WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid white spruce

  1. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  2. Minimal approaches to genetic improvement of growth rates in white spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.T. Lester

    1973-01-01

    Several features of central importance to genetic improvement of white spruce have been demonstrated by tree breeders. First, white spruce is genetically a highly variable species and much of the existent variation can be readily incorporated in planting stock (Jeffers 1969, Holst and Teich 1969). Second, local seed often is not the best for rapid growth (Nienstaedt...

  3. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  4. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Anthony W. D' Amato; Michael A. Albers; Christopher W. Woodall; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural strategies such as thinning may minimize productivity losses from a variety of forest disturbances, including forest insects. This study analyzed the 10-year postthinning response of stands and individual trees in thinned white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) plantations in northern Minnesota, USA, with light to moderate defoliation...

  5. Vulnerability of white spruce tree growth in interior Alaska in response to climate variability: dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. McGuire; R.W. Ruess; A. Lloyd; J. Yarie; J.S. Clein; G.P. Juday

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives to improve understanding of the response of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree growth to climatic variability in interior Alaska. The dendrochronological analyses indicate that climate warming has led to widespread declines in white spruce growth...

  6. Establishment and growth of white spruce on a boreal forest floodplain: interactions between microclimate and mammalian herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Angell; Knut. Kielland

    2009-01-01

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) is a dominant species in late-successional ecosystems along the Tanana River, interior Alaska, and the most important commercial timber species in these boreal floodplain forests. Whereas white spruce commonly seed in on young terraces in early primary succession, the species does not become a conspicuous...

  7. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  8. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  9. Cadmium and zinc toxicity in white pine, red maple, and Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.D.; Fretz, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of Cd or Zn in white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), resulted in reduced root initiation, poor development of root laterals, chlorosis, dwarfism, early leaf drop, wilting, and necrosis of current season's growth. Positive correlations existed between nutrient culture levels and tissue accumulation when plants were grown in sand. White pine seddlings accumulated more Cd and Zn than either red maple or Norway spurce when compared in similar experiments. White pine appeared to be more tolerant of Cd and Zn accumulation than either red maple or Norway spruce since visual phytotoxicity symptoms were observed only at the higher: 1 treatment levels. Accumulation of Cd and Zn from a medium of 2 sand:1 soil:1 perlite by volume was also observed.

  10. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  11. Effects of early cone collection and artificial ripening on white spruce and red pine germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, D.A.; Haddon, B.D.

    1981-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute. Chalk River, Ontario in 1978 to test the feasibility of early cone collection and to determine the optimum conditions for the artificial ripening of white spruce and red pine cones. Cones were collected at periodic intervals, commencing 7 weeks before natural cone ripeness, and stored under four storage conditions and three storage periods. White spruce cones collected August 1, 4 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on open, screened trays for 12 weeks at 5 degrees Celcius and 75-95% relative humidity yielded seeds of high germinability. Seeds extracted from cones immediately after this collection failed to germinate. Cold storage of white spruce cones at 5 degrees Celcius for as little as 4 weeks eliminated dormancy and the subsequent need for seed stratification after extraction. Good germination of red pine seeds was obtained from cones collected August 16, 7 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on screened trays in a well-ventilated, unheated building, for 4 weeks. Completion of embryo growth must be attained before artificial ripening can be successfully applied; it may be used as an index for commencement of cone collections provided subsequent cone handling includes artificial ripening. (Refs. 39).

  12. In vivo function of Pgβglu-1 in the release of acetophenones in white spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. Mageroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana Clemens (ESBW is a major forest pest which feeds on young shoots of white spruce (Picea glauca and can cause landscape level economic and ecological losses. Release of acetophenone metabolites, piceol and pungenol, from their corresponding glycosides, picein and pungenin, can confer natural resistance of spruce to ESBW. A beta-glucosidase gene, Pgβglu-1, was recently discovered and the encoded enzyme was characterized in vitro to function in the release of the defensive acetophenone aglycons. Here we describe overexpression of Pgβglu-1 in a white spruce genotype whose metabolome contains the glucosylated acetophenones, but no detectable amounts of the aglycons. Transgenic overexpression of Pgβglu-1 resulted in release of the acetophenone aglycons in planta. This work provides in vivo evidence for the function of Pgβglu-1.

  13. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

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    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  14. Warming drives a front of white spruce establishment near western treeline, Alaska.

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    Miller, Amy E; Wilson, Tammy L; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Walton, James

    2017-12-01

    Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from 95 white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past. We used generalized linear models to test the null hypothesis that conditions favorable for recruitment were similar along the environmental gradient represented by longitude, by exploring relationships between per-plot counts of each life stage and the covariates hypothesized to affect abundance. We also examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over a period of three decades using tree-ring chronologies obtained from cores taken at a subset of our sites (n = 30). Our results indicated that seedling, sapling, and tree abundance were positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with earlier life stages (seedlings, saplings) most abundant at the western end of the gradient, and later life stages (trees) most abundant to the east. The differential relationship between longitude and life-stage abundance suggests a moving front of white spruce establishment through time, driven by changes in environmental conditions near the species' western range limit. Likewise, we found a positive relationship between periods of seedling establishment and GDD, suggesting that longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation might enhance establishment

  15. Application of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for phenotypic mapping of white spruce genotypes along environmental gradients

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    D'Odorico, P.; Wong, C. Y.; Besik, A.; Earon, E.; Isabel, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid climate change is expected to cause a mismatch between locally adapted tree populations and the optimal climatic conditions to which they have adapted. Plant breeding and reforestation programs will increasingly need to rely on high-throughput precision phenotyping tools for the selection of genotypes with increased drought and stress tolerance. In this work, we present the possibilities offered by Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) carrying optical sensors to monitor and assess differences in performance among white spruce genotypes. While high-throughput precision phenotyping using UAS has gained traction in agronomic crop research during the last few years, to our knowledge it is still at its infancy in forestry applications. UAS surveys were performed at different times during the growing season over large white spruce common garden experiments established by the Canadian Forest Service at four different sites, each characterized by 2000 clonally replicated genotypes. Sites are distributed over a latitudinal gradient, in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. The UAS payload consisted of a custom-bands multispectral sensor acquiring radiation at wavelength at which the reflectance spectrum of vegetation is known to capture physiological change under disturbance and stress. Ground based tree-top spectral reflectances and leaf level functional traits were also acquired for validation purposes parallel to UAS surveys. We will discuss the potential and the challenges of using optical sensors on UAS to infer genotypic variation in tree response to stress events and show how spectral data can function as the link between large-scale phenotype and genotype data.

  16. Inheritance of Budbreak and Correlation with Early Height Growth in White Spruce (Picea glauca) from New England

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    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1977-01-01

    Variation in budbreak date among 37 half-sib families of white spruce in a replicated one-parent progeny test plantation in southern Maine was only 5 days. Differences in the mean date of budbreak between years were greater than those between families, but the genetic correlation between date of budbreak in different years was .661. Heritability estimates ranged from ....

  17. Acidification of a white spruce ecosystem in eastern Cape Breton Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, O.T.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2003 at an ecosystem monitoring plot near Sydney, Nova Scotia, in a mature white spruce stand on a Shulie soil. The objective was to examine how spruce forests filter atmospheric sulfur dioxide and become destabilized by the resulting soil acidification. The acid rain problem at the level of input, top soil, sub soil and run off was assessed following results from 4 monitoring stations equipped for bulk sampling of throughfall water and two lysimeters for soil water extraction at a depth of 15 cm and 45 cm, respectively. Rainwater was collected in 2 open areas outside the forest along with samples from a stream draining the forest and surrounding wetland. Water samples were collected 8 times between April 2003 and November 2004. Results show that the problem of acid rain is present in eastern Cape Breton Island. Canopy passage was found to lower the average rainwater pH from 4.7 to 4.2 with a related increase of sulfate from 2.2 ppm to 8.3 ppm. Top soil solution pH was 3.9 increasing to 4.5 in the sub soil. Aluminum was found to increase significantly in the soil solution when pH dropped below 4.2. This demonstrated that soil acidification due to acid rain frees the aluminum in the top soil. However, the concentration of metal was reduced at lower soil depth due to base cation exchange. High sodium concentrations in rainwater and throughfall were closely associated with sulfate values, indicating high inputs of saline oceanic spray with the potential to cause a salt effect in the top soil chemistry. Most water samples had very low nitrate concentrations. The water chemistry in the stream fluctuated with the pH, often dropping below 5 when sulfate contents increased during high run off events

  18. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

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    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  19. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  20. Modular organization of the white spruce (Picea glauca) transcriptome reveals functional organization and evolutionary signatures.

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    Raherison, Elie S M; Giguère, Isabelle; Caron, Sébastien; Lamara, Mebarek; MacKay, John J

    2015-07-01

    Transcript profiling has shown the molecular bases of several biological processes in plants but few studies have developed an understanding of overall transcriptome variation. We investigated transcriptome structure in white spruce (Picea glauca), aiming to delineate its modular organization and associated functional and evolutionary attributes. Microarray analyses were used to: identify and functionally characterize groups of co-expressed genes; investigate expressional and functional diversity of vascular tissue preferential genes which were conserved among Picea species, and identify expression networks underlying wood formation. We classified 22 857 genes as variable (79%; 22 coexpression groups) or invariant (21%) by profiling across several vegetative tissues. Modular organization and complex transcriptome restructuring among vascular tissue preferential genes was revealed by their assignment to coexpression groups with partially overlapping profiles and partially distinct functions. Integrated analyses of tissue-based and temporally variable profiles identified secondary xylem gene networks, showed their remodelling over a growing season and identified PgNAC-7 (no apical meristerm (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF) and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC) transcription factor 007 in Picea glauca) as a major hub gene specific to earlywood formation. Reference profiling identified comprehensive, statistically robust coexpressed groups, revealing that modular organization underpins the evolutionary conservation of the transcriptome structure. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2011-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ≤ 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ≤ 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a β-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

  2. Electromagnetic characterization of white spruce at different moisture contents using synthetic aperture radar imaging

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    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Detection and quantification of moisture content inside wood (timber) is key to ensuring safety and reliability of timber structures. Moisture inside wood attracts insects and fosters the development of fungi to attack the timber, causing significant damages and reducing the load bearing capacity during their design life. The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (e.g., microwave/radar, ultrasonic, stress wave, and X-ray) for condition assessment of timber structures is a good choice. NDE techniques provide information about the level of deterioration and material properties of timber structures without obstructing their functionality. In this study, microwave/radar NDE technique was selected for the characterization of wood at different moisture contents. A 12 in-by-3.5 in-by-1.5 in. white spruce specimen (picea glauca) was imaged at different moisture contents using a 10 GHz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor inside an anechoic chamber. The presence of moisture was found to increase the SAR image amplitude as expected. Additionally, integrated SAR amplitude was found beneficial in modeling the moisture content inside the wood specimen.

  3. Resistance of three interspecific white pine hybrids to blister rust

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    R. Z. Callaham

    1962-01-01

    Three white pine hybrids exposed to infection by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) since 1946 have inherited the relative resistance of their parental species. The hybrids were produced from controlled pollinations in 1940 and 1941 at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif. Twelve seedlings of each hybrid were...

  4. Relating structural growth environment to white spruce sapling establishment at the Forest-Tundra Ecotone

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    Maguire, A.; Boelman, N.; Griffin, K. L.; Jensen, J.; Hiers, E.; Johnson, D. M.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of climate change on treeline position at the latitudinal Forest-Tundra ecotone (FTE) is poorly understood. While the FTE is expansive (stretching 13,000 km acros the panarctic), understanding relationships between climate and tree function may depend on very fine scale processes. High resolution tools are therefore needed to appropriately characterize the leading (northernmost) edge of the FTE. We hypothesized that microstructural metrics obtainable from lidar remote sensing may explain variation in the physical growth environment that governs sapling establishment. To test our hypothesis, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect highly spatially resolved 3-D structural information of white spruce (Picea glauca) saplings and their aboveground growth environment at the leading edge of a FTE in northern Alaska and Northwest Territories, Canada. Coordinates of sapling locations were extracted from the 3-D TLS data. Within each sampling plot, 20 sets of coordinates were randomly selected from regions where no saplings were present. Ground roughness, canopy roughness, average aspect, average slope, average curvature, wind shelter index, and wetness indexwere extracted from point clouds within a variable radius from all coordinates. Generalized linear models (GLM) were fit to determine which microstructural metrics were most strongly associated with sapling establishment. Preliminary analyses of three plots suggest that vegetation roughness, wetness index, ground roughness, and slope were the most important terrain metrics governing sapling presence (Figure 1). Comprehensive analyses will include eight plots and GLMs optimized for scale at which structural parameters affect sapling establishment. Spatial autocorrelation of sample locations will be accounted for in models. Because these analyses address how the physical growth environment affects sapling establishment, model outputs will provide information for improving understanding of the

  5. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  6. Modeling the distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca) for Alaska with high accuracy: an open access role-model for predicting tree species in last remaining wilderness areas

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    Bettina Ohse; Falk Huettmann; Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond; Glenn P. Juday

    2009-01-01

    Most wilderness areas still lack accurate distribution information on tree species. We met this need with a predictive GIS modeling approach, using freely available digital data and computer programs to efficiently obtain high-quality species distribution maps. Here we present a digital map with the predicted distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca...

  7. Recent climatic drying leads to age-independent growth reductions of white spruce stands in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael; Hook, Trisha I; Undershultz, Michael E

    2017-12-01

    Since 2001, climatic conditions have been notably drier than normal across large areas of the western Canadian interior, leading to widespread impacts on the forests of this region. This poses a major concern for the future, given climate change projections for continued warming and drying. We conducted tree-ring analysis in 75 pure stands of white spruce (Picea glauca) across Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan to examine the effects of recent climatic drying on the growth of this important boreal tree species. Allometric equations were used to calculate annual growth in aboveground tree biomass (G BM ) from ring width measurements. Results showed an increasing trend in G BM from the 1960s to the 1990s, followed by a sharp decline during the severe drought of 2001-2002. Of the 75 stands, only 18 recovered sufficiently to cause an increase in mean G BM from the predrought decade of 1991-2000 to the subsequent decade of 2001-2010. The remaining 57 stands exhibited a decline in mean G BM between these decades. Climatic drying was a major cause of the growth decline, as shown by the significant stand-level relationship between percentage change in decadal mean G BM and the change in decadal mean values of a climate moisture index from 1991-2000 to 2001-2010. Subsequent analyses of boreal stands sampled across Alberta during 2015 revealed that white spruce growth had declined even further as drought conditions intensified during 2014-2015. Overall, there was a 38% decrease in mean G BM between 1997 and 2015, but surprisingly, the percentage decrease was not significantly different for young, productive stands compared with older, less productive stands. Thus, stand ageing cannot explain the observed decline in white spruce growth during the past quarter century, suggesting that these forests are at risk if the trend towards more frequent, severe drought continues in the region. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Global Change Biology ©2017 John Wiley

  8. Variation in carbohydrate source-sink relations of forest and treeline white spruce in southern, interior and northern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Smith, Matthew; Traustason, Tumi; Ruess, Roger W; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2010-08-01

    Two opposing hypotheses have been presented to explain reduced tree growth at the treeline, compared with growth in lower elevation or lower latitude forests: the carbon source and sink limitation hypotheses. The former states that treeline trees have an unfavorable carbon balance and cannot support growth of the magnitude observed at lower elevations or latitudes, while the latter argues that treeline trees have an adequate carbon supply, but that cold temperatures directly limit growth. In this study, we examined the relative importance of source and sink limitation in forest and treeline white spruce (Picea glauca) in three mountain ranges from southern to northern Alaska. We related seasonal changes in needle nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content with branch extension growth, an approach we argue is more powerful than using needle NSC concentration. Branch extension growth in the southernmost Chugach Mountains was much greater than in the White Mountains and the Brooks Range. Trees in the Chugach Mountains showed a greater seasonal decline in needle NSC content than trees in the other mountain ranges, and the seasonal change in NSC was correlated with site-level branch growth across mountain ranges. There was no evidence of a consistent difference in branch growth between the forest and treeline sites, which differ in elevation by approximately 100 m. Our results point to a continuum between source and sink limitation of growth, with high-elevation trees in northern and interior Alaska showing greater evidence of sink limitation, and those in southern Alaska showing greater potential for source limitation.

