multidimensional imaging across many length scales. The ISN will use diffractive optics to focus X-rays with a bandpass of ∆ E/ E = 10-4 into a focal spot of 20 nm or below. Reflective optics in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry will be used to focus X-rays with a bandpass as large as ∆ E/ E = 10-2 into a focal spot of 50 nm. Diffraction-limited focusing with reflective optics is achieved by spatial filtering and use of a very long, vertically focusing mirror. To quantify the performance of the ISN beamline, we have simulated the propagation of both partially and fully coherent wavefronts from the undulator source, through the ISN beamline and into the mirror-based focal spot. Simulations were carried out using the recently developed software " HYBRID."

  8. HYBRID Simulations of Diffraction-Limited Focusing with Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for a Next-Generation In Situ Hard X-ray Nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Jörg; Shi, Xianbo; Reininger, Ruben; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation hard X-ray nanoprobe beamlines such as the In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN) beamline being planned at the Advanced Photon Source aim at providing very high spatial resolution while also enabling very high focused flux, to study complex materials and devices using fast, multidimensional imaging across many length scales. The ISN will use diffractive optics to focus X-rays with a bandpass of ∆E/E = 10-4 into a focal spot of 20 nm or below. Reflective optics in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry will be used to focus X-rays with a bandpass as large as ∆E/E = 10-2 into a focal spot of 50 nm. Diffraction-limited focusing with reflective optics is achieved by spatial filtering and use of a very long, vertically focusing mirror. To quantify the performance of the ISN beamline, we have simulated the propagation of both partially and fully coherent wavefronts from the undulator source, through the ISN beamline and into the mirror-based focal spot. Simulations were carried out using the recently developed software "HYBRID."

  9. Performance of hybrid angle-energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence portable system for non-invasive surface-mineral identification in Archaeometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Ariadna Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Low power energy dispersive XRD-XRF portable instruments equipped with multiple angle scanning can take advantage of the shorter acquisition time of EDXRD with respect to ADXRD, and bring closer higher accuracy and resolution of inter-planar distance with those obtained by ADXRD. The data produced by this new hybrid configuration is correlated in the sense that a single XRF or XRD specimen appear in multiple spectra (the later shifted in energy for differing angles). Hence, for fully benefit from the richer data released by this configuration, the analysis should not be confined to the independent processing of the spectra, specialized hybrid data processing should be conceived. We previously reported some advances in the processing of the resulting 3D data (intensity, energy and angle). Here the analytical performance of the first hybrid angle-energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence portable system is assessed for non-invasive surface mineral analysis of samples relevant for archaeometrical appl...

  10. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... degenerative) Bone tumor Broken bone (fracture) Dislocated bone Osteomyelitis (infection) Arthritis Other conditions for which the test ... Bone tumor Bone x-ray Broken bone Clubfoot Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 7/3/2016 Updated ...

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  12. Optical design of Wolter-Ⅰ X-ray astronomical telescope%Wolter-Ⅰ型X射线天文望远镜的光学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏颖; 穆宝忠; 王占山

    2012-01-01

    针对国内硬X射线天文观测的需求,研究了1~30 keV能段圆锥嵌套Wolter-Ⅰ型X射线天文望远镜的光学设计,推导了嵌套层之间的结构递推关系,给出了合理的望远镜初始结构.在最内层和最外层之间,设计了6组w/B4C宽带非周期多层膜,模拟得到系统的有效集光面积和分辨力.理论有效集光面积达到127 cm2(在2 keV处)和71 cm2(在30 keV处),系统角分辨力约10″.系统实际成像质量还受到公差的影响,引起像质下降的公差主要有辐条位置公差、镜面位置公差和镜面面形公差.目前演示实验方便改善的公差是辐条位置公差,给出了此公差的计算方法并对系统进行光线追迹,得到了成像点列图和分辨力改变情况.辐条位置公差从±15 μm缩小到±3 μm后,系统分辨力由1 ′提高到13″.%Optical design of nested conical Wolter-I X-ray telescope covering energy band from 1 to 30 keV was investigated. Recurrence relation of the nested structure was deduced. Depending on the needs for hard X-ray astronomical observations in China, the initial structure was presented, for which six groups of W/B4C aperiodic multilayers were designed between the innermost and the outermost shell of mirror. The simulation results showed that the effective area could achieve 127 cm2 (at 2 keV) and 71 cm2 (at 30 keV), and the resolution was estimated to be ~10" in half-power diameter. The actual image quality is also affected by tolerance. The main tolerances lowering image quality are position error, figure error and off-roundness. Tolerance to be improved most easily in the lab is off-roundness caused by bar. The spot diagram distribution and resolution was given after calculating off-roundness and ray tracing. When the bar position tolerance was changed from±15 μm to±3 μm, the responding resolution was improved from 1 to 13 .

  13. X-Ray Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Immler, S; Immler, Stefan; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of X-ray observations of supernovae (SNe). By observing the (~0.1--100 keV) X-ray emission from young SNe, physical key parameters such as the circumstellar matter (CSM) density, mass-loss rate of the progenitor and temperature of the outgoing and reverse shock can be derived as a function of time. Despite intensive search over the last ~25 years, only 15 SNe have been detected in X-rays. We review the individual X-ray observations of these SNe and discuss their implications as to our understanding of the physical processes giving rise to the X-ray emission.

  14. Ordering in bio-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials probed by in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Tunuguntla, Ramya; Kim, Kyunghoon; Bangar, Mangesh; Willey, Trevor M.; Tran, Ich C.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Noy, Aleksandr; van Buuren, Tony

    2015-05-01

    Phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural variations that could critically impact the performance of the 1D phospholipid-Si NW composites. In this manuscript, we use scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe bond orientation and bilayer thickness as a function of position with a spatial resolution of ~30 nm for Δ9-cis 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine layers prepared Si NWs. When coupled with small angle X-ray scattering measurements, the STXM data reveal structural motifs of the Si NWs that give rise to multi-bilayer formation and enable assignment of the orientation of specific bonds known to affect the order and rigidity of phospholipid bilayers.Phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural

  15. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Rong, John. X.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 μm to 50 μm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (μA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 μm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications.

  16. Ultrasoft 1.5 keV aluminum K X rays are efficient producers of complex chromosome exchange aberrations as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C S; Stevens, D L; Savage, J R

    1996-08-01

    The electron pairs generated by ultrasoft 1.5 keV aluminum K X-ray photons deposit their energy in tracks of length < 70 nm and provide an ideal tool for analyzing the spatial distribution of breaks and misrepair processes. We have undertaken the analysis of changes in chromosome structure produced by aluminum K X rays in untransformed HF12 human fibroblasts in G1 phase using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Multicolored chromosome-specific DNA probes for chromosomes 1 and 2 and an alpha-satellite pan-centromeric probe were used to examine in vitro radiation-induced chromosome-type exchange aberrations. After mean doses of 0.37-2.93 Gy the relative frequencies of complex exchanges, derived from three or more breaks in two or more chromosomes, ranged from 15-35%. For the classic break-age-and-rejoining theory to hold, very large interaction distances are needed to account for this high frequency of multibreak interactions, unless many sites pre-exist where several different chromosomes come very close together. Alternatively, damaged DNA may be able to interact with adjacent undamaged DNA, obviating the need for large rejoining distances.

  17. Development of an n-channel CCD, CCD-NeXT1, for Soft X-ray Imager onboard the NeXT satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Takagi, Shin-ichiro; Inui, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hironori; Koyama, Katsuji; Ozawa, Hideki; Tohiguchi, Masakuni; Matsuura, Daisuke; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro; Kohno, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    NeXT (New X-ray Telescope) is the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite mission after the Suzaku satellite. NeXT aims to perform wide band imaging spectroscopy. Due to the successful development of a multilayer coated mirror, called a supermirror, NeXT can focus X-rays in the energy range from 0.1 keV up to 80 keV. To cover this wide energy range, we are in the process of developing a hybrid X-ray camera, Wideband X-ray Imager (WXI) as a focal plane detector of the supermirror. The WXI consists of X-ray CCDs (SXI) and CdTe pixelized detectors (HXI), which cover the lower and higher X-ray energy bands of 0.1-80 keV, respectively. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI are stacked above the CdTe pixelized detectors of the HXI. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI detect soft X-rays below $\\sim$ 10 keV and allow hard X-rays pass into the CdTe detectors of the HXI without loss. Thus, we have been developing a "back-supportless CCD" with a thick depletion layer, a thinned silicon wafer, and a back-supportless structure. In this pape...

  18. Miniature lightweight x-ray optics (MiXO) for surface elemental composition mapping of asteroids and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jaesub

    2016-01-01

    The compositions of diverse planetary bodies are of fundamental interest to planetary science, providing clues to the formation and evolutionary history of the target bodies and the Solar system as a whole. Utilizing the X-ray fluorescence unique to each atomic element, X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of diverse planetary bodies. Until now the mass and volume of focusing X-ray optics have been too large for resource-limited in-situ missions, so near-target X-ray observations of planetary bodies have been limited to simple collimator-type X-ray instruments. We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions. We illustrate the need for focusing X-ray optics in observing relatively small planetary bod...

  19. X-ray polarimetry on-board HXMT

    CERN Document Server

    Soffitta, Paolo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Costa, Enrico; Pareschi, Giovanni; Basso, Stefano; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Muleri, Fabio; Rubini, Alda; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Baldini, Luca; Bregeon, Jean; Minuti, Massimo; Matt, Giorgio; Frontera, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    The development of micropixel gas detectors, capable to image tracks produced in a gas by photoelectrons, makes possible to perform polarimetry of X-ray celestial sources in the focus of grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. HXMT is a mission by the Chinese Space Agency aimed to survey the Hard X-ray Sky with Phoswich detectors, by exploitation of the direct demodulation technique. Since a fraction of the HXMT time will be spent on dedicated pointing of particular sources, it could host, with moderate additional resources a pair of X-ray telescopes, each with a photoelectric X-ray polarimeter (EXP2, Efficient X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter) in the focal plane. We present the design of the telescopes and the focal plane instrumentation and discuss the performance of this instrument to detect the degree and angle of linear polarization of some representative sources. Notwithstanding the limited resources, the proposed instrument can represent a breakthrough in X-ray Polarimetry.

