WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid wind instrument

  1. Developing a hybrid wind instrument: using a loudspeaker to couple a theoretical exciter to a real resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Buys, K.; D. Sharp; Laney, R.

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid wind instrument generates self-sustained sounds via a real-time interaction between a computed physical model of an exciter (such as human lips interacting with a mouthpiece) and a real acoustic resonator. Successful implementation of a hybrid wind instrument will not only open up new musical possibilities but will also provide a valuable research tool. However, attempts to produce a hybrid instrument have so far fallen short, in terms of both the accuracy and the variation in the so...

  2. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  3. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  4. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick and placem...

  5. Dizi—A Traditional Chinese Wind Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    RETIRED worker Zhang Guizhen knows a lot about dizi, a traditional Chinese wind instrument, because she worked in the Beijing Traditional Instrument Factory for 20 years and her only task was to make dizi.

  6. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...... implementation is simulated using finite element modeling and the DC and AC resistance of the inductors are verified with experimental measurements on prototypes. It is found that commercial available layer thickness of printed circuit boards is a bottleneck for high power applications. Furthermore, the winding...

  7. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  8. The SeaWinds Scatterometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Graf, J.; Freilich, M.; Long, D.; Spencer, M.; Tsai, W.; Lisman, D.; Winn, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer instrument is currently being developed by NASA/JPL, as part of the NASA EOS Program, for flight on the Hapanese ADEOS II mission in 1999. This Ku-band radar scatterometer will infer surface wind speed and direction by measuring the radar normalized backscatter cross-section over several different azimuth angles. This paper presents the design characteristics of and operational approach to the instrument itself.

  9. Intraoral Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, Clinton F

    2013-01-01

    High intraoral pressure generated when playing some wind instruments has been linked to a variety of health issues. Prior research has focused on Western classical instruments, but no work has been published on ethnic wind instruments. This study measured intraoral pressure when playing six classes of ethnic wind instruments (N = 149): Native American flutes (n = 71) and smaller samples of ethnic duct flutes, reed instruments, reedpipes, overtone whistles, and overtone flutes. Results are presented in the context of a survey of prior studies, providing a composite view of the intraoral pressure requirements of a broad range of wind instruments. Mean intraoral pressure was 8.37 mBar across all ethnic wind instruments and 5.21 +/- 2.16 mBar for Native American flutes. The range of pressure in Native American flutes closely matches pressure reported in other studies for normal speech, and the maximum intraoral pressure, 20.55 mBar, is below the highest subglottal pressure reported in other studies during singing...

  10. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  11. Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor (HOWS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Phase I effort will investigate and develop the necessary innovations to realize the Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor system that will provide critical...

  12. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  13. THOR Cold Solar Wind (CSW) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission concept dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence. We present the Cold Solar Wind (CSW) instrument that is being designed for THOR. CSW will measure the full three dimensional distribution function of solar wind protons and alphas with unprecedented accuracies. It will measure solar wind proton distributions down to at least 50 ms with energy resolution of 7% and angular resolution of 1.5°. CSW is based on a top-hat electrostatic analyzer (with very large geometric factor) design with deflectors at the entrance. The particle detection system uses Channel Electron Multipliers (CEM) associated with an analog front end Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). CSW electronics comprises a fast sweeping high voltage board, as well as an FPGA and low voltage power supply boards to perform its operations. CSW is designed to address many of the key science objectives of THOR, in particular regarding ion-scale kinetic aspects of solar wind turbulence.

  14. "Bainiaoyi, " Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The "Bainiaoyi," or Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe, consists of young men and women of Miao nationality of the mountain villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Each of them can dance and sing well, and are often invited to perform in provinces and cities across China. Because of this, these young peasants who live deep in the mountain villages get a chance to leave their isolated homelands to visit other parts of the world and broaden their scope. The Miao people aren’t the only ones to benefit from these travels. More and more people now have the opportunity to

  15. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  17. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, M. [CONICET-UNS. 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  18. A hybrid wind farm parameterization for mesoscale and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Archer, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    To better understand the potential impacts of wind farms on weather and climate at the local to regional scale, a new hybrid wind farm parameterization is proposed here for mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), or climate models, such as the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). All previous wind farm parameterizations treat all the wind turbines in the same grid cell as identical (i.e., they all share the same upstream wind velocity) and ignore the effect of wind direction. By contrast, the new hybrid model considers each individual wind turbine, based on its position in the layout and on wind direction. The new parameterization is developed starting from large eddy simulations (LES) of existing wind farms, in which the local flow around each wind turbine is directly simulated at high spatial ( 3.5 m) and temporal ( 0.1 s) resolutions and the effects of subgrid-scale processes are modeled. Based on analytic and statistical relationships between the LES results and several geometric properties of the wind farm layout (such as blockage ratio and blocking distance), the new hybrid parameterization predicts the local upstream wind speed of each individual wind turbine in the same grid cell, and thus successfully account for the effects of layout and wind direction with little computational cost. With the newly predicted upstream velocity, the turbine-induced forces and added turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in the atmosphere are derived analytically. The wind speed, wind speed deficit, and TKE profiles and power production obtained with the hybrid parameterization for the test case (the 48-turbine Lillgrund wind farm in Sweden) are in better agreement with the LES results than previous parameterizations. Future work includes the insertion of the hybrid parameterization into the WRF code to assess impacts on near-surface properties, such as temperature and heat and momentum fluxes, in the region surrounding the wind farm.

  19. An Examination of Secondary Wind Instrument Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Juchniewicz, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current secondary woodwind, brass, and combined wind instrument methods courses for preservice music teachers across the United States. Two-hundred eleven (N = 211) wind methods course instructors from National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions completed an online survey that…

  20. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  1. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  2. Efficiency of lung ventilation for people performing wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzęk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wind instruments musicians are particularly prone to excessive respiratory efforts. Prolonged wind instruments performing may lead to changes in respiratory tracts and thus to respiratory muscles overload. It may result in decreasing lung tissue pliability and, as a consequence, in emphysema. Aim of the research has been to describe basic spirometric parameters for wind players and causes of potential changes. Material and Methods: Slow and forced spirometry with the use of Micro Lab Viasys (Micro Medical, Great Britain was conducted on 31 wind musicians (group A. A survey concerning playing time and frequency, weight of instruments, and education on diaphragmatic breathing was conducted. The control group included 34 healthy persons at similar age (group B. The results were statistically described using Excel and Statistica programmes. Results: The respiratory parameters were within the range of physiological norms and forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC exceeded in both groups the values of 100%. Forced vital capacity and expiratory vital capacity (EVC values were significantly lower in the group of musicians than in the control group (p < 0.001. In 45% the group A used diaphragmatic breathing, in 31% of examinees mixed respiratory tract was observed. The significant discrepancy of individual parameters was obtained regarding age and the length of time when performing wind instrument. Conclusions: Spirometric parameters relative to standards may prove a good respiratory capacity. Peak expiratory flow (PEF and FEV1 may indicate that a proper technique of respiration during performance was acquired. The length of time when performing wind instrument may influence parameters of dynamic spirometry. Med Pr 2016;67(4:427–433

  3. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  4. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  5. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  6. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  7. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF WIND/PV AND BATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Almi; M. Arrouf; H.Belmili; S. Boulouma; Bendib, B

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with power control of a wind and solar hybrid generation system for interconnection operation with electric distribution system. Power control strategy is to extract the maximum energy available from varying condition of wind speed and solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum power, variable speed control is employed for wind turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied for photovoltaic system. The grid i...

  8. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting with Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua; Xu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    probabilities of prediction errors provide an alternative yet effective solution. This article proposes a hybrid artificial neural network approach to generate prediction intervals of wind power. An extreme learning machine is applied to conduct point prediction of wind power and estimate model uncertainties...... via a bootstrap technique. Subsequently, the maximum likelihood estimation method is employed to construct a distinct neural network to estimate the noise variance of forecasting results. The proposed approach has been tested on multi-step forecasting of high-resolution (10-min) wind power using...... actual wind power data from Denmark. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid artificial neural network approach is effective and efficient for probabilistic forecasting of wind power and has high potential in practical applications....

  9. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  10. Optimizing Hybrid Wind/Diesel Generator System Using BAT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Sharma,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid system comprising of Wind/Diesel generation system for a practical standalone application considers Wind turbine generators and diesel generator as primary power sources for generating electricity. Battery banks are considered as a backup power source. The total value of cost is reduced by meeting energy demand required by the customers. Bat optimization technique is implemented to optimize wind and battery modules. Wind and battery banks are considered as primary sources and diesel generator as a secondary power source for the system

  11. Wind Speed Forecasting Using Hybrid Wavelet Transform—ARMA Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a novel wind speed forecasting technique, which produces more accurate prediction. The Wavelet Transform (WT along with the Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA is chosen to form a hybrid whose combination is expected to give minimum Mean Absolute Prediction Error (MAPE. A simulation study has been conducted by comparing the forecasting results using the Wavelet-ARMA with the ARMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN-Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF hybrid technique to verify the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method. Results of the proposed hybrid show significant improvements in the forecasting error.

  12. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup M. Gakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources maximum power from the sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm with a standard perturbs and observed method will be used for the Photo Voltaic system. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to give continuous power supply to the load. The gating pulses to the inverter switches are implemented with conventional and fuzzy controller. This hybrid wind-photo voltaic system is modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Simulation circuit is analyzed and results are presented for this hybrid wind and solar energy system.

  13. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  14. Interval forecasts of a novelty hybrid model for wind speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wind energy, as a booming technology in the field of renewable energies, has been highly regarded around the world. Quantification of uncertainties associated with accurate wind speed forecasts is essential for regulating wind power generation and integration. However, it remains difficult work primarily due to the stochastic and nonlinear characteristics of wind speed series. Traditional models for wind speed forecasting mostly focus on generating certain predictive values, which cannot properly handle uncertainties. For quantifying potential uncertainties, a hybrid model constructed by the Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO-based Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN is proposed to establish wind speed interval forecasts (IFs by estimating the lower and upper bounds. The quality of IFs is assessed quantitatively using IFs coverage probability (IFCP and IFs normalized average width (IFNAW. Moreover, to assess the overall quality of IFs comprehensively, a tradeoff between informativeness (IFNAW and validity (IFCP of IFs is examined by coverage width-based criteria (CWC. As an applicative study, wind speeds from the Xinjiang Region in China are used to validate the proposed hybrid model. The results demonstrate that the proposed model can construct higher quality IFs for short-term wind speed forecasts.

  15. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...

  16. Safety Evaluation of a Hybrid Substructure for Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Su Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Towers and rotor-nacelles are being enlarged to respond to the need for higher gross generation of the wind turbines. However, the accompanying enlargement of the substructure supporting these larger offshore wind turbines makes it strongly influenced by the effect of wave forces. In the present study, the hybrid substructure is suggested to reduce the wave forces by composing a multicylinder having different radii near free surface and a gravity substructure at the bottom of the multicylinder. In addition, the reaction forces acting on the substructure due to the very large dead load of the offshore wind turbine require very firm foundations. This implies that the dynamic pile-soil interaction has to be fully considered. Therefore, ENSOFT Group V7.0 is used to calculate the stiffness matrices on the pile-soil interaction conditions. These matrices are then used together with the loads at TP (Transition Piece obtained from GH-Bladed for the structural analysis of the hybrid substructure by ANSYS ASAS. The structural strength and deformation are evaluated to derive an ultimate structural safety of the hybrid substructure for various soil conditions and show that the first few natural frequencies of the substructure are heavily influenced by the wind turbine. Therefore, modal analysis is carried out through GH-Bladed to examine the resonance between the wind turbine and the hybrid substructure.

  17. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  18. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  19. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  20. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  1. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  2. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  3. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) Instrument Aboard New Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    McComas, D; Bagenal, F; Casey, P; Delamere, P; Demkee, D; Dunn, G; Elliott, H; Hanley, J; Johnson, K; Langle, J; Miller, G; Pope, S; Reno, M; Rodríguez, B; Schwadron, N; Valek, P; Weidner, S

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on New Horizons will measure the interaction between the solar wind and ions created by atmospheric loss from Pluto. These measurements provide a characterization of the total loss rate and allow us to examine the complex plasma interactions at Pluto for the first time. Constrained to fit within minimal resources, SWAP is optimized to make plasma-ion measurements at all rotation angles as the New Horizons spacecraft scans to image Pluto and Charon during the flyby. In order to meet these unique requirements, we combined a cylindrically symmetric retarding potential analyzer (RPA) with small deflectors, a top-hat analyzer, and a redundant/coincidence detection scheme. This configuration allows for highly sensitive measurements and a controllable energy passband at all scan angles of the spacecraft.

  4. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  5. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  6. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers.

  7. Explicit Mapping of Acoustic Regimes For Wind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Missoum, Samy; Doc, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to map the various acoustic regimes of wind instruments. The maps can be generated in a multi-dimensional space consisting of design, control parameters, and initial conditions. The bound- aries of the maps are obtained explicitly in terms of the parameters using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier as well as a dedicated adaptive sam- pling scheme. The approach is demonstrated on a simplified clarinet model for which several maps are generated based on different criteria. Examples of computation of the probability of occurrence of a specific acoustic regime are also provided. In addition, the approach is demonstrated on a design optimization example for optimal intonation.

  8. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  9. Spectra of hybrid synchrotron emission in hot black hole winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ken; Fukue, Jun

    2015-12-01

    We solve radiative transfer to obtain the hybrid synchrotron spectra from a hot, optically thin black hole wind, by integrating the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame and considering the relativistic effect of wind flow as well as the emission and absorption along the line-of-sight. We find two primary characteristics in the hybrid model: (1) a shoulder at low frequencies and (2) a power-law tail at high frequencies. Even if only 10-4 of the total electron energy is injected as non-thermal electrons, higher luminosity can be produced compared to the pure thermal model. Thus, there is a large difference between the pure thermal model and the hybrid one. In addition, as the wind velocity becomes large, the thermal peak of the comoving spectra shifts toward the high-frequency regime, due to the relativistic Doppler effect. As the wind velocity increases, on the other hand, the thermal peak of the observed spectra shifts toward the low-frequency regime, due to the redshifted part in the far side and limb side.

  10. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    The premise of this research is that underutilized but vast intermittent renewable energy resources, such as wind, can become more market competitive by coupling with storable renewable energy sources, like biomass; thereby creating a firm capacity resource. Specifically, the Midwest state of South Dakota has immense wind energy potential that is not used because of economic and logistic barriers of electrical transmission or storage. Coupling the state's intermittent wind resource with another of the state's energy resources, cellulosic non-food biomass, by using a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification hybrid system will result in a energy source that is both firm and storable. The average energy content of common biomass feedstock was determined, 14.8 MJ/kg (7.153 Btu/lb), along with the assumed typical biomass conversion efficiency of the no-draft gasifier, 65%, so that an average electrical energy round trip efficiency (RTE) of 214% can be expected (i.e. One unit of wind electrical energy can produce 2.14 kWh of electrical energy stored as syngas.) from a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification system. Wind characteristics are site specific so this analysis utilizes a synthetic wind resource to represent a statistically sound gross representation of South Dakota's wind regime based on data from the Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN) locations. A synthetic wind turbine generated from common wind turbine power curves and scaled to 1-MW rated capacity was utilized for this analysis in order to remove equipment bias from the results. A standard 8,760-hour BIN Analysis model was constructed within HOMER, powerful simulation software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model the performance of renewable power systems. It was found that the optimum configuration on a per-megawatt-transmitted basis required a wind generator (wind farm) rated capacity of 3-MW with an anticipated annual biomass feedstock of 26,132 GJ

  11. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the installation of real time test bed with a small electric generator and dynamic solar panels with battery backups.

  12. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  13. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Peng; Zhenzhen Zhang; Jia Wu

    2015-01-01

    A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS). To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy ...

  14. Wind Speed Forecasting Using Hybrid Wavelet Transform—ARMA Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Diksha Kaur; Tek Tjing Lie; Nirmal K. C. Nair; Brice Vallès

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a novel wind speed forecasting technique, which produces more accurate prediction. The Wavelet Transform (WT) along with the Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) is chosen to form a hybrid whose combination is expected to give minimum Mean Absolute Prediction Error (MAPE). A simulation study has been conducted by comparing the forecasting results using the Wavelet-ARMA with the ARMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) hy...

  15. Modeling and Simulation for Hybrid of PV-Wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged N. F. Nashed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising consumption rate of fossil fuels causes a significant pollution impact on the atmosphere, unwanted greenhouse gases has drawn worldwide attention towards renewable energy sources. Moreover, in recent year’s generation of electricity using the different types of renewable sources are specifically evaluated in the economical performance of the overall equipment. This paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of a Standalone Photovoltaic (PV- wind energy hybrid generation system under different conditions using MATLAB. The proposed system consists of two renewable sources i.e. wind and solar energy. Modeling of PV array and wind turbine is explained. The wind subsystem is equipped of an induction generator. In photovoltaic system, the variable DC output voltage is controlled using buck-boost converter for the MPPT. These two systems are combined to operate in parallel and the common bus collects the total energy from the wind and PV systems are uses it to the load and with change the load

  16. Influence of reed motion on the resonance frequency of reed-blown wood-wind instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, C.J.

    1969-01-01

    When vibrating, the needs of wood wind instruments displace an amount of air that shifts the resonance frequency of the instrument in the same way as does a mouthpiece cavity. In cylindrical instruments, this shift corresponds to an effective lengthening of the resonating tube. In conical instrument

  17. Electromagnetic lower hybrid instability in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhina, G.S.

    1985-04-01

    A fully electromagnetic lower hybrid instability which is driven by a resonant halo electron component is studied analytically. It is shown that the growth rate of the instability peaks at a certain value of the wave-number and that an increase in the ratio of electron pressure to magnetic field pressure reduces the growth rate. At 0.3 AU the typical growth time for the instability is found to be of the order of 25 ms or less, whereas the most unstable wavelengths associated with the instability fall typically in a range of 27 to 90 km. Relevance of electromagnetic lower hybrid instability to the obliquely propagating whistler, characterized by large values of refractive indices, detected behind interplanetary shocks in the solar wind and to the generation mechanism of correlated whistler and electron-plasma oscillation bursts detected on ISEE-3 are discussed. 17 references.

  18. Three Sides Billboard Wind-Solar Hybrid System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high development of world economy, the demand of energy is increasing all the time, As energy shortage and environment problem are increasing outstanding, Renewable energy has been attracting more and more attention. A kind of three sides billboard supply by wind-Solar hybrid system has been designed in this paper, the overall structure of the system, components, working principle and control strategy has been analyzed from the system perspective. The software and hardware of the system are debugged together and the result is acquired. System function is better and has achieved the expected results.

  19. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders among junior high school students who play wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Yasuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated whether playing wind instruments has adverse effects on musculoskeletal functions among junior high school students who play in music clubs. Material and Methods: The study included 210 junior high school students (35 boys, 175 girls belonging to 1 of 4 different school clubs that practiced playing wind instruments more than 6 days/week. The mean age of the participants was 14 years. The study was performed using a questionnaire survey and an electromyographic examination of jaw and cervical muscle activities during playing wind instruments. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD among the children playing woodwind (WW or brass wind (BW instruments was higher than in those playing non-wind (NW instruments. Long duration of playing WW with a reed mouthpiece or BW with a small mouthpiece was suggested to affect the incidence of TMD, which was more marked in girls than in boys, irrespective of height or weight. Muscle activity in the masseter muscle during playing an instrument was significantly higher in the BW with a small mouthpiece group than in the NW group (p < 0.05. In cervical muscles, muscle activity of both the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles was higher during playing BW than in the case of other instruments, and activity in the sternocleidomastoid muscle was significantly higher in the BW with a small mouthpiece group than in the case of other instrument groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Playing wind instruments may have adverse effects on musculoskeletal functions among junior high school students playing in music clubs as compared with playing NW instruments. The prevalence of TMD among the students playing wind instruments was higher than in those playing other instruments. Long duration of playing those instruments affects musculoskeletal function, and this effect is more marked in girls than in boys, irrespective of height or weight.

  20. The Villas Carrousel PV-Wind Hybrid Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot project was carried out to supply electrical services for an ecological hotel (eco-hotel), using solar and wind energy in Southeast Mexico. Fifteen small photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems were designed and built by researchers of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), as part of a cooperation agreement with the mexican company Carrousel Operadora Turistica, aimed at developing a technology package to supply electrical services to similar hotels sited in remote areas. Each hybrid system includes one wind generator of 500W nominal capacity, one PV panel ranging in power from 150W to 320 Watts peak, one lead-acid battery bank of 570 ampere-hour in capacity, and an electronic charge controller. This paper describes the systems and summarizes the results from the first twelve months of operation. [Espanol] Se llevo a cabo un proyecto piloto para el suministro de servicios electricos a un hotel ecologico (eco-hotel), utilizando energia solar y energia del viento en el Sudeste de Mexico. Investigadores del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas de Mexico, disenaron y construyeron quince pequenos sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento, como parte de un acuerdo de cooperacion con la compania mexicana Carrousel Operadora Turistica, orientado al desarrollo de un paquete tecnologico para proporcionar servicios de energia electrica a hoteles similares ubicados en areas remotas. Cada sistema hibrido incluye un aero-generador con capacidad nominal de 500W un panel foto-voltaico con una potencia que varia entre los 150W y los 320W pico, una banco de baterias de plomo-acido de 570 amperes-hora de capacidad y un controlador electronico de carga. Este articulo describe los sistemas y presenta un resumen de los resultados de los primeros doce meses de operacion.

  1. Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

    1950-01-01

    Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

  2. Investigation of a Hybrid Winding Concept for Toroidal Inductors using 3D Finite Element Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Mønster, Jakob Døllner;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a hybrid winding concept for a toroidal inductor by simulating the winding resistance as a function of frequency. The problem of predicting the resistance of a non-uniform and complex winding shape is solved using 3D Finite Element Modeling. A prototype is built and tested...

  3. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  4. Recent progress in battery models for hybrid wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Baring-Gould, I.; Stein, W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the latest University of Massachusetts work on the analytical modeling and experimental testing of battery component models for hybrid power systems. An extension of the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM), developed at the University of Massachusetts is presented. The original model was based on a combination of phenomenological and physical considerations. As described in this paper, the modified KiBaM can now model the sharp increase in voltage near the end of charging, and the sharp drop in voltage when the battery is nearly empty. This model may readily be coupled with a DC load or charging source (such as a DC wind turbine or photovoltaic panels) to determine the corresponding DC bus voltage. For example, it is now an integral part of the DC bus section of the University of Massachusetts HYBRID simulation models. The paper describes the development of the extensions to the KiBaM model and the method of determining the constants from test data. On the experimental/applications side, it includes an illustration of how the constants are obtained from representative data (using a specially developed testing apparatus), and an example of how the model can be used.

  5. Lab Demonstration of the Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar (HDWL) Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Catherine T.; Gentry, Bruce; Jordan, Patrick; Dogoda, Peter; Faust, Ed; Kavaya, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The recommended design approach for the 3D Tropospheric Winds mission is a hybrid Doppler lidar which combines the best elements of both a coherent aerosol Doppler lidar operating at 2 microns and a direct detection molecular Doppler lidar operating at 0.355 microns. In support of the mission, we built a novel, compact, light-weighted multi-field of view transceiver where multiple telescopes are used to cover the required four fields of view. A small mechanism sequentially selects both the "transmit" and "receive" fields of view. The four fields are combined to stimulate both the 0.355 micron receiver and the 2 micron receiver. This version is scaled (0.2 m diameter aperture) from the space-based version but still demonstrates the feasibility of the hybrid approach. The primary mirrors were conventionally light-weighted and coated with dielectric, high reflectivity coatings with high laser damage thresholds at both 2 microns and 0.355 microns. The mechanical structure and mounts were fabricated from composites to achieve dimensional stability while significantly reducing the mass. In the laboratory, we demonstrated the system level functionality at 0.355 microns and at 2 microns, raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 2 to 4.

  6. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – integration with compressed air energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy ...

  7. Analysis of merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic concept for stand-alone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. A.; Kallis, J. M.; Moite, S. M.; Marshall, N. A.

    Methods for evaluating the merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic systems for use in stand-alone applications were developed. The optimum mix of wind and photovoltaic power with an electrochemical storage system, with or without fossil fuel generator backup, depends upon the individual subsystem economics. A computer code was developed to calculate the optimum subsystem sizes that minimize the levelized energy cost. The actual merits of a hybrid system over a pure photovoltaic or wind system depend upon many factors: load profile; wind regime; insolation; cost and availability of backup power; the relative costs of wind rotor area, array area, and storage; and subsystem efficiency factors. Examples of optimized hybrid systems for a range of photovoltaic costs and estimated wind and storage costs are shown for an Ely, NV, application, where backup power is allowed to supply 5% of the total annual load.

  8. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D. C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments' restoration process.

  9. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  10. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  11. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  12. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G., E-mail: giulia.festa@roma2.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Tardino, G. [BauArt Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pontecorvo, L. [Conservatorio di Cosenza – Cosenza Conservatory (Italy); Mannes, D.C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Senesi, R. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Gorini, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Andreani, C. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process.

  13. Interval forecasts of a novelty hybrid model for wind speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Qin; Feng Liu; Jianzhou Wang; Yiliao Song

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of wind energy, as a booming technology in the field of renewable energies, has been highly regarded around the world. Quantification of uncertainties associated with accurate wind speed forecasts is essential for regulating wind power generation and integration. However, it remains difficult work primarily due to the stochastic and nonlinear characteristics of wind speed series. Traditional models for wind speed forecasting mostly focus on generating certain predictive values...

  14. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZAIBI, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; ROBOAM, xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  15. Selection of a Planning Horizon for a Hybrid Microgrid Using Simulated Wind Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Craparo Dashi I. Singham Naval Postgraduate School 1411 Cunningham Road Monterey, CA, 93943 USA ABSTRACT Hybrid microgrids containing renewable energy ...produced is at least as great as the total load. Energy is produced by generators, wind turbines, purchases from the commercial grid, and discharge of the...A PLANNING HORIZON FOR A HYBRID MICROGRID USING SIMULATED WIND FORECASTS Mumtaz Karatas Turkish Naval Academy Tuzla, Istanbul, 34942, TURKEY Emily M

  16. Optimisation Sizing of Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems using Linear Programming Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great potential of hybrid wind-diesel system in supplying energy to remote or island communities, sizing the system components have been a challenging problem for many project managers due to the reliance on various factors. This work considers utilising a fixed speed wind turbine (induction generator) in the hybrid system. It requires energy for start-up operation and this work takes into account for sizing the battery storage. In addition, the trade-off between the number of bat...

  17. A Hybrid Wavelet Transform Based Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jujie Wang

    2014-01-01

    It is important to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting for wind parks management and wind power utilization. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach known as WTT-TNN is proposed for wind speed forecasting. In the first step of the approach, a wavelet transform technique (WTT) is used to decompose wind speed into an approximate scale and several detailed scales. In the second step, a two-hidden-layer neural network (TNN) is used to predict both approximated scale and detailed scales,...

  18. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  19. Optimization of Hybrid PV/Wind Energy System Using Genetic Algorithm (GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Ramoji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach of optimum design for a Hybrid PV/Wind energy system is presented in order to assist the designers to take into consideration both the economic and ecological aspects. When the stand alone energy system having photovoltaic panels only or wind turbine only are compared with the hybrid PV/wind energy systems, the hybrid systems are more economical and reliable according to climate changes. This paper presents an optimization technique to design the hybrid PV/wind system. The hybrid system consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and storage batteries. Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization technique is utilized to minimize the formulated objective function, i.e. total cost which includes initial costs, yearly replacement cost, yearly operating costs and maintenance costs and salvage value of the proposed hybrid system. A computer program is designed, using MATLAB code to formulate the optimization problem by computing the coefficients of the objective function. The method mentioned in this article is proved to be effective using an example of hybrid energy system. Finally, the optimal solution is achieved by Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization method.

  20. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  1. Combined wind measurements by two different lidar instruments in the Arctic middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hildebrand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During a joint campaign in January 2009 the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR lidar and the sodium lidar at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E in Northern Norway were operated simultaneously for more than 40 h, collecting data for wind measurements in the middle atmosphere from 30 up to 110 km altitude. At the upper (lower altitude range where the RMR (sodium lidar can operate, both lidars probe the same sounding volume, allowing to compare the derived wind speeds. We present the first simultaneous common volume wind measurements in the middle atmosphere using two different lidar instruments. The comparison of winds derived by RMR and sodium lidar is excellent for long integration times of 10 h as well as shorter ones of 1 h. Combination of data from both lidars allows identifying wavy structures between 30 and 110 km altitude, whose amplitudes increase with height. We have also performed lidar measurements of the same wind component using two independent branches of the RMR lidar and found a good agreement of the results but also identified inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind at about 55 km altitude of up to 20 ms−1. Such small scale inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind field are an essential challenge when comparing data from different instruments.

  2. Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.

  3. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  4. A hybrid approach for short-term forecasting of wind speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Veluvolu, Kalyana C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hybrid method for forecasting the wind speed. The wind speed data is first decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with empirical mode decomposition. Based on the partial autocorrelation factor of the individual IMFs, adaptive methods are then employed for the prediction of IMFs. Least squares-support vector machines are employed for IMFs with weak correlation factor, and autoregressive model with Kalman filter is employed for IMFs with high correlation factor. Multistep prediction with the proposed hybrid method resulted in improved forecasting. Results with wind speed data show that the proposed method provides better forecasting compared to the existing methods.

  5. A Hybrid Approach for Short-Term Forecasting of Wind Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanagaraja Tatinati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid method for forecasting the wind speed. The wind speed data is first decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with empirical mode decomposition. Based on the partial autocorrelation factor of the individual IMFs, adaptive methods are then employed for the prediction of IMFs. Least squares-support vector machines are employed for IMFs with weak correlation factor, and autoregressive model with Kalman filter is employed for IMFs with high correlation factor. Multistep prediction with the proposed hybrid method resulted in improved forecasting. Results with wind speed data show that the proposed method provides better forecasting compared to the existing methods.

  6. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal) . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid en...

  7. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    OpenAIRE

    Station Md. Ibrahim; Mohammad Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid ...

  8. Ultra-Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Using a Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to develop and apply a hybrid model of two data analytical methods, multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), for ultra-short-term wind power prediction (WPP), for example taking, Northeast China electricity demand. The data was obtained from the historical records of wind power from an offshore region, and from a wind farm of the wind power plant in the areas. The WPP achieved in two stages: first, the ratios of wind power were forecasted using the proposed hybrid method, and then the transformation of these ratios of wind power to obtain forecasted values. The hybrid model combines the persistence methods, MLR and LS. The proposed method included two prediction types, multi-point prediction and single-point prediction. WPP is tested by applying different models such as autoregressive moving average (ARMA), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and artificial neural network (ANN). By comparing results of the above models, the validity of the proposed hybrid model is confirmed in terms of error and correlation coefficient. Comparison of results confirmed that the proposed method works effectively. Additional, forecasting errors were also computed and compared, to improve understanding of how to depict highly variable WPP and the correlations between actual and predicted wind power.

  9. Multi-site testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Borbon Guillen, F.; Gomez Arranz, P.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments that makes use of two test sites in flat and complex terrain is presented. To illustrate the method, a system intercomparison experiment is presented involving one sodar and two lidars (pulsed and continuous-wave). The wind prof...

  10. Utilizing wind and solar energy as power sources for a hybrid building ventilation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shun, Simon; Ahmed, Noor A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Wind and solar energy are currently used to power many building ventilation devices. Such devices rely exclusively on either solar or wind energy, which limits their usefulness. A low-cost hybrid ventilation device that utilizes both wind and solar energy as power sources was designed to overcome some of the shortcomings of these devices. Wind tunnel testing conducted at the aerodynamics laboratory of the University of New South Wales revealed that the hybrid device had improved operational and performance benefits compared with conventional commercial roof top ventilators, particularly at zero to low wind speeds. This represents a significant step forward and will have an immediate impact in promoting the use of clean energy for the purposes of building ventilation. (author)

  11. Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust Observed by the Wind/WAVES Electric Field Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David; Horanyi, M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Goetz, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Kersten, K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of hypervelocity dust particles impacting the Wind spacecraft are reported here for the first time using data from the WindWAVES electric field instrument. A unique combination of rotating spacecraft, amplitude-triggered high-cadence waveform collection, and electric field antenna configuration allow the first direct determination of dust impact direction by any spacecraft using electric field data. Dust flux and impact direction data indicate that the observed dust is approximately micron-sized with both interplanetary and interstellar populations. Nanometer radius dust is not detected by Wind during times when nanometer dust is observed on the STEREO spacecraft and both spacecraft are in close proximity. Determined impact directions suggest that interplanetary dust detected by electric field instruments at 1 AU is dominated by particles on bound trajectories crossing Earths orbit, rather than dust with hyperbolic orbits.

  12. A new long instrumental serie for the Etesian winds since 1877

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Vega, Inmaculada; Gallego, David; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The meteorological observations found in old ships' logbooks have been recognized as a useful source of climatic information in periods and areas not covered by other sources. In the last five years several studies have employed the wind direction observations contained in logbooks to generate climatic indices of instrumental character related to large scale patterns such as the atmospheric westerly circulation in North Atlantic, the strength of the West African Monsoon or the start date of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This study is focused on the winds in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) and its relation to the subtropical climate at decadal scale. Previous studies have shown a significant link between the frequency and strength of the prevalent summer northerly winds (Etesian winds) of the EM and the strength of the ISM. This relationship had only been studied in detail for the second half of the 20th century due to the absence of long and continuous series of wind observations in the EM for previous periods. In this work, we use historical wind data contained in ship's logbooks to generate a new climatic index, the "Etesian Wind Index", which can be defined as the percentage of days with prevalent northerly wind (between 315° and 45°) in a fixed region [10°W-20°W, 32°N-36°N]. We have been able to produce an index of the Etesian winds starting in 1877 suitable to analyze its long term variability and its relation with the ISM in unprecedented detail. Our first results show that the frequency of the northerly winds in the EM was significantly larger in the first half of the studied period, mainly due to an intensification of the zonal component in the second half of the studied period. Interestingly, the comparison with analogous Etesian wind indices computed from reanalysis products (NCEP/NCAR 20th Century (V2c) and ERA20C), shows strong discrepancies among them and with our instrumental reconstruction, which could indicate a misrepresentation of the

  13. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, S.E.

    1995-10-01

    This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Comparison of horizontal winds from the LIMS satellite instrument with rocket measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. K.; Bailey, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical results are given for a comparison between horizontal geostrophic winds computed from satellite height data and all available in situ rocket wind soundings during a 7-month period. The satellite data are the daily mapped fields from the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) instrument, which extend from 100 to 0.1 mbar. Results indicate that in both the tropics and the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, the average zonal and meridional wind speeds agree to within 2-4 m/s throughout the stratosphere. The rms differences are much larger, with values of 5-10 m/s in the lower stratosphere, increasing to 20-40 m/s in the lower mesosphere. Time series show that LIMS and rocketsonde zonal wind speeds show coherent variations with temporal periods of 1-2 weeks and more, and both exhibit irregular variations on time scales of less than one week.