  9. Ecophysiology and Growth of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources along a Climatic Gradient Support the Need for Assisted Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Otis Prud'homme; Mohammed S. Lamhamedi; Lahcen Benomar; André Rainville; Josianne DeBlois; Jean Bousquet; Jean Bousquet; Jean Beaulieu; Jean Beaulieu

    2018-01-01

    With climate change, favorable growing conditions for tree species are shifting northwards and to higher altitudes. Therefore, local populations are becoming less adapted to their environment. Assisted migration is one of the proposed adaptive measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural populations and maintain forest productivity. It consists of moving genetic material to a territory where future climate conditions correspond to those of its current location. Eight white spruce (Picea gl...

  10. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  11. Model of experimental clonal seed orchard for the production of Serbian spruce šPicea omorika /Panc./Purkyne intraspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented model for the establishment of an experimental clonal seed orchard of Serbian spruce was designed based on the results of the analysis and assessment of the genetic potential of Serbian spruce seedling seed orchard at Godovik. Based on the results of the analyses, eight superior half-sib lines of Serbian spruce were selected, of which 24 genotypes were selected. Their hybridisation, by the model of incomplete diallel cross resulted in 21 combinations at the level of half-sib lines, i.e. 48 combinations at the level of parent genotypes. The applied study methods identified the potentially valuable genotypes-cone producers i.e. pollinators, which will be fixed by cloning in the seed orchard of the second generation for the production of the promising hybrids.

  12. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic profiling of white spruce stems during the transition from active growth to dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo González, Leonardo M; El Kayal, Walid; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Allen, Carmen C G; King-Jones, Susanne; Cooke, Janice E K

    2012-04-01

    In the autumn, stems of woody perennials such as forest trees undergo a transition from active growth to dormancy. We used microarray transcriptomic profiling in combination with a proteomics analysis to elucidate processes that occur during this growth-to-dormancy transition in a conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca[Moench] Voss). Several differentially expressed genes were likely associated with the developmental transition that occurs during growth cessation in the cambial zone and the concomitant completion of cell maturation in vascular tissues. Genes encoding for cell wall and membrane biosynthetic enzymes showed transcript abundance patterns consistent with completion of cell maturation, and also of cell wall and membrane modifications potentially enabling cells to withstand the harsh conditions of winter. Several differentially expressed genes were identified that encoded putative regulators of cambial activity, cell development and of the photoperiodic pathway. Reconfiguration of carbon allocation figured centrally in the tree's overwintering preparations. For example, genes associated with carbon-based defences such as terpenoids were down-regulated, while many genes associated with protein-based defences and other stress mitigation mechanisms were up-regulated. Several of these correspond to proteins that were accumulated during the growth-to-dormancy transition, emphasizing the importance of stress protection in the tree's adaptive response to overwintering. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Way, Danielle A

    2017-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high-latitude forests. However, photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake. While photoperiod was correlated with photosynthetic capacity, short photoperiods did not constrain the maintenance of high photosynthetic capacity under warming. Rubisco concentration dynamics were affected by temperature but not photoperiod, while leaf pigment concentrations were unaffected by treatments. Respiration rates at 25 °C were stimulated by photoperiod, although respiration at the growth temperatures was increased in warming treatments. Seedling growth was stimulated by increased photoperiod and suppressed by warming. We demonstrate that temperature is a stronger control on the seasonal timing of photosynthetic down-regulation than is photoperiod. Thus, while warming can stimulate carbon uptake in boreal conifers, the extra carbon may be directed towards respiration rather than biomass, potentially limiting carbon sequestration under climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetic architecture of wood properties based on association analysis and co-expression networks in white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamara, Mebarek; Raherison, Elie; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2016-04-01

    Association studies are widely utilized to analyze complex traits but their ability to disclose genetic architectures is often limited by statistical constraints, and functional insights are usually minimal in nonmodel organisms like forest trees. We developed an approach to integrate association mapping results with co-expression networks. We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2652 candidate genes for statistical associations with wood density, stiffness, microfibril angle and ring width in a population of 1694 white spruce trees (Picea glauca). Associations mapping identified 229-292 genes per wood trait using a statistical significance level of P wood associated genes and several known MYB and NAC regulators were identified as network hubs. The network revealed a link between the gene PgNAC8, wood stiffness and microfibril angle, as well as considerable within-season variation for both genetic control of wood traits and gene expression. Trait associations were distributed throughout the network suggesting complex interactions and pleiotropic effects. Our findings indicate that integration of association mapping and co-expression networks enhances our understanding of complex wood traits. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Overexpression of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin JQ585595 alters root water transport properties in ectomycorrhizal white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; El Kayal, Walid; Lee, Seong Hee; Pardo, Alejandro G; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyphae to water transport in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings was examined by altering expression of a major water-transporting aquaporin in Laccaria bicolor. Picea glauca was inoculated with wild-type (WT), mock transgenic or L. bicolor aquaporin JQ585595-overexpressing (OE) strains and exposed to root temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C to examine the root water transport properties, physiological responses and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression in colonized plants. Mycorrhization increased shoot water potential, transpiration, net photosynthetic rates, root hydraulic conductivity and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivity in seedlings. At 20°C, OE plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity compared with WT plants and the increases were accompanied by higher expression of P. glauca PIP GQ03401_M18.1 in roots. In contrast to WT L. bicolor, the effects of OE fungi on root and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivities were abolished at 10 and 5°C in the absence of major changes in the examined transcript levels of P. glauca root PIPs. The results provide evidence for the importance of fungal aquaporins in root water transport of mycorrhizal plants. They also demonstrate links between hyphal water transport, root aquaporin expression and root water transport in ECM plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Hybrid Storage Market Assessment: A JISEA White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rose, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jayaswal, Harshit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffery [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glassmire, John [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Klawiter, Steffi [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rajasekaran, Dhiwaakar [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This white paper evaluates which markets are best suited for battery storage and storage hybrids and reviews regulations and incentives that support or impede the implementation of standalone storage and battery hybrids. The costs of battery storage technologies have dropped in recent years, resulting in a seven-fold increase in installed capacity over the last decade (1). These technologies offer an attractive rate of return in some locations; however, cost and regulatory barriers still limit the market for storage. Hybridizing a battery (combining the battery with a generator) can in some instances reduce total system costs and increase value compared to separate installations. The fast ramping and dispatchability of a battery can complement the generator to provide services that neither battery nor generator could provide alone. Battery hybrids also benefit from some policy incentives and may be better able to meet market and regulatory requirements.

  17. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

  18. Morpho-physiological variation of white spruce seedlings from various seed sources and implications for deployment under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Villeneuve

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec.The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0 in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modelling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0 from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This

  19. Variation in stem morphology and movement of amyloplasts in white spruce grown in the weightless environment of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Danny; Lagacé, Marie; Cohen, Luchino Y; Beaulieu, Jean

    2015-01-01

    One-year-old white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings were studied in microgravity conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) and compared with seedlings grown on Earth. Leaf growth was clearly stimulated in space whereas data suggest a similar trend for the shoots. Needles on the current shoots of ground-based seedlings were more inclined towards the stem base than those of seedlings grown in the ISS. Amyloplasts sedimented in specialized cells of shoots and roots in seedlings grown on Earth while they were distributed at random in similar cells of seedlings tested in the ISS. In shoots, such amyloplasts were found in starch sheath cells located between leaf traces and cortical cells whereas in roots they were constituents of columella cells of the cap. Nuclei were regularly observed just above the sedimented amyloplasts in both organs. It was also frequent to detect vacuoles with phenolic compounds and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) close to the sedimented amyloplasts. The ER was mainly observed just under these amyloplasts. Thus, when amyloplasts sediment, the pressure exerted on the ER, the organelle that can for instance secrete proteins destined for the plasma membrane, might influence their functioning and play a role in signaling pathways involved in gravity-sensing white spruce cells. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  1. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Guo; Stadt, Kenneth J; Dawson, Andria; Comeau, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA), the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH), and density (N) for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR), were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2)>0.67) to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  2. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Huang

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA, the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH, and density (N for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR, were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2>0.67 to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  3. Cytophotometric differentiation of high elevation spruces: physiological and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlyn, G.P.; Royte, J.L.; Anoruo, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    Red and black spruce and their hybrids can be determined by morphological indices; however, the criteria are somewhat subjective and increasingly difficult to use at higher elevations. Although the chromosome number is identical (2n = 24), red spruce has twice as much nuclear DNA (48 pg) than black spruce (24 pg) and thus the species and their hybrids can also be separated by cytophotometry. This is relevant to spruce decline studies because black spruce is much more resistant to high elevation environmental stresses, both natural and anthropogenic. It also has implications for the effect of climatic changes on the composition of high elevation spruce-fir forests because red spruce can outcompete black spruce under more mesic conditions. Four elevation transects sampling spruce on the east and west sides of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) and Camels Hump (Vermont) and a single transect on the southwest side of Whiteface Mountain (New York) were made to investigate the degree of hybridization and introgression between these two species. A positive correlation was found between increased elevation and increased black spruce genes on Mount Washington and Camels Hump. Pure black spruce was found on Mount Washington from 1356 m to 1582 m. No pure black or red spruce was found on Camels Hump although the proportion of red spruce alleles was significantly greater on Camels Hump. All trees sampled at all elevations on Whiteface Mountain were pure red spruce. Thus the proportion of black spruce alleles in high elevation spruce populations decreases from east to west. This closely parallels the increase in spruce decline which increases from east to west. (author)

  4. Evidence That Drought-Induced Stomatal Closure Is Not an Important Constraint on White Spruce Performance Near the Arctic Treeline in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P.; Brownlee, A.; Ellison, S.; Sveinbjornsson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Tree cores collected from trees growing at high latitudes have long been used to reconstruct past climates, because of close positive correlations between temperature and tree growth. However, in recent decades and at many sites, these relationships have deteriorated and have even become negative in some instances. The observation of declining tree growth in response to rising temperature has prompted many investigators to suggest that high latitude trees may be increasingly exhibiting drought-induced stomatal closure. In the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, the observation of low and declining growth of white spruce is more prevalent in the central and eastern parts of the range, where precipitation is lower, providing superficial support for the drought stress hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of white spruce drought-induced stomatal closure in four watersheds along a west to east gradient near the Arctic treeline in the Brooks Range. We obtained a historical perspective on tree growth and water relations by collecting increment cores for analysis of ring widths and carbon isotopes in tree-ring alpha-cellulose. Meanwhile, we made detailed assessments of contemporary water relations at the scales of the whole canopy and the needle. All of our data indicate that drought-induced stomatal closure is probably not responsible for low and declining growth in the central and eastern Brooks Range. Carbon isotope discrimination has generally increased over the past century and our calculations indicate that needle inter-cellular CO2 concentration is much greater now than it was in the early 1900's. Measurements of needle gas exchange are consistent with the tree core record, in the sense that instances of low photosynthesis at our sites are not coincident with similarly low stomatal conductance and low inter-cellular CO2 concentration. Finally, hourly measurements of xylem sap flow indicate that trees at our study sites are able to maintain near

  5. Contrasts between bryophyte and vascular plant synecological responses in an SO/sub 2/-stressed white spruce association in Central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winner, W.E.; Bewley, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Canopy coverage analysis was used to examine the synecological changes exhibited by vascular plants and terrestrial mosses in a white spruce association exposed to SO/sub 2/ fumigation. Both these understory components were found to decline in coverage as SO/sub 2/ stress increased, but mosses were more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ in the more heavily stressed areas. This was observed along both an angle-dependent and a distance-dependent gradient of pollution stress. Diversity steadily declined with increasing SO/sub 2/ stress along the angle-dependent gradient but some localized increases in diversity occurred with increasing stress along the distance-dependent gradient. This was due to invasion of openings resulting from attrition of SO/sub 2/-sensitive species by weedy angiosperms and by vegetative growth of moss species more tolerant of pollution stress. Conclusions have been drawn about the productive strategy of vascular plants and mosses subjected to increasing concentrations of SO/sub 2/. We have elucidated the ecological consequences for community structure of the systematic removal of pollution-sensitive understory species from an otherwise stable vegetation unit.

  6. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Gamal El-Dien

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The open-pollinated (OP family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure.

  7. Variation in Wood Quality in White Spruce (Picea Glauca (Moench Voss. Part I. Defining the Juvenile–Mature Wood Transition Based on Tracheid Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Serge Mvolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of transition age (TA and juvenile wood proportion (JWP are important for wood industries due to their impact on end-product quality. However, the relationships between analytical determination of TA based on tracheid length (TL and recognized thresholds for adequate end products have not yet been established. In this study, we used three different statistical models to estimate TA in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss based on TL radial variation. We compared the results with technological maturity. A two-millimeter threshold, previously suggested for good paper tear strength, was used. Tracheid length increased from pith to bark and from breast height to upper height. Juvenile wood (JW was conical with the three models. At breast height, TA ranged from 11 to 27 years and JWP ranged from 15.3% to 47.5% across the three models. The linear mixed model produced more conservative estimates than the maximum-quadratic-linear (M_Q_L model. Both the linear mixed model and the M_Q_L model produced more conservative TA estimates than the piecewise model. TA estimates by the MIXED model, and to a lesser extent by the M_Q_L model, were equivalent to those for real mature wood, whereas TA estimates by the piecewise model were considerably lower, falling into the transition wood area.

  8. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  9. Zero- and two-dimensional hybrid carbon phosphors for high colorimetric purity white light-emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yamei; Chang, Qing; Xiu, Fei; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Zhengdong; Ban, Chaoyi; Cheng, Shuai; Liu, Juqing; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are promising phosphors for white light emission. A facile single-step synthesis method has been developed to prepare zero- and two-dimensional hybrid carbon phosphors for the first time. Zero-dimensional carbon dots (C-dots) emit bright blue luminescence under 365 nm UV light and two-dimensional nanoplates improve the dispersity and film forming ability of C-dots. As a proof-of-concept application, the as-prepared hybrid carbon phosphors emit bright white luminescence in the solid state, and the phosphor-coated blue LEDs exhibit high colorimetric purity white light-emission with a color coordinate of (0.3308, 0.3312), potentially enabling the successful application of white emitting phosphors in the LED field.

  10. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-12-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic-organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date.