  20. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of Zn2Fe2 hybrid hemoglobins: absence of heme bond length changes in half-ligated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simolo, K; Korszun, Z R; Stucky, G; Moffat, K; McLendon, G; Bunker, G

    1986-07-01

    Metal hybrid hemoglobins, in which Zn(II) replaces Fe(II), have been structurally characterized by extended X-ray absorption structure (EXAFS) studies. Since Zn and Fe have very different K absorption edge energies, the structures of the ligated (Fe) and unligated (Zn) sites could be examined independently within a single molecule that mimics an intermediate ligation state. The observed EXAFS spectra and associated structural parameters are compared among the ligand free (alpha Zn)2(beta Zn)2, half-ligated (alpha FeCO)2(beta Zn)2 and (alpha Zn)2(beta FeCO)2, and fully ligated (alpha FeCO)2(beta FeCO)2 systems.

  1. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  2. A Hybrid Spin-Down Model and its Application to the Radio Quiet X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1207.4-5209

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵娣; 彭秋和; 罗新炼

    2003-01-01

    A series of newly published papers are focusing on the formation of the absorption features discovered by Chandra and XMM-Newton from the young radio quiet x-ray pulsar 1E 1207.4-5209. We try to interpret it as cyclotron absorption lines since this possibility could not be ruled out. With new development and application of a hybrid model, i.e., the magnetic dipole spin-down model combined with the neutrino cyclotron radiation spin-down model, we can easily avoid the contradiction between the normal rotation energy loss rate and the relatively lower magnetic field, and then we obtain the possible initial spin period (~0.420s). We suppose that the progenitor of 1E 1207.4-5209 may be a white dwarf.

  3. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  4. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  5. X-rays and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  6. Core-Shell-Corona Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles Templated by Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes: A Study by Small Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoya; Li, Li; Wang, Weihua; Tian, Yuchuan; Wang, Yunwei; Wang, Junyou; von Klitzing, Regine; Guo, Xuhong

    2017-09-06

    Core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared in the template of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) which consist of a solid polystyrene (PS) core densely grafted with linear poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains. The microstructure of obtained hybrid nanoparticles was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The generation of silica shell within the brush is confirmed by the significant increase of the electron density in the shell, and the silica shell showed a unique inner-loose-outer-dense structure, whose thickness is pH sensitive but is insensitive to ionic strength as revealed by fitting SAXS data. After dissolving the PS core, hollow silica nanoparticles were obtained and determined by SAXS, which should be ideal carriers for pH-triggered drug delivery. SAXS is confirmed to be a powerful method to characterize the core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid and hollow silica nanoparticles.

  7. Search for TeV $\\gamma$-ray emission from AE Aqr coincident with high optical and X-ray states with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Coto, R; Cortina, J; Hadasch, D; Takalo, L; Torres, D; Bogosavljevic, M; Ioannou, Z; Mauche, C W; Palaiologou, E V; Perez-Torres, M A; Tuominen, T

    2013-01-01

    We report on observations of the nova-like cataclysmic variable AE Aqr performed by MAGIC. The observations were part of a quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign carried out between 2012 May and June covering the optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray ranges. MAGIC conducted the campaign and observed the source during 12 hours. The other instruments involved were KVA, Skinakas, and Vidojevica in the optic and Swift in the X-ray. We also used optical data from the AAVSO. The goals were to: monitor the variability of the source at different wavelengths, perform gamma-ray studies coincident with the highest states of the source at the other wavelengths, and confirm or rule out previous claims of detection of very-high-energy emission from this object. We report on a search for steady TeV emission during the whole observation, for variable TeV emission coincident with the highest optical and X-ray states and periodic TeV emission at the 33.08 s rotation period (30.23 mHz rotation frequency) of the white dwarf and...

  8. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be allowed to remain with your child during the test. If you remain in the room during the X-ray exposure, you'll likely be asked to wear a lead apron to shield you from unnecessary exposure. After the X-ray ...

  9. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation. The x-rays penetrate the body to form ... for detecting cavities, unless the decay is very advanced and deep. Many ... The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than ...

  10. X-Ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M

    1998-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of X-ray surveys, especially in the hard (2-10 and 5-10 keV) bands, is given. A new detailed comparison between the measurements in the hard band and extrapolations from ROSAT counts, that takes into proper account the observed distribution of spectral slopes, is presented. Direct comparisons between deep ROSAT and BeppoSAX images show that most hard X-ray sources are also detected at soft X-ray energies. This may indicate that heavily cutoff sources, that should not be detectable in the ROSAT band but are expected in large numbers from unified AGN schemes, are in fact detected because of the emerging of either non-nuclear components, or of reflected, or partially transmitted nuclear X-rays. These soft components may complicate the estimation of the soft X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of AGN.

  11. X-ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.

    In spite of the recent advances in X-ray instrumentation, polarimetry remains an area which has been virtually unexplored in the last 20 years. The scientific motivation to study polarization has increased during this time: emission models designed to repro- duce X-ray spectra can be tested using polarization, and polarization detected in other wavelength bands makes clear predictions as to the X-ray polarization. Polarization remains the only way to infer geometrical properties of sources which are too small to be spatially resolved. At the same time, there has been recent progress in instrumen- tation which is likely to allow searches for X-ray polarization at levels significantly below what was possible for early detectors. In this talk I will review the history of X-ray polarimetry, discuss some experimental techniques and the scientific problems which can be addressed by future experiments.

  12. Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: Guided hybrid input-output method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, C. W.; Lee, T. K.

    2007-08-01

    We have developed an algorithm that combines the concept of optimization with the conventional hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm for phase retrieval of oversampled diffraction intensities. In particular, the optimization algorithm of guiding searching direction to locate the global minimum has been implemented. Compared with HIO, this guided HIO algorithm retrieves the lost phase information from diffraction intensities with much better accuracy.

  13. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  14. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  16. The flight test of a grazing incidence relay optics telescope for solar X-ray astronomy utilizing a thinned, back-illuminated CCD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. Daniel; Davis, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The new AS&E Ultrahigh Resolution Soft X-ray Solar Research Rocket Payload has been successfully flown twice on Black Brant IX Sounding Rockets from White Sands Missile Range. These flights, conducted on 15 August 1987 and 11 December 1987, provided the first test of the new payload which consists of 3.8X magnifying hyperboloid-hyperboloid grazing incidence relay optic used in conjunction with an existing Wolter-I primary mirror. An RCA SID 500 series CCD detector was utilized in a thinned, back-illuminated configuration for recording the images. The 5.4 m effective focal length of the compound optics system resulted in a plate scale of 1 arc second per pixel which is comparable to the inherent resolution of the primary mirror. These flights represent the first use in X-ray astronomy of either of these two new technologies. These observations are presented with comparison to laboratory measurements and theoretical expectations of the instrument performance.

  17. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  18. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fractures, bone tumors , degenerative bone conditions, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection). ... chap 46. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated ...

  19. Pelvis x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Medical Imaging Costs Magnetoencephalography ( ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  3. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray particles pass through the body. A computer or special film records the images. Structures that ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  6. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  9. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications.Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) ... diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  15. sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio in amorphous carbon from C 1s core-level shifts: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerle, Rainer; Riedo, Elisa; Pasquarello, Alfredo; Baldereschi, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we address C 1s core-level shifts in amorphous carbon. Experimental results are obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) on thin-film samples of different atomic density, obtained by a pulsed-laser deposition growth process. The XPS spectra are deconvoluted into two contributions, which are attributed to sp2- and sp3-hybridized atoms, respectively, separated by 0.9 eV, independent of atomic density. The sp3 hybridization content extracted from XPS is consistent with the atomic density derived from the plasmon energy in the EELS spectrum. In our theoretical study, we generate several periodic model structures of amorphous carbon of different densities applying two schemes of increasing accuracy in sequence. We first use a molecular-dynamics approach, based on an environmental-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian to quench the systems from the liquid phase. The final model structures are then obtained by further atomic relaxation using a first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave approach within density-functional theory. Within the latter framework, we also calculate carbon 1s core-level shifts for our disordered model structures. We find that the shifts associated to threefold- and fourfold- coordinated carbon atoms give rise to two distinct peaks separated by about 1.0 eV, independent of density, in close agreement with experimental observations. This provides strong support for decomposing the XPS spectra into two peaks resulting from sp2- and sp3-hybridized atoms. Core-hole relaxations effects account for about 30% of the calculated shifts.

  16. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all......Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...

  17. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all......Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...

  18. The solvent shell structure of aqueous iodide: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and classical, hybrid QM/MM and full quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, V.T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de spectroscopie ultrarapide, ISIC, FSB-BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tavernelli, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de chimie et biochimie computationnelles, ISIC, FSB-BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Milne, C.J.; van der Veen, R.M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de spectroscopie ultrarapide, ISIC, FSB-BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); D' Angelo, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Ple A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Bressler, Ch. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de spectroscopie ultrarapide, ISIC, FSB-BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chergui, M., E-mail: Majed.Chergui@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de spectroscopie ultrarapide, ISIC, FSB-BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-05-25

    Graphical abstract: The L{sub 3}-edge EXAFS spectra of aqueous iodide are compared to classical, QM/MM and DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. The QM/MM simulations reproduce best the experimental data. An anisotropy of the solvation shell is also identified. - Abstract: The L{sub 3} X-ray absorption spectrum of aqueous iodide is reported, and its EXAFS is compared to theoretical spectra reconstructed from the radial distribution function of the iodide hydration obtained from classical, hybrid Quantum Mechanics Molecular Mechanics, (QM/MM) and full quantum (density functional theory, DFT) molecular dynamics simulations. Since EXAFS is mainly sensitive to short distances around the iodide ion, it is a direct probe of the local solvation structure. The comparison shows that QM/MM simulations deliver a satisfactory description of the EXAFS signal, while nonpolarizable classical simulations are somewhat less satisfactory and DFT-based simulations perform poorly. We also identify a weak anisotropy of the water solvation shell around iodide, which may be of importance in electron photoejection experiments.