  16. Combined wind measurements by two different lidar instruments in the Arctic middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hildebrand

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During a joint campaign in January 2009, the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR lidar and the sodium lidar at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E in Northern Norway were operated simultaneously for more than 40 h, collecting data for wind measurements in the middle atmosphere from 30 up to 110 km altitude. As both lidars share the same receiving telescopes, the upper altitude range of the RMR lidar and the lower altitude range of the sodium lidar overlap in the altitude region of ≈80–85 km. For this overlap region we are thus able to present the first simultaneous wind measurements derived from two different lidar instruments. The comparison of winds derived by RMR and sodium lidar is excellent for long integration times of 10 h as well as shorter ones of 1 h. Combination of data from both lidars allows identifying wavy structures between 30 and 110 km altitude, whose amplitudes increase with height. We have also performed vertical wind measurements and measurements of the same horizontal wind component using two independent lasers and telescopes of the RMR lidar and show how to use this data to calibrate and validate the wind retrieval. For the latter configuration we found a good agreement of the results but also identified inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind at about 55 km altitude of up to 20 ms−1 for an integration time of nearly 4 h. Such small-scale inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind field are an essential challenge when comparing data from different instruments.

  17. Effects of Practice Schedule on Wind Instrument Performance: A Preliminary Application of a Motor Learning Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Laura A.; Demorest, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of three practice schedules on beginning instrumental achievement were explored. A total of 19 seventh-grade clarinet and saxophone students completed one 18-minute practice session using either a blocked schedule causing a low level of cognitive (contextual) interference, a hybrid schedule causing a moderate level of interference, or…

  18. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  19. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  20. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  1. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  2. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  3. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wind power forecasting. The hybrid forecasting method combines the persistence method, the back propagation neural network, and the radial basis function (RBF neural network. The EPSO algorithm is employed to optimize the weight coefficients in the hybrid forecasting method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the method is tested on the practical information of wind power generation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS installed on the Taichung coast of Taiwan. Comparisons of forecasting performance are made with the individual forecasting methods. Good agreements between the realistic values and forecasting values are obtained; the test results show the proposed forecasting method is accurate and reliable.

  4. Coordinated Stability Control of Wind-Thermal Hybrid AC/DC Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind-thermal hybrid power transmission will someday be the main form of transmitting wind power in China but such transmission mode is poor in system stability. In this paper, a coordinated stability control strategy is proposed to improve the system stability. Firstly, the mathematical model of doubly fed wind farms and DC power transmission system is established. The rapid power controllability of large-scale wind farms is discussed based on DFIG model and wide-field optical fiber delay feature. Secondly, low frequency oscillation and power-angle stability are analyzed and discussed under the hybrid transmission mode of a conventional power plant with wind farms. A coordinated control strategy for the wind-thermal hybrid AC/DC power system is proposed and an experimental prototype is made. Finally, real time simulation modeling is set up through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS, including wind power system and synchronous generator system and DC power transmission system. The experimental prototype is connected with RTDS for joint debugging. Joint debugging result shows that, under the coordinated control strategy, the experimental prototype is conductive to enhance the grid damping and effectively prevents the grid from occurring low frequency oscillation. It can also increase the transient power-angle stability of a power system.

  5. Research of the incubation and hybridization instrument with vibration for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Deng, Yan; Li, Qihua; Liu, Bin; Xia, Yun; Du, Yuhang; He, Nongyue

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles are the largest and most widely used nanomaterial in biomedical research nowadays, which are always used in solution. However, traditional techniques, such as hybridization oven are not appropriate for the incubation and hybridization of nanoparticles. Thus designing and developing an effective method and instrument for hybridization of nanoparticles is very essential to solve these present problems. This paper introduced and successfully designed a hybridization instrument, including insulated and closed chamber, temperature control system, motion control system input and output control system. The instrument can not only control temperature precisely to meet various requirements for chemical and biological molecule's incubation and hybridization on nanomaterials, but also make liquid flow slowly and shake according to a certain frequency for mixing to improve hybridization efficiency significantly. The control algorithm of temperature applied PID and fuzzy-PID, the accuracy is improved and stable. Vibration is the most obvious and advantageous feature of the instrument. Furthermore the core control system was improved whose core is C8051F060 MCU and designed into panel.

  6. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm......A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... together with a Monte Carlo simulation-based sensitivity analysis. In addition to illustrating the complementarity between the fluctuations of wind power and PV power, the results prove the proposed MPC algorithm is effective in fluctuation suppression but sensitive to factors such as forecast accuracy...

  7. CRES` wind-diesel hybrid system: system identification and performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vionis, P.S.; Fragoulis, A.N.; Ladakakos, P.D. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (C.R.E.S.), Pikermi (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    A Wind-Diesel hybrid system has been developed at CRES for investigating the parallel operation of Wind Turbines and Diesel Generators into Autonomous Weak Grids. The system`s architecture is flexible enough so that it can be effectively used for optimising the integration of renewable energy sources in such autonomous power systems, while ensuring the successful implementation of innovative control strategies and testing of new design concepts. In this paper, the design of the wind-diesel simulator and its basic operation modes are described. Results of the components identification procedure are presented. The relevant analysis reveals the components` characteristics under various modes of operation along with the subsystem`s operation limits. The methodology set up for system testing and evaluation has been verified. Results of the first performance tests of the Wind-Diesel hybrid system showing its capabilities are presented and discussed. (Author)

  8. A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency Control of Hybrid Wind-Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.

  9. A Hybrid Approach for Short-Term Forecasting of Wind Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanagaraja Tatinati; Kalyana C. Veluvolu

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hybrid method for forecasting the wind speed. The wind speed data is first decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with empirical mode decomposition. Based on the partial autocorrelation factor of the individual IMFs, adaptive methods are then employed for the prediction of IMFs. Least squares-support vector machines are employed for IMFs with weak correlation factor, and autoregressive model with Kalman filter is employed for IMFs with high correlation factor. Multistep ...

  10. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  12. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  13. MODELING, SIMULATON AND SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC/WIND/FUEL CELL HYBRID GENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.LATHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern towards global warming have created the need to surge for the alternative power generation options. Renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar-PV, Biomass and fuel cells are gaining prominence nowadays, as they are more energy efficient, reduce pollution and also they serveas a promising solution to the toughest energy crisis faced during the recent years. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/Simulink software. The intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources make them unreliable. Hence Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is used to extract maximum power from the wind and sunwhen it is available. The standard perturb and observe method of MPPT is used for the PV system and for the wind generation system. The simulation results of the PV/Wind /Fuel cell hybrid system are presented in graph showing the effectiveness of the proposed system model. Also, hardware implementation of microcontroller based MPPT for solar-PV alone and unit sizing of the hybrid system for the PG simulation lab in EEE Dept. of Thiagarajar College of Engineering is depicted in the paper.

  14. Wind speed forecasting in three different regions of Mexico, using a hybrid ARIMA-ANN model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas, Erasmo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Santiago Tapia No. 403, Centro (Mexico); Rivera, Wilfrido [Centro de Ivestigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 34, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper the wind speed forecasting in the Isla de Cedros in Baja California, in the Cerro de la Virgen in Zacatecas and in Holbox in Quintana Roo is presented. The time series utilized are average hourly wind speed data obtained directly from the measurements realized in the different sites during about one month. In order to do wind speed forecasting Hybrid models consisting of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed. The ARIMA models were first used to do the wind speed forecasting of the time series and then with the obtained errors ANN were built taking into account the nonlinear tendencies that the ARIMA technique could not identify, reducing with this the final errors. Once the Hybrid models were developed 48 data out of sample for each one of the sites were used to do the wind speed forecasting and the results were compared with the ARIMA and the ANN models working separately. Statistical error measures such as the mean error (ME), the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated to compare the three methods. The results showed that the Hybrid models predict the wind velocities with a higher accuracy than the ARIMA and ANN models in the three examined sites. (author)

  15. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami; Mehdi Ali Ehyaei; Marc A. Rosen; Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid sy...

  16. Fuzzy hybrid MCDM approach for selection of wind turbine service technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Kumar Bose; Nikhil Chandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    This research paper is aimed to present a fuzzy Hybrid Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology for selecting employees. The present study aspires to present the hybrid approach of Fuzzy multiple MCDM techniques with tactical viewpoint to support the recruitment process of wind turbine service technicians. The methodology is based on the application of Fuzzy ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment) and Fuzzy MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on basis of Ratio Analysis) which are integrated...

  17. A Simple Sizing Algorithm for Stand-Alone PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Wei Wei; Ji Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm to determine the required number of generating units of wind-turbine generator and photovoltaic array, and the associated storage capacity for stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The algorithm is based on the observation that the state of charge of battery should be periodically invariant. The optimal sizing of hybrid microgrid is given in the sense that the life cycle cost of system is minimized while the given load power demand can be satisfied without...

  18. Design techniques for developing a computerized instrumentation test plan. [for wind tunnel test data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, S. Kay; Forsyth, Theodore J.; Maynard, Everett E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computerized instrumentation test plan (ITP) for the NASA/Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is discussed. The objective of the ITP program was to aid the instrumentation engineer in documenting the configuration and calibration of data acquisition systems for a given test at any of four low speed wind tunnel facilities (Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility, 7 x 10, 40 x 80, and 80 x 120) at the NFAC. It is noted that automation of the ITP has decreased errors, engineering hours, and setup time while adding a higher level of consistency and traceability.

  19. Powertrain instrumentation and test systems development, hybridization, electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Paulweber, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The book deals with the increasingly complex test systems for powertrain components and systems giving an overview of the diverse types of test beds for all components of an advanced powertrain focusing on specific topics such as instrumentation, control, simulation, hardware-in-the-loop, automation or test facility management. This book is intended for powertrain (component) development engineers, test bed planners, test bed operators and beginners.

  20. Respiratory function in vocal soloists, opera singers and wind instrument musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksinopoulou, Helen; Hatzoglou, Chryssa; Daniil, Zoe; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Karetsi, Helen

    2016-12-13

    Current studies have not yet reached a definitive conclusion on the effects of singing and playing wind instruments professionally on an individual's respiratory function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the respiratory function of wind instrument players and opera singers in comparison with a group of healthy individuals. The experimental group comprised 45 men and 35 women, 58 opera singers and vocal soloists in total and 22 wind instruments players. Eighty controls were all non-smokers, healthy individuals, matched for age and sex. Spirometry was performed with a dry spirometer, according to the American Thoracic Society recommendations. The mean age of the experimental group was 47.9 (15.5) years for men and 46.6 (16.8) for women. Experimental group and controls differed (p<0.01) in FVC [%predicted values: 98.69±13.07 vs 89.62±14.01 (men), 104.2±17.7 vs 93.8±13.9 (women)], FEV1[% predicted values: 98.69±13.07 vs 89.62±14.01 (men), 104.2±17.7 vs 93.8±13.9 (women)] and in PEFR values (p=0.001). [100.4±18.8 vs 76.7±19.8 (men)]. FEV1/FVC ratio significant differences were detected only in women (p=0.001, for predicted values). The findings of the present study provide evidence that professional involvement with wind musical instrument or monody might have beneficial effects on respiratory function. Future therapeutic perspectives, and associations between a documented improved respiratory function and performance by the musician should be examined.

  1. Techno-economic Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in the South Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireddine Allali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is often produced with the help of diesel generators in isolated areas in the Saharan region. While the latter requiring relatively little investment because is generally expensive to exploit due to the transportation to remote areas adds extra cost, significant fuel consumption and relatively high maintenance cost, etc. Moreover, the electricity production by the diesel is ineffective, presents significant environmental risks. But these isolated areas have significant wind energy potential; which is good position for the exploitation of clean and sustainable wind energy. The use of wind-diesel power system is widely recommended especially to reduce fuel consumption and in this way to reduce system operating costs and environmental impact. The subject of this paper is to present the techno-economic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid power system. In this context, the contribution envisaged with this research is to collaborate on the optimal design of a hybrid power system including a wind turbine generator, a diesel generator and an energy storage system for powering a continuous way an isolated site in the South Algerian installed power of 120 kW.This system has a high control strategy for the management of different power sources (wind, diesel, battery that depending to weather conditions, especially wind speed values and the power demanded by the consumer load.

  2. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  3. Instrumental characterization of the smectite clay–gentamicin hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alicja Rapacz-Kmita; Ewa Stodolak-Zych; Magdalena Ziabka; Agnieszka Rozycka; Magdalena Dudek

    2015-08-01

    This paper focusses on the intercalation of clay mineral with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic). The smectite clay–gentamicin hybrids were prepared by a solution intercalation at 60°C and the process was carried out on unmodified smectite clay and on smectite after Na+ ionic activation. The resulting structural/microstructural properties and the potential for introducing gentamicin between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy X-ray analysis. The results confirm the successful intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of smectite clay, demonstrating that the material thus obtained could potentially be used as a drug carrier.

  4. Dynamic Modelling of a Wind/Fuel-Cell/Ultra-Capacitor-Based Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanishree

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of alternative energy sources have shown excellent potential as a form of contribution to conventional power generation systems. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, Fuel Cell (FC and Ultra-Capacitor (UC systems for sustained power generation. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed: an FC system with a UC bank can be integrated with the wind turbine to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. A dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/UC hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers is proposed. In the proposed system, when the wind speed is sufficient, the wind turbine can meet the load demand. If the available power from the wind turbine cannot satisfy the load demand, the FC system can meet the excess power demand, while the UC can meet the load demand above the maximum power available from the FC system for short durations. Furthermore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in wind speed and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage in a novel topology.

  5. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    ηp is the panel output determined from the efficiency of photovoltaic cell that constitutes .... The reservoir: a pond of water storage featuring a cylindrical shape of 6m ..... Prospect of wind-PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid.

  6. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  7. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  8. OPTIMIZATION AND SIZING OF A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID PV-WIND ENERGY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. SUPRIYA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energies are highly advantageous compared to the conventional sources of power in many ways that they clean and available infinitely. But the onlydrawback is that their outputs depend upon the climatic conditions. Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System (WPHS utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and Photo-Voltaic (PV panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. The aim of this project is to determine the optimal design of a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or grid-linked applications. The proposed analysis employs quadratic programming techniques to minimize the cost while meeting the load requirements in a reliable manner. Using this procedure, optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. Results show that the hybrid systems have considerable reductions in carbon emission and cost of the system.

  9. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  10. A Hybrid Wavelet Transform Based Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jujie

    2014-01-01

    It is important to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting for wind parks management and wind power utilization. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach known as WTT-TNN is proposed for wind speed forecasting. In the first step of the approach, a wavelet transform technique (WTT) is used to decompose wind speed into an approximate scale and several detailed scales. In the second step, a two-hidden-layer neural network (TNN) is used to predict both approximated scale and detailed scales, respectively. In order to find the optimal network architecture, the partial autocorrelation function is adopted to determine the number of neurons in the input layer, and an experimental simulation is made to determine the number of neurons within each hidden layer in the modeling process of TNN. Afterwards, the final prediction value can be obtained by the sum of these prediction results. In this study, a WTT is employed to extract these different patterns of the wind speed and make it easier for forecasting. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, it is applied to forecast Hexi Corridor of China's wind speed. Simulation results in four different cases show that the proposed method increases wind speed forecasting accuracy. PMID:25136699

  11. A hybrid wavelet transform based short-term wind speed forecasting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jujie

    2014-01-01

    It is important to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting for wind parks management and wind power utilization. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach known as WTT-TNN is proposed for wind speed forecasting. In the first step of the approach, a wavelet transform technique (WTT) is used to decompose wind speed into an approximate scale and several detailed scales. In the second step, a two-hidden-layer neural network (TNN) is used to predict both approximated scale and detailed scales, respectively. In order to find the optimal network architecture, the partial autocorrelation function is adopted to determine the number of neurons in the input layer, and an experimental simulation is made to determine the number of neurons within each hidden layer in the modeling process of TNN. Afterwards, the final prediction value can be obtained by the sum of these prediction results. In this study, a WTT is employed to extract these different patterns of the wind speed and make it easier for forecasting. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, it is applied to forecast Hexi Corridor of China's wind speed. Simulation results in four different cases show that the proposed method increases wind speed forecasting accuracy.

  12. A Hybrid Wavelet Transform Based Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jujie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting for wind parks management and wind power utilization. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach known as WTT-TNN is proposed for wind speed forecasting. In the first step of the approach, a wavelet transform technique (WTT is used to decompose wind speed into an approximate scale and several detailed scales. In the second step, a two-hidden-layer neural network (TNN is used to predict both approximated scale and detailed scales, respectively. In order to find the optimal network architecture, the partial autocorrelation function is adopted to determine the number of neurons in the input layer, and an experimental simulation is made to determine the number of neurons within each hidden layer in the modeling process of TNN. Afterwards, the final prediction value can be obtained by the sum of these prediction results. In this study, a WTT is employed to extract these different patterns of the wind speed and make it easier for forecasting. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, it is applied to forecast Hexi Corridor of China’s wind speed. Simulation results in four different cases show that the proposed method increases wind speed forecasting accuracy.

  13. A hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for wind-turbine blade optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessarego, M.; Dixon, K. R.; Rival, D. E.; Wood, D. H.

    2015-08-01

    A concurrent-hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (hybrid NSGA-II) has been developed and applied to the simultaneous optimization of the annual energy production, flapwise root-bending moment and mass of the NREL 5 MW wind-turbine blade. By hybridizing a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) with gradient-based local search, it is believed that the optimal set of blade designs could be achieved in lower computational cost than for a conventional MOEA. To measure the convergence between the hybrid and non-hybrid NSGA-II on a wind-turbine blade optimization problem, a computationally intensive case was performed using the non-hybrid NSGA-II. From this particular case, a three-dimensional surface representing the optimal trade-off between the annual energy production, flapwise root-bending moment and blade mass was achieved. The inclusion of local gradients in the blade optimization, however, shows no improvement in the convergence for this three-objective problem.

  14. Analysis of the solar/wind resources in Southern Spain for optimal sizing of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ruiz, S.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Tovar-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A drawback common to the solar and wind energy systems is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather and climate on a wide range of time scales. In addition, the variation of the energy output may not match with the time distribution of the load demand. This can partially be solved by the use of batteries for energy storage in stand-alone systems. The problem caused by the variable nature of the solar and wind resources can be partially overcome by the use of energy systems that uses both renewable resources in a combined manner, that is, hybrid wind-solar systems. Since both resources can show complementary characteristics in certain location, the independent use of solar or wind systems results in considerable over sizing of the batteries system compared to the use of hybrid solar-wind systems. Nevertheless, to the day, there is no single recognized method for properly sizing these hybrid wind-solar systems. In this work, we present a method for sizing wind-solar hybrid systems in southern Spain. The method is based on the analysis of the wind and solar resources on daily scale, particularly, its temporal complementary characteristics. The method aims to minimize the size of the energy storage systems, trying to provide the most reliable supply.

  15. The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI), an electronic musical wind controller for playing synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Nyle A.

    2004-05-01

    The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI) is an electronic musical wind instrument with playing techniques similar to that of a trumpet. Invented by Nyle Steiner in the early 1970's, it was designed to give the performer control of dynamics from breath pressure and the ability to make a humanly generated vibrato. Other musical paramaters can be controlled as well. It has a playing range of seven octaves (similar to that of a piano). When musical lines are played using this instrument (controller) connected to an electronic music synthesizer, the sound is much more natural sounding and expressive than when a normal musical keyboard is used. The evolution of this instrument from the pre-Midi era to it latest Midi configuration, principles of operation, synthesizer programming, and its wide use in movie and TV scoring will be discussed. The EVI has played featured musical lines in many major movie soundtracks and TV shows such as Apocalypse Now, Witness, Dead Poets Society, Fatal Attraction, No Way Out, Gorillas in the Mist, and many others. The EVI design has also been adapted as an Electronic Woodwind Instrument (EWI) by Nyle Steiner and has been manufactured and sold worldwide by the AKAI Co. in Japan.

  16. Solar wind observations with the ion composition instrument aboard the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principal observations obtained by the Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) flown on the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, which was in the solar wind from September 1978 to the end of 1982, before being directed to the far magnetotail of the Earth are discussed. Almost continuous observations were made of the abundances of 3He++, 4He++, 06+, 07+, Ne, Si and Fe in various charge states, and of their bulk speeds and temperatures. The results show that there is a strong tendency in the collisionless solar wind for the ionic temperatures to be proportional to the masses. For heavier ions these temperatures exceed typical coronal electron temperatures. 4He++, especially in high speed streams, moves faster than H+, and travels at the same speed as heavier ions. The mechanism leading to this heating and rapid streaming is still not entirely clear.

  17. Solar wind observations with the ion composition instrument aboard the ISEE-3 ICE spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principal observations obtained by the Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) flown on the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, which was in the solar wind from September 1978 to the end of 1982, before being directed to the far magnetotail of the Earth are discussed. Almost continuous observations were made of the abundances of 3He++, 4He++, O6+, O7+, Ne, Si and Fe in various charge states, and of their bulk speeds and temperatures. The results show that there is a strong tendency in the collisionless solar wind for the ionic temperatures to be proportional to the masses. For heavier ions these temperatures exceed typical coronal electron temperatures. 4He++, especially in high speed streams, moves faster than H+, and travels at the same speed as heavier ions. The mechanism leading to this heating and rapid streaming is still not entirely clear.

  18. Dust detection by the wave instrument on STEREO: nanoparticles picked up by the solar wind?

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Vernet, N; Czechowski, A; Mann, I; Zouganelis, I; Goetz, K; Kaiser, M L; Cyr, O C St; Bougeret, J L; Bale, S D

    2009-01-01

    The STEREO/WAVES instrument has detected a very large number of intense voltage pulses. We suggest that these events are produced by impact ionisation of nanoparticles striking the spacecraft at a velocity of the order of magnitude of the solar wind speed. Nanoparticles, which are half-way between micron-sized dust and atomic ions, have such a large charge-to-mass ratio that the electric field induced by the solar wind magnetic field accelerates them very efficiently. Since the voltage produced by dust impacts increases very fast with speed, such nanoparticles produce signals as high as do much larger grains of smaller speeds. The flux of 10-nm radius grains inferred in this way is compatible with the interplanetary dust flux model. The present results may represent the first detection of fast nanoparticles in interplanetary space near Earth orbit.

  19. Optimization of PV/WIND/DIESEL Hybrid Power System in HOMER for Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Q.; Jaszczur, M.; Abdulateef, J.

    2016-09-01

    A large proportion of the world's population lives in remote rural areas that are geographically isolated and sparsely populated. The present study is based on modeling, computer simulation and optimization of hybrid power generation system in the rural area in Muqdadiyah district of Diyala state, Iraq. Two renewable resources, namely, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine (WT) are considered. The HOMER software is used to study and design the proposed hybrid energy system model. Based on simulation results, it has been found that renewable energy sources perhaps replace the conventional energy sources and would be a feasible solution for the generation of electric power at remote locations with a reasonable investment. The hybrid power system solution to electrify the selected area resulted in a least-cost combination of the hybrid power system that can meet the demand in a dependable manner at a cost about (0.321/kWh). If the wind resources in the study area at the lower stage, it's not economically viable for a wind turbine to generate the electricity.

  20. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  1. Modelling and Optimising the Value of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arjun; Murali, Kartik; Anbuudayasankar, S. P.; Arjunan, C. V.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a net present value (NPV) approach for a solar hybrid system has been presented. The system, in question aims at supporting an investor by assessing an investment in solar-wind hybrid system in a given area. The approach follow a combined process of modelling the system, with optimization of major investment-related variables to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The consideration of solar wind hybrid supply presents significant potential for cost reduction. The investment variables concern the location of solar wind plant, and its sizing. The system demand driven, meaning that its primary aim is to fully satisfy the energy demand of the customers. Therefore, the model is a practical tool in the hands of investor to assess and optimize in financial terms an investment aiming at covering real energy demand. Optimization is performed by taking various technical, logical constraints. The relation between the maximum power obtained between individual system and the hybrid system as a whole in par with the net present value of the system has been highlighted.

  2. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  3. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  4. Wind-hydrogen-biomass. The hybrid power plant of ENERTRAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miege, Andreas; Luschtinetz, T. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany); Wenske, M.; Gamallo, F. [ENERTRAG AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ENERTRAG Hybrid Power Plant is designed around the following components: three wind turbines of 2 MW each, an electrolyser of 500 kW, a hydrogen storage system, and two CHP units of 350 kW each, able to run with variable mixtures of biogas and hydrogen. The use of the electrolyser - acting as a deferrable load, and running under variable power - and the possibility of reconverting the hydrogen again into electricity will allow a feeding-in of the produced electricity to the grid, free of any of the changing characteristics of the wind power. Besides of that renewable electricity, the Hybrid Power Plant will also be able of delivering hydrogen as a clean fuel for the transport sector, as well as oxygen and heat. The project will show that renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, will be able, in the future, of producing back-up power without any support of fossile sources; and also of feeding electricity to the grid as a part of the base-load demand. As a first step towards this direction, the project has the goal of assuring that the energy production of the three wind turbines will be in accordance to the 24-h-forecasted wind power values. (orig.)

  5. The Human-Fostered Gorilla Koko Shows Breath Control in Play with Wind Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Perlman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Breath control is critical to the production of spoken language and commonly postulated as a unique human adaptation specifically for this function. In contrast, non-human primates are often assumed to lack volitional control over their vocalizations, and implicitly, their breath. This paper takes an embodied perspective on the development of breath control in a human-fostered gorilla, examining her sound play with musical wind instruments. The subject Koko was video recorded in her play with plastic recorders, harmonicas and whistles. The results show that Koko exercises volitional control over her breath during instrument play. More generally, the findings suggest that all great apes share the potential to develop breath control, and that the original adaptive value of breath control was its flexible development for the service of behaviors that happened to be useful within particular sociocultural and physical environments.

  6. Hybrid wind diesel system for a village in the Canary Islands. Operation results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, I.; Arribas, L.; Gonzalez, A. [CIEMAT-IER, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The first release from the operation data from the Hybrid Wind Diesel System carried-out one year ago in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are available. In this paper the results of the detailed analysis are presented, concerning the impact of the parameters from the different systems in the whole system. The performance of the operation strategy is demonstrated with computational results. Comparisons between different function modes are also included. These results show that the feasibility of the project is essentially affected by the wind energy penetration and by the reliability of the system. Finally, system energy balances will be given. (Author)

  7. Modelling the solar wind interaction with Mercury by a quasi-neutral hybrid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio

    Full Text Available Quasi-neutral hybrid model is a self-consistent modelling approach that includes positively charged particles and an electron fluid. The approach has received an increasing interest in space plasma physics research because it makes it possible to study several plasma physical processes that are difficult or impossible to model by self-consistent fluid models, such as the effects associated with the ions’ finite gyroradius, the velocity difference between different ion species, or the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. By now quasi-neutral hybrid models have been used to study the solar wind interaction with the non-magnetised Solar System bodies of Mars, Venus, Titan and comets. Localized, two-dimensional hybrid model runs have also been made to study terrestrial dayside magnetosheath. However, the Hermean plasma environment has not yet been analysed by a global quasi-neutral hybrid model.

    In this paper we present a new quasi-neutral hybrid model developed to study various processes associated with the Mercury-solar wind interaction. Emphasis is placed on addressing advantages and disadvantages of the approach to study different plasma physical processes near the planet. The basic assumptions of the approach and the algorithms used in the new model are thoroughly presented. Finally, some of the first three-dimensional hybrid model runs made for Mercury are presented.

    The resulting macroscopic plasma parameters and the morphology of the magnetic field demonstrate the applicability of the new approach to study the Mercury-solar wind interaction globally. In addition, the real advantage of the kinetic hybrid model approach is to study the property of individual ions, and the study clearly demonstrates the large potential of the approach to address these more detailed issues by a quasi-neutral hybrid model in the future.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  9. A Simple Sizing Algorithm for Stand-Alone PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm to determine the required number of generating units of wind-turbine generator and photovoltaic array, and the associated storage capacity for stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The algorithm is based on the observation that the state of charge of battery should be periodically invariant. The optimal sizing of hybrid microgrid is given in the sense that the life cycle cost of system is minimized while the given load power demand can be satisfied without load rejection. We also report a case study to show the efficacy of the developed algorithm.

  10. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  11. Hybrid damper with stroke amplification for damping of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark L.; Høgsberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    tower. The proposed hybrid damper consists of a passive viscous dashpot placed in series with a load cell and an active actuator. By integrated force feedback control of the actuator motion, the associated displacement amplitude over the viscous damper can be increased compared with the passive viscous......The magnitude of tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines is a key design driver for the feasibility of the monopilesupport structure. A novel control concept for the damping of these tower vibrations is proposed, where viscous-type hybrid dampers are installed at the bottom of the wind turbine...... control leads to performance similar to that of passive viscous damping and substantial amplification of the damper deformation without actuator drift. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  12. Effect of Side Wind on the Directional Stability and Aerodynamics of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional stability characteristics explain the capabilities of a hybrid buoyant aircraft’s performance against the side wind, which induces flow separation that is chaotic in nature and may lead to oscillations of the aerodynamic surfaces. A numerical study is carried out to estimate the effect of side wind. The boundary conditions for the computational domain are set to velocity inlet and pressure outlet. Due to the incompressible flow at the cruise velocity, the density is taken to be constant. For these steady state simulations, the time is discretized in first order implicit and the SIMPLE scheme is employed for pressure velocity coupling alongwith k-ω SST model. Based on the results obtained so far, it is concluded that voluminous hybrid lifting fuselage is the major cause of directional.

  13. Measurement of effects on tone with lip-protecting music splints for wind instrument players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Chigusa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Imai, Miharu; Kawamoto, Masayuki; Shima, Yuko; Tamagawa, Hiroo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ohboshi, Naoki; Toda, Tadao

    2004-05-01

    To protect against lip trauma from wind instruments, music splints that cover the sharp edges of incisor teeth are often manufactured by dentists. Wind instrument players who have installed these custom-made music splints often express not only their lip comfort but also changes in their tone quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of the splints to the tone quality. We recorded three types of trumpet sounds such as long tones, arpeggios with perfect fifth, and tonguing tones with and without using a splint, respectively, by a professional trumpet player in an anechoic room. After fast Fourier transform, the higher harmonics was observed more in the splint group than in the nonsplint group, with sharp peaks from 5000 to 8000 Hz. We also examined the differences of these sound groups with recognition tests by two groups of listeners such as professional musicians and nonprofessional persons. Though sound-pressure levels of higher harmonics in two sound groups were lower than those at 400 to 2000 Hz, the musically trained persons recognized the difference perfectly. These results suggest the target of measurement to evaluate the effect of music splints.

  14. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Su eChoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas versus non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  15. The instrument of measuring the speed of the wind; Instrumento de mensurar a velocidade do vento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferruzzi, Yuri; Gnoatto, Estor; Ricieri, Reinaldo P.; Munemuri Junior, Miguel; Oliveira, Adriana T.E. de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cacavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: yuriferruzzi@uol.com.br, e-mail: miguel@fag.edu.br, e-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br, e-mail: atoliveira@unioeste.Br; Gnoatto, Estor [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: estor@unioeste.br

    2004-07-01

    The analysis of the characteristics of the wind is of great importance for the studies of the use of energy, because the same is related with the intrinsic characteristics of the meteorology, as well as her application as alternative source of energy, and the study of the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, being this grating way was worth her study, for so much he will grow an instrument to be as much of low cost as necessary, that it will measure the position and the direction of the wind, and the burst, such device will be based in the use of a coupled mechanical system the photo interrupter sand linked to a computer that had accomplished an automatic data collection through a program elaborated to interpret the data correspondents saw parallel input channel, containing these indexes in files of usual extension for other applications of it analyzes of data. Seeking the precision of the apparel the following rehearsals will be accomplished, wind tunnel, use of an anemometer for calibration, determination of the north as point of reference for to powder. (author)

  16. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  17. Reactive power control of wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power systems using matlab/simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, R.C.; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P.; Bhat, S. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Visvesvaraya National Inst. of Technology, Nagpur (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power system for realistic load disturbance using matlab/simulink. The mathematical model of the system based on matlab/simulink is developed. Reactive power control performance is compared using three different types of Static VAR Compensators (SVC). Transient responses for step plus normally distributed or band limited white noise random change in load have also been presented in this paper. (Author)

  18. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  19. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nema, Pragya; Rangnekar, Saroj [Energy Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology , Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India); Nema, R.K. [Electrical Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77 deg.23'and Latitude 23 deg.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  20. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Station Md. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai. For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. The presented system reduce approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the proposed developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  1. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Company, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  2. Wind data analysis for the design of a hybrid generation system at the Algodoal Island - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, U.H.; Pinho, J.T.; J.C. da Cunha, D. de; Araujo, A.C.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The northeastern coast of the State of Para and the Marajo Island - in Brazil, exhibit a wind potential that seems adequate to the generation of electric energy to supply local demands. These local demands are mostly formed by small towns and villages located invariably far from the big urban centers with little or no possibility to be supplied by the utility grid. In this paper it is intended to report the studies being conducted to design a hybrid wind diesel system to attend a small population center, namely the Algodoal Island, that is a representative sample of this region. It will be described the process of data acquisition and statistical treatment as well as some environmental, social and economic aspects regarding the Algodoal Island. Finally it will be presented a preliminary estimate of energy demand for this locality as well as a probable wind-diesel system arrangement to supply this demand.

  3. Fuzzy hybrid MCDM approach for selection of wind turbine service technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Bose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is aimed to present a fuzzy Hybrid Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methodology for selecting employees. The present study aspires to present the hybrid approach of Fuzzy multiple MCDM techniques with tactical viewpoint to support the recruitment process of wind turbine service technicians. The methodology is based on the application of Fuzzy ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment and Fuzzy MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on basis of Ratio Analysis which are integrated through group decision making (GDM method in the model for selection of wind turbine service technicians’ ranking. Here a group of experts from different fields of expertise are engaged to finalize the decision. Series of tests are conducted regarding physical fitness, technical written test, practical test along with general interview and medical examination to facilitate the final selection using the above techniques. In contrast to single decision making approaches, the proposed group decision making model efficiently supports the wind turbine service technicians ranking process. The effectiveness of the proposed approach manifest from the case study of service technicians required for the maintenance department of wind power plant using Fuzzy ARAS and Fuzzy MOORA. This set of potential technicians is evaluated based on five main criteria.

  4. Carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composites: Computational modeling of environmental fatigue and usability for wind blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The potential of advanced carbon/glass hybrid reinforced composites with secondary carbon nanotube reinforcement for wind energy applications is investigated here with the use of computational experiments. Fatigue behavior of hybrid as well as glass and carbon fiber reinforced composites...... with the secondary CNT reinforcements (especially, aligned tubes) present superior fatigue performances than those without reinforcements, also under combined environmental and cyclic mechanical loading. This effect is stronger for carbon composites, than for hybrid and glass composites....... automatically using the Python based code. 3D computational studies of environment and fatigue analyses of multiscale composites with secondary nano-scale reinforcement in different material phases and different CNTs arrangements are carried out systematically in this paper. It was demonstrated that composites...

  5. Carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composites: Computational modeling of environmental fatigue and usability for wind blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The potential of advanced carbon/glass hybrid reinforced composites with secondary carbon nanotube reinforcement for wind energy applications is investigated here with the use of computational experiments. Fatigue behavior of hybrid as well as glass and carbon fiber reinforced composites...... with and without secondary CNT reinforcement is simulated using multiscale 3D unit cells. The materials behavior under both mechanical cyclic loading and combined mechanical and environmental loading (with phase properties degraded due to the moisture effects) is studied. The multiscale unit cells are generated...... with the secondary CNT reinforcements (especially, aligned tubes) present superior fatigue performances than those without reinforcements, also under combined environmental and cyclic mechanical loading. This effect is stronger for carbon composites, than for hybrid and glass composites....