  11. Identification and Functional Characterization of Monofunctional ent-Copalyl Diphosphate and ent-Kaurene Synthases in White Spruce Reveal Different Patterns for Diterpene Synthase Evolution for Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gymnosperms1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Dullat, Harpreet K.; Yuen, Mack; Ralph, Steven G.; Jancsik, Sharon; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the tetracyclic diterpene ent-kaurene is a critical step in the general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin hormones. ent-Kaurene is formed by a two-step cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate via the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate. In a lower land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens, a single bifunctional diterpene synthase (diTPS) catalyzes both steps. In contrast, in angiosperms, the two consecutive cyclizations are catalyzed by two distinct monofunctional enzymes, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). The enzyme, or enzymes, responsible for ent-kaurene biosynthesis in gymnosperms has been elusive. However, several bifunctional diTPS of specialized (secondary) metabolism have previously been characterized in gymnosperms, and all known diTPSs for resin acid biosynthesis in conifers are bifunctional. To further understand the evolution of ent-kaurene biosynthesis as well as the evolution of general and specialized diterpenoid metabolisms in gymnosperms, we set out to determine whether conifers use a single bifunctional diTPS or two monofunctional diTPSs in the ent-kaurene pathway. Using a combination of expressed sequence tag, full-length cDNA, genomic DNA, and targeted bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing, we identified two candidate CPS and KS genes from white spruce (Picea glauca) and their orthologs in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Functional characterization of the recombinant enzymes established that ent-kaurene biosynthesis in white spruce is catalyzed by two monofunctional diTPSs, PgCPS and PgKS. Comparative analysis of gene structures and enzyme functions highlights the molecular evolution of these diTPSs as conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. In contrast, diTPSs for specialized metabolism have evolved differently in angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:20044448

  12. Ecophysiology and Growth of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources along a Climatic Gradient Support the Need for Assisted Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis Prud'homme, Guillaume; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Benomar, Lahcen; Rainville, André; DeBlois, Josianne; Bousquet, Jean; Beaulieu, Jean

    2017-01-01

    With climate change, favorable growing conditions for tree species are shifting northwards and to higher altitudes. Therefore, local populations are becoming less adapted to their environment. Assisted migration is one of the proposed adaptive measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural populations and maintain forest productivity. It consists of moving genetic material to a territory where future climate conditions correspond to those of its current location. Eight white spruce ( Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seed sources representing as many seed orchards were planted in 2013 at three forest sites simulating a south-north climatic gradient of 1.7°C in Québec, Canada. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the morpho-physiological responses of the different seed sources and (2) determine the role of genetic adaptation and physiological plasticity on the observed variation in morpho-physiological traits. Various seedling characteristics were measured, notably height growth from nursery to the fourth year on plantation. Other traits such as biomass and carbon allocation, nutritional status, and various photosynthetic traits before bud break, were evaluated during the fourth growing season. No interaction between sites and seed sources was observed for any traits, suggesting similar plasticity between seed sources. There was no change in the rank of seed sources and sites between years for height growth. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the height from the nursery and that after 4 years in the plantation. Southern seed sources showed the best height growth, while optimum growth was observed at the central site. Juvenile height growth seems to be a good indicator of the juvenile carbon sequestration and could serve as a selection criterion for the best genetics sources for carbon sequestration. Vector analysis showed no nitrogen deficiency 4 years after planting. Neither seed sources nor planting sites had a significant effect on

  13. Ecophysiology and Growth of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources along a Climatic Gradient Support the Need for Assisted Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Otis Prud'homme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With climate change, favorable growing conditions for tree species are shifting northwards and to higher altitudes. Therefore, local populations are becoming less adapted to their environment. Assisted migration is one of the proposed adaptive measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural populations and maintain forest productivity. It consists of moving genetic material to a territory where future climate conditions correspond to those of its current location. Eight white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss seed sources representing as many seed orchards were planted in 2013 at three forest sites simulating a south-north climatic gradient of 1.7°C in Québec, Canada. The objectives were to (1 evaluate the morpho-physiological responses of the different seed sources and (2 determine the role of genetic adaptation and physiological plasticity on the observed variation in morpho-physiological traits. Various seedling characteristics were measured, notably height growth from nursery to the fourth year on plantation. Other traits such as biomass and carbon allocation, nutritional status, and various photosynthetic traits before bud break, were evaluated during the fourth growing season. No interaction between sites and seed sources was observed for any traits, suggesting similar plasticity between seed sources. There was no change in the rank of seed sources and sites between years for height growth. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the height from the nursery and that after 4 years in the plantation. Southern seed sources showed the best height growth, while optimum growth was observed at the central site. Juvenile height growth seems to be a good indicator of the juvenile carbon sequestration and could serve as a selection criterion for the best genetics sources for carbon sequestration. Vector analysis showed no nitrogen deficiency 4 years after planting. Neither seed sources nor planting sites had a

  14. Some observations on age relationships in spruce-fir regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the ages of seedlings of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L) Mill.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) 15 years after the first harvest of a two-cut shelterwood operation revealed that very few potential crop-tree seedlings in the sample occurred as advance...

  15. White OLED in Hybrid Structure for Enhancing Color Purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We synthesized the red emission material, bis(1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)phenyl) iridium(picolate) [Ir-complexes] and the blue emission material, bis (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(HPB)2]. White Organic Light Emitting Diodes were fabricated by using Zn(HPB)2 for a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes for a red emitting layer and a tris (8-hydroxy quinoline)aluminum [Alq3] for a green emitting layer. The important experimental results obtained, white OLED was fabricated by using double emitting layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes, and hole blocking layer of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline[BCP]. We also varied the thickness of BCP. When the thickness of BCP layer was 5 nm, white emission was achieved. We obtained a maximum luminance of 5400 cd/m2 at a current density of 650 mA/cm2. The CIE coordinates was (0.339, 0.323) at voltage of 10 V.

  16. Solution processable inverted structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojuction white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, N.; Hussain, I.; Soomro, M. Y.; EL-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Improving luminance efficiency and colour purity are the most important challenges for zinc oxide (ZnO)-organic hybrid heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs), affecting their large area applications. If ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction white LEDs are fabricated by a hydrothermal method, it is difficult to obtain pure and stable blue emission from PFO due to the presence of an undesirable green emission. In this paper, we present an inverted-structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction LED to avoid green emission from PFO, which mainly originates during device processing. With this configuration, each ZnO nanorod (NR) forms a discrete p-n junction; therefore, large-area white LEDs can be designed without compromising the junction area. The configuration used for this novel structure is glass/ZnO NRs/PFO/PEDOT:PSS/L-ITO, which enables the development of efficient, large-area and low-cost hybrid heterojunction LEDs. Inverted-structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction white LEDs offer several improvements in terms of brightness, size, colour, external quantum efficiency and a wider applicability as compared to normal architecture LEDs.

  17. Interspecific Competition and Trade-offs in Resource Allocation are the Key to Successful Growth of Seedlings of White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at Subarctic Treelines in Warming Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, K.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine treelines in Alaska have advanced for the past 50 years in response to the recent climate warming. However, further increases in temperatures may cause treeline species drought stress and increase susceptibility to insect outbreaks and fire. Complex factors such as soil conditions and plant species composition also impact the growth of seedlings, which are essential to sustain boreal forests. Our goals were to assess 1) the current optimal elevation for the treeline species Picea glauca (white spruce) seedlings and how it is altered by climate change, and 2) their growth/survival strategies at each environmental site. We studied the growth response of spruce seedlings along an altitudinal gradient at 6 sites, consisting of tundra, forest, or transitional ecotone in Denali National Park and one forest site in Fairbanks, AK. In May 2012, four-month old seedlings were planted with or without naturally occurring plants to compare the presence or absence of the interspecific interaction. Summer temperatures were increased by one small greenhouse per site. Over 2 growing seasons, growth was measured non-destructively, and then the seedlings were harvested. Relative growth rate (RGR) in height was increased significantly as the altitude was increased. Elevated temperature increased height only in seedlings at a high-altitude forest. Seedlings with neighboring plants had a higher RGR in height than seedlings that had neighbors removed, while significantly wider diameters were measured from the seedlings without neighbors. A weak trend of declining diameter width with increasing altitudes was seen. Seedlings that grew taller did not grow their stems wider, indicating trade-offs in resource allocation. None of the altitudinal sites had a clear advantage for the growth of the seedlings. Habitat microclimate and the interaction with other species could be more important than the altitude or temperatures and hence, key to the survival and growth of spruce seedlings in

  18. Colour tuning in white hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckbauer, Jochen; Brasser, Catherine; Edwards, Paul R; Martin, Robert W; Findlay, Neil J; Skabara, Peter J; Wallis, David J

    2016-01-01

    White hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by combining a novel organic colour converter with a blue inorganic LED. An organic small molecule was specifically synthesised to act as down-converter. The characteristics of the white colour were controlled by changing the concentration of the organic molecule based on the BODIPY unit, which was embedded in a transparent matrix, and volume of the molecule and encapsulant mixture. The concentration has a critical effect on the conversion efficiency, i.e. how much of the absorbed blue light is converted into yellow light. With increasing concentration the conversion efficiency decreases. This quenching effect is due to aggregation of the organic molecule at higher concentrations. Increasing the deposited amount of the converter does not increase the yellow emission despite more blue light being absorbed. Degradation of the organic converter was also observed during a period of 15 months from LED fabrication. Angular-dependent measurements revealed slight deviation from a Lambertian profile for the blue and yellow emission peaks leading to a small change in ‘whiteness’ with emission angle. Warm white and cool white light with correlated colour temperatures of 2770 K and 7680 K, respectively, were achieved using different concentrations of the converter molecule. Although further work is needed to improve the lifetime and poor colour rendering, these hybrid LEDs show promising results as an alternative approach for generating white LEDs compared with phosphor-based white LEDs. (paper)

  19. Jah People: the cultural hybridity of white Rastafarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loadenthal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than half a century, the African-based Rastafarian movement has existed and thrived. Since the early 1930s, Rastafari has developed, changed and gained enough supporters to be considered “one of the most popular Afro-Caribbean religions of the late twentieth century. According to a survey conducted in 1997, there are over one million practicing Rastafarians worldwide as well as over two million sympathizers. Rastafarians are concentrated in the Caribbean, though members of this diverse movement have settled in significant numbers all throughout the world. At present, there are large Rastafarian communities in New York, Miami, Washington DC, Philadelphia, Chicago, Huston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston and New Haven as well as many large cities in Canada, Europe, South America and Africa. While Rastafari has maintained much of its original flavour, migration, globalization and a reinterpretation of philosophical dogma has created a space for white people to join this typically black movement.

  20. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Ozel, Tuncay; Mutlugun, Evren; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Sari, Emre; Holder, Elisabeth; Tian Nan

    2007-01-01

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs (λ PL =580 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of T c =6962 K and CRI of R a =53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs (λ PL =580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), T c =14395 K and R a =65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs (λ PL =580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), T c =4052 K and R a = 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters

  1. Zinc oxide nanorods/polymer hybrid heterojunctions for white light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Zaman, S.; Zainelabdin, A.; Bano, N.; Hussain, I.

    2011-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its deep level defect emission covering the whole visible spectrum holds promise for the development of intrinsic white lighting sources with no need of using phosphors for light conversion. ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on flexible plastic as substrate using a low temperature approach (down to 50 °C) were combined with different organic semiconductors to form hybrid junction. White electroluminescence (EL) was observed from these hybrid junctions. The configuration used for the hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs) consists of two-layers of polymers on the flexible plastic with ZnO NRs on the top. The inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction has been fabricated by spin coating the p-type polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS) for hole injection with an ionization potential of 5.1 eV and poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is used as blue emitting material with a bandgap of 3.3 eV. ZnO NRs are grown on top of the organic layers. Two other configurations were also fabricated; these are using a single MEH PPV (red-emitting polymer) instead of the PFO and the third configuration was obtained from a blend of the PFO and the MEH PPV. The white LEDs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and EL. The EL spectrum reveals a broad emission band covering the range from 420 to 800 nm, and the emissions causing this white luminescence were identified.

  2. Zinc oxide nanorods/polymer hybrid heterojunctions for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zaman, S; Zainelabdin, A; Bano, N; Hussain, I

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its deep level defect emission covering the whole visible spectrum holds promise for the development of intrinsic white lighting sources with no need of using phosphors for light conversion. ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on flexible plastic as substrate using a low temperature approach (down to 50 0 C) were combined with different organic semiconductors to form hybrid junction. White electroluminescence (EL) was observed from these hybrid junctions. The configuration used for the hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs) consists of two-layers of polymers on the flexible plastic with ZnO NRs on the top. The inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction has been fabricated by spin coating the p-type polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS) for hole injection with an ionization potential of 5.1 eV and poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is used as blue emitting material with a bandgap of 3.3 eV. ZnO NRs are grown on top of the organic layers. Two other configurations were also fabricated; these are using a single MEH PPV (red-emitting polymer) instead of the PFO and the third configuration was obtained from a blend of the PFO and the MEH PPV. The white LEDs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and EL. The EL spectrum reveals a broad emission band covering the range from 420 to 800 nm, and the emissions causing this white luminescence were identified.

  3. White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Akyuz, Ozgun; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Liebscher, Lydia; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To generate white light using semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots integrated on light emitting diodes (LEDs), multiple hybrid device parameters (emission wavelengths of the NCs and the excitation platform, order of the NCs with different sizes, amount of the different types of NCs, etc) need to be carefully designed and properly implemented. In this study, we introduce and demonstrate white LEDs based on simple device hybridization using only a single type of white emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores on near-ultraviolet LEDs. Here we present their design, synthesis-growth, fabrication and characterization. With these hybrid devices, we achieve high color rendering index (>70), despite using only a single NC type. Furthermore, we conveniently tune their photometric properties including the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the number of hybridized nanoluminophores in a controlled manner

  4. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. CONSECUTIVE CULTIVATION OF WHITE HEAD CABBABE HYBRIDS DEVELOPED AT VNIISSOK FOR VEGETABLE MARKET OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage certainly is the major crop in Russia. Its spreading is caused by highly valuable horticultural characteristics. On the market the popular varieties of head cabbage originated at VNIISSOK, such as ‘Ijulskaya 3200’, ‘Nomer Perviy Gribovskiy 147’, ‘Slava 1305’, ‘Podarok’, ‘Moskovskaya pozdnaya 15’, ‘Gako 741’, ‘Vertu 1340’ are appreciated. Hybrids of cabbage are the most valuable for production, due to their high yield ability, uniformity and quality comparing with cultivars. Recently, early-late maturing heterotic hybrids of white head cabbage, originated at VNIISSOK have been developed. These hybrids can be used throughout a year by means of consecutive cultivation and suitable for fresh consumption, long-storage and processing.

  6. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Nizamoglu, Sedat [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozel, Tuncay [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Mutlugun, Evren [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Huyal, Ilkem Ozge [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sari, Emre [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Holder, Elisabeth [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Tian Nan [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of T{sub c}=6962 K and CRI of R{sub a}=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), T{sub c}=14395 K and R{sub a}=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), T{sub c}=4052 K and R{sub a}= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters.