  19. PEGylated hybrid ytterbia nanoparticles as high-performance diagnostic probes for in vivo magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography imaging with low systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Pu, Fang; Liu, Jianhua; Jiang, Liyan; Yuan, Qinghai; Li, Zhengqiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-05-21

    Novel nanoparticulate contrast agents with low systemic toxicity and inexpensive character have exhibited more advantages over routinely used small molecular contrast agents for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Herein, we designed and synthesized PEGylated hybrid ytterbia nanoparticles as high-performance nanoprobes for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging both in vitro and in vivo. These well-defined nanoparticles were facile to prepare and cost-effective, meeting the criteria as a biomedical material. Compared with routinely used Iobitridol in clinic, our PEG-Yb2O3:Gd nanoparticles could provide much significantly enhanced contrast upon various clinical voltages ranging from 80 kVp to 140 kVp owing to the high atomic number and well-positioned K-edge energy of ytterbium. By the doping of gadolinium, our nanoparticulate contrast agent could perform perfect MR imaging simultaneously, revealing similar organ enrichment and bio-distribution with the CT imaging results. The super improvement in imaging efficiency was mainly attributed to the high content of Yb and Gd in a single nanoparticle, thus making these nanoparticles suitable for dual-modal diagnostic imaging with a low single-injection dose. In addition, detailed toxicological study in vitro and in vivo indicated that uniformly sized PEG-Yb2O3:Gd nanoparticles possessed excellent biocompatibility and revealed overall safety.

  20. Large-angle OBServaTory with Energy Resolution for Synoptic X-ray Studies (LOBSTER-SXS)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The soft X-ray band hosts a larger, more diverse range of variable sources than any other region of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are stars, compact binaries, SMBH's, the X-ray components of Gamma-Ray Bursts, their X-ray afterglows, and soft X-ray flares from supernova. We describe a concept for a very wide field (~ 4 ster) modular hybrid X-ray telescope system that can measure positions of bursts and fast transients with as good as arc second accuracy, the precision required to identify fainter and increasingly more distant events. The dimensions and materials of all telescope modules are identical. All but two are part of a cylindrical lobster-eye telescope with flat double sided mirrors that focus in one dimension and utilize a coded mask for resolution in the other. Their positioning accuracy is about an arc minute. The two remaining modules are made from the same materials but configured as a Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope with longer focal length that focuses in two dimensions. When pointed it refines ...

  1. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  2. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  3. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.;  uhada, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-02-25

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥1042 erg s-1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter

  4. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-04-11

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from similar to 6 deg(2) of the XMM-Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>= 10(42) erg s(-1)) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y-500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8 sigma significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y-500 signal that is (17 +/- 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass

  5. Soft X ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Joakim Fredrik

    The first high resolution Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) images of the Sun with normal incidence multilayer optics were obtained by the Standford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph on 23 Oct. 1987. Numerous images at selected wavelengths from 8 to 256 A were obtained simultaneously by the diverse array of telescopes flown on-board the experiment. These telescopes included single reflection normal incidence multilayer systems (Herschelian), double reflection multilayer systems (Cassegrain), a grazing incidence mirror system (Wolter-Schwarzschild), and hybrid systems using normal incidence multilayer optics in conjunction with the grazing incidence primary (Wolter-Cassegrain). Filters comprised of approximately 1700 A thick aluminum supported on a nickel mesh were used to transmit the soft x ray/EUV radiation while preventing the intense visible light emission of the Sun from fogging the sensitive experimental T-grain photographic emulsions. These systems yielded high resolution soft x ray/EUV images of the solar corona and transition region, which reveal magnetically confined loops of hot solar plasma, coronal plumes, polar coronal holes, supergranulation, and features associated with overlying cool prominences. The development, testing, and operation of the experiments, and the results from the flight are described. The development of a second generation experiment, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, which is scheduled to fly in the summer of 1990, and a recently approved Space Station experiment, the Ultra-High Resolution XUV Spectroheliograph, which is scheduled to fly in 1996 are also described.

  6. X-Ray Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    15,000. • When developed In Kodak liquid X-ray developer for 5 min at a temperature of 200 C. b Film sensitivities vary with photon energy by the...for example temporomandibular -joint exposures where a skin dose of 25 r or more may be obtained during a single exposure with 65 kvp, 1.5 mm aluminum...communication. W. J. Updegrave, Temporomandibular articulation-X-ray examina- tion, Dental Radiography and Photography 26, No. 3, 41 (1953). H. 0. Wyckoff, R. J

  7. X-ray Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx. We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars.

  8. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  10. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  11. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field...

  12. Structure factor of blends of solvent-free nanoparticle–organic hybrid materials: density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2014-09-15

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We investigate the static structure factor S(q) of solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials consisting of silica nanocores and space-filling polyethylene glycol coronas using a density-functional theory and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. The theory considers a bidisperse suspension of hard spheres with different radii and tethered bead-spring oligomers with different grafting densities to approximate the polydispersity effects in experiments. The experimental systems studied include pure samples with different silica core volume fractions and the associated mean corona grafting densities, and blends with different mixing ratios of the pure samples, in order to introduce varying polydispersity of corona grafting density. Our scattering experiments and theory show that, compared to the hard-sphere suspension with the same core volume fraction, S(q) for pure samples exhibit both substantially smaller values at small q and stronger particle correlations corresponding to a larger effective hard core at large q, indicating that the tethered incompressible oligomers enforce a more uniform particle distribution, and the densely grafted brush gives rise to an additional exclusionary effect between the nanoparticles. According to the theory, polydispersity in the oligomer grafting density controls the deviation of S(q) from the monodisperse system at smaller q, and the interplay of the enhanced effective core size and the entropic attraction among the particles is responsible for complex variations in the particle correlations at larger q. The successful comparison between the predictions and the measurements for the blends further suggests that S(q) can be used to assess the uniformity of grafting density in polymer-grafted nanoparticle materials. This journal is

  13. Tokamak Spectroscopy for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin B.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; May, M. J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mattioli, M.; Leigheb, M.; Rice, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the measured x-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) spectra of three astrophysically abundant elements (Fe, Ca and Ne) from three different tokamak plasmas. In every case, each spectrum touches on an issue of atomic physics that is important for simulation codes to be used in the analysis of high spectral resolution data from current and future x-ray telescopes. The utility of the tokamak as a laboratory test bed for astrophysical data is demonstrated. Simple models generated with the HULLAC suite of codes demonstrate how the atomic physics issues studied can affect the interpretation of astrophysical data.

  14. Compact Optical Counterparts of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Lian; Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at time scales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power-law, $F_{\

  15. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus ...

  16. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  17. X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  18. X-ray lithography masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  19. Handbook of X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith A. (Editor); Smith, Randall K.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    X-ray astronomy was born in the aftermath of World War II as military rockets were repurposed to lift radiation detectors above the atmosphere for a few minutes at a time. These early flights detected and studied X-ray emission from the Solar corona. The first sources beyond the Solar System were detected during a rocket flight in 1962 by a team headed by Riccardo Giaccom at American Science and Engineering, a company founded by physicists from MIT. The rocket used Geiger counters with a system designed to reduce non-X-ray backgrounds and collimators limiting the region of sky seen by the counters. As the rocket spun, the field of view (FOV) happened to pass over what was later found to be the brightest non-Solar X-ray source; later designated See X-1. It also detected a uniform background glow which could not be resolved into individual sources. A follow-up campaign using X-ray detectors with better spatial resolution and optical telescopes identified See X-1 as an interacting binary with a compact (neutron star) primary. This success led to further suborbital rocket flights by a number of groups. More X-ray binaries were discovered, as well as X-ray emission from supernova remnants, the radio galaxies M87 and Cygnus-A, and the Coma cluster. Detectors were improved and Geiger counters were replaced by proportional counters, which provided information about energy spectra of the sources. A constant challenge was determining precise positions of sources as only collimators were available.

  20. Model Atmospheres for X-ray Bursting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Medin, Zach; Calder, Alan C; Fontes, Christopher J; Fryer, Chris L; Hungerford, Aimee L

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen and helium accreted by X-ray bursting neutron stars is periodically consumed in runaway thermonuclear reactions that cause the entire surface to glow brightly in X-rays for a few seconds. With models of the emission, the mass and radius of the neutron star can be inferred from the observations. By simultaneously probing neutron star masses and radii, X-ray bursts are one of the strongest diagnostics of the nature of matter at extremely high densities. Accurate determinations of these parameters are difficult, however, due to the highly non-ideal nature of the atmospheres where X-ray bursts occur. Observations from X-ray telescopes such as RXTE and NuStar can potentially place strong constraints on nuclear matter once uncertainties in atmosphere models have been reduced. Here we discuss current progress on modeling atmospheres of X-ray bursting neutron stars and some of the challenges still to be overcome.

  1. Imaging in Hard X-ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Li Ti Pei

    2002-01-01

    The energy range of hard X-rays is a key waveband to the study of high energy processes in celestial objects, but still remains poorly explored. In contrast to direct imaging methods used in the low energy X-ray and high energy gamma-ray bands, currently imaging in the hard X-ray band is mainly achieved through various modulation techniques. A new inversion technique, the direct demodulation method, has been developed since early 90s. With this technique, wide field and high resolution images can be derived from scanning data of a simple collimated detector. The feasibility of this technique has been confirmed by experiment, balloon-borne observation and analyzing simulated and real astronomical data. Based the development of methodology and instrumentation, a high energy astrophysics mission -- Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) has been proposed and selected in China for a four-year Phase-A study. The main scientific objectives are a full-sky hard X-ray (20-200 keV) imaging survey and high signal-to-noi...

  2. Thin Shell, Segmented X-Ray Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution were not necessary. Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope, ASCA, and Suzaku. The introduction of key innovations, including epoxy replicated surfaces, multilayer coatings, and glass mirror substrates, has led to performance improvements, and in their becoming widely used for X-ray astronomical imaging at energies above 10 keV. The use of glass substrates has also led to substantial improvement in angular resolution, and thus their incorporation into the NASA concept for the International X-ray Observatory with a planned 3 in diameter aperture. This paper traces the development of foil mirrors from their inception in the 1970's through their current and anticipated future applications.