  6. Dynamic Stability Enhancement and Power Flow Control of a Hybrid Wind and Marine-Current Farm Using SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Shiang-Shong; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to achieve both power flow control and damping enhancement of a novel hybrid wind and marine-current farm (MCF) connected to a large power grid. The performance of the studied wind farm (WF) is sim...

  7. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Fathima; K. Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  8. Dynamic Modeling, Control and Simulation of a Wind and PV Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application Using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic modeling and control strategy for a grid connected hybrid wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy system inter-connected to electrical grid through power electronic interface. A gearless permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used to capture the maximum wind energy. The PV and wind systems are connected dc-side of the voltage source inverter through a boost converter individually and maintain a fixed dc output at dc link. A proper control sche...

  9. Effect of passive ultrasonic agitation during final irrigation on cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Coelho Vinhorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effect of passive ultrasonic agitation on the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique. Materials and Methods Twenty mandibular incisors with mesiodistal-flattened root shape had their crowns sectioned at 1 mm from the cementoenamel junction. Instrumentation was initiated by catheterization with K-type files (Denstply Maillefer #10, #15, and #20 at 3 mm from the working length. Cervical preparation was performed with Largo bur #1 (Dentsply Maillefer followed by apical instrumentation with K-type files #15, #20 and #25, and finishing with ProTaper F2 file (Denstply Maillefer. All files were used up to the working length under irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (Biodynâmica at each instrument change. At the end of instrumentation, the roots were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 10. All specimens received final irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The solution remained in the root canals in Group 1 for one minute; and ultrasonic agitation was performed in Group 2 for one minute using a straight tip inserted at 1 mm from working length. The specimens were processed histologically and the sections were analyzed under optic microscope (×64 to quantify debris present in the root canal. Results The samples submitted to ultrasonic agitation (Group 2 presented significant decrease in the amount of debris in comparison with those of Group 1 (p < 0.05. Conclusions The hybrid instrumentation technique associated with passive ultrasonic agitation promoted greater debris removal in the apical third of the root canals.

  10. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  11. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  12. Modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of hybrid wind-diesel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sergio Leonardo

    This thesis develops small-signal and large-signal models to investigate the dynamic performance of a hybrid wind-diesel energy system interfaced to a utility grid. The study system comprises a 3.5-MVA diesel-generator unit operating in parallel with a 750-kVA variable-speed, squirrel-cage induction generator, wind unit. The wind unit is interfaced to the power network through a back-to-back voltage-sourced converter system. The controllers of the machine-side converter regulate the mechanical torque and the shaft speed of the induction generator to obtain maximum power production under fluctuating wind-speed conditions. The controllers of the grid-side converter maintain the dc-link voltage and the ac-side converter terminal voltage within the specified limits and ensure delivery of the captured wind power to the network. The diesel-generator unit is equipped with excitation and governor systems to compensate for (i) output power changes of the wind unit due to the intermittent nature of the wind, and (ii) changes in the load demand. Based on small-signal (eigen) analyses in the MATLABRTM software environment, the controller parameters of the wind and the diesel units are selected to guarantee (i) minimization of transients due to switch over between two consecutive modes of operation, (ii) voltage/angle stability during islanded (autonomous) mode of operation, and (iii) local load requirements in terms of voltage and real/reactive power. The results obtained from time-domain simulations, in the PSCAD RTM/EMTDCRTM software environment, demonstrate that proper adjustment of the controllers of the wind and diesel units promote "ride-through" capability in the event of (i) pre-planned transitions between different modes of operation, (ii) pre-planned islanding and re-connection of the units to the power network, and (iii) short circuits, accidental islanding and subsequent re-connection attempts to the network. The developed eigen analysis tool is structured to

  13. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  14. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    OpenAIRE

    Lingguo Kong; Guowei Cai; Sidney Xue; Shaohua Li

    2015-01-01

    An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV)/energy storage (ES) hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS) and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC), is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static sy...

  15. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Rafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487. It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009 pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001. There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  16. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27695235

  17. Optimizing the wind power generation in low wind speed areas using an advanced hybrid RBF neural network coupled with the HGA-GSA optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assareh, Ehsanolah; Poultangari, Iman [Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tandis, Emad [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jundi Shapor, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedael, Mojtaba [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Enhancing the energy production from wind power in low-wind areas has always been a fundamental subject of research in the field of wind energy industry. In the first phase of this research, an initial investigation was performed to evaluate the potential of wind in south west of Iran. The initial results indicate that the wind potential in the studied location is not sufficient enough and therefore the investigated region is identified as a low wind speed area. In the second part of this study, an advanced optimization model was presented to regulate the torque in the wind generators. For this primary purpose, the torque of wind turbine is adjusted using a Proportional and integral (PI) control system so that at lower speeds of the wind, the power generated by generator is enhanced significantly. The proposed model uses the RBF neural network to adjust the net obtained gains of the PI controller for the purpose of acquiring the utmost electricity which is produced through the generator. Furthermore, in order to edify and instruct the neural network, the optimal data set is obtained by a Hybrid genetic algorithm along with a gravitational search algorithm (HGA-GSA). The proposed method is evaluated by using a 5MW wind turbine manufactured by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Final results of this study are indicative of the satisfactory and successful performance of the proposed investigated model.

  18. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  19. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  20. Hybrid Solar and Wind Off-Grid System - Design and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad GVT,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to improve the efficiency of a hybrid solar and windmill system by altering the design parameters. A complete prototype model has been designed and tested based on the altered features. In the designed model, solar PV module along with a wind turbine, the small prototype created powers a load of capacity 120 Watts. The design implementation consists of adding reflectors to the photovoltaic panel along with a dedicated sun tracking system. Further, a wind sensor detects the maximum wind flow direction to guide the windmill with plastic finished edges to improve the overall efficiency. The hybrid setup could be operated in manual and automatic modes. The former mode consists of a RF transmitter and receiver setup and the latter is effectively controlled by means of a microcontroller-AT Mega 162V. The entire setup can be extended forlarger loads in order to electrify remote and inaccessible areas. Further, the project can be implemented in industrial and domestic sectors on a larger scale.

  1. Hybridizing the fifth generation mesoscale model with artificial neural networks for short-term wind speed prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho; Perez-Bellido, Angel M.; Ortiz-Garcia, Emilio G.; Portilla-Figueras, Antonio [Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, Luis [Wind Resource Department, Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Paredes, Daniel [Department of Physics of the Earth, Astronomy and Astrophysics II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents the hybridization of the fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5) with neural networks in order to tackle a problem of short-term wind speed prediction. The mean hourly wind speed forecast at wind turbines in a wind park is an important parameter used to predict the total power production of the park. Our model for short-term wind speed forecast integrates a global numerical weather prediction model and observations at different heights (using atmospheric soundings) as initial and boundary conditions for the MM5 model. Then, the outputs of this model are processed using a neural network to obtain the wind speed forecast in specific points of the wind park. In the experiments carried out, we present some results of wind speed forecasting in a wind park located at the south-east of Spain. The results are encouraging, and show that our hybrid MM5-neural network approach is able to obtain good short-term predictions of wind speed at specific points. (author)

  2. Hybrid Short Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Variational Mode Decomposition and a Weighted Regularized Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate wind speed forecasting is a fundamental element of wind power prediction. Thus, a new hybrid wind speed forecasting model, using variational mode decomposition (VMD, the partial autocorrelation function (PACF, and weighted regularized extreme learning machine (WRELM, is proposed to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting. First, the historic wind speed time series is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Second, the partial correlation of each IMF sequence is analyzed using PACF to select the optimal subfeature set for particular predictors of each IMF. Then, the predictors of each IMF are constructed in order to enhance its strength using WRELM. Finally, wind speed is obtained by adding up all the predictors. The experiment, using real wind speed data, verified the effectiveness and advancement of the new approach.

  3. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  4. Extreme-value time-series analysis of Australian Region A gust wind speeds to examine instrument bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechet, R. P.; Sanabria, L. A.

    2010-08-01

    Australian building codes through the Australia/New Zealand Wind Actions Standard as well as the wind engineering community in general rely to a significant extent on the peak gust wind speed observations collected over more than 70 years by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). In the mid-1980's BoM commenced a program to replace the aging pressure tube Dines anemometers with cup anemometers. During the replacement procedure, many localities had more than one type of anemometer operating, recording extreme events. Systematic differences between instrument measurements during this overlap period raised serious concerns about the utility of the peak gust wind speed database. This paper presents the results of a reanalysis of the current BoM peak wind gust database for the non-cyclonic region (Region A) of the Australia/New Zealand Wind Actions Standard. The study utilises extreme value distribution analysis and compares estimates of the 500-year return-period (RP) peak gust wind exceedance level derived from segments of the record measured with the Dines and replacement anemometers. Results indicate that the later period appears to have a significant reduction in extreme events; 17 of 31 sites have a mean 500 year RP exceedance level for the replacement anemometer section of the record below the lower 95% confidence limit for the Dines anemometer part of the record. The 3PM mean wind speed time-series observations have also been examined, and they exhibit a similar trend.

  5. Two-dimensional hybrid models of H+-He++ expanding solar wind plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Viñas, A. F.; Maneva, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Preferential heating and acceleration of the solar wind He++ ions compared to protons in fast solar wind streams have been known for decades, thanks to in situ spacecraft measurements at 0.29-5 AU. Turbulent magnetic field fluctuations with approximate power law spectra have been observed as well. However, the exact causes of these processes are still not known due to the lack of detailed information on the magnetic field fluctuations and ion velocity distributions in the acceleration region of the solar wind. Here the collisionless heating processes in expanding solar wind plasma are investigated using 2-D hybrid modeling with parameters appropriate to the heliocentric distance of 10 RS. In this study the ion dynamics is described kinetically, while electrons are treated as a background massless fluid in an expanding solar wind model. The source of free energy for the heating is introduced through an initial nonequilibrium state of the plasma with large He++ ion temperature anisotropy or with super-Alfvénic relative ion drift. We also employ an externally imposed spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in the frequency range below the proton gyroresonant frequency to heat the He++ ions. We investigate the effects of solar wind radial expansion by modeling several values of the expansion rate in a parametric study. We find that the preferential ion heating is attained in both nonexpanding and expanding solar wind models. Thus, the expansion has little effect on the preferential He++ ion heating by the processes considered here. Moreover, the expansion leads to faster evolution of the magnetosonic drift instability, reducing the drift velocity to lower values sooner, and the corresponding generation of the magnetic fluctuations that heat the ions, compared to the nonexpanding case. This is due to the reduction of the perpendicular particle velocities in the expanding (inflated) frame. For cases with little proton perpendicular heating, the solar wind expansion leads to

  6. Simulation of generalized hybrid model for solar and wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vankadara Sampath kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to urbanization, globalization and industrialization the demand for energy is rapidly increasing allows the world and India is not an exception. Out of all energies electrical energy is playing a major role in developed as well as developing countries. The energy is mostly produced by fossil fuels which are developing day his is to by day .they also produce lot of pollutants which totally damage the environment the alternative to this is to encourage renewable energy source. Now days the energy production at domestic level is becoming popular with the help of solar and wind energies . These technologies are widely used now days in the present paper an attempt has been made to simulate a generalized hybrid model including solar and wind.

  7. SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE FROM MHD TO SUB-ION SCALES: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-10

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  8. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  9. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  10. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  11. Rotary triboelectric nanogenerator based on a hybridized mechanism for harvesting wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yannan; Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Jing, Qingshen; Lin, Zong-Hong; Niu, Simiao; Wu, Zhengyun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-08-27

    Harvesting mechanical energy is becoming increasingly important for its availability and abundance in our living environment. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a simple, cost-effective, and highly efficient approach for generating electricity from mechanical energies in a wide range of forms. Here, we developed a TENG designed for harvesting tiny-scale wind energy available in our normal living environment using conventional materials. The energy harvester is based on a rotary driven mechanical deformation of multiple plate-based TENGs. The operation mechanism is a hybridization of the contact-sliding-separation-contact processes by using the triboelectrification and electrostatic induction effects. With the introduction of polymer nanowires on surfaces, the rotary TENG delivers an open-circuit voltage of 250 V and a short-circuit current of 0.25 mA, corresponding to a maximum power density of ~39 W/m(2) at a wind speed of ~15 m/s, which is capable of directly driving hundreds of electronic devices such as commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or rapidly charging capacitors. The rotary TENG was also applied as a self-powered sensor for measuring wind speed. This work represents a significant progress in the practical application of the TENG and its great potential in the future wind power technology. This technology can also be extended for harvesting energy from ocean current, making nanotechnology reaching our daily life a possibility in the near future.

  12. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  13. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  14. Robust design and optimization for autonomous PV-wind hybrid power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hai SHI; Zhi-dan ZHONG; Xin-jian ZHU; Guang-yi CAO

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a robust design method for autonomous photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid power systems to obtain an optimum system configuration insensitive to design variable variations. This issue has been formulated as a constraint multi-objective optimization problem, which is solved by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, NSGA-Ⅱ. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method, combined with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), is applied to evaluate the stochastic system performance. The potential of the proposed method has been demonstrated by a conceptual system design. A comparative study between the proposed robust method and the deterministic method presented in literature has been conducted. The results indicate that the proposed method can find a large mount of Pareto optimal system configurations with better compromising performance than the deterministic method. The trade-off information may be derived by a systematical comparison of these configurations. The proposed robust design method should be useful for hybrid power systems that require both optimality and robustness.

  15. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrouazin, A., E-mail: derrsid@gmail.com [University Hassiba BenBouali of Chlef, LGEER,Chlef (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr; Charles, J. P. [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Mekkakia-Maaza, N. [Université des sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, Mohamed Boudiaf-USTO MB,LMSE, Oran Algérie (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    either on forecasting the energy potential or assessing the expected economic viability of the hybrid system. However, our approach allows decision makers to investigate the impact of key design features and market policies on several levels of system performance metrics, as opposed to only the expected...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...... metering). Finally, we shed light on the performance metrics of the energy system: reliability, economy, and efficiency. We illustrate our approach by using data from a city in Brazil and analyze the behavior of system’s key parameters. We close by suggesting possible implications for managing new...

  17. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Optimization of wind-marine hybrid power system configuration based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongda; Li, Linna; Zhao, Chenyu

    2017-08-01

    Multi-energy power systems can use energy generated from various sources to improve power generation reliability. This paper presents a cost-power generation model of a wind-tide-wave energy hybrid power system for use on a remote island, where the configuration is optimized using a genetic algorithm. A mixed integer programming model is used and a novel object function, including cost and power generation, is proposed to solve the boundary problem caused by existence of two goals. Using this model, the final optimized result is found to have a good fit with local resources.

  19. A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system for condition monitoring of large scale wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system which combines fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and a Michelson interferometer is suggested for condition monitoring uses of large scale wind turbine blades. The system uses single broadband light source to address both sensors, which simplifies the optical setup and enhances the cost-effectiveness of condition monitoring system. An athermal-packaged FBG is used to supply quasi-coherent light for the Michelson interferometer demodulation. For the feasibility test, different profiles of test strain, temperature and vibration have been applied to test structures, and successfully reconstructed with the proposed sensor system.

  20. Development of Control Structure for Hybrid Wind Generators with Active Power Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical control structure is proposed for hybrid energy systems (HES which consist of wind energy system (WES and energy storage system (ESS. The proposed multilevel control structure consists of four blocks: reference generation and mode select, power balancing, control algorithms, and switching control blocks. A high performance power management strategy is used for the system. Also, the proposed system is analyzed as an active power filter (APF with ability to control the voltage, to compensate the harmonics, and to deliver active power. The HES is designed with parallel DC coupled structure. Simulation results are shown for verification of the theoretical analysis.

  1. Hybrid damper with stroke amplification for damping of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark L.; Høgsberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    tower. The proposed hybrid damper consists of a passive viscous dashpot placed in series with a load cell and an active actuator. By integrated force feedback control of the actuator motion, the associated displacement amplitude over the viscous damper can be increased compared with the passive viscous...... case, hereby significantly increasing the feasibility of viscous dampers acting at the bottom of the wind turbine tower. To avoid drift in the actuator displacement, a filtered time integration of the measured force signal is introduced. Numerical examples demonstrate that the filtered time integration...

  2. Economic evaluation of small wind turbines and hybrid systems for residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Mihail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generating systems are gaining ground in residential sector for the purpose of diminishing the electricity bills or to reaching some degree of energy independence. The decision to invest in small wind turbines or hybrid energy generation technologies should be based on an economic estimation of money invested in such systems. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE calculation for local technologies of choice for residential energy generation is a very meaningful figure for deciding whether the investment can bring financial satisfaction and for selecting which type of technology is the best suited for a specific location.

  3. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  4. Multistep Wind Speed Forecasting Using a Novel Model Hybridizing Singular Spectrum Analysis, Modified Intelligent Optimization, and Rolling Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind speed high-accuracy forecasting, an important part of the electrical system monitoring and control, is of the essence to protect the safety of wind power utilization. However, the wind speed signals are always intermittent and intrinsic complexity; therefore, it is difficult to forecast them accurately. Many traditional wind speed forecasting studies have focused on single models, which leads to poor prediction accuracy. In this paper, a new hybrid model is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of single models by combining singular spectrum analysis, modified intelligent optimization, and the rolling Elman neural network. In this model, except for the multiple seasonal patterns used to reduce interferences from the original data, the rolling model is utilized to forecast the multistep wind speed. To verify the forecasting ability of the proposed hybrid model, 10 min and 60 min wind speed data from the province of Shandong, China, were proposed in this paper as the case study. Compared to the other models, the proposed hybrid model forecasts the wind speed with higher accuracy.

  5. On the dynamic behavior of a wind turbine-generator system with a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine; Hybrid furyoku turbine wo mochiita furyoku hatsuden system no kyodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Terashima, Y.; Machiyama, T. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-25

    In order to clarify the dynamic characteristics of a self-controlled Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine system, a system consisting of a hybrid wind turbine and an AC generator was tested under various wind conditions in the wind tunnel. We took up four types of wind blowing change for the test; ramp, sinusoidal and square wind velocity changes and a similar wind velocity change to the field wind. A series of tests substantiated the effectiveness of our operating scheme wherein the tip speed ratio is maintained at a constant value. On the other hand, theoretical studies have been carried out on the characteristics of the system. A simulation model is presented in order to describe the system characteristics not only for the steady-state behavior but also for the dynamic behavior. In spite of its simplicity, the model can predict both characteristics of the system well. The appropriateness of the simulation model is confirmed by comparing with the experimental results. -In addition, the field test data are discussed. As a result, it is confirmed that the system is operated and controlled satisfactorily in the field. 14 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  7. A Hybrid Model Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxi Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a type of clean and renewable energy, the superiority of wind power has increasingly captured the world’s attention. Reliable and precise wind speed prediction is vital for wind power generation systems. Thus, a more effective and precise prediction model is essentially needed in the field of wind speed forecasting. Most previous forecasting models could adapt to various wind speed series data; however, these models ignored the importance of the data preprocessing and model parameter optimization. In view of its importance, a novel hybrid ensemble learning paradigm is proposed. In this model, the original wind speed data is firstly divided into a finite set of signal components by ensemble empirical mode decomposition, and then each signal is predicted by several artificial intelligence models with optimized parameters by using the fruit fly optimization algorithm and the final prediction values were obtained by reconstructing the refined series. To estimate the forecasting ability of the proposed model, 15 min wind speed data for wind farms in the coastal areas of China was performed to forecast as a case study. The empirical results show that the proposed hybrid model is superior to some existing traditional forecasting models regarding forecast performance.

  8. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  9. Structure and biomechanics of culms of Phragmites australis used for reeds of Japanese wind instrument "hichiriki".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nobuchi, Tadashi; Nakafushi, Yuta; Nose, Masateru; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Hichiriki is a traditional Japanese double-reed wind instrument used in Japanese ancient imperial court music, gagaku, which has been performed since the 7th century. The best reeds for hichiriki have been made of culms or stems of Phragmites australis (P. australis) that are harvested from only a limited reed bed at Udono near Kyoto. The aim of this study is to elucidate why the stems from Udono are the best materials for hichiriki reeds. Plant anatomy was examined for choice stems of P. australis grown in different reed beds in Japan as well as morphology, and the local indentation hardness and Young's modulus of tissues on the cross-sections of some representatives of hichiriki reeds were measured. It is concluded that the good stems for hichiriki reeds have an outer diameter of about 11 mm, a wall thickness of about 1 mm and comparatively homogeneous structure where harder materials, such as epidermis, hypodermis, sclerenchymatous cells, and vascular bundle sheaths with hard walls, are orderly deployed with softer materials such as parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. This structure has smaller differences of hardness and Young's modulus between the hard and soft materials in the reed, providing the best music performance.

  10. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  11. A Modified Rectifier Stage Topology of Hybrid Wind-Solar Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramesh Naidu,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly solutions are becoming more prominent than ever as a result of concern regarding the state of our deteriorating planet. This paper presents a new system configuration of the front-end rectifier stage for a hybrid wind/photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load separately or simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources. The inherent nature of this Cuk-SEPIC fused converter, additional input filters are not necessary to filter out high frequency harmonics. Harmonic content is detrimental for the generator lifespan, heating issues, and efficiency. The fused multiinput rectifier stage also allows Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT to be used to extract maximum power from the wind and sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm will be used for the wind system and a standard perturb and observe method will be used for the PV system. Operational analysis of the proposed system will be discussed in this paper. Simulation results are given to highlight the merits of the proposed circuit.

  12. Basic Characteristics and Design of a Novel Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a five-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB for direct-drive wind turbines, which can realize suspension in the 4-DOF radial and 1-DOF axial directions. Only two sets of radial control windings are employed in the proposed HMB because only one set of radial control windings can achieve the 2-DOF suspension in the radial direction. Unlike the traditional active thrust magnetic bearings, this paper uses a cylindrical rotor core without a large thrust disc in the novel HMB. The numbers of the controller, power amplifier and system volume can be reduced in the magnetic suspension system. This paper also presents the structure and basic characteristics of the proposed magnetic bearing. A precision equivalent magnetic circuit analysis of the permanent magnet ring and control magnetic field is conducted in this study, in consideration of the non-uniform distribution of magnetic density. Accordingly, the mathematical models, including the suspension force expression, are derived based on the accurate equivalent magnetic circuit. The basic principle of the structure parameter design is presented, based on the given key parameters. The accuracy of the analytical method is further validated by 3D finite element analysis.

  13. Optimization of Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Wind Photovoltaic System with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kathirvel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the Design and Implementation of a multi source hybrid Wind-Photovoltaic stand alone system with proposed energy management strategy. The method of investigation concerned with the definition of the system topology, interconnection of the various sources with maximum energy transfer, optimum control and energy management in order to maintain the DC bus voltage into a fixed value. An Energy management strategy was proposed using the Fuzzy logic controller such that enhancement in the performance of the system and optimization can be done. The Fuzzy logic controller takes the input from Solar (irradiation, Wind (speed, Power demand and the battery voltage which controls the respective subsystem and formulates into different operational modes of energy management. The role of Fuzzy threshold controller is to adjust continuously the threshold value for optimal performance based on expected wind, solar conditions, battery voltage and power demand. It is shown that when the fuzzy logic controller is used, the proposed DC bus voltage regulation strategy with different modes of operation have fast response and efficient operation which leads to a reduced operating cost.

  14. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  15. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  16. Details of a Hybrid Model for the Interaction between the Solar Wind and Planets Implemented in FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Holmstrom, M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plasma solver treats ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. We have implemented a parallel hybrid solver in the FLASH open source software framework. The solver has been applied to studies of the interaction between the solar wind and planets. Here we discuss the implementation of different model features, such as permanent magnetic fields, ionospheric chemistry, and exospheres. Mars is used as an example.

  17. Dispatching of Wind/Battery Energy Storage Hybrid Systems Using Inner Point Method-Based Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of large scale energy storage makes wind farms more dispatchable, which lowers operating risks to the grid from interconnected large scale wind farms. In order to make full use of the flexibility and controllability of energy storage to improve the schedulability of wind farms, this paper presents a rolling and dispatching control strategy with a battery energy storage system (BESS based on model predictive control (MPC. The proposed control scheme firstly plans expected output, i.e., dispatching order, of a wind/battery energy storage hybrid system based on the predicted output of the wind farm, then calculates the order in the predictive horizon with the receding horizon optimization and the limitations of energy storage such as state of charge and depth of charge/discharge to maintain the combination of active output of the wind farm and the BESS to track dispatching order at the extreme. The paper shows and analyses the effectiveness of the proposed strategy with different sizes of capacity of the BESS based on the actual output of a certain actual wind farm in the northeast of China. The results show that the proposed strategy that controls the BESS could improve the schedulability of the wind farm and maintain smooth output of wind/battery energy storage hybrid system while tracking the dispatching orders. When the capacity of the BESS is 20% or the rated capacity of the wind farm, the mean dispatching error is only 0.153% of the rated capacity of the wind farm.

  18. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  19. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2

  20. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  1. Apical transportation of manual NiTi instruments and a hybrid technique in severely curved simulated canals

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenaila Nascimento Gonçalves; Matheus Franco da Frota; Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior; Fredson Marcio Acris de Carvalho; Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia; André Augusto Franco Marques

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the apical transportation induced by two instrumentation techniques in severely curved simulated canals. Materials and Methods: Forty simulated canals were divided into two groups (n = 20), according to the following instrumentation techniques: ProTaper Universal Manual System and a hybrid technique. The simulated canals in the ProTaper group were prepared following the technique recommended by the manufacturer: SX files in the cervical third of the root canal and S1, S2,...

  2. Conceptual design of a miniaturized hybrid local actuator for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery (MIRS) instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Soheil; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Farahmand, Farzam

    2011-01-01

    The actuation mechanism of the tip of an endoscopic instrument is a major problem in designing miniature scale motorized instruments, especially when a high level of functionality and multi degrees of freedom (DOF) are concerned. We evaluated the different possible actuation methods for an endoscopic needle holder and proposed a new design of hybrid local-actuation, including a micro DC motor and a piezoelectric (PZT) actuator. The DC motor provided the long movement course required for opening-closing function of the gripper while the PZT guaranteed the high gripping force required for holding the needle. A compact serial configuration was considered for the actuators, producing an overall size of 10 mm in diameter and 39 mm in length, so that it could be implemented in the limited space available. The efficacy of the design was analyzed in a simulation study, using FEM and it was shown that the needle holder is capable to apply a sufficiently high gripping force of 22 N.

  3. Using A Battery Storage Wind / PV Hybrid Power Supply System Based Stand-Alone PSO To Determine The Most Appropriate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amam Hossain Bagdadee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind / PV hybrid power systems, completed in time and geography, both economical and reliable than PV or wind turbine, but the hybrid system wind / PV to increase capacity. Installation of experience with traditional power design and optimization of design and operation cannot be seen with. To solve the problem in a comprehensive objective function to present the objective function of the solar wind. And reliability of the storage cells can be calculated with an investment of erosion format system resources, including the number of solar cells and batteries, but the type and amount of solar wind to change. As well as to improve not only to make the results more accurate investment costs and reliability cost of conversion optimization problems several optimization problems today.Improved optimization algorithms, PSO are used to solve nonlinear hybrid analysis is any integer optimization problem on the basis of PSO algorithm standard techniques then there is the first step convergence factor is applied to improve the detection performance of both migration are used to improve the ability of the algorithm to find the best in the whole world.

  4. Using a Hybrid Cost-FMEA Analysis for Wind Turbine Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacef Tazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA has been proven to be an effective methodology to improve system design reliability. However, the standard approach reveals some weaknesses when applied to wind turbine systems. The conventional criticality assessment method has been criticized as having many limitations such as the weighting of severity and detection factors. In this paper, we aim to overcome these drawbacks and develop a hybrid cost-FMEA by integrating cost factors to assess the criticality, these costs vary from replacement costs to expected failure costs. Then, a quantitative comparative study is carried out to point out average failure rate, main cause of failure, expected failure costs and failure detection techniques. A special reliability analysis of gearbox and rotor-blades are presented.

  5. Research on Hybrid Power System with Dual Stator-winding and Its Decoupled Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shu-guang; MA Xiao-jun; KE Rong-shuo; LIU Qiu-li

    2012-01-01

    For the bi-power system adopted widely in future armored vehicles,a hybrid power generator with dual stator-winding was proposed.Its structure and working principle were analyzed first,and its main parameters were determined and verified according to the power requirements.The system's mathematical model was established,and a decoupled control method was put forward on the basis of the instantaneous reactive power theory.For the voltage building-up,a voltage control strategy was designed on the basis of mixed reactive power compensation to implement stabilized 28V and 270V outputs simultaneously.The simulation results show that the stabilization accuracy and disturbance rejection ability of the system are improved much more than other ordinary generators.

  6. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  7. Dynamic Modeling, Control and Simulation of a Wind and PV Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application Using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahesh Naik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic modeling and control strategy for a grid connected hybrid wind and photovoltaic (PV energy system inter-connected to electrical grid through power electronic interface. A gearless permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG is used to capture the maximum wind energy. The PV and wind systems are connected dc-side of the voltage source inverter through a boost converter individually and maintain a fixed dc output at dc link. A proper control scheme is required to operate power converters to match up the grid connection requirements. This study considered the performance of modeled hybrid system under different case scenarios. All simulation models are developed using MATLAB/Simulink.

  8. Scheduled power tracking control of the wind-storage hybrid system based on the reinforcement learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze

    2017-09-01

    In allusion to the intermittency and uncertainty of the wind electricity, energy storage and wind generator are combined into a hybrid system to improve the controllability of the output power. A scheduled power tracking control method is proposed based on the reinforcement learning theory and Q-learning algorithm. In this method, the state space of the environment is formed with two key factors, i.e. the state of charge of the energy storage and the difference value between the actual wind power and scheduled power, the feasible action is the output power of the energy storage, and the corresponding immediate rewarding function is designed to reflect the rationality of the control action. By interacting with the environment and learning from the immediate reward, the optimal control strategy is gradually formed. After that, it could be applied to the scheduled power tracking control of the hybrid system. Finally, the rationality and validity of the method are verified through simulation examples.

  9. Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Wind/Photo Voltaic System Using Z Source Inverter with Cuk-sepic Fused Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazar Ali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new method of design of z source inverter for improving the performance of the hybrid wind/photo voltaic system with cuk-sepic fused converter. The various drawbacks of the conventional converter are, it requires passive input filters, the generator current decreases its lifespan, increases the power loss due to heating. In proposed method, the Cuk-SEPIC fused converter is used, which eliminates the need of additional input filters to filter out high frequency harmonics. This configuration makes it possible for the wind source and photo voltaic source to supply the load separately or simultaneously depending on their availability. A simulation model for the hybrid wind/photovoltaic system has been developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  11. Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Müller, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...

  12. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  13. Theory and hybrid simulations of the radial evolution of the solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisel, Horia; Narita, Yasuhito; Motschmann, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Solar wind turbulence in the inner heliosphere is believed to evolve in the radial direction away from the Sun driven by various nonlinear processes. When a perturbative treatment is applicable, plasma fluctuations evolve along the dispersion relations while the frequencies deviate from the normal-mode frequency by exciting non-normal modes or sideband waves. Direct numerical simulations of magnetized plasma at the scale of ion gyro-radius or smaller using the hybrid code AIKEF show smooth transitions and evolutions into nonlinear stage with sideband wave excitations. The evolution profile of linear and nonlinear modes as well as the intrinsic nature of wave vector anisotropy can be unambiguously classified according to the values of ion plasma beta. By using a mapping based on a one-dimensional solar wind expansion model, the resulting ion kinetic scale turbulence is related to the solar distance from the Sun. We find that the relevant normal modes such as ion cyclotron and Bernstein mode will occur first at radial distance of about 0.2-0.3 AU, i.e., near the Mercury orbit. Furthermore, a radial dependence of the wave-vector anisotropy is obtained. The predominance of the filament structures highlights the strong impact of Alfvénic waves.

  14. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Saleh Al-Battat, Sandro Abdel Hafith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-TafilaJordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168 $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053 $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  15. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  16. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  17. Comment on 'Intercalibration of solar wind instruments during the International Magnetospheric Study' by S. M. Petrinec and C. T. Russell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    In their paper Petrinec and Russell (PR) (1993) claim to have developed a 'more homogeneous and accurate set of solar wind data' by 'correcting' the reported ion densities from three plasma instruments: the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion electrostatic analyzer on ISEE 3 and the LANL electrostatic analyzer and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Faraday cup plasma instrument on Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8). Their data manipulation techniques are examined. The foundations on which their data set are built, are discussed. Reanalysis by MIT on the MIT instrument (IMP 8) was done. Initial results have been issued. The Petrinec & Russell (1993) (PR) paper does not provide accurate density estimates and is an exercise that will only bring confusion to users of the data. The results of PR should be treated with skepticism.

  18. Modeling and control of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell distributed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caisheng

    Due to ever increasing energy consumption, rising public awareness of environmental protection, and steady progress in power deregulation, alternative (i.e., renewable and fuel cell based) distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies. Fuel cell (FC) systems also show great potential in DG applications of the future due to their fast technology development and many merits they have, such as high efficiency, zero or low emission (of pollutant gases) and flexible modular structure. The modeling and control of a hybrid wind/PV/FC DG system is addressed in this dissertation. Different energy sources in the system are integrated through an AC bus. Dynamic models for the main system components, namely, wind energy conversion system (WECS), PV energy conversion system (PVECS), fuel cell, electrolyzer, power electronic interfacing circuits, battery, hydrogen storage tank, gas compressor and gas pressure regulator, are developed. Two types of fuel cells have been modeled in this dissertation: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Power control of a grid-connected FC system as well as load mitigation control of a stand-alone FC system are investigated. The pitch angle control for WECS, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for PVECS, and the control for electrolyzer and power electronic devices, are also addressed in the dissertation. Based on the dynamic component models, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid energy system has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The overall power management strategy for coordinating the power flows among the different energy sources is presented in the dissertation. Simulation studies have been carried out to verify the system performance under different scenarios using a practical load profile and real weather data. The results show that the overall power

  19. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  20. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  1. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  2. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  3. The Doppler Wind and Temperature Sensor(DWTS): Advancing weather forecasts with a simple instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordley, Larry; Marshall, Benjamin; Fritts, David; Evans, Wayne

    DWTS is a simple infrared earth limb imager, employing a novel gas correlation approach, that will provide global winds and temperature day and night from cloud top to over 200 km. It is now established that medium to long term weather forecasting skill can be dramatically advanced given global stratospheric wind fields. This presentation describes the latest design of the DWTS sensor and plans to establish a DWTS constellation for monitoring global high altitude winds and temperature at an unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution.