  7. PARTICULARITIES OF WHITE HEAD CABBAGE F1 HYBRID BREEDING FOR PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Shpak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of late maturing F1 hybrid of white head cabbage for long-term storing and suitable for national recipe “golubci” have been developed based on requirements for varieties and F1 hybrids grown in the South in the conditions of drought, high temperatures and low air humidity. Combining ability of seven self-incompatible inbred lines of white head cabbage was studied by the system of full diallel crosses in conditions of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. These lines were developed on the base of heat tolerant varieties ‘Biruchekutskaya’, ‘Volna’, ‘Lada’, ‘Moldavanka’ and ‘Kharkovskaya Zimnyaya’ bred in the south. Out of 42 hybrid combinations studied 15 significantly surpassed in productivity the variety ‘Zavadovskaya’ that is traditionally grown by local farmers for pickling and recipe “golubci”. High GCA effects for productivity showed the following breeding lines: Bu1, Ml3 and Kl5. Polygenes, controlling the high yield ability, mainly were dominant and single-directed, however the correlation betweenyield ability and GCA effect was middle, r=0.63±0.35. No correlation was observed inbreeding line between GCA effect and truly heterosis effect in hybrid combinations (r=0.19. Disease resistance analysis revealed lines Bu1 and Kl5 that had shown resistance to Fusarium yellows. Two hybrid combination Kl5xBu1 and Ml3xBu1 were highly tolerant to thrips attacks according to analysis of all promising hybrid combinations, carried out in natural infection background. Weak correlation was observed between the number of damaged leaves in cabbage head and dry matter content, r=0.41±0.21, and also there is no correlation revealed with sugar contents, ascorbic acid and nitrate content. High tolerance of hybrids with participation of line Bu1 explained the partial dominance nature of the trait. Hybrid combinations Kl5xBu1 and Ml3xBu1 called ‘Batal’ and ‘Shedevr’, respectively, included in registry of Moldova and

  8. Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Bell, Douglas A.; Dove, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (ΦST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (ΦST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger t estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

  9. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  11. Color optimization of conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid white light emitting diodes by incomplete energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Lai, Chun-Feng; Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chiou, Wei-Yung; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2015-01-01

    By using the wavelength conversion method, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced by applying mixtures of polysiloxane and fluorescent polymers on InGaN based light emitting diodes. UV curable organic–inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index (1.561), compromised optical, thermal and mechanical properties was used as encapsulants. Red light emitting fluorescent FABD polymer (with 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F), anthracene (A) and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B), and 4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (D) repeating units) and green light emitting fluorescent FAB polymer were used as wavelength converters. The encapsulant/fluorescent polymer mixture and InGaN produce the white light by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. WLEDs with high color rendering index (CRI, about 93), and tunable correlated color temperature (CCT) properties can be produced by controlling the composition and chemical structures of encapsulating polymer and fluorescent polymer in hybrid materials, offering cool-white and neutral-white LEDs. - Highlights: • Highly efficient white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced. • Conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid WLEDs by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. • WLEDs with high color-rendering index and tunable correlated color temperature. • Polysiloxane encapsulant with superior optical, mechanical and thermal properties

  12. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  13. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Yun-Jr; Yeh, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm 2 , and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  14. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang, E-mail: fsjuang@seed.net.tw [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yun-Jr [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Pei-Hsun [Raystar Optronics, Inc., 5F No. 25, Keya Rd. Daya Township, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yu-Sheng [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  15. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  16. High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Yongbiao; Chen, Yonghua; Yang, Dezhi; Zhao, Fangchao; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2014-03-12

    By using mixed hosts with bipolar transport properties for blue emissive layers, a novel phosphorescence/fluorescence hybrid white OLED without using an interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent regions is demonstrated. The peak EQE of the device is 19.0% and remains as high as 17.0% at the practical brightness of 1000 cd m(-2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Screening of the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus Homokaryons and Producing New Hybrid Strain by SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Edible white button mushroom (Agaricusbisporus is the most common edible mushroom in Iran and the world. The yield of this mushroom is less than the average of yield in the world because of strain degeneration and using strains with low yield. Most of the current hybrids are either identical or very similar to the first hybrids. Ongoing breeding programs are exploiting the variability in Agaricus germplasm to produce new varieties with better traits including higher yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the breeding programs is F1 production from parental homokaryons crossing. These homokaryonsis were isolated among germinated basidiospores on the culture media. During the last decades, various molecular markers based on nucleic acid polymorphisms (such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA, Amplified fragment of Length Polymorphism, Inter Simple Sequence Repeat, Simple Sequence Repeat markers have been used to differentiate homokaryons and heterokaryons. Microsatellites consist of short tandem repeat motifs distributed throughout the genome. Microsatellites are usually highly polymorphic due to a high degree of variation in the number of repeats among individuals. Microsatellite markers are multiallelic and co-dominant and thus tend to be more informative than other marker systems. Microsatellite markers have been widely developed in animals and plants and more recently in fungal species. The presence of microsatellites in the genome of A. bisporus was previously reported. Materials and Methods: In this research, 160 germinated basidiospores were collected from commercially cultivated strain A15 and they were grown on compost extract agar (CEA. The mycelial growth rate of these160 isolates was evaluated at 25°C on CEA medium. 18 isolates with slow growing rate were selected from 160 isolates. In the next step, co-dominant SSR markers were used to homokaryons

  18. Simple process of hybrid white quantum dot/organic light-emitting diodes by using quantum dot plate and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Heesun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the simple process of hybrid quantum dot (QD)/organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was proposed to apply a white illumination light by using QD plate and organic fluorescence. Conventional blue fluorescent OLEDs were firstly fabricated and then QD plates of various concentrations, which can be controlled of UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectrum, were attached under glass substrate of completed blue devices. The suggested process indicates that we could fabricate the white device through very simple process without any deposition of orange or red organic emitters. Therefore, this work would be demonstrated that the potential simple process for white applications can be applied and also can be extended to additional research on light applications.

  19. Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritland Carol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers are a large group of gymnosperm trees which are separated from the angiosperms by more than 300 million years of independent evolution. Conifer genomes are extremely large and contain considerable amounts of repetitive DNA. Currently, conifer sequence resources exist predominantly as expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length (FLcDNAs. There is no genome sequence available for a conifer or any other gymnosperm. Conifer defence-related genes often group into large families with closely related members. The goals of this study are to assess the feasibility of targeted isolation and sequence assembly of conifer BAC clones containing specific genes from two large gene families, and to characterize large segments of genomic DNA sequence for the first time from a conifer. Results We used a PCR-based approach to identify BAC clones for two target genes, a terpene synthase (3-carene synthase; 3CAR and a cytochrome P450 (CYP720B4 from a non-arrayed genomic BAC library of white spruce (Picea glauca. Shotgun genomic fragments isolated from the BAC clones were sequenced to a depth of 15.6- and 16.0-fold coverage, respectively. Assembly and manual curation yielded sequence scaffolds of 172 kbp (3CAR and 94 kbp (CYP720B4 long. Inspection of the genomic sequences revealed the intron-exon structures, the putative promoter regions and putative cis-regulatory elements of these genes. Sequences related to transposable elements (TEs, high complexity repeats and simple repeats were prevalent and comprised approximately 40% of the sequenced genomic DNA. An in silico simulation of the effect of sequencing depth on the quality of the sequence assembly provides direction for future efforts of conifer genome sequencing. Conclusion We report the first targeted cloning, sequencing, assembly, and annotation of large segments of genomic DNA from a conifer. We demonstrate that genomic BAC clones for individual members of multi-member gene

  20. Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca) BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, Björn; Hall, Dawn; Yuen, Mack; Oddy, Claire; Hamberger, Britta; Keeling, Christopher I; Ritland, Carol; Ritland, Kermit; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-08-06

    Conifers are a large group of gymnosperm trees which are separated from the angiosperms by more than 300 million years of independent evolution. Conifer genomes are extremely large and contain considerable amounts of repetitive DNA. Currently, conifer sequence resources exist predominantly as expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and full-length (FL)cDNAs. There is no genome sequence available for a conifer or any other gymnosperm. Conifer defence-related genes often group into large families with closely related members. The goals of this study are to assess the feasibility of targeted isolation and sequence assembly of conifer BAC clones containing specific genes from two large gene families, and to characterize large segments of genomic DNA sequence for the first time from a conifer. We used a PCR-based approach to identify BAC clones for two target genes, a terpene synthase (3-carene synthase; 3CAR) and a cytochrome P450 (CYP720B4) from a non-arrayed genomic BAC library of white spruce (Picea glauca). Shotgun genomic fragments isolated from the BAC clones were sequenced to a depth of 15.6- and 16.0-fold coverage, respectively. Assembly and manual curation yielded sequence scaffolds of 172 kbp (3CAR) and 94 kbp (CYP720B4) long. Inspection of the genomic sequences revealed the intron-exon structures, the putative promoter regions and putative cis-regulatory elements of these genes. Sequences related to transposable elements (TEs), high complexity repeats and simple repeats were prevalent and comprised approximately 40% of the sequenced genomic DNA. An in silico simulation of the effect of sequencing depth on the quality of the sequence assembly provides direction for future efforts of conifer genome sequencing. We report the first targeted cloning, sequencing, assembly, and annotation of large segments of genomic DNA from a conifer. We demonstrate that genomic BAC clones for individual members of multi-member gene families can be isolated in a gene-specific fashion. The

  1. The ecology of white-handed and pileated gibbons in a zone of overlap and hybridization in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Norberto; José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Kongrit, Chalita; Brockelman, Warren Y

    2017-08-01

    The study of related species in contact zones can elucidate what factors mediate species coexistence and geographical distributions. We investigated niche overlap and group interactions of two gibbon species and their hybrids co-occurring in a zone of overlap and hybridization. The location, composition and behavior of white-handed, pileated, and mixed-species gibbon groups were studied by following them during 31 consecutive months in a relatively large part of the contact zone. Twenty groups of white-handed gibbon were mapped followed by nine groups of pileated gibbons and five mixed-species groups. White-handed, pileated and mixed-species groups had similar sizes and composition, ate a high proportion of fruits, shared a large number of species in their diets, and presented similar habitat preferences. Group home range sizes did not differ between species and overlapped little with neighboring groups irrespective of species, and intraspecific and interspecific encounter rates were similar. Ecological similarities support that competition between the gibbon species exists and takes the form of interspecific territoriality. However, we could not find any clear mechanism of niche partitioning favoring coexistence between species. Our findings suggest that the contact zone is unstable and is maintained by dispersal inward from groups of the parental species. The relatively low numbers of mixed-species groups and hybrids found suggests a high degree of premating reproductive isolation, perhaps mediated by interspecific miscommunication. The existence of hybrids and backcrosses potentially undetectable from phenotypic characters alone raises the possibility of more widespread introgression than has been evident. Hence, while interspecific territoriality should reduce the rate of gene transfer, it would not necessarily present a barrier to introgression into contiguous populations of the opposite species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  3. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  4. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium–benzotriazole orange–red and fluorescent blue emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan; Su, Jian-Hua; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange–red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N 1 ,C 3 ] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1′;4′,1″]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N′-(4,4′-(1E,1′E)-2,2′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange–red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy) 3 ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: ► An iridium-based orange–red phosphor Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. ► Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. ► Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  5. High-Performance Doping-Free Hybrid White OLEDs Based on Blue Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baiquan; Nie, Han; Lin, Gengwei; Hu, Shiben; Gao, Dongyu; Zou, Jianhua; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Zujin; Ning, Honglong; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-10-04

    Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes (DF-WOLEDs) have aroused research interest because of their simple properties. However, to achieve doping-free hybrid WOLEDs (DFH-WOLEDs), avoiding aggregation-caused quenching is challenging. Herein, blue luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics, for the first time, have been demonstrated to develop DFH-WOLEDs. Unlike previous DFH-WOLEDs, both thin (10 nm) AIE luminogen (AIEgen) can be used for devices, enhancing the flexibility. Two-color devices show (i) pure-white emission, (ii) high CRI (85), and (iii) high efficiency. Particularly, 19.0 lm W 1- is the highest for pure-white DF-WOLEDs, while 35.0 lm W 1- is the best for two-color hybrid WOLEDs with CRI ≥ 80. A three-color DFH-WOLED shows broad color-correlated temperature span (2301-11628 K), (i) the first sunlight-like OLED (2500-8000 K) operating at low voltages, (ii) the broadest span among sunlight-like OLED, and (iii) possesses comparable efficiency with the best doping counterpart. Another three-color DFH-WOLED exhibits CRI > 90 at ≥3000 cd m -2 , (i) the first DF-WOLED with CRI ≥ 90 at high luminances, and (ii) the CRI (92.8) is not only the highest among AIE-based WOLEDs but also the highest among DF-WOLEDs. Such findings may unlock an alternative concept to develop DFH-WOLEDs.

  6. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  7. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the ‘white-headed’ gull (Larus sp.) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Wilson, Robert E.; Chesser, Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driscoll, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process.

  8. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  9. BROWN, BLACK, YELLOW, WHITE: FILIPINO MUSICIANSHIP IN HONG KONG AND THEIR HYBRIDIZED SOCIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William Watkins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of hybridity as one manifested in the everyday experiences of migrant Filipino musicians in Hong Kong, with a particular emphasis on their differences in a dialectic of the self and other as mobilised in performance, and, as a continuum woven into their racial colour and various social statuses. Where hybridity in music is the concern, most studies focus on hybridity as a matter of aesthetics, while in nonmusical areas, hybridity is addressed in the context of the relationship between colonized and colonizer during western imperialism, and between migrant and host in the contemporary age. This article combines these two areas: it will briefly include, but also move beyond the concern with aesthetics and propose hybridity through the cultural analysis of musical performance more as a form of social action resulting from colonialism, neocolonialism and transnationalism.

  10. Hybrid Structure White Organic Light Emitting Diode for Enhanced Efficiency by Varied Doping Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Novel materials based on Zn(HPB)2 and Ir-complexes were synthesized as blue or red emitters, respectively. White organic light emitting diodes were fabricated using the Zn(HPB)2 as a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes as a red emitting layer and Alq3 as a green emitting layer. The obtained experimental results, were based on white OLEDs fabricated using double emission layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes. The doping rate of the Ir-complexes was varied at 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%. When the doping rate of the Alq3:Ir-complexes was 0.6%, a white emission was achieved. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the device's white emission were (0.316, 0.331) at an applied voltage of 10.75 V.

  11. Factors affecting spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. E.; Sherriff, R.; Wilson, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Regional warming and increases in tree growth are contributing to increased productivity near the western forest margin in Alaska. The effects of warming on seedling recruitment has received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion near western treeline. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from white spruce (Picea glauca) stands (n = 95) sampled across a longitudinal gradient to explore factors influencing white spruce growth, establishment and recruitment in southwest Alaska. Using tree-ring chronologies developed from a subset of the plots (n = 30), we estimated establishment dates and basal area increment (BAI) for trees of all age classes across a range of site conditions. We used GLMs (generalized linear models) to explore the relationship between tree growth and temperature in undisturbed, low elevation sites along the gradient, using BAI averaged over the years 1975-2000. In addition, we examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over the previous three decades. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings and live and dead trees, representing four cohorts, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance of the different size classes. We hypothesized that the relationship between abundance and longitude would vary by size class, and that this relationship would be mediated by growing season temperature. We found that mean BAI for trees in undisturbed, low elevation sites increased with July maximum temperature, and that the slope of the relationship with temperature changed with longitude (interaction significant with 90% confidence). White spruce establishment was positively associated with longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation, as inferred from GDD. Seedling, sapling and tree abundance were also positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with smaller size classes

  12. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  13. Remanagement of Singlet and Triplet Excitons in Single-Emissive-Layer Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Blue Exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ke; Chen, Zhan; Qing, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Bo; Tam, Hoi Lam; Zhu, Furong; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-11-25

    A high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting device (WOLED) is demonstrated based on an efficient novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) blue exciplex system. This device shows a low turn-on voltage of 2.5 V and maximum forward-viewing external quantum efficiency of 25.5%, which opens a new avenue for achieving high-performance hybrid WOLEDs with simple structures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  15. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M. K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  16. Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-02-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites with the general formula APbX are attracting increasing interest as solution processable, white-light emissive materials. Recent studies have shown that their broadband emission is related to the formation of intra-gap colour centres. Here, we provide an in-depth description of the charge localization sites underlying the generation of such radiative centres and their corresponding decay dynamics, highlighting the formation of small polarons trapped within their lattice distortion field. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and first-principles calculations to study the white-light emitting 2D perovskites (EDBE)PbCl and (EDBE)PbBr, we infer the formation of Pb , Pb, and X (where X = Cl or Br) species confined within the inorganic perovskite framework. Due to strong Coulombic interactions, these species retain their original excitonic character and form self-trapped polaron-excitons acting as radiative colour centres. These findings are expected to be relevant for a broad class of white-light emitting perovskites with large polaron relaxation energy.