  3. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses ... assess trauma patients in emergency departments. A CT scan can image complicated fractures, subtle fractures or dislocations. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  12. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small dose ... to produce pictures of the inside of the abdominal cavity. It is used to evaluate the stomach, liver, ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it ... organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  18. A Hubble Space Telescope Lensing Survey of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters A Multiply-imaged Extremely Red Galaxy at z=1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G P; Kneib, J P; Davis, C J; Takamiya, M; Ebeling, H; Czoske, O; Smith, Graham P.; Smail, Ian

    2002-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of EROJ003707+0909.5, the brightest of three gravitationally-lensed images of an Extremely Red Object (ERO) at z=1.6, in the field of the massive cluster A68 (z=0.255). We exploit the superlative resolution of our HST data and the enhanced spatial resolution and sensitivity afforded by the lens amplification to reconstruct the source-plane properties of this ERO. Our morphological and photometric analysis reveals that EROJ003707 is an L* early-type disk-galaxy and we estimate that ~10 per cent of EROs with (R-K)>=5.3 and K<=21 may have similar properties. The unique association of passive EROs with elliptical galaxies therefore appears to be too simplistic. We speculate on the evolution of EROJ003707: if gas continues to cool onto this galaxy in the manner predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models, then by the present day, EROJ003707 could evolve into a very luminous spiral galaxy.

  19. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  2. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  3. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  4. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  5. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  7. X-ray selected BALQSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Ceballos, M; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Esquej, P; Krumpe, M; Mateos, S; Rosen, S; Schwope, A; Streblyanska, A; Symeonidis, M; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2016-01-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index alpha=0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, alpha_OX, of the X-ray selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of 1.69 +- 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically-selected BALQSOs typically have much larger alpha_OX and so are characterised as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray sp...

  8. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  9. Calculation of x-ray scattering patterns from nanocrystals at high x-ray intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Malik Muhammad; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized method to describe the x-ray scattering intensity of the Bragg spots in a diffraction pattern from nanocrystals exposed to intense x-ray pulses. Our method involves the subdivision of a crystal into smaller units. In order to calculate the dynamics within every unit we employ a Monte-Carlo (MC)-molecular dynamics (MD)-ab-initio hybrid framework using real space periodic boundary conditions. By combining all the units we simulate the diffraction pattern of a crystal larger than the transverse x-ray beam profile, a situation commonly encountered in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments with focused x-ray free-electron laser radiation. Radiation damage is not spatially uniform and depends on the fluence associated with each specific region inside the crystal. To investigate the effects of uniform and non-uniform fluence distribution we have used two different spatial beam profiles, gaussian and flattop.

  10. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  11. X-ray today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, U. [Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The interest attracted by the new imaging modalities tends to overshadow the continuing importance of projection radiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, projection techniques still represent by far the greatest proportion of diagnostic imaging examinations, and play an essential role in the growing number of advanced interventional procedures. This article describes some of the latest developments in X-ray imaging technology, using two products from the Philips range as examples: the Integris Allura cardiovascular system with 3D image reconstruction, and the BV Pulsera: a high-end, multi-functional mobile C-arm system with cardiac capabilities. (orig.)

  12. Detective quantum efficiency for photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors in the tender X-ray domain: application to Medipix3RX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Jean; Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz; Meneau, Florian; Cesar Vicentin, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray imaging techniques using tender X-rays are facing a growing demand, in particular to probe the K absorption edges of low-Z elements. Here, a mathematical model has been developed for estimating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero spatial frequency in the tender X-ray energy range for photon-counting detectors by taking into account the influence of electronic noise. The experiments were carried out with a Medipix3RX ASIC bump-bonded to a 300 µm silicon sensor at the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline (D04A-SXS) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, Brazil). The results show that Medipix3RX can be used to develop new imaging modalities in the tender X-ray range for energies down to 2 keV. The efficiency and optimal DQE depend on the energy and flux of the photons. The optimal DQE values were found in the 7.9-8.6 keV photon energy range. The DQE deterioration for higher energies due to the lower absorption efficiency of the sensor and for lower energies due to the electronic noise has been quantified. The DQE for 3 keV photons and 1 × 10(4) photons pixel(-1) s(-1) is similar to that obtained with 19 keV photons. Based on our model, the use of Medipix3RX could be extended down to 2 keV which is crucial for coming applications in imaging techniques at modern synchrotron sources.

  13. Soft X-ray Polarimetry Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman; Schulz, Norbert S.; Heine, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    We present continued development of a telescope for measuring linear X-ray polarization over the 0.2-0.8 keV band. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 95%. We have constructed a source of polarized X-rays that operates at a wide range of energies with a selectable polarization angle. We will present results from measurements of new laterally graded multilayer mirrors and new gratings essential to the design. Finally, we will present a design for a small telescope for suborbital or orbital missions. A suborbital mission could measure the polarization of a blazar such as Mk 421 to 5-10 percent while an orbital version could measure the polarizations of neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, and blazars.

  14. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  15. X-ray Properties of an Unbiased Hard X-ray Detected Sample of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tueller, Jack; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    The SWIFT gamma ray observatory's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has detected a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) based solely on their hard X-ray flux (14-195keV). In this paper, we present for the first time XMM-Newton X-ray spectra for 22 BAT AGXs with no previously analyzed X-ray spectra. If our sources are a representative sample of the BAT AGN, as we claim, our results present for the first time global X-ray properties of an unbiased towards absorption (n(sub H) = 0.03), AGN sample. We find 9/22 low absorption (n(sub H) 2.0 keV. Five of the complex sources (NGC 612, ESO 362-G018, MRK 417, ESO 506-G027, and NGC 6860) are classified as Compton-thick candidates. Further, we find four more sources (SWIFT J0641.3+3257, SWIFT J0911.2+4533, SWIFT J1200.8+0650, and NGC 4992) with properties consistent with the hidden/buried AGN reported by Ueda et al. (2007). Finally, we include a comparison of the XMM EPIC spectra with available SWIFT X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations. From these comparisons, we find 6/16 sources with varying column densities, 6/16 sources with varying power law indices, and 13/16 sources with varying fluxes, over periods of hours to months. Flux and power law index are correlated for objects where both parameters vary.

  16. X-ray lithography source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  17. The restless universe understanding X-ray astronomy in the age of Chandra and Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, Eric M

    2002-01-01

    This title tells the story of the development and launch of a major space-based telescope, and explains the discoveries of the nature of the universe in the X-ray spectre. The author looks at the brief history of X-ray astronomy to explore what can and has been learnt by using X-ray.

  18. Evaluation of a real-time hybrid three-dimensional echo and X-ray imaging system for guidance of cardiac catheterisation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housden, R J; Arujuna, A; Ma, Y; Nijhof, N; Gijsbers, G; Bullens, R; O'Neill, M; Cooklin, M; Rinaldi, C A; Gill, J; Kapetanakis, S; Hancock, J; Thomas, M; Razavi, R; Rhode, K S

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is made possible by image guidance technology. X-ray fluoroscopy provides high contrast images of catheters and devices, whereas 3D ultrasound is better for visualising cardiac anatomy. We present a system in which the two modalities are combined, with a trans-esophageal echo volume registered to and overlaid on an X-ray projection image in real-time. We evaluate the accuracy of the system in terms of both temporal synchronisation errors and overlay registration errors. The temporal synchronisation error was found to be 10% of the typical cardiac cycle length. In 11 clinical data sets, we found an average alignment error of 2.9 mm. We conclude that the accuracy result is very encouraging and sufficient for guiding many types of cardiac interventions. The combined information is clinically useful for placing the echo image in a familiar coordinate system and for more easily identifying catheters in the echo volume.

  19. The peculiar optical-UV X-ray spectra of the X-ray weak quasar PG 0043+039

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Santos-Lleó, M; Rodríguez-Pascual, P M; Ballo, L; Talavera, A

    2016-01-01

    The object PG 0043+039 has been identified as a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar based on its UV spectra. However, this optical luminous quasar has not been detected before in deep X-ray observations, making it the most extreme X-ray weak quasar known today. This study aims to detect PG 0043+039 in a deep X-ray exposure. The question is what causes the extreme X-ray weakness of PG 0043+039? Does PG 0043+039 show other spectral or continuum peculiarities? We took simultaneous deep X-ray spectra with XMM-Newton, far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and optical spectra of PG 0043+039 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in July, 2013. We have detected PG 0043+039 in our X-ray exposure taken in 2013. We presented our first results in a separate paper (Kollatschny et al. 2015). PG 0043+039 shows an extreme {\\alpha}_ox gradient ({\\alpha}_ox =-2.37). Furthermore, we were able to verify an X-ray flux of this source in a reanalysis of the X-...

  20. X-ray Pulsation Searches with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an X-ray telescope with capabilities optimized for the study of the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through high-precision timing of rotation- and accretion-powered pulsars in the 0.2-12 keV band. It has large collecting area (twice that of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn camera), CCD-quality spectral resolution, and high-precision photon time tagging referenced to UTC through an onboard GPS receiver. NICER will begin its 18-month prime mission as an attached payload on the International Space Station around the end of 2016. I will describe the science planning for the pulsation search science working group, which is charged with searching for pulsations and studying flux modulation properties of pulsars and other neutron stars. A primary goal of our observations is to detect pulsations from new millisecond pulsars that will contribute to NICER’s studies of the neutron star equation of state through pulse profile modeling. Beyond that, our working group will search for pulsations in a range of source categories, including LMXBs, new X-ray transients that might be accreting millisecond pulsars, X-ray counterparts to unassociated Fermi LAT sources, gamma-ray binaries, isolated neutron stars, and ultra-luminous X-ray sources. I will survey our science plans and give an overview of our planned observations during NICER’s prime mission.

  1. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki Hatsui; Heinz Graafsma

    2015-01-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivit...

  2. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  3. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  4. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  5. Soft X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Eberhard A

    1993-01-01

    This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction.

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  7. Space Soft X-ray and EUV Optics in CIOMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; NI Qi-liang; WANG Jun-lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Since the early of 1980's, the studies of soft X-ray and EUV optics have been implemented in CIOMP(Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics). So far, the research system of soft X-ray and EUV optics has been founded including sources, radiometry, testing and manufacturing of the super smooth mirror and multilayer coating mirror fabrication. Based on the above technologies, we started to develop the soft X-ray and EUV optical system such as a space EUV solar telescope and a EUV imager.

  8. Optical Identifications of X-ray Selected AGNs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For investigating the statistical properties of X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), we have carried out a program of optical identification of a selection of X-ray sources from ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) using the 2.16 m telescope of Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). In the preliminary observations, 23 new AGNs were discovered, of which 9 are quasars, and 14 are Seyfert galaxies.

  9. Neutron Star Science with the X-ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Feryal

    2015-10-01

    Probing the interiors and magnetic fields of neutron stars and characterizing their populations in the Galaxy is an important science goal for the next generation X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how the capabilities of the X-ray Surveyor Mission are crucial for making significant advances in these fields and how we can address the open questions with a dataset that will become available with such a mission.