  4. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  5. Very-short-term wind power prediction by a hybrid model with single- and multi-step approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Very-short-term wind power prediction (VSTWPP) has played an essential role for the operation of electric power systems. This paper aims at improving and applying a hybrid method of VSTWPP based on historical data. The hybrid method is combined by multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), which is intended for reducing prediction errors. The predicted values are obtained through two sub-processes:1) transform the time-series data of actual wind power into the power ratio, and then predict the power ratio;2) use the predicted power ratio to predict the wind power. Besides, the proposed method can include two prediction approaches: single-step prediction (SSP) and multi-step prediction (MSP). WPP is tested comparatively by auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model from the predicted values and errors. The validity of the proposed hybrid method is confirmed in terms of error analysis by using probability density function (PDF), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and means square error (MSE). Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation coefficients between the actual values and the predicted values for different prediction times and window has confirmed that MSP approach by using the hybrid model is the most accurate while comparing to SSP approach and ARMA. The MLR&LS is accurate and promising for solving problems in WPP.

  6. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  7. A New Hybrid Control Architecture to Attenuate Large Horizontal Wind Disturbance for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to attenuate large horizontal wind disturbance for a small‐scale unmanned autonomous helicopter combining wind tunnel‐based experimental data and a backstepping algorithm. Large horizontal wind disturbance is harmful to autonomous helicopters, especially to small ones because of their low inertia and the high cross‐coupling effects among the multiple inputs. In order to achieve more accurate and faster attenuation of large wind disturbance, a new hybrid control architecture is proposed to take advantage of the direct force/moment compensation based on the wind tunnel experimental data. In this architecture, large horizontal wind disturbance is treated as an additional input to the control system instead of a small perturbation around the equilibrium state. A backstepping algorithm is then designed to guarantee the stable convergence of the helicopter to the desired position. The proposed technique is finally evaluated in simulation on the platform, HIROBO Eagle, compared with a traditional wind velocity compensation method.

  8. Experimental studies for the vertical-axis hybrid wind turbine; Suichiyokuziku haiburiddo hoshiki fusya ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute Of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Inoh, M.; Hiroki, T. [NihondenkiSeiki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of Darrieus type and Savonius type turbines as the wind energy generation system are described and the above-titled wind turbine is proposed to improve the drawback of poorer output performance in case of hybrid of these 2 types than that of independent Darrieus type. The layout of wind channel equipment and the hybrid system of conventional direct type and that of the clutch type prototype are explained with consideration on the test results. When compared 2 blades of 136mm chord length to 3 blades of 90mm chord length in terms of torque and power properties, the prototype showed a performance for the both properties 20% better than those of conventional type, particularly in the case of 3 blades, both the maximum power and the torque coefficients became about half of those of 2 blades. Further, a prototype wind turbine was designed and fabricated according to the theory of single tube of flow with regard to the straight Darrieus type and tested in association with Savonius type turbine as well as the latter alone and the results for each case were compared and examined. As for the conclusion, the usefulness of clutch connection and its effect of improvement became more remarkable along with the increase of wind speed and so forth are indicated. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  10. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  11. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Phases 1 and 2; Code of Conduct fuer windkraftprojekte. Phase 1 und 2 - Systemanalyse, Lessons Learned und Bewertung bestehender Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, freischaffender Berater, Binningen (Switzerland); Ziegler, Ch. [Inter Act, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    This paper discusses the results of the first two phases of a project concerning wind-power projects. The paper deals with the results of a system analysis, takes a look at lessons learned and presents an appraisal of existing instruments. A system-analysis of wind-power projects is presented with emphasis on social factors and the role of stakeholders. The success factors concerning social acceptance of wind-power projects and their special characteristics are discussed. Lessons learned are examined. Instruments for the sustainable implementation of projects are looked at, in particular with a focus on social acceptance

  12. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  13. Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) Investigation: Design of the Solar Wind and Coronal Plasma Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; Abiad, Robert; Austin, Gerry; Balat-Pichelin, Marianne; Bale, Stuart D.; Belcher, John W.; Berg, Peter; Bergner, Henry; Berthomier, Matthieu; Bookbinder, Jay; Brodu, Etienne; Caldwell, David; Case, Anthony W.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Cheimets, Peter; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Cranmer, Steven R.; Curtis, David W.; Daigneau, Peter; Dalton, Greg; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; DeTomaso, David; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Djordjevic, Blagoje; Donaskowski, Bill; Effinger, Michael; Florinski, Vladimir; Fox, Nichola; Freeman, Mark; Gallagher, Dennis; Gary, S. Peter; Gauron, Tom; Gates, Richard; Goldstein, Melvin; Golub, Leon; Gordon, Dorothy A.; Gurnee, Reid; Guth, Giora; Halekas, Jasper; Hatch, Ken; Heerikuisen, Jacob; Ho, George; Hu, Qiang; Johnson, Greg; Jordan, Steven P.; Korreck, Kelly E.; Larson, Davin; Lazarus, Alan J.; Li, Gang; Livi, Roberto; Ludlam, Michael; Maksimovic, Milan; McFadden, James P.; Marchant, William; Maruca, Bennet A.; McComas, David J.; Messina, Luciana; Mercer, Tony; Park, Sang; Peddie, Andrew M.; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Reinhart, Matthew J.; Richardson, John D.; Robinson, Miles; Rosen, Irene; Skoug, Ruth M.; Slagle, Amanda; Steinberg, John T.; Stevens, Michael L.; Szabo, Adam; Taylor, Ellen R.; Tiu, Chris; Turin, Paul; Velli, Marco; Webb, Gary; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Wright, Ken; Wu, S. T.; Zank, Gary

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) Investigation on Solar Probe Plus is a four sensor instrument suite that provides complete measurements of the electrons and ionized helium and hydrogen that constitute the bulk of solar wind and coronal plasma. SWEAP consists of the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and the Solar Probe Analyzers (SPAN). SPC is a Faraday Cup that looks directly at the Sun and measures ion and electron fluxes and flow angles as a function of energy. SPAN consists of an ion and electron electrostatic analyzer (ESA) on the ram side of SPP (SPAN-A) and an electron ESA on the anti-ram side (SPAN-B). The SPAN-A ion ESA has a time of flight section that enables it to sort particles by their mass/charge ratio, permitting differentiation of ion species. SPAN-A and -B are rotated relative to one another so their broad fields of view combine like the seams on a baseball to view the entire sky except for the region obscured by the heat shield and covered by SPC. Observations by SPC and SPAN produce the combined field of view and measurement capabilities required to fulfill the science objectives of SWEAP and Solar Probe Plus. SWEAP measurements, in concert with magnetic and electric fields, energetic particles, and white light contextual imaging will enable discovery and understanding of solar wind acceleration and formation, coronal and solar wind heating, and particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere of the solar system. SPC and SPAN are managed by the SWEAP Electronics Module (SWEM), which distributes power, formats onboard data products, and serves as a single electrical interface to the spacecraft. SWEAP data products include ion and electron velocity distribution functions with high energy and angular resolution. Full resolution data are stored within the SWEM, enabling high resolution observations of structures such as shocks, reconnection events, and other transient structures to be selected for download after the fact. This paper describes

  14. Technical and economic analysis on grid-connected wind farm based on hybrid energy storage system and distributed generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zhou, Zhongkang; Chen, Xiaochun; Song, Jishuang; Shi, Maolin

    2017-05-01

    system is proposed based on NaS battery and lithium ion battery, that the former is the main large scale energy storage technology world-widely used and developed and the latter is a flexible way to have both power and energy capacities. The hybrid energy storage system, which takes advantage of the two complementary technologies to provide large power and energy capacities, is chosen to do an evaluation of econom ical-environmental based on critical excess electricity production (CEEP), CO2 emission, annual total costs calculated on the specific given condition using Energy PLAN software. The result shows that hybrid storage system has strengths in environmental benefits and also can absorb more discarded wind power than single storage system and is a potential way to push forward the application of wind power and even other types of renewable energy resources.

  15. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  16. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF A REAL TIME SUPERVISORY CONTROLLER FOR AN ISOLATED HYBRID (WIND/ SOLAR/DIESEL) POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Boopathy C P; Dr.Sivakumar L

    2014-01-01

    In most of the developing countries like India and South Africa, there exists still many remote places (isolated from the grid); where the electrification is unavailable due to the financial aspect related to establishing the infrastructure to distribute power over a long distance and consequent high transmission losses. Authors emphasize for an Autonomous Hybrid Power Systems (AHPS), which will eradicate the problems faced by the remote places. Integration of Wind/Solar/Diesel also ensures t...

  18. Design and Implementation of Power Converters for Hybrid Wind-Solar Energy Conversion System with an Implementation of MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sridhar Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of power converters for wind conversion systems. The power converter can not only transfer the power from a wind generator, but also improve the stability and safety of the system. The proposed system consists of a Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG; a DC/DC boosts converter, a bi-directional DC/DC converter and a full-bridge DC/AC inverter. The wind generator is the main power source of the system, and the battery is used for energy storage and power compensation to recover the natural irregularity of the wind power. In this paper presents a new system configuration of the front-end rectifier stage for a hybrid wind or photo voltaic energy system. The configuration allows the two sources to supply the load separately or simultaneously, depending on the availability of energy sources. The inherent nature of this cuk-scpic fused converter, additional input filters are not necessary to filter out high frequency harmonic content is determinant for the generator life span, heating issue and efficiency. The fused multi-input rectifier stage also allows maximum power from the wind and sun. When it is available an adaptive MPPT algorithm will be used for photo voltaic (PV system. Operational analysis of the roposed system, will discoursed in this paper simulation results are given to highlight the merit of the proposed circuit.

  19. Real-time hybrid simulation technique for performance evaluation of full-scale sloshing dampers in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Basu, Biswajit; Nielsen, Saren R. K.

    2016-09-01

    As a variation of the pseudodynamic testing technique, the real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) technique is executed in real time, thus allowing investigation of structural systems with rate-dependent components. In this paper, the RTHS is employed for performance evaluation of full-scale liquid sloshing dampers in multi-megawatt wind turbines, where the tuned liquid damper (TLD) is manufactured and tested as the physical substructure while the wind turbine is treated as the numerical substructure and modelled in the computer using a 13-degree-of-freedom (13-DOF) aeroelastic model. Wind turbines with 2 MW and 3 MW capacities have been considered under various turbulent wind conditions. Extensive parametric studies have been performed on the TLD, e.g., various tuning ratios by changing the water level, TLD without and with damping screens (various mesh sizes of the screen considered), and TLD with flat and sloped bottoms. The present study provides useful guidelines for employing sloshing dampers in large wind turbines, and indicates huge potentials of applying RTHS technique in the area of wind energy.

  20. Subproton-scale Cascades in Solar Wind Turbulence: Driven Hybrid-kinetic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.; Rincon, F.

    2016-05-01

    A long-lasting debate in space plasma physics concerns the nature of subproton-scale fluctuations in solar wind (SW) turbulence. Over the past decade, a series of theoretical and observational studies were presented in favor of either kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) or whistler turbulence. Here, we investigate numerically the nature of the subproton-scale turbulent cascade for typical SW parameters by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions. Our analysis suggests that small-scale turbulence in this model is dominated by KAWs at β ≳ 1 and by magnetosonic/whistler fluctuations at lower β. The spectral properties of the turbulence appear to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A tentative interpretation of this result in terms of relative changes in the damping rates of the different waves is also presented. Overall, the results raise interesting new questions about the properties and variability of subproton-scale turbulence in the SW, including its possible dependence on the plasma β, and call for detailed and extensive parametric explorations of driven kinetic turbulence in three dimensions.

  1. Subproton-scale cascades in solar wind turbulence: driven hybrid-kinetic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, S S; Jenko, F; Told, D; Rincon, F

    2016-01-01

    A long-lasting debate in space plasma physics concerns the nature of subproton-scale fluctuations in solar wind (SW) turbulence. Over the past decade, a series of theoretical and observational studies were presented in favor of either kinetic Alfv\\'en wave (KAW) or whistler turbulence. Here, we investigate numerically the nature of the subproton-scale turbulent cascade for typical SW parameters by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions. Our analysis suggests that small-scale turbulence in this model is dominated by KAWs at $\\beta\\gtrsim1$ and by magnetosonic/whistler fluctuations at lower $\\beta$. The spectral properties of the turbulence appear to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A tentative interpretation of this result in terms of relative changes in the damping rates of the different waves is also presented. Overall, the results raise interesting new questions about the properties and va...

  2. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  3. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  4. Fernando de Noronha island, Brazil: project of hybrid diesel and wind power system; Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil: projeto do sistema hibrido eolico-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Everaldo A.N.; Pereira, Alexandre L.; Rohatgi, Janardan S.; Barros, Maria E.M. de [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Energia Eolica

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the first hybrid system (wind power/diesel) in Brazil, located at Fernando de Noronha island. The electric generation system of the hybrid system is discussed. It is also presented the main project aspects as well as the simulations performed by the Federal University of Pernambuco (group of wind power researches) 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: EOLICA at npd.ufpe.br

  5. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  6. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  7. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  8. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Wind Energy TechnoCentre, 51 Chemin de la mine, C.P. 1300, Murdochville, Quebec (Canada); Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada); Younes, R. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); 3M Laboratory - Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Ilinca, A. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada. Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost. (author)

  9. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  10. Performance Analysis of Solar-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System for KLIA Sepang Station of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shezan, S. K. A.; Saidur, R.; Hossain, A.; Chong, W. T.; Kibria, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    A large number of populations of the world live in rural or remote areas those are geographically isolated. Power supply and uninterrupted fuel transportation to produce electrical power for these remote areas poses a great challenge. Using renewable energy in hybrid energy system might be a pathway to solve this problem. Malaysia is a large hilly land with the gift of renewable energy resources. There is a good chance to utilize these renewable resources to produce electrical power and to limit the dependency on the fossil fuel as well as reduce the carbon emissions. In this perspective, a research is carried out to analyze the performance of a solar-wind-diesel-battery hybrid energy system for a remote area named “KLIA Sepang station” in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. In this study, a 56 kW hybrid energy system has been proposed that is capable to support more than 50 households and 6 shops in that area. Real time field data of solar radiation and wind speed is used for the simulation and optimization of operations using “Homer” renewable energy software. The proposed system can reduce CO2 emission by about 16 tons per year compared to diesel generator only. In the same time the Cost of energy (COE) of the optimized system is USD 5.126/kWh.The proposed hybrid energy system might be applicable for other parts of the world where the climate conditions are similar.

  11. Generation of electric power through wind-diesel hybrid system for a hospital; Geracao de energia eletrica atraves de sistema hibrido diesel-eolico para um hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Freire, Raphael Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com, e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a wind-diesel hybrid power simulation using the software Homer. The model is applied to the case study of Hospital das Clinicas da UNICAMP Analysis of several alternative energy facilities like wind, photovoltaic (PV), and connection of the isolated system with the grid is done. The costs used in the simulation indicated that the best results were obtained with the wind-diesel system. The payback period for the investment in the system is 8 years. (author)

  12. Sizing and Costing Optimisation of a Typical Wind/PV Hybrid Electricity Generation System for a Typical Residential Building in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  13. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  14. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power...

  15. Optimal statistical damage detection and classification in an experimental wind turbine blade using minimum instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand for carbon neutral energy in a challenging economic environment is a driving factor for erecting ever larger wind turbines in harsh environments using novel wind turbine blade (WTBs) designs characterized by high flexibilities and lower buckling capacities. To counteract resulting increasing of operation and maintenance costs, efficient structural health monitoring systems can be employed to prevent dramatic failures and to schedule maintenance actions according to the true structural state. This paper presents a novel methodology for classifying structural damages using vibrational responses from a single sensor. The method is based on statistical classification using Bayes' theorem and an advanced statistic, which allows controlling the performance by varying the number of samples which represent the current state. This is done for multivariate damage sensitive features defined as partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) estimated from vibrational responses and principal component analysis scores from PACCs. Additionally, optimal DSFs are composed not only for damage classification but also for damage detection based on binary statistical hypothesis testing, where features selections are found with a fast forward procedure. The method is applied to laboratory experiments with a small scale WTB with wind-like excitation and non-destructive damage scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed procedure and are promising for future applications of vibration-based structural health monitoring in WTBs.

  16. Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation

    KAUST Repository

    Mudford, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.

  17. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  18. First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

  19. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  20. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  1. Hybrid wind-PV-diesel system sizing tool development using empirical approach, life-cycle cost and performance analysis: A case study in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The concept of off-grid hybrid wind energy system is financially attractive and more reliable than stand-alone power systems since it is based on more than one electricity generation source. One of the most expensive components in a stand-alone wind-power system is the energy storage system as very often it is oversized to increase system autonomy. In this work, we consider a hybrid system which consists of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, diesel generator and battery storage. One of the m...

  2. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  4. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.

  5. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  6. Hybrid calibration method for six-component force/torque transducers of wind tunnel balance based on support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yingkun; Xie Shilin; Zhang Xinong; Luo Yajun

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid calibration approach based on support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to characterize nonlinear cross coupling of multi-dimensional transducer.It is difficult to identify these unknown nonlinearities and crosstalk just with a single conventional calibration approach.In this paper,a hybrid model comprising calibration matrix and SVM model for calibrating linearity and nonlinearity respectively is built up.The calibration matrix is determined by linear artificial neural network (ANN),and the SVM is used to compensate for the nonlinear cross coupling among each dimension.A simulation of the calibration of a multi-dimensional sensor is conducted by the SVM hybrid calibration method,which is then utilized to calibrate a six-component force/torque transducer of wind tunnel balance.From the calibrating results,it can be indicated that the SVM hybrid calibration method has improved the calibration accuracy significantly without increasing data samples,compared with calibration matrix.Moreover,with the calibration matrix,the hybrid model can provide a basis for the design of transducers.

  7. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  8. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  9. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  10. Instrumentation and model development for the Proven 2.2 kW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, S.H.; Infield, D.G. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    This paper gives details of the work done during the first phase of a 3-year project, the aims of which are to design, develop and build a controller for optimum load matching a small variable speed wind turbine. The Proven (WT2200) 2.2kW turbine is a three bladed passive pitching and coning turbine which operates downwind with passive yawning and uses a permanent magnet three phase generator. The control of the rotor speed will result in a maximisation of the energy yield and will limit transient loads on the rotor and drive train. To design a controller for the load the characteristics of the turbine generator and drive train must first be determined and a mathematical model derived. It is envisaged that the controller will also allow export of electricity to the local grid through a rectifier/inverter stage. A simple model is presented here and comparisons made with experimental results. (author)

  11. Prolonged use of wind or brass instruments does not alter lung function in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Anita G; Franklin, Peter J; Hall, Graham L

    2011-05-01

    Respiratory function impacts on musical expression for wind/brass (W/B) musicians. Investigation of musicians' respiratory health to date has rarely progressed further than assessments of flow limitation through spirometry. This study aimed to compare W/B musicians' respiratory function to a non-wind/brass (NW/B) group with a comprehensive respiratory function assessment. Non-smoking, non-asthmatic participants aged 18-60 years completed a respiratory health questionnaire followed by spirometry, static lung volumes, respiratory mechanics, using forced oscillations, gas transfer and airway responsiveness (AR). Measurements were compared between participant groups using T-tests and linear regression modelling. Data from 102 participants (55 W/B musicians and 47 NW/B subjects) were included in the analysis. There were no differences between the two groups for any spirometry or lung volume outcomes, with the exception of RV/TLC which was decreased among W/B musicians (p=0.03). Measures of gas transfer and AR were similar between participant groups. Resistance at 6 Hz, measured by forced oscillation, was increased among W/B musicians compared to NW/B musicians (p=0.02) but reactance at 6 Hz was similar between the groups (p=0.10). The results suggest that W/B musicians' do not have altered respiratory function when compared to a non-musical control group. However, increased R(rs6) may indicate inflammatory, remodelling or other pathophysiological processes associated with W/B playing. Although the difference between groups was small it warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  13. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  14. A New Hybrid Forecasting Strategy Applied to Mean Hourly Wind Speed Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Sp. Pappas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative electric power source, such as wind power, has to be both reliable and autonomous. An accurate wind speed forecasting method plays the key role in achieving the aforementioned properties and also is a valuable tool in overcoming a variety of economic and technical problems connected to wind power production. The method proposed is based on the reformulation of the problem in the standard state space form and on implementing a bank of Kalman filters (KF, each fitting an ARMA model of different order. The proposed method is to be applied to a greenhouse unit which incorporates an automatized use of renewable energy sources including wind speed power.

  15. Research and Application of a New Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization: A Case Study of Shandong Wind Farm in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing depletion of fossil fuel and serious destruction of environment, wind power, as a kind of clean and renewable resource, is more and more connected to the power system and plays a crucial role in power dispatch of hybrid system. Thus, it is necessary to forecast wind speed accurately for the operation of wind farm in hybrid system. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model called EEMD-GA-FAC/SAC to forecast wind speed. First, the Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD can be applied to eliminate the noise of the original data. After data preprocessing, first-order adaptive coefficient forecasting method (FAC or second-order adaptive coefficient forecasting method (SAC can be employed to do forecast. It is significant to select optimal parameters for an effective model. Thus, genetic algorithm (GA is used to determine parameter of the hybrid model. In order to verify the validity of the proposed model, every ten-minute wind speed data from three observation sites in Shandong Peninsula of China and several error evaluation criteria can be collected. Through comparing with traditional BP, ARIMA, FAC, and SAC model, the experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model EEMD-GA-FAC/SAC has the best forecasting performance.

  16. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  17. The Study on Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System Connecting with Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan

    , a cooperative control of the VSC-HVDC system and a variable speed Squirrel Cage Induction Generator (SCIG)-based offshore wind farm is proposed. In the approach, an active power-frequency droop control is developed to achieve an autonomous reduction of the generated active powers from wind turbines, which thus...

  18. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  19. Sizing a hybrid wind-diesel stand-alone system on the basis of minimum long-term electricity production cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldellis, J.K. [TEI of Piraeus, Athens (Greece). Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection; Kondili, E. [TEI of Piraeus, Athens (Greece). Optimisation of Production Systems Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department; Filios, A. [Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines Laboratory, School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-15

    Hybrid wind-diesel systems are an interesting solution for the electrification of isolated consumers. The proposed system, including a properly sized battery, leads to a significant reduction of the fuel consumption, in comparison with a diesel-only installation, also protecting the diesel generator from excessive wear. On the other hand, a properly designed wind-diesel installation remarkably reduces the required battery capacity, in relation to a wind-only based stand-alone system, especially in medium-low wind potential areas. In this context, a complete sizing model, based on a long-term energy production cost analysis is developed, able to predict the optimum configuration of a hybrid wind-diesel stand-alone system on the basis of minimum long-term cost. According to the application results obtained for representative wind potential cases, the proposed hybrid system guarantees one year's long energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer, presenting a significant cost advantage in relation either to a diesel-only or to a wind-based stand-alone system. (author)

  20. Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform with Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Samuel Adam Chinman

    The design and operation of two counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbines on a floating, semi-submersible platform is studied. The technology, called the Multiple Integrated and Synchronized Turbines (MIST) platform has the potential to reduce the cost of offshore wind energy per unit of installed capacity. Attached to the platform are closely-spaced, counter-rotating turbines, which can achieve a higher power density per planform area because of synergistic interaction effects. The purpose of the research is to control the orientation of the platform and rotational speeds of the turbines by modifying the energy absorbed by each of the generators of the turbines. To analyze the various aspects of the platform and wind turbines, the analysis is drawn from the fields of hydrodynamics, electromagnetics, aerodynamics and control theory. To study the hydrodynamics of the floating platform in incident monochromatic waves, potential theory is utilized, taking into account the slow-drift yaw motion of the platform. Steady, second-order moments that are spatially dependent (i.e., dependent on the platform's yaw orientation relative to the incident waves) are given special attention since there are no natural restoring yaw moment. The aerodynamics of the counter-rotating turbines are studied in collaboration with researchers at the UC Berkeley Mathematics Department using a high-order, implicit, large-eddy simulation. An element flipping technique is utilized to extend the method to a domain with counter-rotating turbines and the effects from the closely-spaced turbines is compared with existing experimental data. Hybrid testing techniques on a model platform are utilized to prove the controllability of the platform in lieu of a wind-wave tank. A 1:82 model-scale floating platform is fabricated and tested at the UC Berkeley Physical-Model Testing Facility. The vertical-axis wind turbines are simulated by spinning, controllable actuators that can be updated in real-time of

  1. Real-time 3-D hybrid simulation of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasma environment of Saturn's largest satellite Titan is known to be highly variable. Since Titan's orbit is located within the outer magnetosphere of Saturn, the moon can leave the region dominated by the magnetic field of its parent body in times of high solar wind dynamic pressure and interact with the thermalized magnetosheath plasma or even with the unshocked solar wind. By applying a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code (kinetic description of ions, fluid electrons, we study in real-time the transition that Titan's plasma environment undergoes when the moon leaves Saturn's magnetosphere and enters the supermagnetosonic solar wind. In the simulation, the transition between both plasma regimes is mimicked by a reversal of the magnetic field direction as well as a change in the composition and temperature of the impinging plasma flow. When the satellite enters the solar wind, the magnetic draping pattern in its vicinity is reconfigured due to reconnection, with the characteristic time scale of this process being determined by the convection of the field lines in the undisturbed plasma flow at the flanks of the interaction region. The build-up of a bow shock ahead of Titan takes place on a typical time scale of a few minutes as well. We also analyze the erosion of the newly formed shock front upstream of Titan that commences when the moon re-enters the submagnetosonic plasma regime of Saturn's magnetosphere. Although the model presented here is far from governing the full complexity of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion, the simulation provides important insights into general plasma-physical processes associated with such a disruptive change of the upstream flow conditions.

  2. A Hybrid Method Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis, Firefly Algorithm, and BP Neural Network for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increasing importance being attached to big data mining, analysis, and forecasting in the field of wind energy, how to select an optimization model to improve the forecasting accuracy of the wind speed time series is not only an extremely challenging problem, but also a problem of concern for economic forecasting. The artificial intelligence model is widely used in forecasting and data processing, but the individual back-propagation artificial neural network cannot always satisfy the time series forecasting needs. Thus, a hybrid forecasting approach has been proposed in this study, which consists of data preprocessing, parameter optimization and a neural network for advancing the accuracy of short-term wind speed forecasting. According to the case study, in which the data are collected from Peng Lai, a city located in China, the simulation results indicate that the hybrid forecasting method yields better predictions compared to the individual BP, which indicates that the hybrid method exhibits stronger forecasting ability.

  3. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  4. Offshore energy structures for wind power, wave energy and hybrid marine platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Karimirad, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    This book provides all the key information needed to design offshore structures for renewable energy applications successfully. Suitable for practicing engineers and students, the author conveys design principles and best practices in a clear, concise manner, focusing on underlying physics while eschewing complicated mathematical detail. The text connects underlying scientific theory with industry standards and practical implementation issues for offshore wind turbines, wave energy converters and current turbines. Combined concepts such as wave-wind energy platforms are discussed, as well. Cov

  5. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M. K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency oblig

  6. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  7. The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Design and Performance Prediction of the Wind and Temperature Instrument on the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, K. D.; Englert, C. R.; Harlander, J.; Brown, C. M.; Stephan, A. W.; Makela, J. J.; Harding, B. J.; Stevens, M. H.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) is one of four instruments on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON). MIGHTI will measure the global distribution of horizontal, neutral winds and temperatures over an altitude range that is not readily accessible to in-situ probes (90-300km). Thermospheric winds will be obtained from Doppler shift measurements of the atomic oxygen green (λ=557.7nm) and red (λ=630.0nm) emission lines. Lower thermospheric temperatures will be determined from the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen atmospheric emission band around λ=762nm. Two identical MIGHTI interferometers, oriented on the spacecraft to view a common atmospheric volume, obtain orthogonal line of sight wind information. Both instruments use the Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) approach with low order Echelle gratings optimized for the red, green, and near infrared wavelengths detected by MIGHTI. We will present the MIGHTI instrument design, including the driving instrument parameters and performance estimates. In particular, we will show the MIGHTI interferometer design and first laboratory test results using a prototype interferometer.

  8. A Hybrid Model for Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Based on MIV, Tversky Model and GA-BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power forecasting, which is necessary for wind farm, is significant to the dispatch of power grid since the characteristics of wind change intermittently. In this paper, a hybrid model for short-term wind power forecasting based on MIV, Tversky model and GA-BP neural network is formulated. The Mean Impact Value (MIV method is used to monitor the input variable of BP neural network which will simplify the neural network model and reduce the training time. And the Tversky model is used for cluster analysis, which keeps watch over the similar training set of BP neural network. In addition, the Genetic Algorithm (GA is used to optimize the initial weights and thresholds of BP neural network to achieve the global optimization. Simulation results show that the method combined with MIV, Tversky and GA-BP can improve the accuracy of short-term wind power forecasting.

  9. Land use and wind direction drive hybridization between cultivated poplar and native species in a Mediterranean floodplain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Travaglini, Davide; Labriola, Mariaceleste; Buonamici, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Materassi, Alessandro; Fasano, Gianni; Nocentini, Susanna; Vettori, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Deforestation and intensive land use management with plantations of fast-growing tree species, like Populus spp., may endanger native trees not only by eliminating or reducing their habitats, but also by diminishing their species integrity via hybridization and introgression. The genus Populus has persistent natural hybrids because clonal and sexual reproduction is common. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of land use management of poplar plantations on the spatial genetic structure and species composition in poplar stands. Specifically, we studied the potential breeding between natural and cultivated poplar populations in the Mediterranean environment to gain insight into spontaneous hybridization events between exotic and native poplars; we also used a GIS-based model to evaluate the potential threats related to an intensive land use management. Two study areas, both near to poplar plantations (P.×euramericana), were designated in the native mixed stands of P. alba, P. nigra and P.×canescens within protected areas. We found that the spatial genetic structure differed between the two stands and their differences depended on their environmental features. We detected a hybridization event with P.×canescens that was made possible by the synchrony of flowering between the poplar plantation and P.×canescens and facilitated by the wind intensity and direction favoring the spread of pollen. Taken together, our results indicate that natural and artificial barriers are crucial to mitigate the threats, and so they should be explicitly considered in land use planning. For example, our results suggest the importance of conserving rows of trees and shrubs along rivers and in agricultural landscapes. In sum, it is necessary to understand, evaluate, and monitor the spread of exotic species and genetic material to ensure effective land use management and mitigation of their impact on native tree populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Multi-hybrid instrumentations with smartphones and smartpads for innovative in-field and POC diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Gärtner, Claudia; Klemm, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Aim of the paper is the orientation of research and development on a completely new approach to innovative in-field and point of care diagnostics in industry, biology and medicine. Central functional modules are smartphones and/or smart pads supplemented by additional hardware apps and software apps. Specific examples are given for numerous practical applications concerning optodigital instrumentations. The methodical classification distinguishes between different levels for combination of hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartphones and/or smartpads. These methods are fundamental enablers for the transformation from stationary conventional laboratory diagnostics into mobile innovative in-field and point of care diagnostics. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets due to the convenience, reliability and affordability of smartphone and/or smartpad instruments. A highly visible advantage of smartphones and/or smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via cloud services and the experienced capability of their users for practical operations.

  11. Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced Functional Multilayers and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    The instrumentation enables clean, uniform, and rapid deposition of a wide variety of metallic , semiconducting, and ceramic thin films with...and rapid deposition of a wide variety of metallic , semiconducting, and ceramic thin films with microstructures and composite geometries enhanced by...inexpensive source materials. In contrast, sputtering can produce thin films of the most refractory metals , like W, however one must use mTorr

  12. Posterior Selective Thoracic Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients: a Comparison of All Pedicle Screws versus Hybrid Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yu; Jian-guo Zhang; Gui-xing Qiu; Yi-peng Wang; Yu Zhao; Jian-xiong Shen; Hong Zhao; Xin-yu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of segmental pedicle screws versus hybrid instrumentation on the correction results in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing posterior selective thoracic fusion. Methods By reviewing the medical records and roentgenograms of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who underwent selective thoracic fusion from February 2000 to January 2007 in our hospital, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to different instrumentation fashions: Group A was hook-screw-rod (hybrid) internal fixation type, Group B was screw-rod (all pedicle screws) internal fixation type, and the screws were used in every segment on the concave side of the thoracic curve. The parameters of the scoliosis were measured and the correction results were analyzed. Results Totally, 48 patients (7 males, 41 females) were included, with an average age of 14.4 years old and a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months. Thirty and 18 patients were assigned to group A and group B, respectively. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angles of the thoracic curve were 48.8° and 47.4°, respectively. After surgery, they were corrected to 13.7° and 6.8°, respectively. At final follow-up, they were 17.0° and 9.5°, with an average correction rate of 64.6% and 79.0%, respectively, and the correction rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P = 0.003). The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angles of the lumbar curve were 32.6° and 35.2°, respectively. After surgery, they were corrected to 8.6° and 8.3°, respectively. At final follow-up, they were 10.3° and 11.1°, with an average correction rate of 66.8% and 69.9%, respectively, and the correction rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P = 0.003). The correction loss of the thoracic curve and lumbar curve in the 2 groups were 3.1° and 1.8°, 2.4° and 2.4°, respectively. No significant difference was noted (both P > 0.05). The decompensation rate at final follow

  13. Simulation of Wind-solar Hybrid Microgrid and Power Flow Analysis%风光互补微电网仿真与潮流分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯华; 冯彪; 孙志军

    2013-01-01

    Matlab/Simulink was applied in the modelling and simulation of wind-solar hybrid microgrid by using wind-solar hybrid as micro power source. According to the structure of wind-solar hybrid microgrid,the grid node types were simplified and identified. Power flow analysis was done by applying Newton-Raphson-based linear model,the result of which showed that the flow convergence is better, and it can provide a theoretical reference for the development of wind-solar hybrid microgrid.%以风光互补作为微电源,利用Matlab/Simulink对风光互补微电网建模并进行仿真,根据风光互补微电网结构,简化、明确微电网节点类型,基于牛顿拉夫逊法为基础的线性化模型对构建微电网进行相关潮流分析,潮流收敛较好,为风光互补微电网的发展提供有效的理论依据。

  14. Hybrid Electro-Mechanical Simulation Tool for Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the use of MATLAB/Simulink to simulate the electrical and grid-related aspects of a WTG and the FAST aero-elastic wind turbine code to simulate the aerodynamic and mechanical aspects of the WTG. The combination of the two enables studies involving both electrical and mechanical aspects of the WTG.

  15. A bi-directional DC/DC converter for hybrid wind generator/battery system with state machine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Liao, Y.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A bi-directional DC to DC converter used in a hybrid wind generator/lead-acid battery power system was presented. A state machine control strategy was used to control both the system power flow and load distribution. It was also used to increase the power capacity of the system. The battery was also charged or discharged through the bi-directional DC to DC converter. Multi-stage current charging control of the batteries was accomplished by adjusting the duty cycle of the power converter. This also improved the charging efficiency by the maximum power point tracking algorithm. It was concluded that the proposed control method can be readily extended to other renewable energy conversion systems. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Optimization of hybrid-type instrumentation for Pu accountancy of U/TRU ingot in pyroprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Seung Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Park, Geun-Il; Menlove, Spencer H

    2016-02-01

    One of the final products of pyroprocessing for spent nuclear fuel recycling is a U/TRU ingot consisting of rare earth (RE), uranium (U), and transuranic (TRU) elements. The amounts of nuclear materials in a U/TRU ingot must be measured as precisely as possible in order to secure the safeguardability of a pyroprocessing facility, as it contains the most amount of Pu among spent nuclear fuels. In this paper, we propose a new nuclear material accountancy method for measurement of Pu mass in a U/TRU ingot. This is a hybrid system combining two techniques, based on measurement of neutrons from both (1) fast- and (2) thermal-neutron-induced fission events. In technique #1, the change in the average neutron energy is a signature that is determined using the so-called ring ratio method, according to which two detector rings are positioned close to and far from the sample, respectively, to measure the increase of the average neutron energy due to the increased number of fast-neutron-induced fission events and, in turn, the Pu mass in the ingot. We call this technique, fast-neutron energy multiplication (FNEM). In technique #2, which is well known as Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR), a neutron population's changes resulting from thermal-neutron-induced fission events due to the presence or absence of a cadmium (Cd) liner in the sample's cavity wall, and reflected in the Cd ratio, is the signature that is measured. In the present study, it was considered that the use of a hybrid, FNEM×PNAR technique would significantly enhance the signature of a Pu mass. Therefore, the performance of such a system was investigated for different detector parameters in order to determine the optimal geometry. The performance was additionally evaluated by MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulations for different U/TRU compositions reflecting different burnups (BU), initial enrichments (IE), and cooling times (CT) to estimate its performance in real situations.