  17. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; Rietbergen, M.; Van der Gaast, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency obligation under a white certificate scheme can make use of voluntary actions to enhance investments in innovative energy savings projects. Energy suppliers and other market parties can additionally or in parallel participate in voluntary agreements and set energy efficiency targets. For fulfilling their voluntary agreement target, these market parties can receive tax exemptions or receive white certificates that they can sell in the market. Transaction costs and baseline definition for demonstrating energy efficiency improvement deserve special attention. This policy can assist a country to enhance energy efficiency improvement while it stimulates innovation. Cost effectiveness can be higher than the case of stand-alone policy instruments, since more financing options are available for more expensive projects. Nevertheless, the added value of the scheme lies more in the implementation of innovative measures for enhanced energy efficiency. Furthermore, market parties can discover more business opportunities in energy efficiency and establish a green image; hence an integrated scheme should achieve higher political acceptability. (author)

  18. Development of a Highly Efficient Hybrid White Organic-Light-Emitting Diode with a Single Emission Layer by Solution Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chen, Show-An

    2018-02-07

    We use a mixed host, 2,6-bis[3-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]pyridine blended with 20 wt % tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine, to lower the hole-injection barrier, along with the bipolar and high-photoluminescence-quantum-yield (Φ p = 84%), blue thermally activated delay fluorescence (TADF) material of 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine (DMAC-TRZ) as a blue dopant to compose the emission layer for the fabrication of a TADF blue organic-light-emitting diode (BOLED). The device is highly efficient with the following performance parameters: maximum brightness (B max ) = 57586 cd/m 2 , maximum current efficiency (CE max ) = 35.3 cd/A, maximum power efficiency (PE max ) = 21.4 lm/W, maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE max ) = 14.1%, and CIE coordinates (0.18, 0.42). This device has the best performance recorded among the reported solution-processed TADF BOLEDs and has a low efficiency roll-off: at brightness values of 1000 and 5000 cd/m 2 , its CEs are close, being 35.1 and 30.1 cd/A, respectively. Upon further doping of the red phosphor Ir(dpm)PQ 2 (emission peak λ max = 595 nm) into the blue emission layer, we obtained a TADF-phosphor hybrid white organic-light-emitting diode (T-P hybrid WOLED) with high performance: B max = 43594 cd/m 2 , CE max = 28.8 cd/A, PE max = 18.1 lm/W, and CIE coordinates (0.38, 0.44). This B max = 43594 cd/m 2 is better than that of the vacuum-deposited WOLED with a blue TADF emitter, 10000 cd/m 2 . This is also the first report on a T-P hybrid WOLED with a solution-processed emitting layer.

  19. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  20. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  1. Polaron Self-localization in White-light Emitting Hybrid Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Lo, Shu-Zee Alencious; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Soci, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites with general formula $APbX_4$ are attracting increasing interest as solution processable, white-light emissive materials. Recent studies have shown that their broadband emission is related to the formation of intra-gap color centers; however, the nature and dynamics of the emissive species have remained elusive. Here we show that the broadband photoluminescence of the 2D perovskites $(EDBE)PbCl_4$ and $(EDBE)PbBr_4$ stems from the localization of small polaron...

  2. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH 4 + into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH 4 + feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH 4 + fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15 N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15 N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  3. Egg white hybrid nanoflower (EW-hNF) with biomimetic polyphenol oxidase reactivity: Synthesis, characterization and potential use in decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaynak, Cevahir; Kocazorbaz, Ebru; Özdemir, Nalan; Zihnioglu, Figen

    2018-04-01

    In this study, for the first time, we described organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers using crude egg white as the organic component and copper (II) ions as the inorganic component under the mild conditions. The synthesized egg white-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (EW-hNFs) were characterized using SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR analysis. The biomimetic Polyphenol/Peroxidase like activities of synthesized egg white-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (EW-hNFs) were determined by using various phenolics with or without H 2 O 2 . Optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters, reusability, pH and thermal stability of EW-hNFs were also studied. The most noteworthy aspect of our study is that synthesized EW-hNFs which consist of only egg white proteins, showed polyphenol oxidase activity. Furthermore, potential use of the EW-hNFs in the discoloration of the some synthetic dyes was also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

  5. Biosynthesis of the major tetrahydroxystilbenes in spruce, astringin and isorhapontin, proceeds via resveratrol and is enhanced by fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ralph, Steven G; Bohlmann, Joerg; Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Stilbenes are dibenzyl polyphenolic compounds produced in several unrelated plant families that appear to protect against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stilbene biosynthesis has been well described in economically important plants, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and pine (Pinus species). However, very little is known about the biosynthesis and ecological role of stilbenes in spruce (Picea), an important gymnosperm tree genus in temperate and boreal forests. To investigate the biosynthesis of stilbenes in spruce, we identified two similar stilbene synthase (STS) genes in Norway spruce (Picea abies), PaSTS1 and PaSTS2, which had orthologs with high sequence identity in sitka (Picea sitchensis) and white (Picea glauca) spruce. Despite the conservation of STS sequences in these three spruce species, they differed substantially from angiosperm STSs. Several types of in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that the P. abies STSs catalyze the condensation of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A and three molecules of malonyl-coenzyme A to yield the trihydroxystilbene resveratrol but do not directly form the dominant spruce stilbenes, which are tetrahydroxylated. However, in transgenic Norway spruce overexpressing PaSTS1, significantly higher amounts of the tetrahydroxystilbene glycosides, astringin and isorhapontin, were produced. This result suggests that the first step of stilbene biosynthesis in spruce is the formation of resveratrol, which is further modified by hydroxylation, O-methylation, and O-glucosylation to yield astringin and isorhapontin. Inoculating spruce with fungal mycelium increased STS transcript abundance and tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside production. Extracts from STS-overexpressing lines significantly inhibited fungal growth in vitro compared with extracts from control lines, suggesting that spruce stilbenes have a role in antifungal defense.

  6. Haematological indicators in hybrid mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos with regard to the use of meal from whole white lupin seeds in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapletal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to assess the effect of replacing soybean meal with the meal from whole white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus of the Zulika variety in diets on selected haematological indicators in 40-day-old fattened hybrid mallard ducks. A total of 180 Cherry Valley ducks were divided into three groups (E1, E2, and control. The control group was fed a diet containing soybean meal. Soybean meal replaced with 50% and 100% meal of white lupin seeds were used in group E1 and group E2, respectively. At the end of the fattening, 12 ducks (6 males and 6 females were randomly selected from each group for a haematological examination. From the result of this study, it is clear that the effect of the diet was found only on the slightly varying number of white blood cells and on the proportion of monocytes. Ducks of group E2 showed a slight increase in the total number of leukocytes which was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage share of monocytes (P < 0.05. Based on the results, it can be claimed that the replacement of soybean meal with meal from the Zulika variety of whole white lupin seeds in the diet did not have a negative effect on the determined blood indicators. Therefore, whole white lupin seeds were successfully used as the important protein component of the diet for fattening hybrid mallard ducks.

  7. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  8. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsagar Korripally; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Don C. Jones; Peter J. Kitin; Dan Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel; A. A. Brakhage

    2015-01-01

    Since uncertainty remains about how white rot fungi oxidize and degrade lignin in wood, it would be useful to monitor changes in fungal gene expression during the onset of ligninolysis on a natural substrate. We grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium on solid spruce wood and included oxidant-sensing beads bearing the fluorometric dye BODIPY 581/591 in...

  9. White-emissive tandem-type hybrid organic/polymer diodes with (0.33, 0.33) chromaticity coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin; Huang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Tsou, Chuan-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Tin

    2009-11-09

    This study reports fabrication of white-emissive, tandem-type, hybrid organic/polymer light-emitting diodes (O/PLED). The tandem devices are made by stacking a blue-emissive OLED on a yellow-emissive phenyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer-based PLED and applying an organic oxide/Al/molybdenum oxide (MoO(3)) complex structure as a connecting structure or charge-generation layer (CGL). The organic oxide/Al/MoO(3) CGL functions as an effective junction interface for the transport and injection of opposite charge carriers through the stacked configuration. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the tandem-type devices can be tuned by varying the intensity of the emission in each emissive component to yield the visible-range spectra from 400 to 750 nm, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) and a high color rendering capacity as used for illumination. The EL spectra also exhibit good color stability under various bias conditions. The tandem-type device of emission with chromaticity coordinates, (0.30, 0.31), has maximum brightness and luminous efficiency over 25,000 cd/m(2) and approximately 4.2 cd/A, respectively.

  10. Efficient and colour-stable hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes utilizing electron-hole balanced spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and OLED Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Ouk; Kim, Seul-Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Engineering Research Institute (ERI), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Kee Young [Dongwoo Fine-Chem Co., Ltd, Pyeongtaek 451-822 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Hi, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.k, E-mail: skwon@gnu.ac.k [Department of Chemistry and RINS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-13

    High-efficiency two-colour white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) comprising a newly synthesized iridium complex orange phosphor ((impy){sub 2}Ir(acac)) and a blue fluorophor (BD012) have been realized by placing several kinds of thin spacers between two emitters. Hybrid WOLEDs with a spacer composed of a hole-transporting N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and an electron-transporting 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) exhibit a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 8.4% and a negligible colour change (the colour coordinate of (0.39, 0.41) at 1000 cd m{sup -2}) with increasing brightness, whereas the device using a hole-transporting mCP spacer shows a relatively low EQE of 6.2% and a large shift of emitting colour with increasing brightness. Device performance is further characterized based on the charge transport behaviour of the spacers inserted between the two emitters.

  11. Efficient and colour-stable hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes utilizing electron-hole balanced spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo; Jung, Sung Ouk; Kim, Seul-Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Kee Young; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2010-01-01

    High-efficiency two-colour white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) comprising a newly synthesized iridium complex orange phosphor ((impy) 2 Ir(acac)) and a blue fluorophor (BD012) have been realized by placing several kinds of thin spacers between two emitters. Hybrid WOLEDs with a spacer composed of a hole-transporting N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and an electron-transporting 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) exhibit a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 8.4% and a negligible colour change (the colour coordinate of (0.39, 0.41) at 1000 cd m -2 ) with increasing brightness, whereas the device using a hole-transporting mCP spacer shows a relatively low EQE of 6.2% and a large shift of emitting colour with increasing brightness. Device performance is further characterized based on the charge transport behaviour of the spacers inserted between the two emitters.

  12. Highly efficient orange and warm white phosphorescent OLEDs based on a host material with a carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yun; Tao, Silu; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chuan; Wei, Huaixin; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-01

    A new carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid compound, 3,3'(2,7-di(naphthaline-2-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(9-phenyl-9H-carbazole) (NFBC) was synthesized and characterized. The compound exhibits blue-violet emission both in solution and in film, with peaks centered at 404 and 420 nm. In addition to the application as a blue emitter, NFBC is demonstrated to be a good host for phosphorescent dopants. By doping Ir(2-phq)3 in NFBC, a highly efficient orange organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a maximum efficiency of 32 cd A(-1) (26.5 Lm W(-1)) was obtained. Unlike most phosphorescent OLEDs, the device prepared in our study shows little efficiency roll-off at high brightness and maintains current efficiencies of 31.9 and 26.8 cd A(-1) at a luminance of 1000 and 10,000 cd m(-2), respectively. By using NFBC simultaneously as a blue fluorescence emitter and as a host for a phosphorescent dopant, a warm white OLED with a maximum efficiency of 22.9 Lm W(-1) (21.9 cd A(-1)) was also obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, S; Ozel, T; Sari, E; Demir, H V

    2007-01-01

    We introduce white light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of single, dual, triple and quadruple combinations hybridized with InGaN/GaN LEDs. Such hybridization of different nanocrystal combinations provides the ability to conveniently adjust white light parameters including the tristimulus coordinates (x,y), correlated colour temperature (T c ) and colour rending index (R a ). We present the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of our white hybrid nanocrystal-LEDs that incorporate combinations of (1) yellow nanocrystals (λ PL = 580 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.25), T c = 2692 K and R a 14.69; (2) cyan and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.28), T c = 3246 K and R a = 19.65; (3) green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.30,0.28), T c = 7521 K and R a = 40.95; and (4) cyan, green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500, 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.24,0.33), T c = 11 171 K and R a 71.07. These hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications with their highly adjustable properties

  14. Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off, stable color and extreme brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Baiquan; Zou, Jianhua [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Su, Yueju; Gao, Dongyu [New Vision Opto-Electronic Technology Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lan, Linfeng [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Hong, E-mail: tao.h@scut.edu.cn [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Junbiao [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highly efficient and bright hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on simple architectures have been successfully fabricated and characterized. The optimized device can reach a maximum forward-viewing power efficiency (PE) of 20.2 lm/W, a peak forward-viewing current efficiency (CE) of 30.7 cd/A, an extremely high brightness of 95,683 cd/m{sup 2}, and a Commission International de l’E clairage chromaticity coordinates of (0. 436, 0.425) at 12 V. Even at the illumination-relevant brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, a forward-viewing PE of 17.0 lm/W and CE of 30.7 cd/A are obtained. Moreover, it is found that the device not only suffers slight efficiency roll-off but also exhibits a stable color during a large range of brightness, indicating that the device can satisfy the future commercial requirements. Undoubtedly, the results will be beneficial to the design of both material and device architecture for high-performance WOLEDs and next-generation solid-state lighting sources. - Highlights: • A simple HWOLED with B/O/B structure has been successfully developed. • A extremely high brigthness of 95,683 cd/m{sup 2} is obtained. • A high forward-viewing CE of 30.7 cd/A and PE of 20.2 lm/W are achieved. • Efficiency roll-off is very low and color is relatively stable.

  15. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  16. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  17. The timing and nature of Late Quaternary vegetation changes in the northern Great Plains, USA and Canada: a re-assessment of the spruce phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yansa, Catherine H.

    2006-02-01

    This paper revises the chronology for the northward migration of Picea glauca (white spruce) across the northern Great Plains, following the recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, and reinterprets the species composition and structure of the late-glacial vegetation on the basis of pollen and plant-macrofossil analysis. The timing of spruce migration is based on 26 14C ages obtained from Picea macrofossils. The date for the appearance of white spruce in southern South Dakota, USA, remains unchanged, 12,600 14C yr BP (ca 15,000 cal yr BP), but its arrival in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, by 10,300 14C yr BP (ca 12,100 cal yr BP) is about 1500 years later than previously estimated based on an organic sediment date. Picea glauca thus migrated northwards at an average rate of 0.38 km/ 14C year (0.30 km/calendar year), significantly slower than the previously published rate of 2 km/ 14C year. White spruce trees probably inhabited lake shorelines, whereas prairie, parkland, and boreal plants occupied both lowlands and uplands, forming an open white spruce parkland. This interpretation differs from a previous reconstruction of a boreal-type spruce forest and thus offers another paleoclimatic interpretation. Precipitation was probably low and summer temperatures relatively mild, averaging about 19 °C.

  18. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  19. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  20. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  1. 2014 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: a full immersion in bioanalysis (Part 2 - hybrid LBA/LCMS, ELN & regulatory agencies' input).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufield, Dawn; Neubert, Hendrik; Garofolo, Fabio; Kirkovsky, Leo; Stevenson, Lauren; Dumont, Isabelle; Kaur, Surinder; Xu, Keyang; Alley, Stephen C; Szapacs, Matthew; Arnold, Mark; Bansal, Surendra; Haidar, Sam; Welink, Jan; Le Blaye, Olivier; Wakelin-Smith, Jason; Whale, Emma; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Bustard, Mark; Katori, Noriko; Amaravadi, Lakshmi; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Beaver, Chris; Bergeron, Annik; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Cojocaru, Laura; DeSilva, Binodh; Duggan, Jeff; Fluhler, Eric; Gorovits, Boris; Gupta, Swati; Hayes, Roger; Ho, Stacy; Ingelse, Benno; King, Lindsay; Lévesque, Ann; Lowes, Steve; Ma, Mark; Musuku, Adrien; Myler, Heather; Olah, Timothy; Patel, Shefali; Rose, Mark; Schultz, Gary; Smeraglia, John; Swanson, Steven; Torri, Albert; Vazvaei, Faye; Wilson, Amanda; Woolf, Eric; Xue, Li; Yang, Tong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 8th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (8th WRIB), a 5-day full immersion in the evolving field of bioanalysis, took place in Universal City, California, USA. Close to 500 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide convened to share, review, discuss and agree on approaches to address current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches and immunogenicity. From the prolific discussions held during the workshop, specific recommendations are presented in this 2014 White Paper. As with the previous years' editions, this paper acts as a practical tool to help the bioanalytical community continue advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2014 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations for Hybrid LBA/LCMS, Electronic Laboratory Notebook and Regulatory Agencies' Input. Part 1 (Small molecules bioanalysis using LCMS) was published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(22) and Part 3 (Large molecules bioanalysis using LBA and Immunogenicity) will be published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(24).