  10. XRASE: The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Silver, E.; Murray, S.

    2001-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer (XRASE) has a unique combination of features that will make it possible to address many of NASA's scientific goals. These include how galaxy clusters form, the physics and chemistry of the ISM, the heating of stellar coronae, the amount and content of intergalactic...... baryonic matter, the mass of black holes and the formation of disks and jets in AGN and galactic binaries. XRASE has a thin foil, multilayered telescope with a large collecting area up to 10 keV, especially in the Fe K alpha region (1100 cm(2)). Its microcalorimeter array combines high energy resolution (7...... eV at 6 keV) and efficiency with a field-of-view of 26 arcmin(2) . A deep orbit allows for long, continuous observations. Monitoring instruments in the optical (WOM-X), UV (TAUVEX) and hard X-RAY (GRAM) bands will offer exceptional opportunities to make simultaneous multi-wavelength observations....

  11. XRASE: The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Silver, E.; Murray, S.

    2001-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer (XRASE) has a unique combination of features that will make it possible to address many of NASA's scientific goals. These include how galaxy clusters form, the physics and chemistry of the ISM, the heating of stellar coronae, the amount and content of intergalactic...... baryonic matter, the mass of black holes and the formation of disks and jets in AGN and galactic binaries. XRASE has a thin foil, multilayered telescope with a large collecting area up to 10 keV, especially in the Fe K alpha region (1100 cm(2)). Its microcalorimeter array combines high energy resolution (7...... eV at 6 keV) and efficiency with a field-of-view of 26 arcmin(2) . A deep orbit allows for long, continuous observations. Monitoring instruments in the optical (WOM-X), UV (TAUVEX) and hard X-RAY (GRAM) bands will offer exceptional opportunities to make simultaneous multi-wavelength observations....

  12. Calculation of x-ray scattering patterns from nanocrystals at high x-ray intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Muhammad Abdullah; Zoltan Jurek; Sang-Kil Son; Robin Santra

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized method to describe the x-ray scattering intensity of the Bragg spots in a diffraction pattern from nanocrystals exposed to intense x-ray pulses. Our method involves the subdivision of a crystal into smaller units. In order to calculate the dynamics within every unit we employ a Monte-Carlo (MC)-molecular dynamics (MD)-ab-initio hybrid framework using real space periodic boundary conditions. By combining all the units we simulate the diffraction pattern of a crystal la...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air ...

  15. Large thin adaptive x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Thompson, Samantha; Brooks, David; Yao, Jun; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the progress made in a proof of concept study and recent results of a research program into large active x-ray mirrors that is part of the UK Smart X-ray Optics project. The ultimate aim is to apply the techniques of active/adaptive optics to the next generation of nested shell astronomical X-ray space telescopes. A variety of deformable mirror technologies are currently available, the most promising of which for active X-ray mirrors are probably unimorph and bimorph piezoelectric mirrors. In this type of mirror one or more sheets of piezoelectric material are bonded to or coated with a passive reflective layer. On the back or between the piezoceramic layer/layers are series of electrodes. Application of an electric field causes the piezoelectric material to undergo local deformation thus changing the mirror shape. Starting in 2005 a proof of concept active mirror research program has been undertaken. This work included modelling and development of actively controlled thin shell mirrors. Finite element models of piezo-electric actuated mirrors have been developed and verified against experimental test systems. This has included the modelling and test of piezo-electric hexagonal unimorph segments. Various actuator types and low shrinkage conductive bonding methods have been investigated and laboratory tests of the use of piezo-electric actuators to adjust the form of an XMM-Newton space telescope engineering model mirror shell have been conducted and show that movement of the optics at the required level is achievable. Promising technological approaches have been identified including moulded piezo-ceramics and piezo-electrics fibre bundles.

  16. An ionic 2D inorganic-organic hybrid of tris[((1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)morpholine] dodecatungstophosphate(Ⅴ) pentahydrate:Synthesis X-ray crystal structure and spectroscopic characterizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen; Nikpour; Hossein; Eshtiagh-Hosseini; Masoud; Mirzaei; Amir; Aghaei; Kaju; Soroush; Zarinabadi

    2010-01-01

    A unique ionic hybrid material[C_6H_(12)N_5O]_3[(PO_4)W__(12)O_(36)]·5H_2O has been synthesized from the reaction of((1H-tetrazole-5- yl)methyl)morpholine andα-H_3[(PO_4)W_(12)O_(36)]·21H_2O.It has successfully been characterized by elemental analysis,IR and ~1H NMR spectroscopies,TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction method.The title compound is constructed from the three [C_6H_(12)N_5O]~+ cations andα-Keggin[(PO_4)W_(12)O_(36)]~(3-) polyoxoanion.The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid ...

  17. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  18. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  19. Instrumentation and data analysis for hard X ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang Nan

    The current status of hard x ray astronomy is reviewed. The applicability of various hard x ray detectors in such new telescopes are discussed and the current status of hard x ray telescope design is reviewed. Background production mechanisms in hard x ray telescopes are discussed and some techniques for background reduction are also discussed. A simple method for estimating the optimum detector thickness is presented and the use of some detector materials which should minimize the neutron background is proposed. Three imaging techniques are briefly described. A simple discussion about their relative merits has suggested that the rotating modulation collimator (RMC) technique based on an improved detector technique provides the best imaging system. The pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique is essential for the realization of such new detectors. The basic principles of various PSD methods are made for hard x ray phoswich detector applications. A new fast-veto technique is proposed and may be used in a quadruple phoswich detector system to provide good energy resolution and efficient background rejection. A proposed satellite-borne hard x ray telescope (CHIXSAT), which would use such detectors as its main detection elements, is described. A range of statistical data analysis methods for hard x ray and gamma ray astronomy are studied. Fisher's fact test is found to give the most reliable significance test. Methods for parameter estimation, including upper limit calculations, are described. The sensitivity of a telescope is defined with clear statistical meaning and a method for estimating the sensitivity is derived. A new method, called the chi3-test is proposed to be unbiased and have a very high power for multiple on-off observations, especially in searching for transient sources.

  20. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    relative contributions of different processes. SWCX X-ray emission from the Earth's exosphere is turning from unwanted variable background in astrophysical observations to a novel and global diagnostic tool for investigating solar-terrestrial interactions: this underpins the development of the ESA-CAS joint mission SMILE (Solar Wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) due for launch in 2021. On the longer term ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics, launch 2028) will provide planetary targets with vastly improved X-ray sensitivity on that currently afforded by XMM-Newton.

  1. The high resolution X-ray imaging detector planes for the MIRAX mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Braga, J.; D'Amico, F.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2013-09-01

    The MIRAX X-ray observatory, the first Brazilian-led astrophysics space mission, is designed to perform an unprecedented wide-field, wide-band hard X-ray (5-200 keV) survey of Galactic X-ray transient sources. In the current configuration, MIRAX will carry a set of four coded-masks telescopes with high spatial resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector planes, each one consisting of an array of 64 closely tiled CZT pixelated detectors. Taken together, the four telescopes will have a total detection area of 959 cm2, a large field of view (60° × 60° FWHM), high angular resolution for this energy range (6 arcmin) and very good spectral resolution ( ~ 2 keV @ 60 keV). A stratospheric balloon-borne prototype of one of the MIRAX telescopes has been developed, tested and flown by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) as part of the ProtoEXIST program. In this paper we show results of validation and calibration tests with individual CZT detectors of the ProtoEXIST second generation experiment (P2). Each one of 64 detector units of the P2 detector plane consists of an ASIC, developed by Caltech for the NuSTAR telescope, hybridized to a CZT crystal with 0.6 mm pixel size. The performance of each detector was evaluated using radioactive sources in the laboratory. The calibration results show that the P2 detectors have average energy resolution of ~ 2.1 keV @ 60 keV and 2.3 @ 122 keV. P2 was also successfully tested on near-space environment on a balloon flight, demonstrating the detector unit readiness for integration on a space mission telescope, as well as satisfying all MIRAX mission requirements.

  2. X-ray monitoring optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvydko, Yury; Katsoudas, John; Blank, Vladimir D.; Terentyev, Sergey A.

    2016-12-27

    An X-ray article and method for analyzing hard X-rays which have interacted with a test system. The X-ray article is operative to diffract or otherwise process X-rays from an input X-ray beam which have interacted with the test system and at the same time provide an electrical circuit adapted to collect photoelectrons emitted from an X-ray optical element of the X-ray article to analyze features of the test system.

  3. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment.

  4. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping, E-mail: zhusp2009@gmail.com; Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin [Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging of Ministry of Education and School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging.

  5. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  6. Synthesis and first X-ray structure of a hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene-fullerene-dyad: a model for an inter-carbon-allotrope hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Andreas; Englert, Jan M; Lungerich, Dominik; Heinemann, Frank W; Jux, Norbert; Hirsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a new hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-fullerene dyad was accomplished involving a covalent linkage between both the planar and the spherical conjugated π-system of the two chromophores. We also present the first X-ray single crystal structure of a HBC-fullerene conjugate. A very short HBC-fullerene distance of 3.2 Å is observed. For the synthesis of this molecule, a new versatile applicable template, namely, a mono-functionalized hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene was attached to a fullerene. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as quantum yield measurements of , indicated close electronic communication between the two subunits, which is promising for possible applications in molecular electronics.

  7. First detective quantum efficiency measurement of 500 {mu}m silicon hybrid pixel sensor with photon counting readout for X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surre, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. E-mail: Benjamin.surre@u-clermontl.fr; Caria, Mario [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaput, Julien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hassoun, Thierry [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laverroux, Fabien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Sarry, Laurent [Equipe de Recherche en Signal et Imagerie Medicale, EA3295, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-07-01

    We report the performances of a 500 {mu}m pixellated silicon sensor bonded to the photon counting chip Medipix2 [1]. In order to perform an absolute characterization of our detector, we measured both the pre-sampling MTF and NPS with respect to the International standard IEC-62220-1. From those data we have been able to extract the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and hence to assess the suitability of our detector for X-ray medical imaging purpose. Due to poor absorption of the Si at 70 kV the DQE peaked at 0.06 for null frequency. Nevertheless, these results are very promising since thicker Si or more absorbing material such as GaAs will soon be available.