  17. 一种新型风光热电站的风光互补性研究及成本分析%Wind-Solar Complementarity and Cost Analysis of New Solar-Wind Hybrid Thermal Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欢; 袁越; 张新松; 傅质馨

    2013-01-01

    考虑到风电并网因风功率波动性所引起的电能质量与电网稳定性问题,提出了一种新型的风能利用形式风热装置,并将风热装置引入槽式光热电站,构建了一种新的可再生能源发电形式——风光热电站,给出了风热装置与槽式光热电站的连接方式,基于美国国家新能源研究所在科罗拉多州戈尔登地区实测的2011年全年风速、光照强度数据,利用牛顿插值法计算风电输出功率,同时采用槽式光热电站输出功率模型计算其输出功率,从风热装置与槽式光热电站发电量的角度,分析了风能光能在时域上的互补性,进而对风光热电站进行了成本估计,为验证风光热电站的可行性与优势提供了依据.%As the wind power fluctuation of the integrated wind farm influences the power quality and the stability of the grid. This paper proposes a new way of utilizing wind energy-wind-heat device and estimates its cost. Considering the instability of the trough system's generation and its high investment cost, a new sustainable energy generation technology-solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant is presented and its combination is given. Based on the actual irradiance and wind speed dates of Golden, Colorado, USA which are provided by American National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Newton interpolation method is applied to calculate the wind power. Meanwhile trough system's output model is used to calculate its output. According to the generation of the wind thermal device and the trough system, the wind/solar complementarity is studied, which gives a strong prove to the feasibility of the solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant. Finally, a cost estimation of the solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant is studied.

  18. Prediction of structure response of missile instrument cabin based on Hybrid FE-SEA%应用Hybrid FE-SEA预示仪器舱动力学环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘时秀

    2011-01-01

    应用Hybrid FE-SEA方法,对某导弹仪器舱在宽频混响声场中结构响应进行了分析计算,并将Hybrid FE-SEA方法预示结果与试验结果作了比较,初步验证了Hybrid FE-SEA方法计算复杂结构声振响应的可行性.%The structure response of a missile instrument cabin in the broadband reverberation sound field is analyzed and calculated by the method of Hybrid FE-SEA. The results of the method are compared with the testing results, which primarily validates the feasibility of calculating the acoustic response of complex structure by the method of Hybrid FE-SEA.

  19. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  20. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kexin; Maddocks, Matthew; Xu, Huiying; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-03-01

    Many long-term neurological conditions adversely affect respiratory function. Singing and playing wind instruments are relatively inexpensive interventions with potential for improving respiratory function; however, synthesis of current evidence is needed to inform research and clinical use of music in respiratory care. To critically appraise, analyze, and synthesize published evidence on the effectiveness of singing or playing a wind instrument to improve respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions. Systematic review of published randomized controlled trials and observational studies examining singing or playing wind instruments to improve respiratory function in individuals with long-term neurological conditions. Articles meeting specified inclusion criteria were identified through a search of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, CAIRSS for Music, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and AMED databases as early as 1806 through March 2015. Information on study design, clinical populations, interventions, and outcome measures was extracted and summarized using an electronic standardized coding form. Methodological quality was assessed and summarized across studies descriptively. From screening 584 references, 68 full texts were reviewed and five studies included. These concerned 109 participants. The studies were deemed of low quality, due to evidence of bias, in part due to intervention complexity. No adverse effects were reported. Overall, there was a trend toward improved respiratory function, but only one study on Parkinson's disease had significant between-group differences. The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation.

  1. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Study and Its Application Using a Hybrid Model Optimized by Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The support vector regression (SVR and neural network (NN are both new tools from the artificial intelligence field, which have been successfully exploited to solve various problems especially for time series forecasting. However, traditional SVR and NN cannot accurately describe intricate time series with the characteristics of high volatility, nonstationarity, and nonlinearity, such as wind speed and electricity price time series. This study proposes an ensemble approach on the basis of 5-3 Hanning filter (5-3H and wavelet denoising (WD techniques, in conjunction with artificial intelligence optimization based SVR and NN model. So as to confirm the validity of the proposed model, two applicative case studies are conducted in terms of wind speed series from Gansu Province in China and electricity price from New South Wales in Australia. The computational results reveal that cuckoo search (CS outperforms both PSO and GA with respect to convergence and global searching capacity, and the proposed CS-based hybrid model is effective and feasible in generating more reliable and skillful forecasts.

  2. Effect of Physical Constraints on Load Frequency Control of Deregulated Hybrid Power System Integrated with DFIG Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized model for load frequency control (LFC design in a hybrid multi-area deregulated power system including physical constraints. Renewable energy source named doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind energy source is integrated into the system that provides the modified emulating inertial control and reduces the deviations in frequency and tie-line power, following a transient load perturbation. In addition to this, the three basic physical constraints viz. generation rate constraints (GRC, speed governor dead band and communication or time delay have been imposed on the power system that affect the system’s security, reliability and integrity. To get the better performance of the various controllers in power system, their gains are optimized using integral square error (ISE technique. Present simulation studies reveal that the system’s performance becomes better by the inclusion of DFIG based wind turbine. It is also shown that the dynamic performance of the system becomes poorer by adding physical constraints but it is a more realistic approach.

  3. A global hybrid model for Mercury's interaction with the solar wind: Case study of the dipole representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, E.; Modolo, R.; Chanteur, G. M.; Hess, S.; Leblanc, F.

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the magnetic field of Mercury is investigated by means of a three dimensional parallelized multispecies hybrid model. A comparison between two mathematical representations of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field is studied. The first model is an Offset Dipole (OD) having the offset and dipolar moment reported by Anderson et al. (2011). The second model is a combination of a Dipole and a Quadrupole (DQ), the total field is fitted to the offset dipolar field, for northern latitudes greater than 50°. Simulations reproduce the features which characterize Mercury's interaction with the SW, encompassing the Bow Shock (BS), the magnetosheath, the magnetotail, the “cusps” region and the neutral current sheet. Global hybrid simulations of the Hermean magnetosphere run for the OD and DQ models demonstrate that the southern parts of the magnetospheres produced by the OD and DQ models differ greatly in topology and volume meanwhile their northern parts-are quite similar. In particular the DQ model exhibits a dome of closed field lines around the south pole in contrast to the OD. Without further information on the intrinsic magnetic field of the planet in the southern region which should be provided by BepiColombo after year 2020, we can only speculate on the influence of the different magnetic topologies on the magnetospheric dynamics.

  4. Hybrid intelligent control of PMSG wind generation system using pitch angle control with RBFN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Hong, Chih-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804 (China); Ou, Ting-Chia; Chiu, Tai-Ming [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan 325 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the design of a fuzzy sliding mode loss-minimization control for the speed of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a high-performance on-line training radial basis function network (RBFN) for the turbine pitch angle control. The back-propagation learning algorithm is used to regulate the RBFN controller. The PMSG speed uses maximum power point tracking below the rated speed, which corresponds to low and high wind speed, and the maximum energy can be captured from the wind. A sliding mode controller with an integral-operation switching surface is designed, in which a fuzzy inference mechanism is utilized to estimate the upper bound of uncertainties. Furthermore, the fuzzy inference mechanism with center adaptation is investigated to estimate the optimal bound of uncertainties. (author)

  5. Hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian Simulation of Steep and Breaking Waves and Surface Fluxes in High Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    codes are parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) based on domain decomposition. For SPH , graphics processing unit (GPU) computing, which is...aims at developing a numerical capability using a Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH ) method and an Eulerian Level-Set Method (LSM) for...the SPH and LSM with environmental input provided by coupled wind and wave simulations at far field; (2) Use the numerical method developed in (1

  6. 32 CFR 37.565 - May I use a hybrid instrument that provides fixed support for only a portion of a project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 37.565 May I use a hybrid instrument that provides fixed support for only a portion of a project? Yes, for a research... criteria in § 37.305. Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds ...

  7. Wind Energy System Time-domain (WEST) analyzers using hybrid simulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two stand-alone analyzers constructed for real time simulation of the complex dynamic characteristics of horizontal-axis wind energy systems are described. Mathematical models for an aeroelastic rotor, including nonlinear aerodynamic and elastic loads, are implemented with high speed digital and analog circuitry. Models for elastic supports, a power train, a control system, and a rotor gimbal system are also included. Limited correlation efforts show good comparisons between results produced by the analyzers and results produced by a large digital simulation. The digital simulation results correlate well with test data.

  8. Optimal integration of hybrid (wind--solar) system with diesel power plant \

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUE, MUHAMMAD NOMAN; Ahmad, Aftab; NAWAZ, MUHAMMAD KASHIF; BUKHARI, SYED BASIT ALI

    2015-01-01

    Most energy worldwide is supplied through conventional energy sources, such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. There have been serious energy crises in the last couple of years and so it is essential to consider renewable energy sources. This paper proposes a cost-effective solution for integrating a wind--solar system with an existing diesel power plant of a grid-connected site at Taxila, Pakistan. In the case of nonavailability of power from the grid, this diesel power plant acts as a standby ...

  9. The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Final Instrument Design and Update on Integration and Test of the Thermsopheric Wind and Temperature Instrument on the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C. R.; Harlander, J.; Brown, C. M.; Marr, K. D.; Makela, J. J.; Harding, B. J.; Stevens, M. H.; Hancock, J. J.; Immel, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) is one of four instruments on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON). MIGHTI will measure the global distribution of horizontal, neutral winds and temperatures over an altitude range that is not readily accessible to in-situ probes (90-300km). Thermospheric winds will be obtained from Doppler shift measurements of the atomic oxygen green (λ=557.7nm) and red (λ=630.0nm) emission lines. Lower thermospheric temperatures will be determined from the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen atmospheric emission band around λ=762nm. Two identical MIGHTI interferometers, oriented on the spacecraft to view a common atmospheric volume, obtain orthogonal line of sight wind information. Both instruments use the Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) approach with low order Echelle gratings optimized for the red, green, and near infrared wavelengths detected by MIGHTI. In March 2015 the MIGHTI design was formally finalized at the Critical Design Review and the integration and test of an engineering unit was completed. We will present the measured performance of critical flight components, such as the interferometers, filters, and detectors. Using these parameters, we will present the corresponding performance estimates, including on-orbit data simulations and retrievals.

  10. Potential of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for a remote telecommunication station : part 1; Potentiel d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour une station telecom isolee : partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA; Chabour, H.; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their potential for both long and short-term applications. In particular, it discussed the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. The hybrid system has been touted as a substitute for inefficient and costly diesel generators that contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Some low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems have been studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. This paper demonstrated that the use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. In part 1 of this study, the authors compared different technical solutions for the CAES system and described the one that optimizes the performance and the cost of the overall system. 3 figs.

  11. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  12. Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 September 1977 - 31 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8100681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in...

  13. Current direction, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 18 October 1977 to 01 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the...

  14. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  15. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 22 December 1977 - 30 September 1979 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  16. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1979 - 01 May 1980 (NODC Accession 8000462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 22, 1979 to May 1, 1980....

  17. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 11 October 1978 - 19 March 1980 (NODC Accession 8000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and EXCELLENCE in the...

  18. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 12 January 1978 - 01 June 1980 (NODC Accession 8000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and...

  19. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 30 June 1979 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  20. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 01 February 1978 - 03 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  1. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 14 October 1977 - 24 August 1979 (NODC Accession 7900335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  2. Current direction and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Puget Sound during the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP (MESA -PS) project, 21 June 1977 - 25 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Puget Sound from June 21, 1977 to September 25, 1977. Data...

  3. Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 07 February 1981 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  4. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...

  5. The Presentation of a Two Stages Model for an Optimum Operation of a Hybrid System of Wind-Pumped Storage Power Plant in the Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbarpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a new method in power market environment. One of the weaknesses in the utilization of wind units is severe dependence of output power level on wind. However, considering the high uncertainty in the prediction of wind speed and wind forecast unit production capacity is also having an error. Also, regarding to the uncontrollable generators of this type, it is better to use combined systems for utilization. This study presents a new model based on the a two stage for an optimum operation of a hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant in the power market environment that causes to provide a successful presentation condition in market environments for the producers of wind power. In the suggestive hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant of this study the modeling is done in two stages for the optimum presence in power market environment with the a most possible benefit. At first, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in the prediction of power price and producing the wind power, for presenting the suggestion of power to market, in order to gain the most benefit. At the second stage, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in producing wind power, in order to gain the most benefit and paying the least penalty for unbalancing in market for operation of the system. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO is used for optimization. At the end of a model example for applying the results of the proposed model will be examined and analyzes the results. Results show that the model is an appropriate method for the operation of this combined system in market environment.

  6. Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable...... for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES, a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls, the flow is treated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS......), and this layer acts as wall model for the outer flow handled by LES. The well-known high Reynolds number two-equation k - turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - subgrid scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over...

  7. Design Experience of Island Wind - photovoltaic Hybrid Power Supply System%海岛风光瓦补发电系统设计体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永高

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍海岛建设风光互补发电系统的环境特点.结合工程实践归纳总结海岛风光互补发电系统设计要点.并就系统建设需要注意的问题进行解析。%The environmental features for the construction of wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system on the island is introduced briefly; in combination with the engineering practice, the keys points of design for the island wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system are summarized, and the issues worthy of attention during the system construction are analyzed.

  8. A Hybrid RenewableEnergy System (Wind and Solar) Size Optimization and Costing for Residential Buildings in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses and determines the optimization process of sizing a hybrid renewable energy system designed for urban residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The considered renewable energy system comprises of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbines as small scale or microscale, thus it is a green sustainable system compared with already existing in use conventional traditional electricity generation based on fossil fuel, mainly coal burning which is definitely neither...

  9. Economic Feasibility of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Hybrid with Bioenergy from Anaerobic Digestion for Electrification of Remote Area of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy systems (HRES are gaining importance throughout the world because of the finite sources of oil and gas reservoirs. These have the great ability in the production of electrical energy and cleaning the environment. It is difficult to get grid electricity in the remote areas where no infrastructure exists. The utilization of renewable sources is the ultimate solution for the generation of electricity. In this paper, the economic modeling of Hybrid system consisting of Wind/biomass is explored for the remote area ‘Jangiah’ of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Anaerobic Digestion of biomass is used to get biogas. This source is used to complement the uncertainties in the wind production. Homer is used to simulate the hybrid model. Economic analysis is performed to get the net present value (NPV and cost of energy. It is observed that wind/biomass alone is capable to meet the demand of community which consumes 60 kW peak daily along with the storage backup. This system is the most economical with COE equal to 0.118 US$/kWh following the hybrid biomass/wind/diesel system with COE 0.202 US$/kWh. The sensitivity analysis is carried out and shows that the proposed system is sensitive to the prices of fossil fuel and project lifespan. The net present value increases as the lifetime of the project increases from 15 years to 30 years. It can also be concluded that if the price of the diesel drops below 0.8 US$/liter, the traditional system using fossil fuels will become the most suitable system for the generation of electricity in remote areas.

  10. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Janet M. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

  11. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  12. Mars-solar wind interaction: LatHyS, an improved parallel 3-D multispecies hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sebastien; Mancini, Marco; Leblanc, Francois; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Brain, David; Leclercq, Ludivine; Esteban-Hernández, Rosa; Chanteur, Gerard; Weill, Philippe; González-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Yagi, Manabu; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent Mars-solar wind interaction, we present an unprecedented model achieving spatial resolution down to 50 km, a so far unexplored resolution for global kinetic models of the Martian ionized environment. Such resolution approaches the ionospheric plasma scale height. In practice, the model is derived from a first version described in Modolo et al. (2005). An important effort of parallelization has been conducted and is presented here. A better description of the ionosphere was also implemented including ionospheric chemistry, electrical conductivities, and a drag force modeling the ion-neutral collisions in the ionosphere. This new version of the code, named LatHyS (Latmos Hybrid Simulation), is here used to characterize the impact of various spatial resolutions on simulation results. In addition, and following a global model challenge effort, we present the results of simulation run for three cases which allow addressing the effect of the suprathermal corona and of the solar EUV activity on the magnetospheric plasma boundaries and on the global escape. Simulation results showed that global patterns are relatively similar for the different spatial resolution runs, but finest grid runs provide a better representation of the ionosphere and display more details of the planetary plasma dynamic. Simulation results suggest that a significant fraction of escaping O+ ions is originated from below 1200 km altitude.

  13. Development of emergency backup power system using photovoltaic/wind hybrid power source in unmanned relay broadcasting station; Mujin chukei hosojo ni okeru taihoko/furyoku hybrid dengen wo mochiita hijo yobi dengen system no kaihatsu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Takanaga, T. [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, T.; Fujiwara, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    An examination was made on the application of photovoltaic and wind power generation as an emergency backup power source. In this connection, the designing/manufacturing was carried out for a field demonstration test system, and also a simulation was carried out concerning the system performance. In the structure of the hybrid power source, a wind power generator is parallelly connected to a solar cell through a DC/DC converter for adjusting output voltage. It is further parallelly connected to an existing power system through a switch, supplying power to storage batteries or a broadcasting equipment. The result of the simulation revealed that, in the static characteristics, there was an output from the wind power generation if the wind velocity was 2.4m/s or above, but that a discharge from storage batteries was necessary even in the maximum performance of the wind power generation if the intensity of solar radiation was less than approximately 0.5kW/m{sup 2}. In the dynamic characteristics, an evaluation was made on the length of time of the on-load power supply after a power failure of the system in comparison with the conventional length, depending on the conditions of the wind. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Voltage sensitivity based reactive power control on VSC-HVDC in a wind farm connected hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With increasing application of both Line Commutated Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (LCC-HVDC) systems and Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links, a new type of system structure named Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system is formed in the modern power systems. This paper...... presents the operation and control method of the wind farm connected HMIDC system. The wind power fluctuation takes large influence to the system voltages. In order to reduce the voltage fluctuation of LCC-HVDC infeed bus caused by the wind power variation, a voltage sensitivity-based reactive power...... control method is proposed in the paper. According to the calculated sensitivity factors, a reactive power increment is added in the control loop of VSC-HVDC so as to regulate the voltage of the target bus. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB are presented to assess the performance...

  15. Hybrid solar-wind installation prospects for hot water and heating supply of private homes in the Absheron peninsula conditions of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Huseynov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the environmental problems arising from the use of traditional energy resources for the production of electricity and heat. The advantages of replacing conventional energy resources and shifting to wind and solar energy technologies are explained. The possibilities of the combined use of solar and wind energy to provide an average family of 5 people with hot water and heating are explored. Experimental results were obtained from full-scale tests under prevailing conditions at Baku. Solar-wind hybrid systems for heating and hot water were designed and developed at the Institute of Radiation Problems of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. The paper also examines the possibility of supplying a family of 5 people with hot water produced by solar energy year-round and presents the results of the calculation of the energy balance of such facility.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.12274

  16. Optimization of operational planning for wind/hydro hybrid water supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Filipe; Ramos, Helena M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-03-15

    Water supply systems (WSS) frequently present high-energy consumption values, which correspond to the major expenses of these systems. Energy costs are a function of its real consumption and of the variability of the daily energy tariff. This paper presents a model of optimization for the energy efficiency in a water supply system. The system is equipped with a pump station and presents excess of available energy in the gravity branch. First, a water turbine is introduced in the system in order to use this excess of hydraulic available energy. Then, an optimization method to define the pump operation planning along the 24 h of simulation, as well as the analysis of the economic benefits resulting from the profit of wind energy to supply the water pumping, while satisfying the system constraints and population demands, is implemented, in order to minimize the global operational costs. The model, developed in MATLAB, uses linear programming and provides the planning strategy to take in each time step, which will influence the following hours. The simulation period considered is one day, sub-divided in hourly time steps. The rules obtained as output of the optimization procedures are subsequently introduced in a hydraulic simulator (e.g. EPANET), in order to verify the system behaviour along the simulation period. The results are compared with the normal operating mode (i.e. without optimization algorithm) and show that energy cost's savings are achieved dependently of the initial reservoir levels or volume. The insertion of the water turbine also generates significant economical benefits for the water supply system. (author)

  17. Non-instrumented DNA isolation, amplification and microarray-based hybridization for a rapid on-site detection of devastating Phytophthora kernoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Sailer, Sebastian; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-07

    A rapid and simple instrument-free detection system was developed for the identification of the plant pathogen Phytophthora kernoviae (P. kernoviae). The on-site operable analysis steps include magnetic particle based DNA isolation, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) and chip-based DNA hybridization. The isothermal approach enabled the convenient amplification of the yeast GTP-binding protein (Ypt1) target gene in a miniaturized HDA-zeolite-heater (HZH) by an exothermic reaction. The amplicon detection on the chip was performed under room temperature conditions – either by successive hybridization and enzyme binding or by a combined step. A positive signal is displayed by enzymatically generated silver nanoparticle deposits, which serve as robust endpoint signals allowing an immediate visual readout. The hybridization assay enabled the reliable detection of 10 pg μL(-1) target DNA. This is the first report of an entirely electricity-free, field applicable detection approach for devastating Phytophthora species, exemplarily shown for P. kernoviae.

  18. Methodology to optimize the cost of deployment of a wind-solar hybrid system; Metodologia para otimizar o custo da implantacao de um sistema hibrido eolico-solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Jose Wilson Lage [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Norte (UERN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: wilson@ufrnet.br; Rocha, Brismark Goes da [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Patu, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: brismarkrocha@uern.br

    2008-07-01

    Purposes the application of a methodology to optimize the implantation cost of an wind-solar hybrid system, to potencies between 2.250 W and 3.750 W. The developed mathematical model was obtained through the Multiple Linear Regression technique, on the basis of the previous knowledge of variables: necessary capacity of storage, total daily energy demand, wind power, module power and module number. These variables are gotten by means of sizing. Parametric statistical: T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind. Parametric statistical T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind, F-Snedecor in the variance analysis to test if the coefficients of the considered model are significantly different of zero and test not-parametric statistical by Friedman, to verify if there is difference in the total cost, by being considered the photovoltaic module powers. In decision of hypothesis tests was considered a 5%-significant level. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 3 HP. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 5 HP only to wind speed of 4 m/s and 6 m/s in wind of 3 m, 4 m and 5 m of diameter. There was not significant difference in costs to diameters of winds of 3 m and 4 m. A computational program was developed to assist the study of several configurations that optimizes the implantation cost of an wind-solar through considered mathematical model. (author)

  19. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for providing electricity to a remote telecommunication station; Etudes et conception d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour l'electrification d'une station de telecommunications isolee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre eolien Gaspesie-les Iles, Gaspe, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This poster reported on a study that examined the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. Low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems were studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. The use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) was shown to be a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. Different technical solutions for the CAES system were compared. refs., figs.

  20. Configuração glótica em tocadores de instrumento de sopro Glottic configuration in wind instrument players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandra Eckley

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos problemas de saúde relacionados à voz ocupacional torna-se cada vez mais importante à medida que mais indivíduos usam a voz como instrumento de trabalho. Os músicos tocadores de instrumento de sopro são um grupo bastante específico de indivíduos que usa o trato vocal intensamente no exercício de suas atividades profissionais. Curiosamente, pouco ou nada temos relatado sobre a atuação direta da laringe nesta modalidade profissional. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do atual estudo foi avaliar o comportamento da laringe e do trato vocal de músicos tocadores de instrumento de sopro. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 10 indivíduos tocadores profissionais de instrumento de sopro através de videonasofibrolaringoscopia, sendo observados o comportamento da laringe, faringe e língua durante o tocar do instrumento. RESULTADOS: Em todos os participantes deste estudo observamos que os tons musicais foram produzidos durante a adução das pregas vocais. O relato de maior dificuldade técnica de tocar determinada peça musical estava relacionado a uma maior tensão glótica (constricção látero-lateral e supraglótica. CONCLUSÕES: A glote participa ativamente da produção sonora do instrumento de sopro e que alterações na configuração glótica podem interferir na produção sonora musical final. Estes conhecimentos sugerem a necessidade de incluir os músicos tocadores de instrumento de sopro no grupo dos chamados profissionais da voz.INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of occupational voice disorders has gained increased importance as more individuals rely on their voices for their work. Wind instrument players are a specific group of individuals that present intensive use of the vocal tract associated with blowing their instrument. Interestingly, only a small number of reports focus on the laryngeal function of such professionals. AIM: The current study evaluated the laryngeal and vocal tract movement of wind instrument players. MATERIAL

  1. A Hybrid Multi-Step Rolling Forecasting Model Based on SSA and Simulated Annealing—Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization for Wind Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the limitations of conventional energy becoming increasing distinct, wind energy is emerging as a promising renewable energy source that plays a critical role in the modern electric and economic fields. However, how to select optimization algorithms to forecast wind speed series and improve prediction performance is still a highly challenging problem. Traditional single algorithms are widely utilized to select and optimize parameters of neural network algorithms, but these algorithms usually ignore the significance of parameter optimization, precise searching, and the application of accurate data, which results in poor forecasting performance. With the aim of overcoming the weaknesses of individual algorithms, a novel hybrid algorithm was created, which can not only easily obtain the real and effective wind speed series by using singular spectrum analysis, but also possesses stronger adaptive search and optimization capabilities than the other algorithms: it is faster, has fewer parameters, and is less expensive. For the purpose of estimating the forecasting ability of the proposed combined model, 10-min wind speed series from three wind farms in Shandong Province, eastern China, are employed as a case study. The experimental results were considerably more accurately predicted by the presented algorithm than the comparison algorithms.

  2. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  3. Kinetic Cascade in Solar-wind Turbulence: 3D3V Hybrid-kinetic Simulations with Electron Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Servidio, Sergio; Califano, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the nature of the turbulent fluctuations below the ion gyroradius in solar-wind (SW) turbulence is a great challenge. Recent studies have been mostly in favor of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW)-type fluctuations, but other kinds of fluctuations with characteristics typical of magnetosonic, whistler, and ion-Bernstein modes could also play a role depending on the plasma parameters. Here, we investigate the properties of the subproton-scale cascade with high-resolution hybrid-kinetic simulations of freely decaying turbulence in 3D3V phase space, including electron inertia effects. Two proton plasma beta are explored: the “intermediate” β p = 1 and “low” β p = 0.2 regimes, both typically observed in the SW and corona. The magnetic energy spectum exhibits {k}\\perp -8/3 and {k}\\parallel -7/2 power laws at β p = 1, while they are slightly steeper at β p = 0.2. Nevertheless, both regimes develop a spectral anisotropy consistent with {k}\\parallel ∼ {k}\\perp 2/3 at {k}\\perp {ρ }p> 1 and pronounced small-scale intermittency. In this context, we find that the kinetic-scale cascade is dominated by KAW-like fluctuations at β p = 1, whereas the low-β case presents a more complex scenario suggesting the simultaneous presence of different types of fluctuations. In both regimes, however, a possible role of the ion-Bernstein-type fluctuations at the smallest scales cannot be excluded.

  4. Study on remote monitoring of wind-solar hybrid power based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的风光互补电源远程监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊欣; 陈映喜

    2012-01-01

    To monitoring supervise of Wind-Solar Hybrid Power economically and effectively,and improve power supply reliability realize, a design of remote monitoring technology based on Lab VIEW is studied in this paper. The DAQ technology of virtual instrument is used to complete the functions that the main element real-time data acquisition and display interface of hybrid power is achieve by local server,using the Web network service mode of virtual instrument,the various data of power operation is monitored by remote computer throng its browser. The experimental results show that this design is easy to realize,user-friendly control,and has good application prospect.%为了经济有效地监测管理风光互补电源系统,提高供电可靠性,本文研究了一种基于LabVIEW的远程监测设计方法.利用虚拟仪器的DAQ技术完成本地服务器对风光互补电源主要元件的实时数据采集及显示界面功能,采用虚拟仪器的Web网络服务方式,客户端计算机就能够通过浏览器对电源运行的各项数据进行远程监测.实验证明此设计易于实现,操作简便,扩展性强,具有良好的应用前景.

  5. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  6. Potential of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for a remote telecommunication station : part 2; Potentiel d'un Systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour une station telecom isolee : partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA; Chabour, H.; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. The hybrid system has been touted as a substitute for inefficient and costly diesel generators that contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. In part 1 of this study, the authors compared different technical solutions for a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) and described the one that optimizes the performance and the cost of the overall system. Part 2 of the study examined the method of storing compressed air and the type of tank used. Results of numerical modeling of the system were then analyzed to determine the economic advantage of the hybrid system in terms of diesel fuel conservation and avoided greenhouse gases. It was concluded that the proposed design provides an increase in diesel power and efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to economies on the maintenance and replacement cost of imported diesel. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Co-ordinated Control Strategy for Hybrid Wind Farms with PMSG and FSIG under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xin; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhiqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a control strategy for a wind farm with the direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generators (PMSG)-based wind turbines and the fixed speed induction generators (FSIG)-based wind turbines under unbalanced grid voltage condition. By controlling the PMSG-based wind farm...... of the negative-sequence current provided by the PMSG-based wind farm under different average active power output and different VUF conditions is deduced, and the impacts of its phase angle on the VUF mitigation control effect are further studied. The improved control strategy of injecting negative......-sequence current from the PMSG-based wind farm by the modified negative-sequence voltage and current double closed-loop control system is then developed. Finally, the correctness of theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are validated by the experimental results....

  8. Application of the Aero-Hydro-Elastic Model, HAWC2-WAMIT, to Offshore Data from Floating Power Plants Hybrid Wind- and Wave-Energy Test Platform, P37

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...... the pitching wave energy devices, not only to increase and smooth the power output from the platform, but also to take the energy from the waves in a controlled manner, resulting in a stable platform for the wind turbine and a safe harbour for O&M. They are currently developing the nal design for their rst...

  9. Proton, Helium and Minor Ion Interactions with Circularly Polarized Alfven and Ion-cyclotron waves in the Expanding Solar Wind: Hybrid Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velli, M.; Liewer, P. C.; Goldstein, B. E.

    2000-05-01

    We present simulations of parallel propagating Alfvén waves in the accelerating solar wind and their interactions with protons, alpha particles, and minor ions using an expanding box hybrid code (Liewer et al., 1999). In this model, the average solar wind flow speed is a given external function, and the simulation domain follows a plasma parcel as it expands both in the radial and transverse directions accordingly: the decrease of Alfvén speed and density with distance from the Sun are taken into account self-consistently. It is therefore possible to carry out a detailed study of frequency drifting and the coming into resonance with the waves at different radial locations of particles with differing charge to mass ratios. Simulations of monochromatic waves as well as waves with well-developed spectra are presented for plasmas with one, two and three ion species. We observe preferential heating and acceleration of protons and minor ions. Under some conditions, we obtain the scaling observed in coronal hole solar wind: the heavy ion temperature is proportional to its mass (Liewer et al., 2000). A comparison with predictions from models based on such quasi-linear or linear analyses will also be presented. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli and B. E. Goldstein, in Solar Wind Nine, S. Habbal, R. Esser, J. V. Hollweg, P. A. Isenberg, eds., (AIP Conference Proceedings 471, 1999) 449. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli, and B. E. Goldstein, in Proc. ACE 2000 Conference (2000) to be published.

  10. Relative drifts and temperature anisotropies of protons and $\\alpha$ particles in the expanding solar wind -- 2.5D hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Maneva, Y G; Viñas, A

    2014-01-01

    We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to investigate the origin and evolution of relative drift speeds between protons and $\\alpha$ particles in the collisionless turbulent low-$\\beta$ solar wind plasma. We study the generation of differential streaming by wave-particle interactions and absorption of turbulent wave spectra. Next we focus on the role of the relative drifts for the turbulent heating and acceleration of ions in the collisionless fast solar wind streams. The energy source is given by an initial broad-band spectrum of parallel propagating Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves, which co-exists with the plasma and is self-consistently coupled to the perpendicular ion bulk velocities. We include the effect of a gradual solar wind expansion, which cools and decelerates the minor ions. This paper for the first time considers the combined effect of self-consistently initialized dispersive turbulent Alfv\\'enic spectra with differentially streaming protons and $\\alpha$ particles in the expanding solar wind outflows withi...

  11. Design of Experimental Platform for Wind/Solar/Battery Hybrid Power System%风光储发电系统实验平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 邹见效; 郑宏

    2012-01-01

    An experimental platform about wind/solar/battery hybrid power system with 1KW is designed in this paper.It consists of wind turbine,solar panel,wind/solar controller,battery,converter and AC-load.Some important experiments could be implemented on this platform,such as the tracking of maximum power point of wind power and solar power,charge and discharge management of battery,the output waveform of converter,and so on.This experimental platform shows many advantages in visualization and pertinence,which is very suitable for some designable experiments.%设计开发了一套1kW的风光储发电系统实验平台。该平台由风力发电机、太阳能电池板、风光互补控制器、蓄电池、单相逆变器和交流负载组成,实验平台可以实现风能和太阳能的最大功率跟踪、蓄电池的充放电管理、逆变的波形控制等功能。该实验平台直观形象,针对性强,适合开展多种开放设计性实验。

  12. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  13. Hybrid Energy Cell with Hierarchical Nano/Micro-Architectured Polymer Film to Harvest Mechanical, Solar, and Wind Energies Individually/Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lim, Joo Ho; Yu, Jae Su

    2016-11-09

    We report the creation of hybrid energy cells based on hierarchical nano/micro-architectured polydimethylsiloxane (HNMA-PDMS) films with multifunctionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micropyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide film formed on the micropyramidal-structured silicon substrate. The HNMA-PDMS film plays multifunctional roles as a triboelectric layer in nanogenerators and an antireflection layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), as well as a self-cleaning surface. This film is employed in triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) devices, fabricated by laminating it on indium-tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) as a bottom electrode. The large effective contact area that emerged from the densely packed hierarchical nano/micro-architectures of the PDMS film leads to the enhancement of TENG device performance. Moreover, the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, with a high transmittance of >90%, also results in highly transparent TENG devices. By placing the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, where the ITO/PET is coated with zinc oxide nanowires, as the top glass substrate of DSSCs, the device is able to add the functionality of TENG devices, thus creating a hybrid energy cell. The hybrid energy cell can successfully convert mechanical, solar, and wind energies into electricity, simultaneously or independently. To specify the device performance, the effects of external pushing frequency and load resistance on the output of TENG devices are also analyzed, including the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid energy cells.