  2. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  3. Spruce needles used as radioecological biotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.

    2009-01-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout 1986. More than 600 spruce needle samples at selected locations of the Bioindicator Grid were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: 137 Cs, 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the soil-to-plant transfer. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. (orig.)

  4. Selecting the optimal synthesis parameters of InP/CdxZn1-xSe quantum dots for a hybrid remote phosphor white LED for general lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckaert, Jana; Correia, António; Tessier, Mickael D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2017-11-27

    Quantum dots can be used in white LEDs for lighting applications to fill the spectral gaps in the combined emission spectrum of the blue pumping LED and a broad band phosphor, in order to improve the source color rendering properties. Because quantum dots are low scattering materials, their use can also reduce the amount of backscattered light which can increase the overall efficiency of the white LED. The absorption spectrum and narrow emission spectrum of quantum dots can be easily tuned by altering their synthesis parameters. Due to the re-absorption events between the different luminescent materials and the light interaction with the LED package, determining the optimal quantum dot properties is a highly non-trivial task. In this paper we propose a methodology to select the optimal quantum dot to be combined with a broad band phosphor in order to realize a white LED with optimal luminous efficacy and CRI. The methodology is based on accurate and efficient simulations using the extended adding-doubling approach that take into account all the optical interactions. The method is elaborated for the specific case of a hybrid, remote phosphor white LED with YAG:Ce phosphor in combination with InP/CdxZn 1-x Se type quantum dots. The absorption and emission spectrum of the quantum dots are generated in function of three synthesis parameters (core size, shell size and cadmium fraction) by a semi-empirical 'quantum dot model' to include the continuous tunability of these spectra. The sufficiently fast simulations allow to scan the full parameter space consisting of these synthesis parameters and luminescent material concentrations in terms of CRI and efficacy. A conclusive visualization of the final performance allows to make a well-considered trade-off between these performance parameters. For the hybrid white remote phosphor LED with YAG:Ce and InP/CdxZn 1-x Se quantum dots a CRI Ra = 90 (with R9>50) and an overall efficacy of 110 lm/W is found.

  5. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Juan; Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run; Chi, Zhenguo; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2′ ] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt) 2 Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  6. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chi, Zhenguo, E-mail: chizhg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2′}] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  7. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on UV light-emitting diodes with conjugated polymers-(CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots as hybrid phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunchul; Chung, Wonkeun; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using GaN-based 380-nm UV LEDs precoated with the composite of blue-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(2-methoxy-5-{2-ethylhexyloxy)-1 ,4-phenylene)]), yellow green-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)]), and 605-nm red-emitting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores were obtained by solvothermal route using CdO, Se precursors and ZnS shells were synthesized by using diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathiane precursors. The optical properties of CdSe/ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structural data and composition of the QDs were transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and EDX technique. The quantum yield and size of the QDs were 58.7% and about 6.7 nm, respectively. Three-band white light was generated by hybridizing blue (430 nm), green (535 nm), and red (605 nm) emission. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the device was extremely improved by introducing the QDs. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinate, color temperature, and CRI of a white LED at 20 mA were (0.379, 0.368), 3969 K, and 90, respectively.

  8. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C; Friedline, Christopher J; Whipple, Amy V; Schoettle, Anna W; Leal-Sàenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A; Cushman, Samuel A; Waring, Kristen M; Eckert, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between extrinsic factors, such as disruptive selection and intrinsic factors, such as genetic incompatibilities among loci, often contribute to the maintenance of species boundaries. The relative roles of these factors in the establishment of reproductive isolation can be examined using species pairs characterized by gene flow throughout their divergence history. We investigated the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries between Pinus strobiformis and Pinus flexilis. Utilizing ecological niche modelling, demographic modelling and genomic cline analyses, we illustrated a divergence history with continuous gene flow. Our results supported an abundance of advanced generation hybrids and a lack of loci exhibiting steep transition in allele frequency across the hybrid zone. Additionally, we found evidence for climate-associated variation in the hybrid index and niche divergence between parental species and the hybrid zone. These results are consistent with extrinsic factors, such as climate, being an important isolating mechanism. A build-up of intrinsic incompatibilities and of coadapted gene complexes is also apparent, although these appear to be in the earliest stages of development. This supports previous work in coniferous species demonstrating the importance of extrinsic factors in facilitating speciation. Overall, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that varying strength and direction of selection pressures across the long lifespans of conifers, in combination with their other life history traits, delays the evolution of strong intrinsic incompatibilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS quantum dots in a hybrid reactor and their application to white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Jeong, Sohee; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We report successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) using a customized hybrid flow reactor, which is based on serial combination of a batch-type mixer and a flow-type furnace. InP cores and InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were successively synthesized in the hybrid reactor in a simple one-step process. In this reactor, the flow rate of the solutions was typically 1 ml min −1 , 100 times larger than that of conventional microfluidic reactors. In order to synthesize high-quality InP/ZnS QDs, we controlled both the flow rate and the crystal growth temperature. Finally, we obtained high-quality InP/ZnS QDs in colors from bluish green to red, and we demonstrated that these core/shell QDs could be incorporated into white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices to improve color rendering performance. (paper)

  10. Successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS quantum dots in a hybrid reactor and their application to white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Jeong, Sohee; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We report successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) using a customized hybrid flow reactor, which is based on serial combination of a batch-type mixer and a flow-type furnace. InP cores and InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were successively synthesized in the hybrid reactor in a simple one-step process. In this reactor, the flow rate of the solutions was typically 1 ml min-1, 100 times larger than that of conventional microfluidic reactors. In order to synthesize high-quality InP/ZnS QDs, we controlled both the flow rate and the crystal growth temperature. Finally, we obtained high-quality InP/ZnS QDs in colors from bluish green to red, and we demonstrated that these core/shell QDs could be incorporated into white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices to improve color rendering performance.

  11. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  12. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...

  13. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  14. Assembly of the Complete Sitka Spruce Chloroplast Genome Using 10X Genomics' GemCode Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Coombe

    Full Text Available The linked read sequencing library preparation platform by 10X Genomics produces barcoded sequencing libraries, which are subsequently sequenced using the Illumina short read sequencing technology. In this new approach, long fragments of DNA are partitioned into separate micro-reactions, where the same index sequence is incorporated into each of the sequencing fragment inserts derived from a given long fragment. In this study, we exploited this property by using reads from index sequences associated with a large number of reads, to assemble the chloroplast genome of the Sitka spruce tree (Picea sitchensis. Here we report on the first Sitka spruce chloroplast genome assembled exclusively from P. sitchensis genomic libraries prepared using the 10X Genomics protocol. We show that the resulting 124,049 base pair long genome shares high sequence similarity with the related white spruce and Norway spruce chloroplast genomes, but diverges substantially from a previously published P. sitchensis- P. thunbergii chimeric genome. The use of reads from high-frequency indices enabled separation of the nuclear genome reads from that of the chloroplast, which resulted in the simplification of the de Bruijn graphs used at the various stages of assembly.

  15. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.

    1998-01-01

    . No relationship between the position of the collectors and the forest edge or dominating wind-direction was found, suggesting that dry deposition was not a major source. The concentration of organic halogens was related to that of organic carbon and decreased from the tree-trunk and outwards. In addition......, the concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.......Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation...

  16. Radioecological investigations on tree rings of spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.; Mueller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tree ring analysis contributes essentially to the explanation of physiological and element-specific transport phenomena in trees. After the accident in Chernobyl the behaviour of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in trees is most informative for the prediction of the future development of the distribution of these elements. In this study the uptake and the long term behaviour of Cs-134, Cs-137, Pb-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40, Th-228, Th-230, Th-232, U-234 and U-238 in tree rings of spruce are examined by α- and γ-spectrometry. All samples are dried at 105C and ashed at 450C in a muffle furnace. The distributions found in the tree rings vary for different radionuclides. A soil profile from the spruce stand provides additional information

  17. Bat habitat use in White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Krusic; Mariko Yamasaki; Christopher D. Neefus; Peter J. Pekins

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, we surveyed the foraging and feeding activity of bat species with broadband bat detectors at 2 foliage heights in 4 age classes of northern hardwood and spruce/fir forest stands in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire and Maine. The association of bat activity with trails and water bodies and the effect of elevation were measured. Mist nets,...

  18. Ethanol exposure can inhibit red spruce ( Picea rubens ) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Brittany M. Verrico; Victor Vankus; Stephen R. Keller

    2018-01-01

    Flotation of seeds in solvents is a common means of separating unfilled and filled seeds. While a few protocols for processing red spruce (Picea rubens) seeds recommend ethanol flotation, delayed and reduced germination have been reported. We conducted an ethanol bioassay on seeds previously stored at -20°C to quantify the concentration required to separate red spruce...

  19. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  20. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Faccoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012 on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1 pure spruce plantations; (2 pure spruce reforestations; (3 pure spruce mountain forests; (4 pure spruce alpine forests; (5 spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6 spruce-broadleaf mixed forests; and (7 spruce-conifer-broadleaf mixed forests. The collected data included the amount of I. typographus damage and the location and composition of the infested forests. The results indicate that different forest types are differently susceptible to I. typographus. Plantations, reforestations and mountain spruce forests show mean damage and mean number of infestations higher than other forest types. Within pure spruce forests, alpine forests growing at high elevations (>1300 m suffer low damage. Furthermore, the mean number of infestation spots recorded annually in the different spruce forest types is negatively correlated with a Naturality Index value. The results suggest that forest composition and elevation are the main factors driving the risk of I. typographus damage. A new management strategy for some spruce forest types is needed, with a progressive reduction of pure spruce forests at low altitude and an increase of broadleaf composition.

  1. Ecological Factors Influencing Norway Spruce Regeneration on Nurse Logs in a Subalpine Virgin Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Stroheker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of Picea abies in high-elevation mountain forests often depends on the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD, as logs provide sites with more favorable conditions for spruce regeneration compared to the forest floor. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on the factors that are conducive to or hindering spruce establishment on CWD. We examined spruce regeneration on CWD by sampling 303 plots (50 cm × 50 cm each on 56 downed logs in a virgin forest in the Swiss Alps. Variables describing microsite conditions were measured, and fungi were isolated from wood samples. To investigate the relationship between the ecological factors and establishment success, two models were fitted with seedling and sapling density as response variables, respectively. Besides log diameter, the models identified different ecological factors as significant for seedling and sapling establishment, i.e., regeneration depends on different factors in different development stages. Seedling density depended on the type of rot, log inclination, and decay stage. Sapling density depended mainly on light availability, cover by bark and moss, the time of tree fall, and the distance between the log surface and the forest floor. A total of 22 polypore fungi were isolated from the wood samples, four of them being threatened species. White- and brown-rot fungi were found in all decay stages. The visual assessment of the type of rot in the field corresponded in only 15% of cases to the type of rot caused by the isolated fungi; hence caution is needed when making field assessments of rot types.

  2. The vegetation of spruce forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega Natural State Reserve is located in the Arkhangelsk Province in the northern taiga subzone. Spruce forests represent the dominant vegetation formation of its territory. The vegetation of this forest is classified, based on 192 phytosociological descriptions. It reveals 12 associations, which represent 7 groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa, including analysis of their biodiversity, are provided. The revealed syntaxa differ both in species composition and environmental conditions: moisture, nutrition, nitrogen availability and acidity. Most poor conditions in terms of mineral nutrition occupy sphagnous spruce forests and bilberry-dominated spruce forests, while under the richest conditions varioherbaceous, humidoherbaceous and nemoral-herbaceous spruce forests occur. The Pinega Reserve is the only locality, where the Piceetum rubo saxatilis-vacciniosum association occurs in the northern taiga subzone.

  3. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  4. Spruce needles used as radioecological biotracers; Fichtennadeln als radiooekologische Bioindikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; Idinger, J. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.; Fuerst, A. [BFW - Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fuer Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Waldschutz, Pflanzenanalyse; Maringer, F.J. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; BEV - Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout 1986. More than 600 spruce needle samples at selected locations of the Bioindicator Grid were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 238}U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the soil-to-plant transfer. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. (orig.)

  5. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  6. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. © Crown copyright 2016.

  7. Adaptation of lodgepole pine and interior spruce to climate: implications for reforestation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepe, Katharina J; Hamann, Andreas; Smets, Pia; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-02-01

    We investigated adaptation to climate in populations of two widespread tree species across a range of contrasting environments in western Canada. In a series of common garden experiments, bud phenology, cold hardiness, and seedling growth traits were assessed for 254 populations in the interior spruce complex (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, and their hybrids) and for 281 populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Complex multitrait adaptations to different ecological regions such as boreal, montane, coastal, and arid environments accounted for 15-20% of the total variance. This population differentiation could be directly linked to climate variables through multivariate regression tree analysis. Our results suggest that adaptation to climate does not always correspond linearly to temperature gradients. For example, opposite trait values (e.g., early versus late budbreak) may be found in response to apparently similar cold environments (e.g., boreal and montane). Climate change adaptation strategies may therefore not always be possible through a simple shift of seed sources along environmental gradients. For the two species in this study, we identified a relatively small number of uniquely adapted populations (11 for interior spruce and nine for lodgepole pine) that may be used to manage adaptive variation under current and expected future climates.

  8. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  9. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1055380 and 1055381. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02501j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic–organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date. PMID:28757985

  10. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  12. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  13. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  14. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  15. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  16. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  17. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Majolagbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%. Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05 percentage decolourization (≥43.94% at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

  18. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  19. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  20. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  2. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  3. Spruce budworm core B.t. test - 1980 combined summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald S. Walton; Franklin B. Lewis

    1982-01-01

    Two commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bet.) were aerially applied in 1980 to populations of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) in Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Operations were conducted under the auspices of CANUSA-East with standardized procedures for spray application and population...

  4. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  7. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakowski, Dominik; Veblen, Thomas T; Bebi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand-replacing fires were

  8. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  9. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  10. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  11. Influence of soil site class on growth and decay of northern white-cedar and two associates in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Hofmeyer; R.S. Seymour; L.S. Kenefic

    2009-01-01

    Basal area growth of outwardly sound northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) was compared with that of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) across site and light exposure class gradients on 60 sites throughout northern Maine. Once adjusted for sapwood area,...

  12. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in sourthern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; A. Steven Munson

    2004-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), produces the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en- 1-one (MCH) (Rudinsky et al. 1974). MCH has reduced the numbers of spruce beetles attracted to infested logs and synthetic semiochemical lures or reduced colonization rates throughout the beetles range (Kline

  13. Hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes combining blue-fluorescent polymer and red phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes as active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germino, Jose Carlos; Faleiros, Marcelo Meira; Moraes, Emmanuel Santos; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon, E-mail: kakagermino@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Domingues, Raquel Aparecida [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Quites, Fernando Junior [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Freitas, Jilian Nei de [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we proposed a PFO composite with two salicylidene based Pt(II) coordination compounds, the [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] (red emitters), as emissive layer (EML) for Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), combining a blue-fluorescent polymer (PFO) with red-phosphorescent Pt(II) coordination complexes in order to obtain an efficient white electroluminescent EML for WOLEDs application. Firstly, [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] were synthesized, purified and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, yielding their respective expected molecular structures. The photoluminescence properties of the devices were evaluated by steady-state (electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies) and transient (fluorescence decays and TRES) measurements. It was observed the presence of non-radiative energy transfer processes between the PFO derivative and Pt(II) complexes. Posteriorly, the Pt(II) complexes were blended with PVK at 1% mol:mol ratio and OLEDs were made, leading to red-emitting devices with high color purity for the two coordination compounds. However, the two devices present low current efficiency values. In order to improve the electroluminescence properties of Pt(II) complexes PhOLEDs, PVK host was substituted by PFO at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% mol:mol ratios of complex and it was observed a great improvement of their optical-electronic properties in terms of luminance, voltage, current density and current efficiency in comparison to PVK composites or pure PFO devices. At 2.5% concentration, predominant bands of Pt(II) complexes were observed at low and high voltages. For the other concentrations, a different behavior was observed: the emission bands and device color were function of applied electrical field, exhibiting a red color at lower voltages (5 to 9V) and the PFO characteristic emission between 9 and 13V, leading to a white light emission at 13V. The best results were obtained for [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] coordination compound

  14. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  15. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  16. Heat Resistance of Glued Finger Joints in Spruce Wood Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sviták

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heat resistance of glued spruce wood was evaluated for different joint types and adhesives. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and also fracture evaluation were investigated on glued spruce samples made by the finger-jointed principle. Finger-jointed samples were glued with polyurethane (PUR and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF adhesives. Heat loading was realized at temperatures 60, 80, and 110 °C and compared with wood with 20 °C. A static bending test with four-point flexural test was used. Elevated temperature and adhesive type had an important influence on the bending strength. On the other hand, adhesive type had a significant influence on the modulus of elasticity, but elevated temperature had no substantial influence.