  8. Detecting liquid threats with x-ray diffraction imaging (XDi) using a hybrid approach to navigate trade-offs between photon count statistics and spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatter, Sondre; Fritsch, Sebastian; Schlomka, Jens-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The performance limits were explored for an X-ray Diffraction based explosives detection system for baggage scanning. This XDi system offers 4D imaging that comprises three spatial dimensions with voxel sizes in the order of ~(0.5cm)3, and one spectral dimension for material discrimination. Because only a very small number of photons are observed for an individual voxel, material discrimination cannot work reliably at the voxel level. Therefore, an initial 3D reconstruction is performed, which allows the identification of objects of interest. Combining all the measured photons that scattered within an object, more reliable spectra are determined on the object-level. As a case study we looked at two liquid materials, one threat and one innocuous, with very similar spectral characteristics, but with 15% difference in electron density. Simulations showed that Poisson statistics alone reduce the material discrimination performance to undesirable levels when the photon counts drop to 250. When additional, uncontrolled variation sources are considered, the photon count plays a less dominant role in detection performance, but limits the performance also for photon counts of 500 and higher. Experimental data confirmed the presence of such non-Poisson variation sources also in the XDi prototype system, which suggests that the present system can still be improved without necessarily increasing the photon flux, but by better controlling and accounting for these variation sources. When the classification algorithm was allowed to use spectral differences in the experimental data, the discrimination between the two materials improved significantly, proving the potential of X-ray diffraction also for liquid materials.

  9. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  10. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. Credit: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects.

  11. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  12. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  13. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...... in the telescope using different multilayer material combinations is produced. Similar methods are used for IAXO, a planned axion helioscope. Additionally, the optimal focal length is modelled while taking into account the least possible background contribution from the detector. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society...

  14. X-ray diagnostics of massive star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, Lidia M.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all types of massive stars with radiatively driven stellar winds are X-ray sources that can be observed by the presently operating powerful X-ray telescopes. In this review I briefly address recent advances in our understanding of stellar winds obtained from X-ray observations. X-rays may strongly influence the dynamics of weak winds of main sequence B-type stars. X-ray pulsations were detected in a β Cep type variable giving evidence of tight photosphere-wind connections. The winds of OB dwarfs with subtypes later than O9V may be predominantly in a hot phase, and X-ray observations offer the best window for their studies. The X-ray properties of OB supergiants are largely determined by the effects of radiative transfer in their clumped stellar winds. The recently suggested method to directly measure mass-loss rates of O stars by fitting the shapes of X-ray emission lines is considered but its validity cannot be confirmed. To obtain robust quantitative information on stellar wind parameters from X-ray spectroscopy, a multiwavelength analysis by means of stellar atmosphere models is required. Independent groups are now performing such analyses with encouraging results. Joint analyses of optical, UV, and X-ray spectra of OB supergiants yield consistent mass-loss rates. Depending on the adopted clumping parameters, the empirically derived mass-loss rates are a factor of a few smaller or comparable to those predicted by standard recipes (Vink et al., 2001). All sufficiently studied O stars display variable X-ray emission that might be related to corotating interaction regions in their winds. In the latest stages of stellar evolution, single red supergiants (RSG) and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars do not emit observable amounts of X-rays. On the other hand, nearly all types of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are X-ray sources. X-ray spectroscopy allows a sensitive probe of WR wind abundances and opacities.

  15. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki Hatsui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  16. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsui, Takaki; Graafsma, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  17. Hard X-ray Timing with EXIST

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Timing Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission concept is under study as the Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP), one of the three Einstein Probe missions in the Beyond Einstein Program in the current NASA Strategic Plan. EXIST would conduct an all-sky imaging hard X-ray ($\\sim$10-600 keV) survey with unprecedented sensitivity: about 5 $\\times 10^{-13}$ cgs over any factor of 2 bandwidth, or comparable to that achieved at soft X-rays in the ROSAT survey. The proposed angular resolution of 5arcmin, temporal resolution of 10microsec, energy resolution of 1-4 keV over the broad band, and duty cycle of 0.2-0.5 for continuous coverage of any source provide an unprecedented phase space for timing and spectral studies of black holes --from stellar to supermassive, as well as neutron stars and accreting white dwarfs. The large sky coverage allows intrinsically rare events to be studied. One particularly exciting example is the possible detection of tidal disruption of stars near quiescent AGN. Super flares fr...

  18. X-ray Scintillation in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Birowosuto, M. D.; Cortecchia, D.; Drozdowski, W.; K. Brylew; Łachmański, W.; A. Bruno; Soci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies for X-ray detection rely on scintillation from expensive inorganic crystals grown at high-temperature, which so far has hindered the development of large-area scintillator arrays. Thanks to the presence of heavy atoms, solution-grown hybrid lead halide perovskite single crystals exhibit short X-ray absorption length and excellent detection efficiency. Here we compare X-ray scintillator characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 and two-dimensional (2D) (...

  19. Development of an n-channel CCD, CCD-NeXT1, for Soft X-ray Imager onboard the NeXT satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Shin-ichiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu 435-8558 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: s-takagi@ssd.hpk.co.jp; Tsuru, Takeshi Go [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: tsuru@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Inui, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hironori; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ozawa, Hideki; Tohiguchi, Masakuni; Matsuura, Daisuke; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro; Kohno, Hirohiko [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu 435-8558 (Japan)

    2007-11-21

    NeXT (New X-ray Telescope) is the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite mission after the Suzaku satellite. NeXT aims to perform wide band imaging spectroscopy. Due to the successful development of a multilayer coated mirror, called a supermirror, NeXT can focus X-rays in the energy range from 0.1 up to 80 keV. To cover this wide energy range, we are in the process of developing a hybrid X-ray camera, Wideband X-ray Imager (WXI) as a focal plane detector of the supermirror. The WXI consists of X-ray CCDs (SXI) and CdTe pixelized detectors (HXI), which cover the lower and higher X-ray energy bands of 0.1-80 keV, respectively. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI are stacked above the CdTe pixelized detectors of the HXI. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI detect soft X-rays below {approx}10keV and allow hard X-rays pass into the CdTe detectors of the HXI without loss. Thus, we have been developing a 'back-supportless CCD' with a thick depletion layer, a thinned silicon wafer, and a back-supportless structure. In this paper, we report the development and performances of an evaluation model of CCD for the SXI, 'CCD-NeXT1'. We successfully fabricated two types of CCD-NeXT1, unthinned CCDs with 625-{mu}m thick wafer and 150-{mu}m thick thinned CCDs. By omitting the polishing process when making the thinned CCDs, we confirmed that the polishing process does not impact the X-ray performance. In addition, we did not find significant differences in the X-ray performance between the two types of CCDs. The energy resolution and readout noise are {approx}140eV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV and {approx}5 electrons (RMS), respectively. The estimated thickness of the depletion layer is {approx}80{mu}m. The performances almost satisfy the requirements of the baseline plan of the SXI.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement ... A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  5. CELESTIAL X-RAY SOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    sources, (4) the physical conditions in the pulsating x-ray source in the Crab Nebula , and (5) miscellaneous related topics. A bibliography of all work performed under the contract is given. (Author)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asked to wait until the radiologist determines that all the necessary images have been obtained. A bone ... while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... diagnosis and treatment of the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing ...

  8. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the ... individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are easily accessible and are frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... 06, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much like a large photographic negative). Today, most ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  2. X-ray diagnostics of massive star winds

    CERN Document Server

    Oskinova, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all types of massive stars with radiatively driven stellar winds are X-ray sources that can be observed by the presently operating powerful X-ray telescopes. In this review I briefly address recent advances in our understanding of stellar winds obtained from X-ray observations. The winds of OB dwarfs with subtypes later than O9V may be predominantly in a hot phase, and X-ray observations offer the best window for their studies. The X-ray properties of OB supergiants are largely determined by the effects of radiative transfer in their clumped stellar winds. The recently suggested method to directly measure mass-loss rates of O stars by fitting the shapes of X-ray emission lines is considered but its validity cannot be confirmed. To obtain robust quantitative information on stellar wind parameters from X-ray spectroscopy, a multiwavelength analysis by means of stellar atmosphere models is required. Independent groups are now performing such analyses with encouraging results. Joint analyses of optical, UV...

  3. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    (and two computing hurdles that result from the corresponding increase in data volume) for the detector community to overcome in order to realize the full potential of BES neutron and X-ray facilities. Resolving these detector impediments will improve scientific productivity both by enabling new types of experiments, which will expand the scientific breadth at the X-ray and neutron facilities, and by potentially reducing the beam time required for a given experiment. These research priorities are summarized in the table below. Note that multiple, simultaneous detector improvements are often required to take full advantage of brighter sources. High-efficiency hard X-ray sensors: The fraction of incident particles that are actually detected defines detector efficiency. Silicon, the most common direct-detection X-ray sensor material, is (for typical sensor thicknesses) 100% efficient at 8 keV, 25%efficient at 20 keV, and only 3% efficient at 50 keV. Other materials are needed for hard X-rays. Replacement for 3He for neutron detectors: 3He has long been the neutron detection medium of choice because of its high cross section over a wide neutron energy range for the reaction 3He + n —> 3H + 1H + 0.764 MeV. 3He stockpiles are rapidly dwindling, and what is available can be had only at prohibitively high prices. Doped scintillators hold promise as ways to capture neutrons and convert them into light, although work is needed on brighter, more efficient scintillator solutions. Neutron detectors also require advances in speed and resolution. Fast-framing X-ray detectors: Today’s brighter X-ray sources make time-resolved studies possible. For example, hybrid X-ray pixel detectors, initially developed for particle physics, are becoming fairly mature X-ray detectors, with considerable development in Europe. To truly enable time-resolved studies, higher frame rates and dynamic range are required, and smaller pixel sizes are desirable. High-speed spectroscopic X-ray detectors

  4. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  5. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  6. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  7. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    these published reports. There were two main types of X-ray detection methods: “indirect,” which uses a scintillation material coupled to a light...Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) X-ray dosimeters (Reference 24). Electrets may be charged by a range of methods

  8. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    1999-01-01

    and identification of gamma ray sources as well as in the analysis and scientific interpretation of the combined X-ray and gamma ray data. JEM-X is a coded aperture X-ray telescope consisting of two identical detectors. Each detector has a sensitive area of 500 cm(2), and views the sky (6.6 deg FOV, FWHM) through...... its own coded aperature mask. The coded cm masks are located 3.4 m above the detector windows. The detector field of view is constrained by X-ray collimators.......The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) will provide simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-60 keV band. The unique angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X will play a crucial role in the detection...