  14. Energy Management Strategy of Wind and Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System Based on Hybrid System Theory%基于混合系统理论的风光互补发电系统能量管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青龙; 赵志洋; 娄序蕾; 施坪

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of energy management strategy based on hybrid system theory for wind and photovoltaic hybrid power system is considered from view point of power balancing. The power distribution between multiple power sources and the working mode switching law were derived. It's indicated that this method can effectively improve the stability and the whole performance of the hybrid power system. Meanwhile, this also provides us an effective method for analysis of hybrid system which consists of multiple energy sources.%基于混合系统理论.从功率平衡的观点研究了风光混合发电系统的能量管理策略,分析得出了多能量源之间的功率分配及工作模式切换律.该方法能有效提高系统稳定性和混合发电系统整体性能;同时,该方法还为多能量源混合系统的分析提供了一种有效方法.

  15. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Shane D.

    2010-10-01

    This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

  16. Modeling and Research of Wind-PV-Water Hybrid Power Generation System%计及风、光、水能混合发电系统的建模与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李露莹; 吴万禄; 沈丹涛

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid power generation system is proposed, including wind power, PV power, hydropower generation and other subsystems. On the basis of building the mathematical model for the hybrid power generation system, the differences are compared and analyzed among three kinds of hybrid power systems, namely, wind-PV-water pumped storage hybrid system, wind-PV pumped storage hybrid system, and simply wind-PV-water hybrid system. By the empirical simulation, the operation problems of hybrid system are also explored. Simulation results show that wind, solar and water energy are complementary significantly; hybrid power generation system of renewable energy has a bigger superiority ; and pumped storage can solve the unbalance problem in time between power production and consumption.%提出了一种风光水混合发电系统,该系统包括风力发电、光伏发电、水力发电等子系统。在建立混合发电系统数学模型的基础上,分析了风光水抽水蓄能混合发电、风光互补抽水蓄能发电以及风光水简单混合发电3种运行方案的差异。通过实例仿真,对混合发电系统运行问题进行了探讨。仿真结果表明,风能、光能和水能互补性显著,可再生能源混合发电系统具有较大优势,抽水蓄能可解决电能生产与消费在时间上的不平衡问题。

  17. Performance and Feasibility Analysis of a Grid Interactive Large Scale Wind/PV Hybrid System based on Smart Grid Methodology Case Study South Part – Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais H. Alsafasfeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most recent research on renewable energy resources main one goal to make Jordan less dependent on imported energy with locally developed and produced solar power, this paper discussed the efficient system of Wind/ PV Hybrid System to be than main power sources for south part of Jordan, the proposed hybrid system design based on Smart Grid Methodology,  the solar energy will be installed on top roof of  electricity subscribers across the Governorate of Maan, Tafila, Karak and Aqaba and the wind energy will set in one site by this way the capital cost for project will be reduced also the  simulation result show   the feasibility  is a very competitive and feasible cost . Economics analysis of a proposed renewable energy system was made using HOMER simulation and evaluation was completed with the cost per kilowatt of EDCO company, the net present cost is $2,551,676,416, the cost of energy is 0.07kWhr with a renewable fraction of 86.6 %.

  18. Evaluation of Energy Policy Instruments for the Adoption of Renewable Energy: Case of Wind Energy in the Pacific Northwest U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abotah, Remal

    The wide use of renewable energy technologies for generating electricity can be seen as one way of meeting environmental and climate change challenges along with a progression to a low-carbon economy. A large number of policy instruments have been formed and employed to support the adoption of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector. However, the success of these policies in achieving their goals relies on how effective they are in satisfying their targets and thus increasing renewable energy adoption. One measurement for effectiveness of policy instruments can be their contribution to the input of the process of renewable energy adoption and their effect on satisfying regional goal. The objective of this research is evaluate the effectiveness of energy policy instruments on increasing the adoption of renewable energy by developing a comprehensive evaluation model. Criteria used in this assessment depend on five perspectives that are perceived by decision makers as important for adoption process. The decision model linked the perspectives to policy targets and various energy policy instruments. These perspectives are: economic, social, political, environmental and technical. The research implemented the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized policy assessment framework. Data for wind energy adoption in the Pacific Northwest region were collected as a case study and application for the model. Experts' qualitative judgments were collected and quantified using the pair-wise comparison method and the final rankings and effectiveness of policy alternatives with respect to the mission were identified. Results of this research identified economic feasibility improvement of renewable energy projects as the most influential perspective and that renewable portfolio standards and tax credits are the two most effective criteria to accomplish that. The research also applied sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis to identify the

  19. Atmospheric Gravity Wave Properties for TOMEX as Observed With Na wind/temperature Lidar and Airglow Instrumentation From Albuquerque, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Tang, J.; Liu, A.; Swenson, G.; Gardner, C.

    2002-12-01

    On the night of October 26, 2000, the TOMEX sounding rocket was launched from White Sands rocket range ~5 hours after sunset. Na lidar, airglow imagers, and a Michelson interferometer observed the perturbations in the mesosphere. In addition, the Na lidar measured the winds which were applied to the observed motion field from which intrinsic wave speeds were resolved. The extracted wave field from combined lidar and airglow observations included waves with periods of 5 hours, 1.5 hours, and 13 minutes present for the period leading to, and during the rocket launch. The vertical structures of the 13-minute and 1.5-hour period waves were determined primarily by the thermal structure, which was characterized by a small Brunt-Vaisala frequency between 90 km and 92 km with a strong gradient above and below. The 5-hour period waves exhibited a standing wave pattern, indicative of strong wave reflection in the mesopause region. In addition to the intrinsic wave parameters, the vertical flux of horizontal momentum and acceleration rate as a function of altitude was calculated for each of the waves. Momentum fluxes and accelerations were dominated by contributions from the 13-minute period waves.

  20. Rapid Genotyping of the Human Renin (REN Gene by the LightCycler® Instrument: Identification of Unexpected Nucleotide Substitutions within the Selected Hybridization Probe Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Wee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious disorder affecting nearly 3% of all in the Western world. It is associated with hypertension and proteinuria, and several lines of evidence suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may be involved in the development of hypertension at different stages of a preeclamptic pregnancy. In this study, we developed rapid genotyping assays on the LightCycler® instrument to allow the detection of genetic variants in the renin gene (REN that may predispose to preeclampsia. The method is based on real-time PCR and allele-specific hybridization probes, followed by fluorescent melting curve analysis to expose a change in melting temperature (Tm. Ninety-two mother-father-child triads (n=276 from preeclamptic pregnancies were genotyped for three haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs in REN. All three htSNPs (rs5705, rs1464816 and rs3795575 were successfully genotyped. Furthermore, two unexpected nucleotide substitutions (rs11571084 and rs61757041 were identified within the selected hybridization probe area of rs1464816 and rs3795575 due to aberrant melting peaks. In conclusion, genotyping on the LightCycler® instrument proved to be rapid and highly reproducible. The ability to uncover additional nucleotide substitutions is particularly important in that it allows the identification of potentially etiological variants that might otherwise be overlooked by other genotyping methods.

  1. A modulating effect of Tropical Instability Wave (TIW)-induced surface wind feedback in a hybrid coupled model of the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are two air-sea coupling phenomena that are prominent in the tropical Pacific, occurring at vastly different space-time scales. It has been challenging to adequately represent both of these processes within a large-scale coupled climate model, which has led to a poor understanding of the interactions between TIW-induced feedback and ENSO. In this study, a novel modeling system was developed that allows representation of TIW-scale air-sea coupling and its interaction with ENSO. Satellite data were first used to derive an empirical model for TIW-induced sea surface wind stress perturbations (τTIW). The model was then embedded in a basin-wide hybrid-coupled model (HCM) of the tropical Pacific. Because τTIW were internally determined from TIW-scale sea surface temperatures (SSTTIW) simulated in the ocean model, the wind-SST coupling at TIW scales was interactively represented within the large-scale coupled model. Because the τTIW-SSTTIW coupling part of the model can be turned on or off in the HCM simulations, the related TIW wind feedback effects can be isolated and examined in a straightforward way. Then, the TIW-scale wind feedback effects on the large-scale mean ocean state and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific were investigated based on this embedded system. The interactively represented TIW-scale wind forcing exerted an asymmetric influence on SSTs in the HCM, characterized by a mean-state cooling and by a positive feedback on interannual variability, acting to enhance ENSO amplitude. Roughly speaking, the feedback tends to increase interannual SST variability by approximately 9%. Additionally, there is a tendency for TIW wind to have an effect on the phase transition during ENSO evolution, with slightly shortened interannual oscillation periods. Additional sensitivity experiments were performed to elucidate the details of TIW wind effects on SST evolution during ENSO

  2. 共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的仿真研究%Research on the simulation of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南国君; 丁明; 王贻玲

    2011-01-01

    由于太阳能、风能的互补特性以及光伏发电、风力发电技术的日趋成熟,风光互补发电成为研究热点.文章分析了风力发电技术、光伏发电技术以及风光互补发电技术,设计了共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的整体结构,讨论了该拓扑结构的工作原理和控制策略,并利用PSCAD软件建立了风光互补发电的仿真模型,分别在外部环境不变与外部环境(风速、日照强度)变化2种情况下对发电系统讲行了仿直分析,获得了较好的结果.%As the solar energy and wind energy can be complementary and the photovoltaic technology and wind power technology are becoming mature, the wind-solar hybrid power has become a hotspot of research. In this paper, the wind power technology, photovoltaic technology and wind-solar hybrid power technology are introduced, the whole structure of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus is designed, and the operating principle and control strategy of the topological structure are analyzed. The simulation model of wind-solar hybrid power system is set up by using the software PSCAD, and the simulation analysis is carried out in external environment with or without change in wind speed and sunshine intensity. Finally satisfying results are obtained.

  3. Optimal Real-Time Scheduling for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems and Wind Farms Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage devices are expected to be more frequently implemented in wind farms in near future. In this paper, both pumped hydro and fly wheel storage systems are used to assist a wind farm to smooth the power fluctuations. Due to the significant difference in the response speeds of the two storages types, the wind farm coordination with two types of energy storage is a problem. This paper presents two methods for the coordination problem: a two-level hierarchical model predictive control (MPC method and a single-level MPC method. In the single-level MPC method, only one MPC controller coordinates the wind farm and the two storage systems to follow the grid scheduling. Alternatively, in the two-level MPC method, two MPC controllers are used to coordinate the wind farm and the two storage systems. The structure of two level MPC consists of outer level and inner level MPC. They run alternatively to perform real-time scheduling and then stop, thus obtaining long-term scheduling results and sending some results to the inner level as input. The single-level MPC method performs both long- and short-term scheduling tasks in each interval. The simulation results show that the methods proposed can improve the utilization of wind power and reduce wind power spillage. In addition, the single-level MPC and the two-level MPC are not interchangeable. The single-level MPC has the advantage of following the grid schedule while the two-level MPC can reduce the optimization time by 60%.

  4. A novel design of DC-AC electrical machine rotary converter for hybrid solar and wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, K. G.; Ramli, A. Q.; Amirulddin, U. A. U.

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes the design of a new bi-directional DC-AC rotary converter machine to convert a d.c. voltage to three-phase voltage and vice-versa using a two-stage energy conversion machine. The rotary converter consists of two main stages which are combined into single frame. These two stages are constructed from three main electromagnetic components. The first inner electromagnetic component represents the input stage that enables the DC power generated by solar energy from photo-voltaic cells to be transformed by the second and third components electro-magnetically to produce multi-phase voltages at the output stage. At the same time, extra kinetic energy from wind, which is sufficiently available, can be added to existing torque on the second electromagnetic component. Both of these input energies will add up to the final energy generated at the output terminals. Therefore, the machine will be able to convert solar and wind energies to the output terminals simultaneously. If the solar energy is low, the available wind energy will be able to provide energy to the output terminals and at the same time charges the batteries which are connected as backup system. At this moment, the machine behaves as wind turbine. The energy output from the machine benefits from two energy sources which are solar and wind. At night when the solar energy is not available and also the load is low, the wind energy is able to charge the batteries and at the same time provides output electrical power to the remaining the load. Therefore, the proposed system will have high usage of available renewable energy as compared to separated wind or solar systems. MATLAB codes are used to calculate the required dimensions, the magnetic and electrical circuits parameters to design of the new bi-directional rotary converter machine.

  5. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-10-01

    Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hybrid Wind Speed Prediction Based on a Self-Adaptive ARIMAX Model with an Exogenous WRF Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdong Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind speed forecasting is difficult not only because of the influence of atmospheric dynamics but also for the impossibility of providing an accurate prediction with traditional statistical forecasting models that work by discovering an inner relationship within historical records. This paper develops a self-adaptive (SA auto-regressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX model that is optimized very-short-term by the chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO algorithm, known as the SA-ARIMA-CPSO approach, for wind speed prediction. The ARIMAX model chooses the wind speed result from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF simulation as an exogenous input variable. Further, an SA strategy is applied to the ARIMAX process. When new information is available, the model process can be updated adaptively with parameters optimized by the CPSO algorithm. The proposed SA-ARIMA-CPSO approach enables the forecasting process to update training information and model parameters intelligently and adaptively. As tested using the 15-min wind speed data collected from a wind farm in Northern China, the improved method has the best performance compared with several other models.

  7. 风/光/抽蓄复合系统的建模与仿真%Modeling and simulation of hybrid wind/PV/pumped-storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任岩; 郑源; 李延频

    2011-01-01

    将抽水蓄能电站与风光互补系统相结合,建立了风/光/抽蓄复合系统数学模型,其中风力发电模型采用厂家提供的特性曲线利用线性插值的方法得到,光伏发电采用Hay模型,对可逆式水泵水轮机的水泵工况和水轮机工况分别建模,对蓄电池建立充电和放电模型.利用VC 2008开发工具开发了界面友好的仿真软件,实现了对复合系统中的风力发电机输出功率、光伏阵列输出功率、可逆式水泵水轮机的水泵工况与水轮机工况的输出功率及交流直流负载的仿真.通过实例计算得知:在风力发电机和光伏阵列的总出力小于总负荷量时,可逆式水泵水轮机运行在水轮机工况,发电供给负荷;在风速最大或光照最强的几个小时内,风力发电机和光伏阵列的总出力大于总负荷量时,可逆式水泵水轮机处于抽水工况,将多余的电能以水能的形式储存起来;蓄电池一般情况下都在满容量状态,只有在瞬时负荷或负荷很大时才放电,放电后又能及时充电.%By combining pumped-storage power station and hybrid wind/PV system, hybrid wind/PV/ pumped-storage system was established, in which wind power model was achieved by manufacturer provided linear-interpolating characteristic curve, PV modeled by Hay model, charging model and discharging model for battery as well as pump condition and turbine condition for reversible pump-turbine were modeled, respectively. Using VC 2008, an user-friendly simulation software was developed , which can simulate the output power of wind turbine, PV, reversible pump-turbine and AC/DC loads. By an example the following were achieved. Firstly, as the total power of wind and PV was less than the total loads, the reversible pump-turbine operated in turbine mode to generate power for loads. In the several hours of higher light intensity and higher wind speed, the total power of wind and PV was more than the total loads,and the

  8. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  9. Design and application of wind-solar hybrid power system for unattended seismic stations in Shandong Province%风光发电系统在无人值守地震台站的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲利; 董晓娜; 胡旭辉; 李永红; 蔡伟光

    2012-01-01

    风光互补发电技术在边防、通信、公路等已得到广泛应用,能否将这一绿色、清洁、可再生能源应用于地震无人值守台站,山东省在龙口地震台已做先期试点,通过一年试运行,风光互补发电系统能够满足地震无人值守台站的工作要求.%The wind-solar hybrid power technology is gradually matured in China. It is now widely used in military border post, telecommunications relay stations, roads and railway signal stations, geological exploration and field inspection stations and other remote areas. How to use this green, clean, renewable energy in unmanned seismic stations is a new problem. In Shandong Province, we took Longkou Seismic Station as an example first. Through running test of one year, it is found that the wind-solar hybrid power wind system can be fully applied in unmanned seismic stations. In this article, the application of the wind-solar hybrid power wind system in Longkou Seismic Station, where is far away from the city and lack of electricity supply systemi is introduced. This application achieved very good results.

  10. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    CERN Document Server

    Kalemci, E; Maccarone, T J; Dincer, T; Russell, T D; Bailyn, C; Tomsick, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also in...

  11. 风光互补智能供电系统的软件设计%The Software Design of Wind/Solar Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马虹

    2015-01-01

    在风光互补供电系统中,如何实现有效的远程监测风和光两种能源转换电能的最优配置是业界一直努力追求的目标,在对风光互补供电系统研究的基础上,提出了一种有针对性的软件设计方案,以期能够更好的实现这样的目标。%In the wind/solar hybrid power system,how to realize the optimalized configuration of remote monitoring wind and light con-version into the electric power is the pursuit of the goal of the industry. This paper,based on the previous research of power supply sys-tem,puts forward a kind of software design to achieve this goal.

  12. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, E.; Begelman, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Dinçer, T.; Russell, T. D.; Bailyn, C.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also investigated the radio to optical spectral energy distribution, tracking the radio spectral evolution through the quenching of the compact jet and rise of the optically thin flare, and interpreted all data using state transition models.

  13. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  14. Wind energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Badger, J.; Rasmussen, Flemming; Soerensen, Poul

    2012-11-15

    As we have shown above, wind energy can help to secure energy efficiency in power generation, and research results and tools are being developed that will increase the role of wind energy in the global energy supply. An important instrument is the development of wind turbine technology to reduce capital and operational costs. This has not been the emphasis in this chapter, though; instead we have focused on equally important instruments, namely making best use of the wind resource and available sites, adapting wind farm layout and technology to the increased exploitation of wind, and improving the interaction between wind farms and the power system. With these developments we expect that wind energy can become the backbone of the power system globally and play a major role in creating an efficient and sustainable power system. (Author)

  15. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  16. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  17. 基于PLC的风电混合动力系统%Hybrid Power System about Wind and Electricity Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文江; 黄冠; 刘南; 安柏峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem about the utilization of wind resources in industrial production in the past was insufficiently, we designed the wind hybrid systems based on PLC, and it opened up a new space of the development of the wind power. Based on wind turbine, the system drive the air compressor with the supplement of electric motors, storing the compressed air to air storage tank, which has an inner drive served as the cylinder of the executing agency and operating steadily as demanding, to realize the energy savings finally. PLC is the core, machinery is base, pneumatic system output energy in this system, and typical test results obtained through the system test. There are lots of advantages in this system, such as good safety, lower cost, easy to maintain, no noise and pollution. It can be popularized widely, and it also adapt to the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction, what's more, it has a good market prospect.%针对以往工业生产中对风力资源利用的不足,设计了基于PLC控制的风电混合动力系统,开辟了风能发展的新空间.系统以风力机为主、电动机为辅带动空压机,并将空压机产生的压缩气体存储在储气罐内,再由储气罐内的气体驱动作为执行机构的气缸按要求稳定的工作,以达到节约能源的目的.系统以PLC为控制核心,机械部分为基础,气动系统对外输出能量,通过系统测试得到典型结果.具有安全性好,运行成本低,维护容易,无噪音污染等明显优点,可以广泛普及推广,适应节能减排的需求,大有市场前景.

  18. Representivity of wind measurements for design wind speed estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available of instrumentation sited according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) requirements. With the advent of automatic weather station technology several decades ago, wind measurements have become much more cost-effective. While previously wind measurements were...

  19. 风光互补供电系统在上海南汇地区的应用%Deployment of a wind-solar hybrid power system in Nanhui District of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷民安; 刘永生; 洪克伟; 杨晶晶; 彭麟; 杨正龙; 高湉

    2011-01-01

    To meet the demand of a large industry customer,a wind-solar hybrid power system was designed and installed in Nanhui districl of Shanghai.The least square approach was adopted for the mathematical modeling of the hybrid system.With available data on HGE-600H wind turbine. load and ambient conditions, the mathematical model of the wind turbine generator and PV power system was established and soluations were explored for the hybrid system parameter design, system optimization and optimal composition of wind-solar components.The parameters include power output,battery capacity,etc.The studey results provide a good reference for future design and deployment of wind-solar hybrid system.%针对上海南汇地区某大用户的实际需求,为其安装了风光互补发电系统并对该系统各部件进行匹配和设计计算.在负载容量及其应用条件确定的情况下,采用最小二乘法,基于2007年南汇的风速和太阳辐射数据,以及HGE-600H型风力发电机的基本参数,建立了风力发电机及光伏发电系统的数学模型,确定了风光互补发电系统设计的参数(即输出功率和蓄电池容量)、优化方法和风能一太阳能最佳比例,为风光互补系统的理论设计和实际应用提供了有益的资料.

  20. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  1. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  2. Research on the Influence of Wind-solar Hybrid Power Supply System to the Reliability of Distribution Network%风光互补发电系统对配电网可靠性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰华; 李政阳; 王韵然

    2012-01-01

    A kind of wind-solar hybrid power supply system was introduced. The stability of distribution network will be influenced after wind and solar power paralleling in the grid because of the instantaneity and uncontrollability of wind and solar power. The minimal path method was used for calculating the stability of distribution network. Then the influence of wind-solar hybrid power supply system to distribution network was analyzed, with comparison with wind power and photovoltaic power. The conclusion is that the influence of wind-solar hybrid power supply system to distribution network is the smallest.%风能和太阳能的瞬时性和不可控性使风力发电和太阳能发电并网后会对配电网的可靠性指标造成影响。为此,介绍了一种风光互补发电系统,以最小路法对配电网的可靠性进行计算,分析风光互补发电系统对配电网的影响,并分别与单独的风力发电、光伏发电系统进行比较。得出风光互补优化后对配电网的扰动远小于单独的风力、光伏发电系统对配电网扰动的结论。

  3. 基于风光混合模型的短期功率预测方法研究%Short term power prediction based on hybrid wind-PV forecasting model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔波利; 崔丽艳; 丁钊; 李现伟; 王以笑

    2015-01-01

    Accurate wind power and photovoltaic power outputs forecasting is important to improve the scheduling quality of wind and solar hybrid generation system. The hybrid wind-PV forecasting model based on BP neural network is established to achieve the forecasting of the entire wind power and photovoltaic power station, using the same forecasting model instead of twice forecasting, it can simplify the prediction and improve the prediction precision effectively. The method is validated by wind farm and photovoltaic system data in a coastal islands and the forecast error is calculated and analyzed. The results show the method has high accuracy, which has good academic value and practical value to forecast power for hybrid wind-PV generation system.%准确地预测风力发电及光伏发电的输出功率对提高风光互补供电系统的调度质量具有重要意义.建立了基于BP神经网络的风光混合预测模型,将现有技术中分两次预测的风电功率和光伏功率采用同一个预测模型,同时实现整个区域风电场及光伏电站的输出功率预测,在简化预测方法的同时提高预测准确度.通过某海岛的风电及光伏电站的实际数据验证,计算分析了预测误差.结果表明该方法具有较高的预测精度,对风光混合的功率预测具有一定的学术价值和工程实用价值.

  4. Studying non-linearity of Mercury magnetosphere and solar wind interaction features using the combined hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunakian, David; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Alexeev, Igor; Belenkaya, Elena; Khodachenko, Maxim; Kallio, Esa; Alho, Markku

    2017-04-01

    The main focus of this work is to investigate non-linearity of Mercury's magnetospheric features. We use the paraboloid magnetospheric model (PMM) to calculate the initial magnetospheric field which we then use in hybrid simulations. We show that the initial total magnetospheric field can be considered a linear combination of the planetary dipole field, magnetospheric current system fields, and a penetrating portion of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We use two sets of modelling runs with IMF values of identical magnitudes and anti-parallel directions. We then compute semi-sums and semi-differences of final magnetic field maps generated by hybrid plasma simulations, and use semi-sums to cancel out IMF contributions and semi-differences to cancel out PMM contributions. The remnant fields outside and inside the magnetosphere (for semi-sum and semi-difference fields, accordingly) are used to improve our ability to determine the position of the bow shock and magnetopause, as well as calculate the IMF penetration coefficient that results into best matches of this model to observational MESSENGER data. We compare Mercury's magnetosheath magnetic field predicted by our model with MESSENGER data in the appropriate orbit sections.

  5. Interactive smart battery storage for a PV and wind hybrid energy management control based on conservative power theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Simões, Marcelo; Davi Curi Busarello, Tiago; Saad Bubshait, Abdullah; Harirchi, Farnaz; Antenor Pomilio, José; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents interactive smart battery-based storage (BBS) for wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The BBS is composed of an asymmetric cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACMI) with staircase modulation. The structure is parallel to the WG and PV systems, allowing the ACMI to have a reduction in power losses compared to the usual solution for storage connected at the DC-link of the converter for WG or PV systems. Moreover, the BBS is embedded with a decision algorithm running real-time energy costs, plus a battery state-of-charge manager and power quality capabilities, making the described system in this paper very interactive, smart and multifunctional. The paper describes how BBS interacts with the WG and PV and how its performance is improved. Experimental results are presented showing the efficacy of this BBS for renewable energy applications.

  6. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  7. Transient Oscillations Analysis and Modified Control Strategy for Seamless Mode Transfer in Micro-Grids: A Wind-PV-ES Hybrid System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the micro-grid associated with new and clean energies, the smooth switching between grid-connected and islanded operation modes of the micro-grid is a key issue that needs to be addressed urgently. In traditional solutions, V/f (Voltage/frequency control is adopted for the master micro sources when the micro-grid works in islanded mode, while PQ (real and reactive power control is adopted when in grid-connected mode. However, when the two controllers switch when mode transfer occurs, transient oscillations usually occur and thereafter the dynamic response will be degraded. This paper considers an archetypical micro-grid with Wind-PV-ES (Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage hybrid system, which forms the basis of our case study. The underlying reason for such transient oscillation is analyzed in this paper. Thereafter a modified control strategy for seamless mode transfer is designed and implemented. An improved PQ control method is designed by which the output of the PQ controller always synchronously tracks the output of the V/f controller for micro-grid switches from islanded mode to grid-connected; furthermore, a dq rotating coordinate synchronization based V/f control method is proposed for transition from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, experiments and analysis are undertaken on some basic and important operating cases; the results in our case study indicate that the modified control strategy is effective in dominating the micro-grid during mode transfer and thus yielding significantly better performances.

  8. Smoothing Control on Output Power of Wind/Solar Hybrid Generation System Based on Fuzzy Control%基于模糊控制的风光储发电系统输出功率平滑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏毅; 陈蕾; 许象明; 施伟成; 杜炜凝; 祁明; 曹桂斌; 卞栋

    2014-01-01

    In view of fluctuation of output power of photovoltaic generation and wind power generation with changes of sun-light intensity caused by intermittent and random of solar sunlight and wind power,a kind of smoothing control scheme for output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system based on fuzzy control was proposed by analyzing characteristics of photovoltaic generation,wind power generation and flywheel energy storage. Taking some typical day as an example,simu-lation observation and analysis was carried out on flywheel rotate speed,output power and smoothing factors of the wind/so-lar hybrid generation system which was compared with the system without flywheel energy storage system and simple fly-wheel energy storage system. Simulation results showed that output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system was real-ized smoothing control based on fuzzy control with the smoothing factor of 6 × 1 0-9 that was able to be ignored. The result indicated that the proposed method was able to effectively restrain fluctuation of output power of the wind/solar hybrid gen-eration system.%鉴于太阳日照和风能的间歇性和随机性使光伏发电和风力发电输出功率随日照强度的变化而波动,在分析了光伏发电特性、风力发电特性和飞轮储能特性的基础上,提出一种基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率平滑控制方案。以某典型日为算例,仿真观察和分析风光储混合发电系统的飞轮转速、输出功率及平滑因数,并与无飞轮储能系统、简单飞轮储能系统两种情况进行比较。仿真结果显示,基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率得到平滑控制,平滑因数约6×10-9,几乎可忽略不计。仿真结果表明所提控制方法能有效抑制风光储混合发电系统输出功率的波动。

  9. 离网型风光混合能源发电系统的仿真研究%Simulation of Grid-off Wind/Solar Hybrid Energy Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓彤; 皇甫宜耿; 马瑞卿

    2013-01-01

    Grid-off wind/solar hybrid energy power system is independent power system which designs for the lack of stand-alone wind power systems and photovoltaic power generation system.This system can make full use of wind and solar energy resources,and has advantages of non-pollution and good quality of electrical supply.In order to improve energy utilization economics efficiency,and satisfy the electrical supply demand,the energy of wind/solar hybrid power system must be controlled effectively.Wind/solar dual channel output voltage has the characteristics of common DC bus,so how to configure the wind turbines,photovoltaic panels and batteries to meet the load demand is an important issue.To make the wind/solar hybrid energy power system critical to be fully utilized,under the MATLAB/Simulink environment,we established wind turbine generators,photovoltaic array,buck converter,and double closed loop controller subsystem model.The inner current and outer voltage control of double-loop PWM technology is used to control the wind/solar hybrid energy power system output voltage.Comparative analyses of system performance were carried out with or without energy storage components.The paper discussed the wind/solar hybrid of the energy mix in power generation performance in wind and solar energy alternating case,analyzed the randomness disturbance input the system modal and performance.Simulation results show that the system model and control strategy are correct.%风光混合能源发电系统是为了弥补独立的风力发电系统和光伏发电系统不足而设计的独立发电系统,可以充分利用风能和太阳能资源,具有无污染供电质量好等优点.为了提高风光互补发电系统的利用率,满足负载的供电要求,必须对系统能量进行有效管理.风光双通道的输出电压具有共直流母线的特点,如何配置风力发电机、光伏电池板和蓄电池来满足负载需求,为使风光混合能源得到充分利用,采用MATLAB

  10. 离网型风光互补独立供电系统容量设计%Capacity design of off-grid wind/PV hybrid power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭有明; 詹跃东

    2015-01-01

    本文考虑供电系统的连续性,提出了风光互补供电系统设备容量设计,讨论了离网型光伏风能发电系统的构成及特点,以及蓄电池和控制器在系统中的重要作用。通过理论研究结合工程实际,对一种风光工程应用的光伏电池方阵、风机、控制器、蓄电池组和离网型逆变器的容量计算及选择进行了分析。本系统的应用,不但解决了发电系统存在的问题,还保障了风光互补供电系统的连续性、稳定性和可靠性,最终使其可以满足广大用电客户的需求。%In view of the continuity of the power supply system, the capacity design of wind/PV hybrid power system equipment was proposed. The construction and characteristics of off-grid wind and solar power generation system were discussed in this paper. The roles of controller and battery in the system were considered. By theoretical research and engineering practice, the capacity calculation and selection of a wind/PV hybrid power system with photovoltaic cell matrix, wind generator, controllers, batteries, and off-grid inverter were analyzed. The implementation of this system not only can solve the common problems of power system, but also can guarantee the continuity, stability and reliability of the wind and solar hybrid power system, thus meeting the requirements of general electricity customers ultimately.

  11. Plasma beta dependence of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence: high-resolution 2D hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma beta, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all the cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with $\\beta$ (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, $d_i$...

  12. The DOE Next-Generation Drivetrain for Wind Turbine Applications: Gearbox, Generator, and Advanced Si/SiC Hybrid Inverter System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, William; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing results from the U.S. Department of Energy Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrain Project. The drivetrain design reduces the cost of energy by increasing energy capture through drivetrain efficiency improvements; by reducing operation and maintenance costs through reducing gearbox failures; and by lowering capital costs through weight reduction and a series of mechanical and electronic innovations. The paper provides an overview of the drivetrain gearbox and generator and provides a deeper look into the power converter system. The power converter has a number of innovations including the use of hybrid silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) isolated baseplate switching modules. Switching energies are compared between SiC and Si PIN diodes. The efficiency improvement by use of the SiC diode in a three-level converter is also described. Finally, a brief discussion covering utility interconnect requirements for turbines is provided with a particular focus on utility events that lead to high transient torque loads on drivetrain mechanical elements.

  13. Enhancement of Nutrient Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Utilizing an Electric Fan Air Blower with Renewable Energy of Solar and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sewage treatment efficiency of hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs was evaluated under different ventilation methods. The removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP in the vertical flow- (VF- horizontal flow (HF CWs using an electric fan air blower by the renewable energy of solar and wind power were higher than those by natural ventilation, excluding only suspended solids (SS. The TN treatment efficiency in the CW using the air blower especially increased rapidly by 16.6% in comparison with the CW employing natural ventilation, since the VF bed provided suitable conditions (aerobic for nitrification to occur. The average removal efficiencies of BOD, SS, TN, and TP in the effluent were 98.8, 97.4, 58.0, and 48.3% in the CW using an electric fan air blower, respectively. The treatment performance of the CWs under different ventilation methods was assessed, showing TN in the CW using an electric fan air blower to be reduced by 57.5~58.6% for inlet TN loading, whereas reduction by 19.0~53.3% was observed in the CW with natural ventilation. Therefore, to increase the removal of nutrients in CWs, an improved ventilation system, providing ventilation via an electric fan air blower with the renewable energy, is recommended.

  14. Acoustic Data Processing and Transient Signal Analysis for the Hybrid Wing Body 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    An advanced vehicle concept, the HWB N2A-EXTE aircraft design, was tested in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study its acoustic characteristics for var- ious propulsion system installation and airframe con gurations. A signi cant upgrade to existing data processing systems was implemented, with a focus on portability and a re- duction in turnaround time. These requirements were met by updating codes originally written for a cluster environment and transferring them to a local workstation while en- abling GPU computing. Post-test, additional processing of the time series was required to remove transient hydrodynamic gusts from some of the microphone time series. A novel automated procedure was developed to analyze and reject contaminated blocks of data, under the assumption that the desired acoustic signal of interest was a band-limited sta- tionary random process, and of lower variance than the hydrodynamic contamination. The procedure is shown to successfully identify and remove contaminated blocks of data and retain the desired acoustic signal. Additional corrections to the data, mainly background subtraction, shear layer refraction calculations, atmospheric attenuation and microphone directivity corrections, were all necessary for initial analysis and noise assessments. These were implemented for the post-processing of spectral data, and are shown to behave as expected.

  15. Dimensioning of a photovoltaic-wind hybrid system in UFRJ campus of the Ilha do Fundao; Dimensionamento de um sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico na UFRJ Campus Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com; Santos, Rodrigo Zimmer de Abreu; Argolo, Felipe Henrique Bohm; Danziger, Fernando Artur Ragoni; Sollero, Luiz Paulo Vervloet; Castro, Marcial Pereira Saboya de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial], e-mail: rodzimmer@gmail.com, e-mail: felipeargolo@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ragonziger@gmail.com, e-mail: lpsollero@gmail.com, e-mail: marcial.saboya@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    A techno-economic analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system is done in the present paper. The set-up consists of photovoltaic solar-cell arrays, wind generators, a lead acid storage batteries and an inverter unit to convert DC power to AC power. The study has been performed with the simulation tool HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for techno-economical feasibility studies of hybrid systems. The system is connected to the electrical grid in order to supply all the electrical energy demand of the Technological Centre of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Many systems configurations have been considered and it was possible to simulate the hourly operation of each system and to calculate technical, economic and environmental performance parameters. The best configuration is a Fuhrlander 30 wind generator, associated to a photovoltaic system to reach the generation of 96% of the energy demand by means of renewable sources. (author)

  16. Control strategy of an autonomous desalination unit fed by PV-Wind hybrid system without battery storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Turki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. Determination of global optimum solution for the practical economic dispatch problem having non smooth cost functions is difficult by using conventional mathematical approaches. Hence several evolutionary algorithm methods were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization technique is proposed to solve economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options. The EP-LMO is developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP is applied as a base level search to find the direction of the optimal global region. And Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization (LMO method is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution. To illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two bench mark problems are considered. First test problem considers multiple fuel options and next problem addresses both valve-point effects and multi-fuel options. To validate the obtained results, the proposed method is compared with the results of conventional numerical methods, Modified Hop-field Neural network, Evolutionary Programming approaches, Modified PSO, Improved PSO and Improved Genetic Algorithm with multiplier updating (IGA_MUmethod.