  17. Spruce monoculture establishment affects functional traits of soil microarthropod communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2013), s. 479-486 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:SGA BF JU(CZ) 30-0004; GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce * beech Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  18. Component biomass equations for black spruce in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Czapowskyj; D. J. Robison; R. D. Briggs; E. H. White; E. H. White

    1985-01-01

    Component biomass prediction equations are presented for young black spruce (Picea mariana B.S.P. (Mill,:)) in northern Maine. A weighted least squares model was used to construct the eq~iationsfo r small trees from 1 to 15 cm d.b.h., and an ordinary least squares model for trees less than 2 m in height. A linearized allometric model was also tested but was not used....

  19. Death of spruce needles due to air-borne ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maran, B

    1959-01-01

    This paper discusses the damage caused by the deposition of ash, with a high content of sulfur dioxide, on spruce trees. The data in this paper covers the source of the pollution, the effects of weather on the transport of the pollution, and the type of damage caused by the pollution. Other types of trees included in the data are pine, larch, and 5 broadleaf species.

  20. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  1. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  2. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenacher, Germar

    2014-01-01

    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The yield

  3. Using maximum entropy modeling to identify and prioritize red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan R. Beane; James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce forests in West Virginia are found in island-like distributions at high elevations and provide essential habitat for the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander and the recently delisted Virginia northern flying squirrel. Therefore, it is important to identify restoration priorities of red spruce forests. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify areas of...

  4. Cold tolerance and photosystem function in a montane red spruce population: physiological relationships with foliar carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Shaberg; G.R. Strimbeck; G.J. Hawley; D.H. DeHayes; J.B. Shane; P.F. Murakami; T.D. Perkins; J.R. Donnelly; B.L. Wong

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in northern montane forests of eastern North America appears to be distinctive with respect to at least two aspects of winter physiology. First, red spruce attains only a modest level of midwinter cold tolerance compared to other north temperate conifers and appears barely capable of avoiding freezing injury at...

  5. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  6. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees...

  7. Gene expression changes during short day induced terminal bud formation in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Daniel K A; Yakovlev, Igor A; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Holefors, Anna; Opseth, Lars; Olsen, Jorunn E; Junttila, Olavi; Johnsen, Øystein

    2011-02-01

    The molecular basis for terminal bud formation in autumn is not well understood in conifers. By combining suppression subtractive hybridization and monitoring of gene expression by qRT-PCR analysis, we aimed to identify genes involved in photoperiodic control of growth cessation and bud set in Norway spruce. Close to 1400 ESTs were generated and their functional distribution differed between short day (SD-12 h photoperiod) and long day (LD-24 h photoperiod) libraries. Many genes with putative roles in protection against stress appeared differentially regulated under SD and LD, and also differed in transcript levels between 6 and 20 SDs. Of these, PaTFL1(TERMINAL FLOWER LIKE 1) showed strongly increased transcript levels at 6 SDs. PaCCCH(CCCH-TYPE ZINC FINGER) and PaCBF2&3(C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR 2&3) showed a later response at 20 SDs, with increased and decreased transcript levels, respectively. For rhythmically expressed genes such as CBFs, such differences might represent a phase shift in peak expression, but might also suggest a putative role in response to SD. Multivariate analyses revealed strong differences in gene expression between LD, 6 SD and 20 SD. The robustness of the gene expression patterns was verified in 6 families differing in bud-set timing under natural light with gradually decreasing photoperiod. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Connection between the decline of spruce and occurrence of animal pests, especially nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timans, U.

    1986-12-01

    In various regions of Bavaria, affected by the decline of spruce, attack by insects and especially nematodes was examined on diseased and healthy spruces. A connection between harmful forest insects and the decline of spruce did not become evident, neither over wide areas nor by examination of single trees. Attack by nematodes was examined in soil and wood samples and also in fine feeder roots of diseased and healthy trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes were not found in the wood and in feeder roots. Although root-parasitic nematodes were present in soil samples, their density was too little to account for a direct damage to spruce. They occurred likewise in samples from healthy and diseased trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes can thus be excluded as a possible causal agent for the decline of spruce.

  9. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  10. Release of suppressed red spruce using canopy gap creation—Ecological restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Ford, W. Mark; Schuler, T.S.; Palmer, J.; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the results of an understory red spruce release experiment in hardwood-dominated stands that have a small component of understory red spruce. In 2005, 188 target spruce were identified in sample plots at six locations in central West Virginia. We projected a vertical cylinder above the crown of all target spruces, and in 2007, we performed a release treatment whereby overtopping hardwoods were treated with herbicide using a stem injection technique. Release treatments removed 0–10% (Control), 11–50% (Low), 51–89% (Medium), and ≤90% (High) of the basal area of overtopping trees. We also took canopy photographs at the time of each remeasurement in 2007, 2010, and 2013, and compared basal removal treatments and resulting 2010 canopy openness and understory light values. The high treatment level provided significantly greater six-year dbh and height growth than the other treatment levels. Based on these results, we propose that a tree-centered release approach utilizing small canopy gaps that emulate the historical, gap-phase disturbance regime provides a good strategy for red spruce restoration in hardwood forests where overstory spruce are virtually absent, and where red spruce is largely relegated to the understory.

  11. Increased spruce tree growth in Central Europe since 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Štěpánek, Petr; Ståhl, Göran; Tumajer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Tree growth response to recent environmental changes is of key interest for forest ecology. This study addressed the following questions with respect to Norway spruce (Picea abies, L. Karst.) in Central Europe: Has tree growth accelerated during the last five decades? What are the main environmental drivers of the observed tree radial stem growth and how much variability can be explained by them? Using a nationwide dendrochronological sampling of Norway spruce in the Czech Republic (1246 trees, 266 plots), novel regional tree-ring width chronologies for 40(±10)- and 60(±10)-year old trees were assembled, averaged across three elevation zones (break points at 500 and 700m). Correspondingly averaged drivers, including temperature, precipitation, nitrogen (N) deposition and ambient CO 2 concentration, were used in a general linear model (GLM) to analyze the contribution of these in explaining tree ring width variability for the period from 1961 to 2013. Spruce tree radial stem growth responded strongly to the changing environment in Central Europe during the period, with a mean tree ring width increase of 24 and 32% for the 40- and 60-year old trees, respectively. The indicative General Linear Model analysis identified CO 2 , precipitation during the vegetation season, spring air temperature (March-May) and N-deposition as the significant covariates of growth, with the latter including interactions with elevation zones. The regression models explained 57% and 55% of the variability in the two tree ring width chronologies, respectively. Growth response to N-deposition showed the highest variability along the elevation gradient with growth stimulation/limitation at sites below/above 700m. A strong sensitivity of stem growth to CO 2 was also indicated, suggesting that the effect of rising ambient CO 2 concentration (direct or indirect by increased water use efficiency) should be considered in analyses of long-term growth together with climatic factors and N

  12. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  13. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  14. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  15. New method for diagnosis of smoke damage to spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, O

    1953-01-01

    Spruce needles excrete more wax in smoke regions than in smoke-free areas. This increased wax excretion can be used as a measure to determine the effects of smoke on the plant. The wax is extracted with hot water and is preserved after cooling in the form of turbidity which can be determined photometrically. Good correlations between the degree of turbidity and the distance from the source of smoke are obtained. The low scatter of values, especially in smoke-free regions (+/-1%) makes the turbidity most useful in outlining the limits of the areas affected by smoke. 11 references, 5 tables.

  16. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF.

  17. Bioenergy II. Biomass Valorisation by a Hybrid Thermochemical Fractionation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Den Uil, H.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Lunshof, A.; Hendriks, C.; Van Eck, E. [Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeres, E. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    The need for green renewable sources is adamant because of the adverse effects of the increasing use of fossil fuels on our society. Biomass has been considered as a very attractive candidate for green energy carriers, chemicals and materials. The development of cheap and efficient fractionation technology to separate biomass into its main constituents is highly desirable. It enables treatment of each constituent separately, using dedicated conversion technologies to get specific target chemicals. The synergistic combination of aquathermolysis (hot pressurised water treatment) and pyrolysis (thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen) is a promising thermolysis option, integrating fractionation of biomass with production of valuable chemicals. Batch aquathermolysis in an autoclave and subsequent pyrolysis using bubbling fluidised bed reactor technology with beech, poplar, spruce and straw indicate the potential of this hybrid concept to valorise lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulose-derived furfural was obtained in yields that ranged from 2 wt% for spruce to 8 wt% for straw. Hydroxymethylfurfural from hemicellulose was obtained in yields from 0.3 wt% for poplar to 3 wt% for spruce. Pyrolysis of the aquathermolised biomass types resulted in 8 wt% (straw) to 11 wt% (spruce) of cellulose-derived levoglucosan. Next to the furfurals and levoglucosan, appreciable amounts of acetic acid were obtained as well from the aquathermolysis step, ranging from 1 wt% for spruce to 5 wt% for straw. To elucidate relations between the chemical changes occurring in the biomass during the integrated process and type and amount of the chemical products formed, a 13C-solid state NMR study has been conducted. Main conclusions are that aquathermolysis results in hemicellulose degradation to lower molecular weight components. Lignin ether bonds are broken, but apart from that, lignin is hardly affected by the aquathermolysis. Cellulose is also retained, although it seems to become more

  18. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  19. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  20. A comparison of pine and spruce in recovery from winter stress; changes in recovery kinetics, and the abundance and phosphorylation status of photosynthetic proteins during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Ryan; Jerrard, Jacob; Frebault, Julia; Verhoeven, Amy

    2017-09-01

    During winter evergreens maintain a sustained form of thermal energy dissipation that results in reduced photochemical efficiency measured using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] have been shown to differ in their rate of recovery of Fv/Fm from winter stress. The goal of this study was to monitor changes in photosynthetic protein abundance and phosphorylation status during winter recovery that accompany these functional changes. An additional goal was to determine whether light-dependent changes in light harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation occur during winter conditions. We used a combination of field measurements and recovery experiments to monitor chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic protein content and phosphorylation status. We found that pine recovered three times more slowly than spruce, and that the kinetics of recovery in spruce included a rapid and slow component, while in pine there was only a rapid component to recovery. Both species retained relatively high amounts of the light harvesting protein Lhcb5 (CP26) and the PsbS protein during winter, suggesting a role for these proteins in sustained thermal dissipation. Both species maintained high phosphorylation of LHCII and the D1 protein in darkness during winter. Pine and spruce differed in the kinetics of the dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 upon warming, suggesting the rate of dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 may be important in the rapid component of recovery from winter stress. Finally, we demonstrated that light-dependent changes in LHII phosphorylation do not continue to occur on subzero winter days and that needles are maintained in a phosphorylation pattern consistent with the high light conditions to which those needles are exposed. Our results suggest a role for retained phosphorylation of both LHCII and D1 in maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery in a winter conformation

  1. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  2. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests – signs for facilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBolte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤ 2 mm by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1 spruce as a central tree, (2 spruce as competitor, (3 beech as a central tree, and (4 beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB, length (FRL, and root area index (RAI were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA, asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUROPEAN SPRUCE ROOTS (LAT. PICEA ABIES H. KARST, PINACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Guljaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of essential oil extracted from the roots of European Spruce (Lat. Picea abies.The aim is to establish the component composition of the essential oil and the peculiarities of its localization in the roots of European Spruce.Materials and methods. The objects of the study are the roots of European Spruce not longer than two centimeters in diameter, peeled and dried. The study of their anatomical signs was carried out according to the methodology of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition with the”Biomed-6” microscope using the DCN 510 nozzle. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of European Spruce roots using the device of Clevenger by Method 2 of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition. The component composition of the essential oil was determined by an Agilent 7890A gas-liquid chromatograph with an Agilent 5975C mass-selective detector.Results and discussion. As a result of the microscopic examination of the roots of European Spruce, it was established that the essential oil is localized mainly in resinous courses located in the wood of the root. In the central part of the root, resin moves are of a larger diameter. More than 18 components were found in the essential oil of European Spruce roots, 14 of them were identifi ed. The main component of the essential oil is sesquiterpene lactone – tanbergol.Conclusion. The essential oil of European Spruce roots has a unique component composition that includes components not characteristic for the essential oil of spruce greenery. The difference in the component composition indicates the difference in properties and pharmacological activity. Further studies are of interest for determining the prospects of using European Spruce roots.

  4. Biochemical diagnosis of spruce trees in regions polluted by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvrkal, H

    1959-01-01

    The material showing different degrees of damage caused by gases in smoke was sampled from 24 trees (spruces) in two smoke polluted regions - the Svatonice and Krusne Hory regions of Czechoslovakia. The essential oils were distilled out in the usual manner and chromatographed. The following terpenes were investigated: santene, ..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, ..beta..-phelandrene, substance A, which could not be identified. The following relationships were determined on the basis of the compiled per cent content tables and the degree of damage caused by gases in smoke: the highest degree of damage occurs in spruce trees in whose essential oils camphene is represented in minimal amounts; smoke damages are not observed when the dipentene content is increased even at the cost of a lower camphene content; the degree of damage is also influenced to some extent by the presence of ..beta..-pinene. A higher degree of damage caused by gases in smoke presupposes a high ..beta..-pinene content in essential oils. Results suggest that the terpene changes do not occur during the damage, but are the consequence of specific species characteristics.

  5. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  6. Optimal uneven-aged stocking guides: an application to spruce-fir stands in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey

    2014-01-01

    Management guides for uneven-aged forest stands periodically need to be revisited and updated based on new information and methods. The current silvicultural guide for uneven-aged spruce-fir management in Maine and the northeast (Frank, R.M. and Bjorkbom, J.C. 1973 A silvicultural guide for spruce-fir in the northeast. General Technical Report NE-6, Forest Service. U.S...

  7. Solar radiation as a factor influencing the raid spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) during spring swarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of spruce bark beetle in nature reserve Fabova hola Mountain in the Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains at an altitude of 1.100-1.440 meters was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains was affected by two windstorms (2004 and 2007) followed by a gradation of bark beetles. This article has examined the dependence between amount of solar radiation and trapping of spruce bark beetle into pheromone traps.