  9. X-ray variability with WFXT: AGNs, transients and more

    CERN Document Server

    Paolillo, Maurizio; Allevato, Viola; de Martino, Domitilla; della Valle, Massimo; Papadakis, Iossif; Gilli, Roberto; Tozzi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) is a proposed mission with a high survey speed, due to the combination of large field of view (FOV) and effective area, i.e. grasp, and sharp PSF across the whole FOV. These characteristics make it suitable to detect a large number of variable and transient X-ray sources during its operating lifetime. Here we present estimates of the WFXT capabilities in the time domain, allowing to study the variability of thousand of AGNs with significant detail, as well as to constrain the rates and properties of hundreds of distant, faint and/or rare objects such as X-ray Flashes/faint GRBs, Tidal Disruption Events, ULXs, Type-I bursts etc. The planned WFXT extragalactic surveys will thus allow to trace variable and transient X-ray populations over large cosmological volumes.

  10. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    The goal of the proposed program is to enable increased angular resolution and collection areas for future major X-ray observatories by incorporating control of the mirror surfaces after fab-rication and mounting. We propose to develop and implement a method for preparing adjustable optics with integrated control elements on curved mirror segments for future X-ray space telescopes. Development of such mirror elements will provide a major advance to the field of X-ray astronomy, by enabling mirrors with half an arcsecond angular resolution using thin, lightweight glass to significantly increase the collection area. This is an enabling technology for mission concepts such as the X-ray Surveyor. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  11. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  12. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most ...

  13. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of Zn/sub 2/Fe/sub 2/ hybrid hemoglobins: absence of heme bond length changes in half-ligated species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simolo, K.; Korszun, Z.R.; Stucky, G.; Moffat, K.; McLendon, G.

    1986-07-01

    Metal hybrid hemoglobins, in which Zn(II) replaces Fe(II), have been structurally characterized by extended X-ray absorption structure (EAFS) studies. Since Zn and Fe have very different K absorption edge energies, the structures of the ligated (Fe) and unligated (Zn) sites could be examined independently within a single molecule that mimics an intermediate ligation state. The observed EXAFS spectra and associated structural parameters are compared among the ligand free (..cap alpha..Zn)/sub 2/(..beta..Zn)/sub 2/, half-ligated (..cap alpha..FeCO)/sub 2/(..beta..Zn)/sub 2/ and (..cap alpha..Zn)/sub 2/(..beta..FeCO)/sub 2/, and fully ligated (..cap alpha..FeCO)/sub 2/(..beta..FeCO)/sub 2/ systems.

  14. Hard X-ray Vela supernova observation on rocket experiment WRX-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlikova, V.; Urban, M.; Nentvich, O.; Daniel, V.; Sieger, L.; Tutt, J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hard X-ray telescope for the Vela nebula observation during a sounding rocket flight. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) experiment is organised by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), USA with a primary payload of a soft X-ray spectroscope. The Czech team developed a hard X-ray Lobster-eye telescope as a secondary payload. The Czech experiment’s astrophysical object of study is the Vela pulsar in the centre of the Vela nebula.

  15. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband...

  16. FY06 LDRD Final Report Next-generation x-ray optics: focusing hard x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovaroff, M; Soufli, R

    2007-03-01

    The original goal of our research was to open up a new class of scientific experiments by increasing the power of newly available x-ray sources by orders of magnitude. This was accomplished by developing a new generation of x-ray optics, based on hard x-ray (10-200 keV) reflective and diffractive focusing elements. The optical systems we envision begin with a core reflective optic, which has the ability to capture and concentrate x-rays across a wide range of energies and angles band, combined with diffractive optics, based on large-scale multilayer structures, that will further enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power of the system. Enabling technologies developed at LLNL such as precise mounting of thermally formed substrates, smoothing techniques and multilayer films of ultra-high reflectance and precision were crucial in the development and demonstration of our research objectives. Highlights of this phase of the project include: the design and fabrication of a concentrator optic for the Pleiades Thomson X-ray source located at LLNL, smoothing of glass substrates through application of polyimide films, and the design, fabrication and testing of novel volume multilayers structures. Part of our research into substrate smooth led to the development of a new technique (patent pending) to construct high-quality, inexpensive x-ray optics. This innovation resulted in LLNL constructing a x-ray optic for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and allowed LLNL to join the international experiment.

  17. Testing for X-ray-SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nurgaliev, D; Benson, B A; Bleem, L; Bocquet, S; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; Gupta, N; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Mohr, J J; Nagai, D; Rapetti, D; Stark, A A; Stubbs, C W; Vikhlinin, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at 0.35 < z < 0.9 selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg2 survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at 0.25 < z < 1.2 selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts and photon asymmetry. The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, sugg...

  18. X-ray optic developments at NASA's MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, C.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    2013-05-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a successful history of fabricating optics for astronomical x-ray telescopes. In recent years optics have been created using electroforming replication for missions such as the balloon payload HERO (High energy replicated optics) and the rocket payload FOXSI (Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager). The same replication process is currently being used in the creation seven x-ray mirror modules (one module comprising of 28 nested shells) for the Russian ART-XC (Astronomical Rontgen Telescope) instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission and for large-diameter mirror shells for the Micro-X rocket payload. In addition to MSFC's optics fabrication, there are also several areas of research and development to create the high resolution light weight optics which are required by future x-ray telescopes. Differential deposition is one technique which aims to improve the angular resolution of lightweight optics through depositing a filler material to smooth out fabrication imperfections. Following on from proof of concept studies, two new purpose built coating chambers are being assembled to apply this deposition technique to astronomical x-ray optics. Furthermore, MSFC aims to broaden its optics fabrication through the recent acquisition of a Zeeko IRP 600 robotic polishing machine. This paper will provide a summary of the current missions and research and development being undertaken at NASA's MSFC.

  19. X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray & Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) Handbook is a guide for planning operations at the facility. A summary of the capabilities, policies, and procedures is provided to enhance project coordination between the facility user and XRCF personnel. This handbook includes basic information that will enable the XRCF to effectively plan and support test activities. In addition, this handbook describes the facilities and systems available at the XRCF for supporting test operations. 1.2 General Facility Description The XRCF was built in 1989 to meet the stringent requirements associated with calibration of X-ray optics, instruments, and telescopes and was subsequently modified in 1999 & 2005 to perform the challenging cryogenic verification of Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared mirrors. These unique and premier specialty capabilities, coupled with its ability to meet multiple generic thermal vacuum test requirements for large payloads, make the XRCF the most versatile and adaptable space environmental test facility in the Agency. XRCF is also recognized as the newest, most cost effective, most highly utilized facility in the portfolio and as one of only five NASA facilities having unique capabilities. The XRCF is capable of supporting and has supported missions during all phases from technology development to flight verification. Programs/projects that have benefited from XRCF include Chandra, Solar X-ray Imager, Hinode, and James Webb Space Telescope. All test programs have been completed on-schedule and within budget and have experienced no delays due to facility readiness or failures. XRCF is currently supporting Strategic Astrophysics Technology Development for Cosmic Origins. Throughout the years, XRCF has partnered with and continues to maintain positive working relationships with organizations such as ATK, Ball Aerospace, Northrop Grumman Aerospace, Excelis (formerly Kodak/ITT), Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Alabama

  20. Is Coronal X-ray Emission Energized By Electric Currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Metcalf, T.; Lites, B.

    2007-05-01

    We examine the spatial correlation between coronal X-ray emission observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope and electric currents observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope Spectro-polarimeter. We determine to what extent the X-ray brightness is correlated with electric current density and hence to what extent the hot corona is energized by electric currents which flow through the photosphere. We will also consider whether the currents reach the corona to heat the coronal plasma or whether they predominantly close below the corona. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, development and operation of the mission.

  1. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Mass-Observable Relations using South Pole Telescope Observations of an X-ray Selected Sample of Low Mass Galaxy Clusters and Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Saro, A; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Foley, R J; Gangkofner, D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Suhada, R; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We use 95, 150, and 220GHz observations from the SPT to examine the SZE signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg^2 of the XMM-BCS. These systems extend to redshift z=1.02, have characteristic masses ~3x lower than clusters detected directly in the SPT data and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>10^42 erg s^-1) yet. We develop an analysis tool that combines the SZE information for the full ensemble of X-ray-selected clusters. Using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, we extract selection-bias corrected constraints on the SZE significance- and Y_500-mass relations. The SZE significance- mass relation is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high mass clusters. However, the fit to the Y_500-mass relation at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from high mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the constraints from the Planck sample. We examine the tension with the Planck relation...

  2. Jupiter's X-ray aurora via polar ion precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jackson; Houston, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Jupiter's auroral X-ray emission was first observed by the Einstein X-ray Observatory in 1979 and has since been observed over the past 20 years by the Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. The strong X-ray emission produces a spectacular 1 GW of total power at the polar caps. There has been extensive research of X-ray production from incident electrons; however, this has not been able to account for the full power of the generated X-rays. The remainder of the X-ray production can be modeled and reproduced into observable results by the precipitation of several MeV oxygen and sulfur ions from the outer magnetosphere into an atmosphere that has been adapted to the auroral conditions. The present research uses a revised model of a hybrid Monte Carlo method with varying oxygen ion energies (10 keV/u - 5 MeV/u) and updated collision cross-sections to concentrate on the ionization of the atmosphere, generation of secondary electron fluxes and their escape from the atmosphere, and characterization of the H2 Lyman-Werner band emission. Predictions relevant to awaited NASA's Juno results are made: escaping electrons with an energy range of 1 eV to 6 keV, H2 band emission rates of 80 kR, and downward field-aligned currents of at least 2 MA.