  17. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Divergence

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  18. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a...

  19. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  20. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a...

  1. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  2. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  3. Wind, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Remote Sensing Inc. distributes science quality wind velocity data from the SeaWinds instrument onboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is a microwave...

  4. Design of the portable intelligent wind speed measuring instrument in coal mine%煤矿井下便携式智能风速测量仪的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 蒋曙光; 吴征艳; 邵昊; 吴海卫; 王杰

    2009-01-01

    介绍了煤矿井下便携式微功耗风速测量仪的设计,使用内置矿用可充电3-2V锂电池供电,本安型设计,与现有技术相比具有精确度高、数据处理功能强大、功耗小、成本低、质量轻等特点,现场使用时可以对井下各点风速进行实时测量,由风速可以高效准确地计算出风量,保障了矿井通风与生产安全.%The design of the portable micro-power wind speed measuring instrument for coal mine is introduced. Compared with the existing technique,this instrument is high accuracy,powerful data processing,low power consumption,low cost,light weight and other characteristics by using the 3.2V rechargeable lithium battery power and intrinsic safety design. Using this instrument onsite,the parameters of wind speed can be measured in real-time,so the air volume can be accurately calculated,and then the mine ventilation and production safety are protected.

  5. Design and Implementation of the Hybrid Wind/PV Power System's Remote Monitoring for Mobile Communication Base Station%移动通信基站风光互补系统远程监控设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑛珂; 龚恒翔; 巫江; 朱新才

    2013-01-01

    According to the demand of the hybrid wind/photovoltaic power system for mobile communication site,the study designed a distant monitoring system based on GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) network.The system achieved the hybrid wind/PV power system's real-time data collect and alarm,which include the operation parameters,environmental parameters,storage battery temperature and the video images.The monitoring software and website are designed and developed under the Visual studio.net and SQL Server 2005 environment,and realize the monitoring center and the mobile communication site monitoring terminal wireless communication,hybrid wind/photovoltaic system of remote real-time monitoring,the state analysis,remote controlling and alarming etc.And the real-time data are acquired and processed for display,statistics,analysis and storage,also support for internet access.The monitoring system has been trial running in hybrid wind/PV power system which generate electricity for Yangliu base station that lies in Chongqing Banan district,and meets the requirements of networkization and intelligentialization.It has important guiding significance for application and popularization in Chongqing with geographical meteorological characteristics of hybrid wind/photovoltaic system.%根据移动通信基站风光互补供电系统的需要,设计了基于GPRS网络的远程监控系统,实现了风光互补供电系统现场终端运行状况参数、现场环境参数、蓄电池组温度及现场视频图像的远程实时数据监测与报警.基于Visual.net与SQL Server 2005平台开发了监控软件,实现了监控中心与移动通信基站监控终端的无线通信,风光互补发电系统的远程实时监测、状态分析、远程控制和预警等功能,以及监控数据的实时显示、分析、统计及存储,并支持Internet远程查询和访问.该监控系统目前已在重庆移动公司巴南区杨柳基站风光互补供电系统中试运行,能满足系统

  6. 离网型风光互补发电系统多模态能量控制与管理%Multi-Mode Energy Control and Management for Stand-Alone Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫宜耿; 安晓彤; 马瑞卿; 骆光照

    2013-01-01

      离网型风光互补发电系统是一种合理配置新能源的独立电源系统,由于自然界中风能、太阳能出现的不可预测性,以及负载、储能状态的随机性,提出一种基于风光互补发电系统多模态能量流的分析法,研究了各模态及模态间转化特性,给出了四种典型状态下风光互补发电系统的能量控制及管理。采用闭环电压控制使风力发电通道和光伏发电通道输出电压恒定,为用电设备和储能元件提供安全可靠的电能。通过 MATLAB /Simulink 软件对离网型风光互补发电系统多模态能量控制进行了仿真,结果表明离网型风光互补发电系统工作可靠,验证了多模态分析法的有效性。%A Stand-alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system allocates new energy resources reasonably and in -dependently.But the appearance of wind energy and solar energy is unpredictable , and their loading and storage states are random.Therefore, we analyze the flow of the multi-mode energy of the stand -alone wind-photovoltaic hy-brid power system.We study its mode and modal transformation and then control and manage the energy in its four typical modes.We use the closed-loop voltage control to make sure that the output voltage of a wind turbine and the photovoltaic-generated power are stable and that the power supply for electrical equipment and electricity -storage components is safe and reliable.We use the MATLAB /Simulink to simulate the control of the multi -mode energy of the stand-alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system .The simulation results, give in Figs.4, 5 and 6, and their analysis show preliminarily that the stand -alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system can work reliably , verifying that our multi-mode analysis method is effective .

  7. Wind energy in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Various types of wind energy systems were described. The most popular wind energy system uses a high speed propeller, and has a typical efficiency of 40 per cent. A 3 kW two blade propeller wind energy system was set up as a demonstration project at Fort Whyte Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It generates about four per cent of the electrical requirements of the centre. Other types of wind energy systems include the Darrieus wind energy system using a wind turbine, the Savonius and Multiblade systems, and Hybrid systems. A group of wind energy systems working together is known as a wind farm; such farms have been in operation for many years in high wind areas of the USA. In Manitoba, no wind energy system operates for the sole purpose of generating and selling electricity to a local utility, but some wind energy systems can feed surplus energy into the utility system. A review of environmental impacts, economic considerations and an assessment of wind resources within Manitoba, was also provided. 4 figs.

  8. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  9. Novel Wind-measuring Instrument Based on Pull-pressure Sensor%基于拉压力检测的新型风速风向仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云轻; 黄文新; 卜飞飞; 施凯; 胡育文

    2011-01-01

    A novel wind measuring system was proposed. Its wind sensing component has a special structure with cylinder shape, which converts wind vector into pressure vector. The wind parameters were achieved by measunng pressure vector. In the sensing component,three pull-pressure sensors were symmetrically placed in Y shape. Three-way signals were achieved via sensors and were analyzed by DSP system to obtain Lhe wind speed and direction. It's verified by the experiment that,the novel system has good accuracy , higher stability compared to the cup anemometer, and lower cost compared to the ultrasonic anemometer. Thus it has wide prospect to be applied in the field of wind power generation.%提出了一种新型风速风向仪,它采用外形为圆柱形的特殊结构的测风感应部件,将风矢量转换为力矢量,通过力矢量的测量得到风速风向参数.这种风速风向仪内部放置3个成Y型120°对称分布的拉压力传感器,测出传感器因受力而感应的3路电信号,送至DSP处理电路,由所测力矢量的大小与方向,解算实际对应风速风向.实验结果表明:系统精度较高,比有旋转部件的机械式测风仪可靠性好,比超声测风仪成本低,在风电领域有广泛的应用前景.

  10. Global control of large-scale wind turbine generator based on hybrid automata%基于混杂自动机的大型风力发电机组全程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰

    2012-01-01

    风力发电系统是具有不确定性的复杂非线性系统,机组运行 工况变化十分频繁.通过对风力发电机组的系统特性分析,发现风力发电系统呈现出混杂系统的典型特征.因此,基于混杂自动机理论建立了1.5 MW双馈型风电机组的混杂动态模型,并根据风力发电机组控制策略设计了能够在机组运行中实现全程自动化的混杂控制系统.仿真结果表明,基于混杂自动机的动态模型可以实现风电机组的全程模拟,所设计的混杂控制系统能够满足风电机组全程控制要求,证明了混杂系统理论应用于风力发电研究领域的有效性.%Wind turbine generator (WTG) system is a complex nonlinear system involving some uncertain disturbances, and its working states change multifarious. A fact was discovered that wind turbine generator showed the typical feature of hybrid system by analyzing its characteristics. Therefore, the hybrid dynamic model of 1.5 MW Doubly-fed WTG was built based on theory of hybrid automata, at same time hybrid control system was designed for solving the problem of the global automation according to the WTG control strategy. Emulation results present the hybrid automata model can accomplish the global simulation of WTG, and the designed hybrid control system fulfills the demand of WTG global control. Moreover, the validity and practicability of applying hybrid system theory in the field of wind power are demonstrated.

  11. 双模式风光互补发电系统结构研究%Research on Structure of Photovoltaic and Wind Hybrid Generation System with Dual-Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 张吉; 崔琛; 范秋杰; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    介绍了小型风光互补发电系统的运行原理,分析了并网型和离网型系统的常用结构,并针对系统离网运行可能存在的极端情况,提出一种双模式智能切换运行的风光互补系统结构,实现智能离/并网运行功能,引入双向电能表,记录电能在系统与电网间的双向流动,实现新能源发电在电力市场的流通,对风光互补发电系统的研究提供了一定的借鉴作用。%Introduction was made to the operational principle of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system. Analysis was made to the common structures of grid-on and grid-off systems. This paper raised a kind of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system with dual-mode, which could change the grid-on and grid-off mode intelligently under extreme conditions. What is more, a dual-direction electric meter was used to record the mutual power flow between hybrid system and grid, which aimed to imply the new power generation in the flow of the electricity market, providing a reference for the research ofphotovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system.

  12. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  13. 计及风能/光能混合发电系统的配电系统可靠性分析%Reliability Analysis on the Integration of Wind/PV Hybrid Distributed Generation in Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立克; 王成山

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of solar and wind resources is a rapidly growing area on electricity market due to the fact that they are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. Integrating these energy sources on to a distribution system can either positively or negatively affect the system reliability. In this paper the impact of wind/PV (photovoltaic) hybrid generation, when integrated as alternative supply, on the existing rural distribution system is investigated. Furthermore, the results obtained from this investigation are then compared with those from the integration of a single wind farm to demonstrate the benefits derived from the integration of the hybrid generation system.%在电力市场条件下,由于太阳能和风能发电成本逐渐降低,其开发正日益加速.当这些电源连接到配电系统时,有可能提高或者降低系统的可靠性.文中研究了风能/光能混合发电系统作为电源连接到现有农村配电网后对配电网可靠性的影响,把研究结果与单纯风力发电系统连接到配电系统的结果相比较,从而证明了混合发电系统联网的优点.

  14. Instrumental intercomparison investigating vertical profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed in the lower atmospheric boundary layer during frontal passages in northwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Detlev; Stein, Karin; Sucher, Erik; Englander, Abraham; Fastig, Salomon; Porat, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The German-Israeli intercomparison experiment on the investigation of vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed and optical turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer from 4th to 7th May 2015 was characterized by frontal activity in the atmosphere. The newly developed remote LIDAR-device of the Soreq institute for the investigation of the vertical wind and turbulence field was compared to the routinely performed measurements at the VerTurM (Vertical Turbulence Measurements) field site in Meppen, Germany. The long-term experiment VerTurM is focused on measurements of the optical turbulence and comprises scintillometer measurements close to the ground (1.15 m height), sonic anemometer measurements on a tall tower at 4 m, 8 m, 32 m, and 64 m and a SODAR-RASS-system. The temporal development of the vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed and optical turbulence Cn 2 during the frontal passage is investigated. Additional radiosonde measurements were performed to characterize the boundary layer height during the day.

  15. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting Based on Multi-state Space and Hybrid Markov Chain Models%基于多状态空间混合Markov链的风电功率概率预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周封; 金丽斯; 刘健; 张再利

    2012-01-01

    A wind power forecasting method generally provides estimation of future wind power as a single point forecast,while most of the decision-making processes in the electric power systems management require more information than a single value.A new wind power forecasting method is proposed on the basis of discrete time Markov chain models.Aiming at the randomness of power data,a 4-state space is divided on the equal length,and a one-order and two-step hybrid model is built in each state space.The coefficient weights of the hybrid model are obtained by using accelerating genetic algorithm.Since the model analyzes power data directly,it efficiently avoids amplifying errors in converting wind speed forecasts into power forecasts.The hybrid models of four types and the new prediction error formula are presented.Analysis and numerical examples show that the prediction accuracy of hybrid models(N=102) is better than that of persistence method(PM) model,and the corresponding point prediction and probability distribution estimation are also presented.%现有风电功率预测方法只提供功率的单点预测值,但在电力市场的决策过程中却需要更多的信息。文中提出一种基于离散时间Markov链理论的新功率预测模型。针对功率数据的无规律性,采用等分法划分了4种状态空间,并对每种状态空间都建立1阶和2步混合Markov模型,模型权重系数采用加速遗传算法求解。该模型直接对风电功率数据进行数值分析,有效避免通过风速预测再转换为功率时带来的误差累积。给出4种混合模型和最新的评价误差公式。分析和算例表明,N为102时混合模型预测精度高于持续法模型,并给出了单点预测值和概率分布值。

  16. 风光互补对电网输电服务价格的影响%Influence of wind-solar hybrid generation system on the transmission service pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚红军; 章伟; 荆博

    2016-01-01

    风电和光电各自出力的不稳定性提高了输电服务成本,制约了它们的发展.利用风能和太阳能的互补性可提高发电的可靠性.研究了风光互补后对电网输电服务价格的影响,提出了考虑可再生能源并网的输电服务价格函数表达式,建立了以该函数值最小为目标,以系统发电不足概率(LOLP)和能量缺失率(LPSP)为约束条件的输电服务价格优化模型.采用粒子群算法对目标函数进行求解,对风光互补前后的输电服务价格进行对比,并求出使输电服务价格最低的风光容量配比.通过对实例系统进行计算,验证了该方法的有效性,指出风光互补能有效地降低输电服务价格.%Costs of power transmission service have been increasing due to the instability of wind power and solar energy,which has become a barrier of their developments.Mutual-complementing of wind and solar could improve their reliability.Influence of wind-solar hybrid generation system on the transmission service price was discussed.Considering the grid connected operation of renewable energy,a transmission service price function was proposed.Taking the minimum function value as the objective and the loss of load probability(LOLP) and loss of power supply probability(LPSP) as the constraints,an optimal model for transmission service price was built.Particle swarm optimization was adopted to solve this objective function.Comparison of transmission service price was made before and after the combination of wind and solar and the optimum ratio of wind and solar was found when the lowest transmission service price reached.This case study verified the reliability of this method and pointed out that the wind-solar hybrid generation system could effectively reduce the transmission service price.

  17. 基于模糊神经网络风电混合储能系统优化控制%Optimal control in a wind power hybrid energy storage system based on fuzzy neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢芸; 赵永来

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind power energy storage system is an effective measure to stabilize fluctuations in wind power today, however, the energy storage system control strategy has a direct impact on the wind power system's technical and economic performance. Based on the complementary in function of super-capacitor and battery, its application in wind farms based DFIG and the topology control structures for wind farm with distributed rectifier and centralized inverter are adopted, fuzzy neural PID controller is designed, and fuzzy neural network algorithm is used to optimize PID control parameters for hybrid energy storage system on line. Based on MATLAB / SIMULINK platform, the control system simulation model is established and analyzed. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy storage system can improve the life of the energy storage device. According to the compensate power and the fluctuation range of the state of charge of the energy storage systems, as well as wind power fluctuations in the degree of smoothing, the effectiveness of the control system is verified.%采用风电储能系统来平抑风电波动功率在当今是一个有效的措施,然而储能系统控制策略的好坏直接影响风电系统的技术性能和经济性能。根据超级电容器和蓄电池在功能上的互补性,将其应用在基于双馈电机的风电场中,风电场采用分布整流集中逆变拓扑控制结构,并对其设计模糊神经PID控制器,采用模糊神经网络算法对混合储能系统PID控制参数进行在线优化。基于Matlab/Simulink平台搭建控制系统仿真模型,并进行仿真分析,验证了混合储能系统能够提高储能装置的使用寿命。根据储能系统补偿功率和其荷电状态的波动范围,以及对风电波动功率的平滑程度,验证了该控制系统的有效性。

  18. Research and Design of Small Wind/PV Hybrid Independent Generation System%小型风光互补独立供电系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 汪义旺; 李响

    2013-01-01

    针对目前小型风光互补发电系统的不足,通过对光伏发电和风电各自实现最大功率点跟踪(MPPT)的原理和控制方进行分析和研究,提出了一种新的分类最优控制法.这种方法根据不同环境条件采用不同的控制方式,在小型风光互补独立发电中用一个Boost变换器同时实现风电和光伏发电的MPPT;同时系统对蓄电池采用带有循环成分的浮充制以延长其寿命.实验结果表明该方案性能稳定,能较好地同时实现风电和光电的MPPT,系统成本有所降低,在小型风光互补发电系统中有较高的推广价值.%As to the current defects of small wind and solar power generation system,through analysis and research of the principle and control method of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) realized by PV and Wind power system respectively,a novel optimized control methods for classifying is proposed.By using this method,different control modes are used under different environmental conditions,and one boost converter is used to achieve wind power and photovoltaic maximum power point tracking (MPPT)simultaneously in small wind/PV hybrid independent generation system.At the same time,floating charge with cycle components is adopted to extend battery life in this system.Experimental results show that this scheme can keep system stable,and system can achieve wind power and photovoltaic MPPT simultaneously with low cost,which has high popularization value in small wind/PV hybrid generating system.

  19. A Multi Time Scale Wind Power Forecasting Model of a Chaotic Echo State Network Based on a Hybrid Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty and regularity of wind power generation are caused by wind resources’ intermittent and randomness. Such volatility brings severe challenges to the wind power grid. The requirements for ultrashort-term and short-term wind power forecasting with high prediction accuracy of the model used, have great significance for reducing the phenomenon of abandoned wind power , optimizing the conventional power generation plan, adjusting the maintenance schedule and developing real-time monitoring systems. Therefore, accurate forecasting of wind power generation is important in electric load forecasting. The echo state network (ESN is a new recurrent neural network composed of input, hidden layer and output layers. It can approximate well the nonlinear system and achieves great results in nonlinear chaotic time series forecasting. Besides, the ESN is simpler and less computationally demanding than the traditional neural network training, which provides more accurate training results. Aiming at addressing the disadvantages of standard ESN, this paper has made some improvements. Combined with the complementary advantages of particle swarm optimization and tabu search, the generalization of ESN is improved. To verify the validity and applicability of this method, case studies of multitime scale forecasting of wind power output are carried out to reconstruct the chaotic time series of the actual wind power generation data in a certain region to predict wind power generation. Meanwhile, the influence of seasonal factors on wind power is taken into consideration. Compared with the classical ESN and the conventional Back Propagation (BP neural network, the results verify the superiority of the proposed method.

  20. 2-μm Coherent DIAL for CO2, H2O and Wind Field Profiling in the Lower Atmosphere: Instrumentation and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibert Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 2-μm coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapour (H2O absorption and wind field profiling in the atmospheric boundary layer. The CDIAL uses a Tm:fiber pumped, single longitudinal mode Q-switched seeded Ho:YLF laser and a fibercoupled coherent detection. The laser operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz and emits an output energy of 10 mJ with a pulse width of 40 ns (FWHM. Experimental horizontal and vertical range-resolved measurements were made in the atmospheric boundary layer and compared to colocated in-situ sensor data.

  1. A simple model for the energy supply of a stand-alone house using a hybrid wind-solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    A research project for secondary school students involving both physical measurements and modelling is presented. The problem to be solved is whether and how a typical house can be supplied with energy off-grid, based entirely on renewable energy sources, more specifically, on solar and wind energy, while using relatively simple devices, namely, photovoltaic modules, wind turbines and accumulators. To this end our students carried out a long term measurement series in order to assess the typical energy consumption of houses. Further, the number of solar modules and wind turbines, and the necessary accumulator capacity, was estimated.

  2. 基于交互式多目标优化算法的风光互补发电系统优化%Optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems based on interactive multi-objective optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天沛; 孙伟

    2013-01-01

    The configuration optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems may consider as a problem of multi-object optimization problem, in which the optimization objective is minimizing system installation cost, subject to power reliability. It was a key how to reasonably settle the configuration to give full play to the superiority of hybrid power systems. An interactive multi-objective optimization algorithm based on preference was proposed in the calculation of the cost (objective) function minimization, the populations, composition of target weight value , was optimized by interactive genetic algorithm, the weighted single objective function was optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm, which were applied to configuration optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems. The result shows that the economic performance of the hybrid power systems is superior to that of the single photovoltaic power system or single wind power system under the prerequisite for satisfying the load demand.%风光互补发电系统的优化配置是一个多目标优化问题,优化目标为系统安装成本,约束条件为供电可靠性.合理的匹配设计是充分发挥风光互补发电系统优越性的关键.在成本(目标)函数的最优化计算中,提出一种基于偏好的交互式多目标优化算法,利用交互式遗传算法优化目标权重值组成的种群,利用粒子群优化算法优化加权单目标函数,并将其应用到风光互补发电系统的优化配置中.计算结果表明,在满足负荷用电的前提下,风光互补发电系统的经济性能优于单独的光伏系统和风电系统.

  3. 风光互补供电系统在输电线路视频监控中的应用%Application of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Supply System in Transmission Line Video Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾东; 杜俊杰; 许金明; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    Solar power supply adopted presently cannot content with transmission line video monitoring that worked round-the-clockly and operated-stably in the sequential overcast and rainy weather,consequently formed the blind spot of the transmission line danger location site monitoring,wind and solar hybrid power supply system that uses the complementary between wind And solar resource resolves the question availably.The article introduced the configuration and work elements of wind and solar hybrid power supply system,through analyzing the fact electro-requirement of equipment in transmission line round-the-clock video monitoring system,design the configuration and installation scheme.%目前采用的太阳能供电无法满足输电线路视频监控全天候以及在连续阴雨天持续稳定运行从而形成危险点现场监控盲点,风光互补供电系统利用风能和太阳能资源的互补性实现全天候发电,有效地解决了该问题。本文介绍了风光互补供电系统结构和工作原理,通过分析输电线路全天候视频监控系统各设备的实际用电需求,设计了蓄电池、风力发电机、太阳能光伏电池阵列的配置方案和安装方案。

  4. 能源稳定型风光互补发电系统在道路照明中的应用%Stable Wind-Solar Energy Hybrid Generation System for road lighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石京; 陈天琦; 孟杰; 林红

    2012-01-01

    为了解决目前风光互补发电系统用于道路系统路灯照明的供能不稳定性,考虑利用车辆行驶引起的空气流动转化为电能来弥补自然风能的不足,构成新的风光互补发电系统。该文基于一定的理想化假定条件,根据功能原理得到了由于车辆行驶引起的空气流速与车速的定量关系,进而分析能量的供求关系。通过对首都机场高速公路的情况进行算例分析,计算结果显示:考虑车辆行驶引起的空气流动的能量的情况下,首都机场高速公路的照明能源完全可以依靠新型风光互补发电系统提供。%Existing Wind-Solar Energy Hybrid Generation Systems for road lighting systems sometimes can out of power.This study takes advantage of the wind energy caused by the moving vehicles to make up for the shortage of natural wind.The work-energy principle is used to develop a quantitative relationship between the air velocity caused by the moving vehicles and the vehicle speed.An energy supply example is given based on the Beijing Capital Airport Expressway shows that energy from the hybrid systems from the air flow caused by the moving vehicles is sufficient for the lights.

  5. 风光互补发电系统最大功率跟踪综述%Reveiw of maximum power point tracking for wind-solar hybrid generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 张秀霞; 刘婷; 王二垒; 杨小聪; 魏舒怡

    2012-01-01

    风光互补发电系统的运行需要快速准确地进行最大功率点跟踪,为此综述了风光互补发电系统最大功率点跟踪的几种方法,包括在太阳能电池阵列部分日益成熟、改进和优化策略较多的扰动观察法、电导增量法和恒压控制法;风力发电机部分的叶尖速比控制法、功率信号反馈法、扰动观察法,分别说明了各种跟踪控制方法的优点和不足之处。最后探讨了最大功率点跟踪控制方法的发展思路,对该领域今后的研究方向做了展望。%The Maximum Power Point Track ( MPPT ) of the wind-solar hybrid generation rapidly and accurately was necessary and it can increase the output power. This paper summarizes the methods of MPPT, the solar panels MPPT control technology including the Perturbation and observation control, incremental conductance control and constant pressure control. the wind turbine including tip speed ratio control, power signal feedback control and perturbation and observation control. Points out the limitations and notes of those methods. Finally, some feasible thoughts with new technologies for wind-solar hybrid generation are discussed and its study direction in the future is also looked ahead.

  6. Ecological research on offshore wind energy development in the North and Baltic sea. Part: Environmental planning instruments: Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA), Habitats Assessment and Strategic Environmetnal Assessment (SEA). Volumes 1-4 and final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zur Windenergienutzung im Offshore-Bereich der Nord- und Ostsee. Teilbereich 'Instrumente des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes: Strategische Umweltpruefung, Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Flora-Fauna-Habitat-Vertraeglichkeitspruefung'. Band 1-4 und Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppel, J.; Langenheld, A.; Peters, W.; Wende, W.; Sommer, S.; Finger, A.; Koeller, J.; Kraetzschmer, D.; Kerber, N.; Mahlburg, S.; Mueller, C.

    2003-07-01

    Within the licensing procedure of offshore wind farms several environmental planning instruments have to be taken into account to assess the probable effects of turbines on the marine environment. So far only little experiences were available on how to fulfil legal and methodical demands with regard to these environmental planning instruments offshore. Hence it was the principle task of this project to analyse how instruments like the environmental impacts assessment (EIA), the habitats assessment and the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can be adapted to the special conditions of the marine environment and the legal requirements of the licensing procedure in the German EEZ according to the offshore installations ordinance. Since according to the offshore installations ordinance the construction and operation of offshore wind farms can only be refused for environmental reasons when the marine environment is endangered, the project first investigated for different aspects of the marine environment (e.g. marine mammals, birds, benthos, visual landscape) which kind of conflicts can possibly be caused by the construction and operation of turbines and of which legal significance they are with regard to the licensing procedure. Referring to those environmental impacts which have been considered as relevant for the licensing procedure the state of knowledge has been investigated by means of expert interviews and literature research. Practicable starting points for the impact assessment were suggested. With regard to the required environmental assessment within the licensing procedure one result of the project is a structured documentation of the standard of knowledge (volume I). Further on the project developed proposals for the application of the planning instruments EIA, habitats assessment and SEA offshore based on legal regulations. The result is a catalogue of requirements regarding the content and proceedings of the instruments implementation in connection

  7. 平抑风电波动的混合储能系统的容量配置%Capacity configuration of the hybrid energy storage system for wind power smoothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马速良; 蒋小平; 马会萌; 吴振威

    2014-01-01

    风电功率波动对电网造成不容忽视影响。用滑动平均法平滑风电功率,降低风电并网对电网的影响。滑动窗口的选取具有随机性,直接影响平滑效果。该研究提出滑动平均和标准校正的组合方法,分离出并网分量和储能分量。混合储能系统采用小波分解算法,可以有效地解耦出电池及超级电容器分量。对各储能分量统计分析,证明它们均服从t location-scale分布。在不同置信水平和容量下,以波动量的均值、方差、波动范围及波动点数为指标,分析混合储能系统的平抑效果。%It can not be ignored that active power fluctuations in wind power's influence on the grid. Smoothing active power of wind power by moving-average method can diminish the fluctuation quantity of the grid-connected wind power. Sliding window that is random directly affects the smoothing result. This paper comes up with moving-average and standard calibration combinatorial method to separate grid-connected component and hybrid energy storage component from wind power. It decouples battery component and super-capacitor component by the wavelet analysis theory. It researches the probability distributions of battery component and super-capacitor component by the means of mathematic statistics and verifies that they follow t location-scale distribution. At the different confidences and capacities, this paper calculates the means, the variances, the range of fluctuation and the points of fluctuation of active power fluctuations in wind power to estimate different smoothing effects of hybrid energy storage systems.

  8. 3-D Hybrid Kinetic Modeling of the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Lunar-like Exospheric Pickup Ions in Case of Oblique/ Quasi-Parallel/Parallel Upstream Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Farrell, W. M.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between the solar wind and Moon-sized objects are determined by a set of the solar wind parameters and plasma environment of the space objects. The orientation of upstream magnetic field is one of the key factors which determines the formation and structure of bow shock wave/Mach cone or Alfven wing near the obstacle. The study of effects of the direction of the upstream magnetic field on lunar-like plasma environment is the main subject of our investigation in this paper. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our hybrid model. The computational model includes the self-consistent dynamics of the light (hydrogen (+), helium (+)) and heavy (sodium (+)) pickup ions. The lunar interior is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our previous 2013 lunar work, as reported in this journal, found formation of a triple structure of the Mach cone near the Moon in the case of perpendicular upstream magnetic field. Further advances in modeling now reveal the presence of strong wave activity in the upstream solar wind and plasma wake in the cases of quasiparallel and parallel upstream magnetic fields. However, little wave activity is found for the opposite case with a perpendicular upstream magnetic field. The modeling does not show a formation of the Mach cone in the case of theta(Sub B,U) approximately equal to 0 degrees.

  9. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Wind Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing

  11. Design on Controlling System Virtual Instrument for Hybrid-driven Five-bar Mechanism%混合驱动五杆机构控制系统虚拟仪器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单宁; 赵晓青; 周立坤

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid-driven five-bar mechanism has big flexible output and can meet requirement of given moving pattern. It has high precision and wide application future in modem machinery industry field. The PID controlling system of hybrid-driven five-bar mechanism was designed. The testing and controlling experimental device of the mechanism was established. The testing and controlling virtual instrument of the mechanism was developed based on LabVIEW. Experimental study was carried out. The results show that the experiment devices run well, it can be used to realize the hybrid-driven control of five-bar mechnism according to the moving pattern of output structure and better result is achieved. The virtual instrument has friendly interface and simply operation. It can meet the experiment requirement well.%混合驱动机构输出柔性大,能够满足给定的运动规律要求,精度较高,在现代机械工业领域具有广阔的应用前景.设计混合驱动五杆机构PID控制系统,建立混合驱动五杆机构测试控制实验装置,采用LabVIEW开发混合驱动五杆机构测控虚拟仪器,进行实验研究.结果表明:实验装置运行良好,实现了根据输出构件运动规律对五杆机构系统的混合驱动控制,效果较好;虚拟仪器界面友好,操作简单,能很好地满足实验工作需求.

  12. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  13. Design and Implementation of Wind-Solar Complementation Hybrid off Grid Inverter%离网型风光互补逆变控制一体机的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰; 高洁; 卫乾; 陈宝

    2015-01-01

    太阳能和风能作为清洁能源,是目前研究新能源开发利用的热点,单独利用太阳能或风能发电存在稳定性较差的问题.本文设计了一种离网型风光互补逆变控制一体机,通过风光互补发电系统,可以最大限度地利用风能和太阳能,稳定地为用户提供电能.本文从风力发电机的工作原理和特性入手,采用太阳能电池的最大功率点、最大功率跟踪技术及高效风机发电控制技术,设计制作了离网型风光互补逆变控制一体机样机,通过实际测试验证,本文设计的逆变控制一体机控制电路性能优良,逆变部分输出正弦波电压、频率稳定,可以有效提高风能和光能的利用率,解决风光互补一体机发电系统常规设计中使用复杂、安全性低、生产成本较高的问题,从而延长产品的使用寿命.%The solar and wind energy, as the clean energy, are the most popular point of new energy development and utilization research. It is less stability if only applying solar energy or wind energy. This paper designed the Wind-solar Complementation hybrid off grid inverter, which can maximize the effect of wind and solar energy and provide the electric energy to the end user with the wind-light complementary system. Based on working principle and characteristics of wind turbines, by adopting the maximum power point of solar cell, the tracking technique with maximum power, and the efficient fan power control technology, this paper designed the Wind-Solar Complementation hybrid off grid inverter. The experimental test shows the inverter control has high performance of control circuit, and the output voltage and frequency of the sine wave inverter are stable t, which can increase the efficiency of wind and solar energy utilization. It also solves the problems of convention designs, such as the complex application, the low safety, the high cost, so that the service life of the product can be extended.

  14. Coordinated Reactive Power Control for Hybrid Wind Farms and Its Simulation%混合风电场的无功功率协调控制策略与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 欧阳红林; 王杰; 袁超

    2012-01-01

    为了改善定速异步风电机组(FSIG)风电场的故障穿越能力,利用少量的直驱永磁风电机组(D-PMSG)与FSIG建立混合型风电场,通过对D-PMSG网侧变流器采用无功功率协调控制策略,利用它快速调节有功、无功的能力,来满足故障状态下FSIG的无功需求,以实现整个风电场的无功优化.利用Matlab/Simulink对混合风电场进行了建模和仿真,仿真结果表明,采用D-PMSG不仅可以提高风电场的故障穿越能力,还可以使风电场的有功输出更加平滑,满足风电并网规范的要求.%In order to improve the fault ride-through capability of wind farms based on fixed speed induction generator (FSIG) , A few of permanent-magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) are used to build hybrid wind farms. A coordinated reactive power control scheme for PMSG grid-side converter is introduced, which has the ability to quickly adjust active and reactive power, compensate the reactive power demanded by the FSIG in fault conditions. The studied system models are set up by Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results show that this scheme not only improves the fault ride-through capability of wind farms, but also makes active power output smoothing, which can satisfy the requirement of grid-connection regulation of wind farm.

  15. KANSAS WIND POWERING AMERICAN STATE OUTREACH: KANSAS WIND WORKING GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMARLUND, RAY

    2010-10-27

    The Kansas Wind Working Group (WWG) is a 33-member group announced by former Governor Kathleen Sebelius on Jan. 7, 2008. Formed through Executive Order 08-01, the WWG will educate stakeholder groups with the current information on wind energy markets, technologies, economics, policies, prospects and issues. Governor Mark Parkinson serves as chair of the Kansas Wind Working Group. The group has been instrumental in focusing on the elements of government and coordinating government and private sector efforts in wind energy development. Those efforts have moved Kansas from 364 MW of wind three years ago to over 1000 MW today. Further, the Wind Working Group was instrumental in fleshing out issues such as a state RES and net metering, fundamental parts of HB 2369 that was passed and is now law in Kansas. This represents the first mandatory RES and net metering in Kansas history.

  16. Winds and wind shear in-situ sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of development of instrumentation for providing wind speed and direction information directly or indirectly to a pilot in the cockpit is considered. The pilots need for horizontal wind information at various stages of flight (i.e., at liftoff, in approach and departure corridors, and even in flight outside the terminal area) are emphasized.

  17. Wind-solar-battery hybrid system for electricity generation in remote areas. An alternative for conventional rural grid extension; Sistema hibrido eolico-solar-bateria para geracao de energia eletrica em locais remotos. Uma alternativa a extensao da rede convencional em meios rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre Carlos A.; Feitosa, Everaldo A.N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Centro Brasileiro de Energia Eolica

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid system (installed at test area of the Brazilian Center for Eolian Energy - CBEE) consisting of wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and a battery bank, with a large reliability. This system is presented as an alternative to the extension of the conventional electric power distribution network through the Brazilian northeast area communities. Simulations of the system are presented, by using the HYBRID2 computer code, developed by the Massachusetts University jointly with researchers from the CBEE. A preliminary economic analysis is conducted by comparing the hybrid system parameters with parameters of the conventional electric power distribution network.