  3. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    (and two computing hurdles that result from the corresponding increase in data volume) for the detector community to overcome in order to realize the full potential of BES neutron and X-ray facilities. Resolving these detector impediments will improve scientific productivity both by enabling new types of experiments, which will expand the scientific breadth at the X-ray and neutron facilities, and by potentially reducing the beam time required for a given experiment. These research priorities are summarized in the table below. Note that multiple, simultaneous detector improvements are often required to take full advantage of brighter sources. High-efficiency hard X-ray sensors: The fraction of incident particles that are actually detected defines detector efficiency. Silicon, the most common direct-detection X-ray sensor material, is (for typical sensor thicknesses) 100% efficient at 8 keV, 25%efficient at 20 keV, and only 3% efficient at 50 keV. Other materials are needed for hard X-rays. Replacement for 3He for neutron detectors: 3He has long been the neutron detection medium of choice because of its high cross section over a wide neutron energy range for the reaction 3He + n —> 3H + 1H + 0.764 MeV. 3He stockpiles are rapidly dwindling, and what is available can be had only at prohibitively high prices. Doped scintillators hold promise as ways to capture neutrons and convert them into light, although work is needed on brighter, more efficient scintillator solutions. Neutron detectors also require advances in speed and resolution. Fast-framing X-ray detectors: Today’s brighter X-ray sources make time-resolved studies possible. For example, hybrid X-ray pixel detectors, initially developed for particle physics, are becoming fairly mature X-ray detectors, with considerable development in Europe. To truly enable time-resolved studies, higher frame rates and dynamic range are required, and smaller pixel sizes are desirable. High-speed spectroscopic X-ray detectors

  4. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  5. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  6. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  7. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-05-01

    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Eart&hacute;s atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  8. Magnetic Untwisting in Most Solar X-Ray Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Falconer, David; Robe, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    From 54 X-ray jets observed in the polar coronal holes by Hinode's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during coverage in movies from Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) taken in its He II 304 Å band at a cadence of 12 s, we have established a basic characteristic of solar X-ray jets: untwisting motion in the spire. In this presentation, we show the progression of few of these X-ray jets in XRT images and track their untwisting in AIA He II images. From their structure displayed in their XRT movies, 19 jets were evidently standard jets made by interchange reconnection of the magnetic-arcade base with ambient open field, 32 were evidently blowout jets made by blowout eruption of the base arcade, and 3 were of ambiguous form. As was anticipated from the >10,000 km span of the base arcade in most polar X-ray jets and from the disparity of standard jets and blowout jets in their magnetic production, few of the standard X-ray jets (3 of 19) but nearly all of the blowout X-ray jets (29 of 32) carried enough cool (T is approximately 105 K) plasma to be seen in their He II movies. In the 32 X-ray jets that showed a cool component, the He II movies show 10-100 km/s untwisting motions about the axis of the spire in all 3 standard jets and in 26 of the 29 blowout jets. Evidently, the open magnetic field in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and probably in most standard X-ray jets carries transient twist. This twist apparently relaxes by propagating out along the open field as a torsional wave. High-resolution spectrograms and Dopplergrams have shown that most Type-II spicules have torsional motions of 10-30 km/s. Our observation of similar torsional motion in X-ray jets strengthens the case for Type-II spicules being made in the same way as X-ray jets, by blowout eruption of a twisted magnetic arcade in the spicule base and/or by interchange reconnection of the twisted base arcade with the ambient open field. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division

  9. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  10. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  11. Opening a New Window to Fundamental Physics and Astrophysics: X-ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, E; Soffitta, P; Persio, G; Feroci, M; Morelli, E; Muleri, F; Pacciani, L; Rubini, A; Baldini, L; Bitti, F; Brez, A; Cavalca, F; Latronico, L; Massai, M M; Omodei, N; Sgro', C; Spandre, G; Matt, G; Perola, G C; Santangelo, A; Celotti, A; Barret, D; Vilhu, O; Piro, L; Fraser, G; Courvoisier, T J L; Barcons, X

    2006-01-01

    An extensive theoretical literature predicts that X-ray Polarimetry can directly determine relevant physical and geometrical parameters of astrophysical sources, and discriminate between models further than allowed by spectral and timing data only. X-ray Polarimetry can also provide tests of Fundamental Physics. A high sensitivity polarimeter in the focal plane of a New Generation X-ray telescope could open this new window in the High Energy Sky.

  12. The ASTRO-H X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Henri AartsFelix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Asai, Makoto; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Azzarello, Philipp; Baluta, Chris; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Cackett, Ed; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Doty, John; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haas, Daniel; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawahara, Hajime; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kimura, Masashi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Koujelev, Alex; Koyama, Katsuji; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; LaMassa, Stephanie; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Marchand, Genevieve; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian; Miller, Jon; Miller, Eric; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagano, Housei; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Natsukari, Chikara; Nishioka, Yusuke; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reis, Rubens; Reynolds, Christopher; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sanders, Jeremy; Sato, Goro; Sato, Rie; Sato, Yoichi; Sato, Kosuke; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shibano, Yasuko; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Simionescu, Aurora; Simmons, Cynthia; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takeda, Shin-ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Ursino, Eugenio; de Vries, Cor; Wada, Atsushi; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. These instruments include a high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3-2 keV with high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5-80 keV, located in the focal plane of multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4-12 keV, with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40-600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit o...

  13. The X-ray Spectrum of Supernova Remnant 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, E; McCray, R; Hwang, U; Burrows, D N; Park, S; Garmire, G P; Holt, S S; Hasinger, G; Michael, Eli; Zhekov, Svetozar; Cray, Richard Mc; Hwang, Una; Burrows, David N.; Park, Sangwook; Garmire, Gordon P.; Holt, Stephen S.; Hasinger, Guenther

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the X-ray emission observed from Supernova Remnant 1987A with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We analyze a high resolution spectrum obtained in 1999 October with the high energy transmission grating (HETG). From this spectrum we measure the strengths and an average profile of the observed X-ray lines. We also analyze a high signal-to-noise ratio CCD spectrum obtained in 2000 December. The good statistics (~ 9250 counts) of this spectrum and the high spatial resolution provided by the telescope allow us to perform spectroscopic analyses of different regions of the remnant. We discuss the relevant shock physics that can explain the observed X-ray emission. The X-ray spectra are well fit by plane parallel shock models with post-shock electron temperatures of ~ 2.6 keV and ionization ages of ~ 6 x 10^10 cm^3/s. The combined X-ray line profile has a FWHM of ~ 5000 km/s, indicating a blast wave speed of ~ 3500 km/s. At this speed, plasma with a mean post-shock temperature of ~ 17 keV is produced. This is ...

  14. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from Thermotoga maritima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbey, Carole, E-mail: carole.barbey@smbh.univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Cellulaire et Tissulaire, UMR 7033, Université Paris 13, UFR SMBH, 74 Rue Marcel Cachin, 93017 Bobigny CEDEX (France); Rouhier, Nicolas [Unité Mixte de Recherches 1136 INRA UHP (Interaction Arbres Microorganismes), IFR 110, Nancy Université BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy CEDEX (France); Haouz, Ahmed [Plate-forme de Cristallogenèse et Diffraction des Rayons X, Institut Pasteur, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France); Navaza, Alda [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Cellulaire et Tissulaire, UMR 7033, Université Paris 13, UFR SMBH, 74 Rue Marcel Cachin, 93017 Bobigny CEDEX (France); Jacquot, Jean-Pierre [Unité Mixte de Recherches 1136 INRA UHP (Interaction Arbres Microorganismes), IFR 110, Nancy Université BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy CEDEX (France); Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Cellulaire et Tissulaire, UMR 7033, Université Paris 13, UFR SMBH, 74 Rue Marcel Cachin, 93017 Bobigny CEDEX (France)

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from T. maritima were obtained which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution on a synchrotron source. Thermotoga maritima contains a natural hybrid protein constituted of two moieties: a peroxiredoxin domain at the N-terminus and a nitroreductase domain at the C-terminus. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) domain has been overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant Prx domain, which is homologous to bacterial Prx BCP and plant Prx Q, folds properly into a stable protein that possesses biological activity. The recombinant protein was crystallized and synchrotron data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.67, c = 141.20 Å.

  15. High-energy X-ray powder diffraction and atomic-pair distribution-function studies of charged/discharged structures in carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanoparticles as a cathode material for lithiumion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Maki; Miyahara, Masahiko; Hokazono, Mana; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Atsushi; Katayama, Shingo; Akimoto, Yuji; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ren, Yang

    2014-10-01

    The stable cycling performance with a high discharge capacity of similar to 190 mAh g(-1) in a carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanostructured powder has prompted an experimental investigation of the charged/discharged structures using synchrotron-based and laboratory-based X-rays and atomic-pair distributionfunction (PDF) analyses. A novel method of in-situ spray pyrolysis of a precursor solution with glucose as a carbon source enabled the successful synthesis of the carbon-hybridized Li2(M)nSiO(4) nanoparticles. The XRD patters of the discharged (lithiated) samples exhibit a long-range ordered structure characteristic of the (beta) Li2MnSiO4 crystalline phase (space group Pmn2(1)) which dissipates in the charged (delithiated) samples. However, upon discharging the long-range ordered structure recovers in each cycle. The disordered structure, according to the PDF analysis, is mainly due to local distortions of the MnO4 tetrahedra which show a mean Mn-O nearest neighbor distance shorter than that of the long-range ordered phase. These results corroborate the notion of the smaller Mn3+/Mn4+ ionic radii in the Li extracted phase versus the larger Mn2+ ionic radius in Li inserted phase. Thus Li extraction/insertion drives the fluctuation between the disordered and the long-range ordered structures. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated classification of Chandra X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Derek; Kargaltsev, O.; Rangelov, B.; Volkov, I.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the latest generation X-ray telescopes there has been a major influx of data associated with the detection of hundreds of thousands X-ray sources. As one can rarely tell a source type from its X-ray properties alone, the full potential of the X-ray catalogs can only be unlocked by correlating multiwavelength (MW) properties via cross-identification with other surveys. However, one would spend an enormous amount of time classifying these objects by their physical nature if the classification was to be done on a source-by-source basis by humans. Therefore, we are using a supervised learning algorithm to classify sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The classifications are based on a training dataset which currently includes about 7,000 X-ray sources of known nature (main sequence stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, young stars, active galactic nuclei, low mass X-ray binaries, high mass x-ray binaries, and neutron stars). For each source, the training dataset includes up to 24 multiwavelength properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the classification is verified by dividing the training dataset in two and performing cross-validation. The results are also inspected by plotting source properties in 2D slices of the parameter space. As an application of our automated procedure we classified unidentified sources in the supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7-0.1, in the field of HESS J1809-193, and in part of the Chandra Source Catalog 1.0. We present the results of the verification tests and the classification results. This research was partially supported by NASA/SAO grant AR3-14017X.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  20. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.