  18. A Method to Evaluate Comprehensive Benefits of Hybrid Wind Power-Pumped Storage System%风电-抽水蓄能联合系统综合效益评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖白; 丛晶; 高晓峰; 谷禹

    2014-01-01

    In allusion to restricted grid-connected capacity and high wind power curtailment when large-scale wind farm is grid-connected, in usual it is considered to improve power grid’s ability of accommodating wind power by energy storage system, however how to evaluate the overall efficiency of the hybrid wind power-pumped storage system is the problem to be solved well. For this reason, the investment cost, economic benefit of pumped storage system and its operational constraints are analyzed, thus the follow-up mechanism between comprehensive benefits of hybrid wind power-pumped storage system and energy storage capacity under optimized operating condition of regional power grid is revealed, and a mathematical model to solve the comprehensive benefits is established and a method to evaluate the comprehensive benefits is proposed. Based on output curves of mutually matched thermal generation units, wind power and load characteristics of power grid and combining with the installation capacity of thermal generation units and utilizing the incidence relation between system frequency and load (or the change of power generation), the proposed method quantitatively analyzes the impacts of the change of such factors of pumped storage station as its capacity, service life, cost and revenue on comprehensive benefits and power grid’s accommodation ability of wind power. Case analysis shows that proposed evaluation method is effective.%面对大规模风电并网运行时接入容量受限、弃风量大的情况,通常的做法是考虑利用储能系统来提高电网接纳风电能力,但如何评价其整体效益是必须解决好的问题。为此分析了抽水蓄能系统的投资成本、经济效益及其运行约束,揭示了风电-抽水蓄能联合系统综合效益和储能容量之间在地区电力系统最优化运行条件下的随动机理,建立了求取综合效益的数学模型,提出了综合效益的评价方法。该方法基于相互匹配

  19. Competitividad de los sistemas híbridos eólicos-fotovoltaicos para la electrificación rural//Competitiveness of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems for the rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaddy Rodríguez Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de electrificación rural mediante extensión de la red eléctrica o mediante el uso exclusivo de generadores diésel suelen ser soluciones costosas, que además presentan alto impacto ecológico. Este trabajo abordó el planteamiento de opciones de electrificación empleando sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos con bajo respaldo diésel. Los sistemas propuestos están dimensionados para un número de viviendas y nivel de recursos renovables disímiles en función de cada localización. Se abordan distintos rangos de demandas mediante los 4 sistemas híbridos propuestos y se propone un procedimiento simple de ayuda para la selección. Fue realizado un análisis económico que permitió obtener como principal conclusión la comprobación de la mayor competitividad de estos sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos respecto a la generación diésel en función al costo equivalente de la energía y el impacto ambiental para la condición de disponibilidad de recursos renovables de una gran mayoría de regiones de América Latina y el Caribe.Palabras claves: competitividad energética, electrificación rural, sistema híbrido.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe possibility of rural electrification by means of extension of the electric net or by the exclusive use of generating diesel are usually expensive solutions, besides presenting this last option high ecological impact. This work approached the electrification options using wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems with low diésel support. These systems are sized for a number of housings and level ofresources renewable dissimilar in function to each localization. Different ranges of demands were approached by means of 4 proposed hybrid systems. It was proposed a simple procedure of help for the selection it was carried out an economic analysis that allowed to obtain the main conclusion when checking the biggest competitiveness

  20. Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Makhalas, Kharsan Al; Alsehlli, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. This thesis concentrates on the wind power and their components, also the large wind farm is studied. The electrical power is generated by using the power in wind to drive a wind turbine to produce mechanical power. This mechanical power can be converted into electrical power by using electrical induction generators. There are two types of the wind turbines, the horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine, where...

  1. Wind Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaoyang; Ni, Jiqin

    2014-01-01

    Wind measurement is needed in many practical and scientific research situations. Some specific applications require to precisely measuring both wind direction and wind speed at the same time. Current commercial sensors for wind direction and wind speed measurement usually use ultrasonic technology and the sensors are very expensive (> $1500). In addition, the sensors are large in dimension and cannot measure airflow patterns in high spatial resolution. Therefore new and low cost wind speed an...

  2. Optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Can; Wu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wong, Kit Po

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and reliable wind power forecasting is essential to power system operation. Given significant uncertainties involved in wind generation, probabilistic interval forecasting provides a unique solution to estimate and quantify the potential impacts and risks facing system operation with wind penetration beforehand. This paper proposes a novel hybrid intelligent algorithm approach to directly formulate optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machin...

  3. A method for balancing the fluctuation of wind power by hybrid energy storage system%混合储能平抑风电功率的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凯; 徐长奎

    2015-01-01

    Due to the random changes in wind speed , the fluctuation of the output power of wind farm is large , which may affect the stability of power system when wind farm is merged into a grid .A method for balancing fluctu-ant wind power was proposed to solve this problem .This method is based on a hybrid energy storage system .Firstly, the fluctuation power of wind power output is decomposed , then according to the characteristics of the fluctuating power , a battery and a super capacitor are taken as the energy storage device;secondly , the operation control mode of the energy storage system is designed , which can exchange power precisely and efficiently with wind power sys-tem, so as to make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating command;finally, a simulation is car-ried out under the environment of Matlab/Simulink .The simulation shows that the method can effectively stabilize the fluctuating output power of the wind farm , make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating com-mand stably , and the battery and the super capacitor bring into play their own advantages , therefore extending the service life of battery .%由于风速变化的随机性,风电场的输出功率波动性较大,导致风电场并网会对电力系统稳定性造成影响。为了克服风电输出的波动性问题,提出一种基于混合储能装置平抑风电功率波动的控制方法。首先,对风电输出波动功率进行分解,针对波动功率的特点选择蓄电池和超级电容作为储能装置;其次,设计储能系统的运行控制方式,使其能与风电场进行快速的功率交换,使得风电场输出功率跟踪发电指令;最后,在MATLAB/SIMULINK环境下进行仿真验证。仿真结果表明该方法能够有效地平抑处理风电场输出波动功率,使得风电场输出功率稳定地跟踪发电指令,蓄电池和超级电容各自发挥优势,延长了蓄电池使用寿命。

  4. Função fonatória em pacientes com doença de Parkinson: uso de instrumento de sopro Phonatory function in Parkinson's disease patients: use of wind instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Caldas Rosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito da terapia com instrumento de sopro na função fonatória de pacientes com doença de Parkinson, com enfoque nas avaliações laríngeas, acústicas, respiratórias e de intensidade vocal. MÉTODOS: esta pesquisa é um estudo de caso coletivo e prospectivo. Dois sujeitos foram submetidos a exame videolaringoscópico, avaliação da função respiratória, gravação de amostras da voz, medição da intensidade vocal e terapia. Para a análise acústica foi utilizado o programa Multidimensional Voice Program advanced. A análise dos dados foi ponderada, uma vez que a pesquisa é um estudo de caso coletivo. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as modificações respiratórias, acústicas e de intensidade vocal foram similares e positivas nos dois sujeitos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: a terapia realizada com o instrumento de sopro pode proporcionar maior eficiência na adução glótica, e melhor movimentação e controle respiratório, propiciando o uso mais efetivo do ar para fonação, com melhora da qualidade vocal, expressa pela redução das medidas de ruído, maior estabilidade fonatória e aumento da intensidade vocal.PURPOSE: to check the phonatory function of Parkinson's disease patients before and after therapy with wind instrument emphasizing laryngeal, acoustic, respiratory and vocal intensity modifications. METHODS: this research is a collective and prospective case study. Two subjects were submitted to larynx videoendoscopy, respiratory function valuation, recording of samples voice, vocal intensity measurement and therapy. The acoustic analysis were made through Multidimensional Voice Program advanced. Data analysis were weighed, once that the research is a collective case study. RESULTS: the results showed that respiratory, acoustic and vocal intensity modifications were similar and positive in two subjects. CONCLUSION: the therapy carried through with wind instrument may provide higher efficiency in

  5. Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) for vibration control of large wind turbines using real-time hybrid testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers carried out for wind turbines. •Coupled blade-tower model considered in the numerical sub-structure. •Stochastic turbulence due to rotationally sampled spectra considered. •Effect of damping screens experimentally investigated...

  6. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  7. Research of Optimum Energy Matching on Off-grid Wind-Solar Hybrid Generating System%最佳能量匹配离网式风光互补发电系统设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育欣

    2012-01-01

    通过对离网式风力与光伏互补发电系统的研究,提出一种新型最佳性能匹配法,以获得风力和太阳能的最佳能量匹配组合,有效地优化系统性能参数。运用遗传算法搜索年总成本与系统性能最佳解决方案,与现有离网式系统比较,模型简化,计算效率高,通过仿真程序验证,有效地避免了过早收敛,为风光互补发电系统的程序编制和边远地区户用独立发电系统的设计提供了一定的依据。%By research of off-grid wind and photovoltaic hybrid generating system, a new optimum performance matching method is presented to achieve the best energy matching combination and optimize the performance parameters. It searches a best solution of the total costs and system performance by genetic algorithm compared with the existing off-grid system. The model is simplified and the computational efficiency is high. The result shows that premature convergence is avoided effectively, which is helpful to program the hybrid system of wind-solar power generation system and provide a certain basis of the independent household power system in remote areas.

  8. Grid-connected Technology for Two Stages Hybrid PV-wind Generation System with Double Input%采用双输入两级式风光互补发电的并网技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於锋; 胡国文

    2011-01-01

    A new Buck/Buck-Boost DC chopper circuit for hybrid PV-wind generation system is proposed and variable step perturbation method is used to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) on the basis of the proposed circuit. Grid-connected side, a new design method of grid-connected combinating dynamic reactive power compensation and active power filter is presented which based onip-iq current detection method of instaneous reactive power theory.From the simulation results, it is demonstrated that the proposed DC chopper circuit is enable to achieve the MPPT of the input side on the power system isimultaneously or individually. The proposed grid-connected scheme can achieve hybrid PV-wind generation and can also improve power quality effectively.%提出了一种新颖的供风光互补发电系统发电侧输入的升降压直流斩波电路.在该电路基础上,通过变步长扰动法实现对系统的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT).在其并网侧,基于瞬时无功理论的i-i电流检测法,成功实现了具有动态无功补偿、有源滤波功能的并网发电技术.仿真结果表明,所设计的直流斩波电路能够同时或独立地对发电系统输入端进行MPPT,所提出的并网方案在实现风光互补并网发电的同时,有效改善了电能质量.

  9. Winds in the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, T. L.; Burns, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    T. L. Killeen and A. G. Burns Studies of thermospheric dynamics began in the middle 1960s, when King suggested that winds would flow from the hot afternoon sector into the cooler morning region. Later work showed that winds were also driven by the high latitude ion convection pattern and by waves propagating upwards from the lower atmosphere. Ground based Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) were soon developed that could measure these winds. These interferometers have been deployed successfully both at a variety of ground based locations and in space. Other types of instruments, such as the DE-FPI, WATS and the WINDII instruments, have been deployed successfully in space. The development of thermospheric general circulation models (GCMs) has also greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of the thermosphere and the way that these dynamics develop as forcing changes. Recent developments include thermosphere-ionosphere GCMs that are coupled with the magnetosphere and improved empirical wind models. In this presentation we summarize the history of thermospheric dynamics. In addition, we discuss current developments with reference to some new, coupled model results that show a number of unexpected features such as strong vertical gradients of horizontal winds in certain conditions and a complex morphology of the dawn convection pattern. Lastly, we suggest some future directions for investigations of the winds in the thermosphere.

  10. 基于C8051F120的高精度全天候超声测风仪的设计%The Design of High-Precision All-Weather Ultrasonic Wind Measurement Instrument Based on C8051F120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 石佳; 陈亮; 刘砚菊

    2012-01-01

    本文在传统超声波测风仪的基本原理上,通过测量介质中温湿度数据并且进行有效的调节,进而补偿雨雾等环境因素影响,设计了一种具有温湿度传感器的全天候超声测风仪.文中详细阐述了超声测风仪的方法研究和系统结构,通过实验证明该装置可以实现全天候精确测量风速与风向,测量误差2%,为在恶劣环境下超声测风的应用提供了有效的设计方法.%This paper is on the basic principles of conventional ultrasonic wind measurement by measuring the temperature and humidity in the media and for effective regulation, and thus compensates for rain and fog and other environmental factors affect,this paper designs a temperature and humidity sensor weather ultrasonic wind instrument. The paper elaborated on the method of ultrasonic wind measurement instrument and system architecture, the experiments show that the device can achieve all-weather precision measurement of wind speed and direction, the measurement inaccuracy of 2% ,and open up the way for ultrasonic wind measurement applications in harsh environments.

  11. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  12. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  13. 基于遗传算法的风光柴蓄复合发电系统优化设计%Optimal Design of Wind-Solar-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power Generation System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建东; 商执一; 王自上; 杨帆

    2011-01-01

    According to the nonlinear characteristics of the wind -solar -diesel -battery hybrid power generation system,using the genetic algorithm and strategies of energy dispatching,with the initial investment and operating cost adopted as the objective function. the hybrid p ower system scheme was optimized based on the actual engineering system configuration.Three closest schemes to the optimized scheme were chosen and simulated on the all-year hourly basis. The simulation experimental results show that under conditions of meeting the user's load requirements, the optimized algorithm and strategies of energy dispatching adopted are correct and the scheme is feasible and economical.%针对风光柴蓄复合发电系统的非线性特性,采用遗传算法和能量调度策略,以系统初期投资费用和运行费用最优为系统优化目标函数,结合实际工程系统的配置进行了优化设计,并选取与优化方案较接近的三种方案进行全年逐时仿真比较.实验结果表明,在满足用户负载要求的条件下,所采用的优化算法和策略正确,方案配置合理、经济、可行.

  14. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  15. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  16. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  17. Probabilistic short-circuit analysis of wind power systems with multiple contingencies and hybrid sampling%基于多重故障和混合仿真算法的风电系统概率短路分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生虎; 钱壮; 黄杰杰; 董王朝

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-contingency and wind power integration add difficulty for probabilistic short-circuit analysis (PSCA). The power flow model with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) is introduced, which together with wind uncertainty yields initial state before contingency. The multiple-contingency algorithm is introduced to find expectation, variance, and distribution of the bus voltages and the branch currents. A hybrid probabilistic sampling technique is proposed with the fault branch enumerated and probabilistically weighted, and other fault parameters sampled. The variance for the hybrid simulation is proposed by combined analytical enumeration and probabilistic sampling. Numerical analysis quantifies impact of wind fluctuation and double contingencies on the PSCA results, and compares convergence of sequential voltages and currents. The proposed models provide reference to select electrical equipment and analyze power system security.%多重故障、风电并网增加了概率短路计算难度。引入双馈风电机组潮流算法,计及风速不确定性,得到概率短路前初始运行方式。引入多重短路算法,计算节点电压和支路电流的期望、方差以及概率分布。对枚举故障线路进行概率加权,抽样确定其他故障参数,建立混合仿真算法。综合考虑解析枚举和概率抽样特点,提出混合概率仿真方差计算公式。算例分析对比了风电出力波动、双重短路对概率短路计算结果的影响,比较了三序电压和电流的收敛性。研究结果为电气设备选择和电网安全分析提供了参考数据。

  18. Optimizing the efficiency of a diesel engine for a hybrid wind-diesel experimental validation; Optimisation de l'efficacite du moteur diesel pour un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre Eolien, Murdochville, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a wind-diesel compressed air storage system in large-scale gas turbines at remote sites where a good wind resource is available. Studies have shown that the system can increase the wind energy penetration rate, particularly when combined with a turbo diesel engine. The system increases the power and performance of the diesel engine and reduces fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases greenhouse gases (GHG). This study included a comparison of different technical solutions for the compressed air energy storage system, and described the one that optimized the performance and cost of the overall system. The optimal solution allowed the turbocharger to operate independently of the engine due to the energy provided by the compressed air in the air turbine. Optimization required maximizing the compressor power as an objective function. The energy balance of the engine itself had to be taken into account, along with the turbo charging system. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  19. Towards a universal LC-MS screening procedure - can an LIT LC-MS(n) screening approach and reference library be used on a quadrupole-LIT hybrid instrument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Weber, Armin A; Remane, Daniela; Ewald, Andreas H; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to libraries with highly reproducible gas chromatography electron ionization mass spectra, current liquid chromatography (LC-MS) libraries are limited to specific instrument types. Therefore, the aim of the study was to prove whether a recently developed linear ion trap (LIT) LC-MS(n) screening approach and reference library can be transferred to an LC-MS/MS system with a quadrupole-LIT hybrid mass analyzer using SmileMS, a sophisticated search algorithm. The LIT reference library was built with MS² and MS³ wideband spectra recorded on a ThermoFisher LXQ LIT with electrospray ionization in positive mode and full-scan data-dependent acquisition (DDA). Collision parameter optimizations, including different scan types and energies, were performed on an Applied Biosystems QTRAP 4000 system using electrospray ionization in positive mode and full-scan DDA. Modified library sets were generated to improve the detection of a compound by the used search algorithm. Additionally, 100 authentic human urine samples were screened by both systems for proof of applicability. In the applicability study, 533 compounds were detected by the LXQ and 477 by the QTRAP system using enhanced product ion scan and a modified database. The presented data showed that the LIT screening approach and reference library could be used successfully on a QTRAP instrument with some limitations. These should be overcome by further optimizations regarding DDA settings for better sensitivity and further library modifications to reduce spectra mismatches.

  20. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  1. 基于改进熵的风光储互补并网系统优化运行%Optimized operation of wind-solar-battery hybrid power system based on improved entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中; 胡吕龙; 丁楠

    2013-01-01

    High-capacity wind-solar-battery hybrid power system provides a referable generating mode for high permeability intermittent energy connected to grid in the future. Compared with separate photovoltaic or wind power generation, the hybrid wind-solar-battery power generation system can make up the defect of uneven distribution of natural resource based on the complementary characteristics of wind and solar resources. Configuring energy storing device with appropriate capacity to stabilize fluctuation, the output power is managed uniformly by energy management system to realize the wind power and solar energy’s storage and release, and decrease the output power fluctuation. A measurement index is proposed based on improved entropy which is developed in the index of traditional standard deviation. Battery’s charge-discharge power in every moment is scheduled in a cycle to make the output power minimum. A case study is presented to verify that the index of improved entropy’s valley-to-peak is smaller than the situation of simply considering the standard deviation, and the fluctuation is small, so the spinning reserve capacity is reduced.%大容量风光储联合发电系统为未来高渗透率间歇性能源并网发电提供了一个可参考的发电模式,利用风电和太阳能时间上的互补性,弥补了风电和光伏独立系统在自然资源分布不均的缺陷,再配置适当容量的储能设备来平抑波动,通过风光储能量管理系统的统一调度管理,实现对随机性较大的风能与太阳能的存储与释放,使其输出功率波动减小。在传统的以标准差为指标衡量系统波动性基础上,提出基于改进数学熵的衡量指标,在运行周期内优化调度每时刻蓄电池充放电功率,使得输出功率波动性最小。算例表明基于标准差基础上的改进数学熵的衡量指标比单纯的考虑标准差时的峰谷差更小,波动性更小,从而减少系统旋转备用容量。

  2. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  3. Development of a controller based on Fuzzy theory to better use the energy of a hybrid system power generation solar-photovoltaic and wind; Desenvolvimento de um controlador baseado na teoria Fuzzy para melhor aproveitamento da energia de um sistema hibrido de geracao de energia solar-fotovoltaico e eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto de Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental

    2010-07-01

    The work developed a methodology fuzzy and simulated its use in control of a hybrid system of electric power generation, using solar-photovoltaic and wind energy. Using this control system, we get the point of maximum energy generation and transfer all the energy generated from alternative sources, solar-photovoltaic and wind energy to charge and / or batteries. The model uses three input variables, which are: wind (wind speed), sun (solar radiation) and batteries (charge the battery bank). With these variables, the fuzzy system will play, according to the rules to be described, what is the source of power supply system, which will have priority and how the batteries are loaded. For the simulations regarding the use of fuzzy theory to control, we used the scientific computing environment MATLAB. In this environment have been analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables described in the fuzzy system. This model can be applied to implement a control system of hybrid power generation, providing the best use of renewable energy, solar and wind, so that we can extract the maximum possible energy of these alternative sources without compromising the environment. (author)

  4. Parallel Control Study of Wind Hybrid Energy Storage System%风能混合储能系统的并联控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易芳; 吴敏琦; 易灵芝

    2012-01-01

    The structural features and its nonlinear mathematicai model of supercapacitor and li-bettery were researched,and then by means of Matlab/Simulink,a nonlinear model of Hybrid energy storage system was established.Through the parallel control strategy,li-bettery chargeing current was adjusted to track maximum charging current,and battery charge and discharge was always in the optimal state.Simulink results verify the correctness of the proposed nonlinear model of Hybrid energy storage system,and the effectiveness of control strategies to achieve intelligent charging lithium batteries.%分析了超级电容器和锂电池的结构特性和非线性的数学模型,在 MATLAB/SIMULINK 中建立了混合储能系统的非线性仿真模型,通过并联控制策略来调节锂电池的充电电流使算跟踪最大可接受充电电流,锂电池始终处于优化的充放电状态,通过仿真,验证了混合储能系统非线性模型的正确性和并联控制策略的有效性,实现了锂电池的智能充电。

  5. Multi-fluid MHD study of the solar wind interaction with Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Ma, Y.; McComas, D. J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Zirnstein, E.; Toth, G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Wang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the solar wind interaction with Pluto's upper atmosphere has triggered a great of interest in recent years. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument onboard New Horizon (NH) spacecraft has provided a wealth of detailed and quantitative information about Pluto and its interaction with the tenuous solar wind out at 33 AU. The SWAP data reveals Pluto's unique interaction with the solar wind as a hybrid of comet-like and the Venus/Mars-like interactions. While SWAP data has provided many of the key results, a lot of details are still missing merely based on NH flyby observations. In order to further investigate the solar wind-Pluto interaction from a global point of view, we develop a 3-D multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model. The MF-MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species. We adopt the 1-D modeled neutral atmosphere, which is based on NH observations, as the MF-MHD input. Photoionization, charge exchange and electron impact ionization are all included in the MF-MHD model. We will study the ion escape rate, and Pluto's magnetosphere and heavy ion tail structure. We will also do some data-model comparisons. This work has the potential to improve our understanding of present day Pluto's unique solar wind interaction and thus enhance the science returned from the NH mission.

  6. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  7. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 2: The Study for the Distance 9.5Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our paper is a 2.5D and 3D numerical plasma models of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC). These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model for which the derived SW interaction with spacecraft (SC) could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board SC in the inner heliosphere. We observe an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of the electromagnetic field oscillation about of (0.015-0.06) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements, which were planned in future Solar Probe Plus mission.

  8. Web based hybrid volumetric visualisation of urban GIS data. Integration of 4D Temperature and Wind Fields with LoD-2 CityGML models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congote, J.; Moreno, A.; Kabongo, L.; Pérez, J.-L.; San-José, R.; Ruiz, O.

    2012-10-01

    City models visualisation, buildings, structures and volumetric information, is an important task in Computer Graphics and Urban Planning. The different formats and data sources involved in the visualisation make the development of applications a big challenge. We present a homogeneous web visualisation framework using X3DOM and MEDX3DOM for the visualisation of these urban objects. We present an integration of different declarative data sources, enabling the utilization of advanced visualisation algorithms to render the models. It has been tested with a city model composed of buildings from the Madrid University Campus, some volumetric datasets coming from Air Quality Models and 2D layers wind datasets. Results show that the visualisation of all the urban models can be performed in real time on the Web. An HTML5 web interface is presented to the users, enabling real time modifications of visualisation parameters.

  9. Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking and Inverter Control of Hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind Power Generation System%风光互补发电系统MPPT及其逆变电源控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛超铭; 李少纲

    2013-01-01

      为了实现风光互补发电系统的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT),根据风能与太阳能的特性,采用双输入DC/DC变换器作为前级电路,在扰动法的基础上提出自调整MPPT控制策略,有效改善了系统的跟踪速度,避免误操作,减小工作点的震荡,并提高了系统效率。针对逆变电源控制,把自动调节反馈系数的PID控制系统与重复控制系统相结合,不仅提出复合控制算法,使系统具有较好的动静态特性,且改善了逆变器输出波形的质量。%In order to realize maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of hybrid photovoltaic-wind power generation system, dual input DC/DC converter was adopted as the forward circuit according to features of wind energy and solar energy. On the basis of disturbance method, the self-adjusting MPPT control strategy was raised to have effectively improved tracking speed of the system, avoiding misopera-tion, reducing vibration of working point and raising the system efficiency. As for inverter control, the PID control system for auto-adjusting feeding coefficient was combined with the repetitive control system. This paper not only raised the repetitive control algorithm, making the system have better static and dynamic characteristics, but also improved quality of inverter output waveforms.

  10. 计及储能设备运行策略的风/柴/储混合系统可靠性评估%Reliability evaluation of wind-diesel-storage hybrid system considering energy storage system operating strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开贵; 王岸; 胡博

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage system is a crucial device in a wind-diesel-storage hybrid system and has great effect on system reliability, which is highly dependent on the operating strategies and operating characteristics. Based on this, a charge-discharge model of energy storage system is established. Considering charge-discharge cycle times and cost of capacity and power, a cost-benefit model of energy storage system is established. The impacts of different operating strategies on system reliability and economy of energy storage system are compared by evaluating reliability of the wind-diesel-storage hybrid system. The example results show that the operating strategies of energy storage system have great impact on system reliability and cost benefit of energy storage system.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51077135).%风/柴/储混合系统中,储能设备是关键装置之一,直接关系到系统的可靠运行,但受运行策略和运行特性的影响.针对储能设备这一特点,计及储能设备运行策略和运行特性,建立储能设备的充放电模型;并计及储能设备充放电循环次数、容量和功率成本等,建立储能设备的成本效益模型.通过对风/柴/储混合系统进行可靠性评估,比较不同的运行策略对系统可靠性和储能设备经济性的影响.算例结果表明,储能设备运行策略对系统可靠性和储能设备的成本效益有较大影响.

  11. Study of Practicability of Improved Irwin's Surface Wind Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junji KATAGIRI; Toshio TSURUMI; Takeshi OHKUMA; Hisao MARUKAWA

    2009-01-01

      The practicability of a surface wind sensor (SWS) is examined by comparing the mean and fluctuating wind velocities obtained from this instrument with those measured by an omni-directional multi-channel anemometer (OMA...

  12. The solar wind at solar maximum: comparisons of EISCAT IPS and in situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Breen

    Full Text Available The solar maximum solar wind is highly structured in latitude, longitude and in time. Coronal measurements show a very high degree of variability, with large variations that are less apparent within in situ spacecraft measurements. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS observations from EISCAT, covering distances from 20 to 100 solar radii (RS, are an ideal source of information on the inner solar wind and can be used, therefore, to cast light on its evolution with distance from the Sun. Earlier comparisons of in situ and IPS measurements under solar minimum conditions showed good large-scale agreement, particularly in the fast wind. In this study we attempt a quantitative comparison of measurements made over solar maximum by EISCAT (20–100 RS and the Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (at 215 RS and 300–1000 RS, respectively. The intervals studied were August–September 1999, May 2000, September 2000 and May 2001, the last-named being the period of the second Ulysses fast latitude scan. Both ballistic and – when possible – MHD/ballistic hybrid models were used to relate the data sets, and we compare the results obtained from these two mapping methods. The results of this study suggest that solar wind velocities measured in situ were less variable than those estimated from IPS measurements closer to the Sun, with the greatest divergence between IPS velocities and in situ measurements occurring in regions where steep longitudinal velocity gradients were seen in situ. We suggest that the interaction between streams of solar wind with different velocities leads to "smoothing" of solar wind velocities between 30–60 RS and 1 AU, and that this process continues at greater distances from the Sun.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques

  13. Corrections to sodar Doppler winds due to wind drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bradley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Refraction of the acoustic beam from a sodar, or translation of the beam due to the wind (known as wind drift, both affect the scattering angle and hence the Doppler shift of the return signal. Wind drift has been the subject of a number of previous studies, which have shown that errors increase with wind speed, giving about 6 % error in the estimated wind speed when the actual wind speed is 7 ms−1. Since previous studies have not treated the general case of finite angular beam width, a new analytic treatment is given here for monostatic sodars. Surprisingly, it is found that the Doppler error contributed by the transmitted beam is exactly compensated by the Doppler error contributed by the received beam, if the two beam widths are the same. If the transmitter beam width is not equal to the receiver beam width, then either over-estimation or under-estimation of wind speed results, depending on which beam is wider. This has implications for bi-static sodars, in which it is not possible to match beam widths. Contrary to this new theory, examples of field comparisons with mast instrumentation show a non-linear relationship between wind speeds measured by a sodar and wind speeds measured by mast-mounted instruments. It is proposed that this is due to the acoustic baffle clipping the received beam and changing its width, since the received beam must return at lower elevations from scattering downwind. This is shown to be feasible for a Metek sodar. The sign and magnitude of the observed non-linear dependence of estimated wind speed on actual wind speed are consistent with this proposed mechanism.

  14. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  15. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant; Instrumento hibrido aplicado ao estudo da confiabilidade humana em evento de perda de energia eletrica externa em usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-04-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  16. Wind tunnel measurements of a large wind farm model approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    A scaled wind farm, with 100 porous disk models of wind turbines, is used to study the effect of wind farm layout on the wind farm power output and its variability, in a wind tunnel study. The wind farm consists of 20 rows and 5 columns. The porous disk models have a diameter of 0 . 03 m and are instrumented with strain gages to measure the thrust force, as a surrogate for wind turbine power output. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the models and allows studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of the power output for different layouts. A variety of layouts are considered by shifting the individual rows in the spanwise direction. The reference layout has a regular streamwise spacing of Sx / D = 7 and a spanwise spacing of Sy / D = 5 . The parameter space is further expanded by considering layouts with an uneven streamwise spacing: Sx / D = 3 . 5 & 10 . 5 and Sx / D = 1 . 5 & 12 . 5 . We study how the mean row power changes as a function of wind farm layout and investigate the appearance of an asymptotic limiting behavior as previously described in the literature by application of the top-down model for the spatially averaged wind farm - boundary layer interaction. Work supported by ERC (Grant No. 306471, the ActiveWindFarms project) and by NSF (OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  17. Basic Wind Tech Course - Lesson Plans and Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swapp, Andy

    2011-07-01

    The funds from this project were used to purchase tools and instrumentation to help replicate actual on-the-job wind energy scenarios which provided the students with the practical or applied components of wind energy jobs. This project enhanced the educational experiences provided for the students in terms of engineering and science components of wind energy by using electronics, control systems, and electro-mechanical instrumentation to help students learn standardized wind-specific craftsman skills. In addition the tools and instrumentation helped the students learn the safety necessary to work in the wind industry.

  18. Optimal design of a hybrid solar-wind-battery system using the minimization of the annualized cost system and the minimization of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould Bilal, B.; Sambou, V.; Ndiaye, P.A.; Kebe, C.M.F. [Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Energie Solaire (C.I.F.R.E.S), ESP BP: 5085 Dakar Fann (Senegal); Ndongo, M. [Centre de Recherche Appliquee aux Energies Renouvelables de l' Eau et du Froid (CRAER)/FST/Universite de Nouakchott (Mauritania)

    2010-10-15

    Potou is an isolated site, located in the northern coast of Senegal. The populations living in this area have no easy access to electricity supply. The use of renewable energies can contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these populations. The methodology used in this paper consists in Sizing a hybrid solar-wind-battery system optimized through multi-objective genetic algorithm for this site and the influence of the load profiles on the optimal configuration. The two principal aims are: the minimization of the annualized cost system and the minimization of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). To study the load profile influence, three load profiles with the same energy (94 kW h/day) have been used. The achieved results show that the cost of the optimal configuration strongly depends on the load profile. For example, the cost of the optimal configuration decreases by 7% and 5% going from profile 1 to 2 and for those ones going from 1 to 3. (author)

  19. The Research on Capacity Optimization of "Wind-Photovoltaic" Hybrid Power System Based on GBMMAS Algorithm%基于GBMMAS算法的"风-光"互补系统容量优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 王飞; 余世杰; 陈晓高

    2011-01-01

    在保证"风-光"互补系统供电可靠性的前提下,对系统各组件的容量大小进行优化.提出一种基于有向图思想的"最大-最小"蚂蚁系统算法,在满足一定负载失电率(LPSP)的前提下,对系统能量均摊成本(ICE)进行优化,从而得出对应于最小LCE的系统各组件的容量大小.仿真及运算结果表明,该优化算法运算效率很高,得出的优化结果是合理可行的.%The research focus on the optimization of components capacity of "Wind-Photovoltaic" hybrid system under the premise of reliable power supply. A Graph-based "Max-Min" Ant System algorithm (GBMMAS) has been proposed to optimize levelized cost of energy (LCE) of system under the premise of certain loss power supply probability ( LPSP), and finally figured out system components capacity corresponding to minimized LCE. The simulation and operation results show that the optimization algorithm proposed is effective, the optimization results is reasonable and feasible.

  20. 新型混合高压直流输电技术在海上风电场并网中的应用%Hybrid HVDC Transmission Topology for Offshore Wind Farm Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹瑞; 江道灼; 胡鹏飞; 谷泓杰; 黄帅

    2015-01-01

    对由双馈风电机组组成的海上风电场采用混合高压直流输电技术并网时风电场内部的电压和频率控制进行了研究。混合高压直流输电系统由双桥十二脉波不控整流换流器(DBC)、模块化多电平换流器和高压直流输电线路组成。首先,通过深入的理论分析阐明当由双馈风电机组组成的海上风电场采用混合高压直流输电技术并网时,风电场内部的电压可以自动维持在一个合适的范围内并随双馈风电机组输出有功功率的变化而变化。在此基础上,设计了双馈风电机组转子侧换流器的控制器以实现对风电场内部交流系统频率的控制,同时实现了双馈风电机组输出有功功率的最大功率点跟踪。为防止岸上公共连接点发生三相接地短路故障时基于 DBC 的高压直流输电系统发生过电压,设计了故障时双馈风电机组的控制策略。最后,对建立的采用混合高压直流输电技术并网的海上风电场模型进行了数字仿真,仿真结果验证了理论分析的正确性和所提出控制策略的有效性。%A novel control strategy is designed for the offshore doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm connected to the onshore system through a hybrid high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission topology.The hybrid HVDC is composed of a modular multilevel converter and a diode rectifier.Detailed analysis is made to prove that the offshore AC-grid voltage can be maintained in a proper range during normal operation.Based on this precondition,a control strategy for the offshore AC-grid frequency and maximum power point tracking (MPPT)of the DFIG is proposed.In order to ensure that the voltage of the HVDC link is lower than its upper limit during the onshore point of common coupling (PCC) short-circuit, the fault ride-through control of the DFIG is also designed.Finally,a digital simulation system of the offshore DFIG-based wind farm and