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ORIENTAL SPRUCE (PICEA ORIENTALIS ECOSYSTEMS IN EASTERN BLACKSEA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been getting more attention from scientific community recently. Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey will get significant influences from the climate change according to regional climate model (RegCM3. Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. is an important tree species of Turkey and it only grows in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. With the increase in global warming, spruce forests started to have serious bark beetle problems. More than 200 000 trees died in the region recently due to bark beetle attack. We used existing literature related to oriental spruce and future climate of the region and field observations done in the different times to assess current status of the spruce stands. Future climate of the region has been predicted using RegCM3 regional climate model. Climate change could significantly influence distribution, diversity, structure and stability of the oriental spruce ecosystems. According to RegCM3 regional climate model, the temperatures will increase 2-4 °C in the region in the next century. Future climate scenarios predict 200-300 mm increases in precipitation in the eastern part of the region while the western part won't have any increase in precipitation in the next century. Temperature increases in the western part of the region can cause more stress on spruce trees and would probably increase bark beetle attacks. Also, fire could become an important threat in the western part of the region. It is possible to observe 400-800 m upward shift in the spruce belt in the western part. Treeline of spruce stands would probably move upward both in western and eastern part of the North-eastern Blacksea Region.

  9. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.

    2000-01-01

    The release of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene from an organic rich spruce forest soil was studied in laboratory incubation experiments by dynamic headspace analysis, thermodesorption and gas chromatography. Performance parameters...... are presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation...

  10. Seasonal flight patterns of the Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Petter

    2012-01-01

    The major bark beetle threat to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Eurasia is the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Beetles cause damage after population build-up in defenseless trees. To minimize attacks, timely removal of these trees is important. This is practiced by clearing of wind throws and sanitation felling. Thus, knowledge about the region-specific flight pattern and voltinism of I. typographus is necessary for efficient pest management. This thesis focuses on the ...

  11. Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway Spruce Clones in Sweden and Potential Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Pettersson; Venche Talgø; John Frampton; Bo Karlsson; Jonas Rönnberg

    2018-01-01

    The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disea...

  12. Soil chemistry and nutrition of North American spruce-fir stands: Evidence of recent change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joslin, J.D.; Kelly, J.M.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1992-01-01

    One set of hypotheses offered to explain the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in eastern North America focuses on the effect of acidic deposition on soil chemistry changes that may affect nutrient availability and root function. Long-term soils data suggests that soil acidification has occurred in some spruce stands over the past 50 yr, with plant uptake and cation leaching both contributing to the loss of cations. Studies of tree ring chemistry also have indicated changes in Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in red spruce wood, suggesting increases in the ionic strength of soil solution. Irrigation studies using strong acid inputs have demonstrated accelerated displacement of base cations from upper horizons. Spruce-fir (Abies spp.) nutrient budgets indicate that current net Ca and Mg leaching loss rates are of the same order of magnitude as losses to whole tree harvest removals, spread out over a 50-yr rotation. For most cations, red spruce foliar nutrient levels decline with elevation, but it is difficult to assess the contribution of the elevational gradient in atmospheric deposition to this pattern. Compared to northeastern sites, spruce-fir soil solutions in the southern Appalachians have higher nitrate levels and higher Al concentrations, which at times approach the Al toxicity threshold for red spruce seedlings and frequently are at levels known to interfere with cation uptake. There is little evidence that either nutrient deficiencies or Al toxicity are primary causes of red spruce decline in the Northeast, though both may play a role in the Southeast

  13. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED IN SPRUCE WOOD BY FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  15. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High solids (30% dry matter) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. • Horizontal rotary reactor for hydrolysis and fermentation. • In situ hydrolysates detoxification using inhibitors adsorbing PEI polymer. • 50% of inhibitors recovered as by-product, recyclability of PEI polymer up to 5 times. • 76% of maximum theoretical ethanol was fermented at final concentration of 51 g/kg. - Abstract: Performing the bioethanol production process at high solids loading is a requirement for economic feasibility at industrial scale. So far this has successfully been achieved using wheat straw and other agricultural residues at 30% of water insoluble solids (WIS), but for softwood species (i.e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to ∼20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble polyelectrolyte polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) to absorb inhibitory compounds in the material. On average 50% removal and recovery of the main inhibitors (HMF, furfural, acetic acid and formic acid) was achieved dosing 1.5% w/w of soluble PEI. The use of PEI was compatible with operating the process at high solids loadings and enabled fermentation of hydrolysates, which

  16. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Detection of photospheric calcium in a DBA white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Shipman, H.L.; Sion, E.M.; Aannestad, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of photospheric calcium absorption lines in the white dwarf star G200-39 (DBAZ4) is reported. The abundance of calcium relative to that of hydrogen is approximately solar, a result which lends support to the hypothesis that accretion of interstellar matter is responsible for hybrid composition white dwarfs. 21 references

  18. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  19. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth

  20. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  1. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  2. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Morris1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  3. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Oulehle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  4. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  5. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Boyce; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Paula F. Murakami

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) nutrition on the foliar physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in northern New England, USA. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA), spruce and fir saplings were sampled from control, Al-, and Ca-supplemented...

  6. The immigration and spread of spruce forest in Norway, traced by biostratigraphical studies and radiocarbon datings. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsten, U.

    1985-01-01

    Pollen-analytic studies and radiocarbon datings from 86 sites, mostly ombrotrophic peatbogs, situated within the Norwegian spruce domain, show that the occupation of the areas by spruce forest was the result of a protracted spread from cast, or northeast, to west and south, which started in late pre-Christian time and was completed mainly during the Middle Ages

  7. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...

  8. Sources of Respired Carbon in a Northern Minnesota Ombrotrophic Spruce Bog: Preliminary 14C Results from the SPRUCE Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilderson, T. P.; McNicol, G.; Machin, A.; Hanson, P. J.; McFarlane, K. J.; Osuna, J. L.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Singleton, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    A significant uncertainty in future land-surface carbon budgets is the response of wetlands to climate change. A corollary and related question is the future net climate (radiative) forcing impact from wetlands. Active wetlands emit both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. CH4 is, over a few decades, a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2. CO2 has a longer atmospheric lifetime and a longer 'tail' to its radiative influence. Whether wetlands are a net source or sink of atmospheric carbon under future climate change will depend on ecosystem response to rising temperatures and elevated CO2. The largest uncertainty in future wetland C-budgets, and their climate forcing is the stability of the large below-ground carbon stocks, often in the form of peat, and the partitioning of CO2 and CH4 released via ecosystem respiration. In advance of a long-term experimental warming and elevated CO2 manipulation at the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) site in the Marcell Experimental Forest, we have characterized the source of respired carbon used for both the production of CO2 and CH4. Samples were collected in early June, late July, and will be collected in early September from three large (~1.1 m2, ~0.5m3) chambers from the control plot, and two of the experimental plots selected for heating (+9°C, +4.5°C). Early June fluxes from the three chambers were ~5500 mgC-m-2-d-1 and ~16 mgC-m-2-d-1 for CO2 and CH4 respectively. Radiocarbon analysis of CO2 and CH4 indicate that the source for the respired carbon is for the most part recent, with most 14C values between 30 and 40‰ - i.e., carbon that was photosynthetically fixed in the last few years. In concert with rising air and ground temperatures fluxes in late July increased to ~6500 mgC-m-2-d-1 and ~86 mgC-m-2-d-1. Although deep-heating was initiated in mid to late June we hypothesize that the July respiration signal is dominated by the regular seasonal cycle of natural warming

  9. Emissions of Sesquiterpenes from Spruce Sawdust During Drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of sawdust are dried for production of particleboard and Pellets. During processing of wood (i.e. drying, densification), volatile organic compounds are emitted. These contribute in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. In this study sesquiterpene emissions from the drying of fresh Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust in a continuous spouted bed steam dryer at 140-200 deg C have been investigated, and patterns of covariation between sesquiterpene emissions and drying parameters elucidated. Sesquiterpene emissions was about 20% of the monoterpene emissions. Drying in 200 deg C caused markedly larger sesquiterpene emissions than in 140 deg C or 170 deg C. Whereas a change in moisture content had no notable effect on the amount of sesquiterpenes emitted at high wood moisture contents (25-40%), the sesquiterpene emissions increased considerably as drying proceeded at low wood moisture contents (5-15%). While it has long been known that monoterpenes are a dominant VOC emitted during processing of wood, this study shows that sesquiterpenes are of considerable importance

  10. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  11. Spruce colonization at treeline: where do those seeds come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Piovani, P; Scalfi, M; Menozzi, P

    2009-08-01

    At treeline, selection by harsh environmental conditions sets an upward limit to arboreal vegetation. Increasing temperatures and the decline of traditional animal raising have favoured an upward shift of treeline in the last decades. These circumstances create a unique opportunity to study the balance of the main forces (selection and gene flow) that drive tree migration. We conducted a parentage analysis sampling and genotyping with five microsatellite markers in all Norway spruce individuals (342 juveniles and 23 adults) found in a recently colonized treeline area (Paneveggio forest, Eastern Alps, Italy). Our goal was to evaluate local reproductive success versus gene flow from the outside. We were able to identify both parents among local adults for only 11.1% of the juveniles. In the gamete pool we sampled, two-thirds were not produced locally. Effective seed dispersal distance distribution was characterized by a peak far from the seed source (mean 344.66 m+/-191.02 s.d.). Reproductive success was skewed, with six local adults that generated almost two-thirds (62.4%) of juveniles with local parents. Our findings indicate that, although a few local adults seem to play an important role in the colonization process at treeline, large levels of gene flow from outside were maintained, suggesting that the potential advantages of local adults (such as local adaptation, proximity to the colonization area, phenological synchrony) did not prevent a large gamete immigration.

  12. Biochemical indicators for novel forest decline in spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, M.; Lauchert, U.; Wild, A.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on 24 stands of spruce trees in several regions in Germany was investigated. We looked for evidence of biochemical and physiological change at the level of the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes as well as for changes in the antioxidative system in two year old needles. We observed that, as the chlorophyll content decreases in the needles, the among of D1 protein declines far more rapidly in relation to the redox components P700 and cytochrome f. Consequently, the PSII/PSI stoichiometry keeps dropping to progressively lower, meaning unfavorable, values at the chlorophyll content diminishes. This is particularly the case in the higher elevation characteristically increases while the D1 protein content falls. The higher α-tocopherol values, however, are obviously neither able to protect the D1 protein from degradation nor to compensate for the higher oxidative stress. Apart from that the ascorbate/tocopherol ratios remained in the majority of cases in the unfavorable range of far below 10, where an effective protection of the membranes from free radicals is not guaranteed. This then is mirrored in the increased degradation of D1 and the lower PSII/PSI ratio

  13. [Compatible biomass models of natural spruce (Picea asperata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Chi; Deng, Hua Feng; Huang, Guo Sheng; Wang, Xue Jun; Zhang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    By using nonlinear measurement error method, the compatible tree volume and above ground biomass equations were established based on the volume and biomass data of 150 sampling trees of natural spruce (Picea asperata). Two approaches, controlling directly under total aboveground biomass and controlling jointly from level to level, were used to design the compatible system for the total aboveground biomass and the biomass of four components (stem, bark, branch and foliage), and the total ground biomass could be estimated independently or estimated simultaneously in the system. The results showed that the R 2 of the one variable and bivariate compatible tree volume and aboveground biomass equations were all above 0.85, and the maximum value reached 0.99. The prediction effect of the volume equations could be improved significantly when tree height was included as predictor, while it was not significant in biomass estimation. For the compatible biomass systems, the one variable model based on controlling jointly from level to level was better than the model using controlling directly under total above ground biomass, but the bivariate models of the two methods were similar. Comparing the imitative effects of the one variable and bivariate compatible biomass models, the results showed that the increase of explainable variables could significantly improve the fitness of branch and foliage biomass, but had little effect on other components. Besides, there was almost no difference between the two methods of estimation based on the comparison.

  14. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  15. The dynamics of aerosol behaviour and fate within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni

    1996-01-01

    The current work was intended to provide data on aerosol inputs to forest ecosystems and their subsequent fate. The background to the project was the Chernobyl accident which highlighted the importance of forests and other semi-natural ecosystems as a link in the transfer of radioactivity to man. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, forests were identified as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radioecological data were almost completely absent within the countries of the European Union. Information on radionuclide behaviour and transfer in forest ecosystems was therefore needed to establish and test radiological assessment models which can be used to evaluate the likely contribution to radiological dose-to-man contaminated forests may make. The objective of this study was thus to provide data on dry deposition, resuspension and field loss of aerosols to forest canopies, in particular those of Norway spruce (Picea abies), from wind tunnel experiments conducted with small scale 'model' canopies. An aerosol generation system was developed to produce aerosol particles in the size range of 0.13-1.37 μm (VMD). Particle size distributions can be controlled within desired limits and with sufficient stability over time allowing the technique to be suitable for use in extended aerosol deposition studies. A full scale dry deposition experiment using 0.82 μm (VMAD) uranium particles was performed in the wind tunnel using Norway spruce saplings of approximately 45 cm height. Deposition velocities (V g ) were obtained and these were related to meteorological measurements (wind speed, friction velocity, turbulence intensity) inside the wind tunnel and LAI of the canopy. The latter was divided into five horizontal layers and both horizontal and vertical variations in deposition were assessed. A V g value of 0.497 cm s -1 was obtained for the canopy as a whole with the highest and lowest fluxes of 2.85 x 10 -8 and 8.14 x 10 -9 μgU cm -2 s -1 occurring at

  16. Dry deposition and fate of radionuclides within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Shaw, G.; Kinnersley, R.P.; Minski, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose to human populations from the release of radionuclides into the atmosphere following a nuclear accident relies on the use of simulation models. These need to be calibrated and tested using experimental data. In this study, the deposition and resuspension of radionuclides within a forest environment was investigated. Forests were identified in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radiological data were lacking within the countries of the European Union. Wind tunnel and field data have been collected for small model canopies of Norwegian spruce saplings using uranium and silica aerosol particles. These have provided quantitative estimates of the potential of a tree canopy to constitute an airborne inhalation hazard and a secondary source of airborne contamination after the initial deposition. Using these results, a multi-layer compartmental model of aerosol flux (CANDEP) has been developed and calibrated. It combines the processes of dry deposition, resuspension and field loss in individual layers of the model canopy. (5 figures; 4 tables; 15 references). (UK)

  17. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  18. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  19. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  20. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  1. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted approx...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Impact of environmental change on the radioecology of spruce trees in Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.; Fuerst, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma spectrometry to detect the geographical and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. Moreover, the results of the current studies can be an important input for the discussion of using whole trees for biomass energy. Every year spruce needle samples of the two youngest needle sprouts are taken from two spruce trees at each location of the Bioindicator Grid. For this study samples of selected locations evenly spaced out among the area of Upper Austria were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: 137 Cs, 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the relationship between 137 Cs and 40 K-activity concentrations in soils and spruce needles and to estimate transfer factors. Another important question of the study is the correlation between anthropogenic pollutants and radionuclides. To date more than 500 spruce needle samples were analysed. 137 Cs- activity concentrations reach D.L. (2 Bq/kg)-5150 Bq/kg, whereas the maximum was measured after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. In time series of 137 Cs-activity concentrations Caesium cycling was observed. The activity concentrations of 40 K reached D.L. (15 Bq/kg)- 294 Bq/kg and 210 Pb reach D.L. (5 Bq/kg)-45 Bq/kg. The measured 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 238 U concentrations were mostly below detection limits. Most samples of younger sprouts revealed higher 137 Cs activity concentrations than older sprouts. 40 K-activity concentrations showed nearly the same level in

  3. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  4. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  5. Efflux of CO2 from soil in Norway Spruce stands of different ages: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 98-102 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : spruce forest * Picea abies * soil temperatures * moisture * respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Wood variables affecting the friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett J. Lemoine; Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1970-01-01

    Wood of spruce pine, Pinus glabra Walk., was factorially segregated by moisture content (0, 10, and 18 percent), specific gravity (less than 0.45 and more than 0.45), and extractive content (unextracted and extractive-freE), and the kinetic coefficient of friction on steel (having surface roughness of 9 microinches RMS) determined for tangential...

  7. Ecology and silviculture of the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus. Westveld

    1953-01-01

    Using the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site, the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles, such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.

  8. Two spruce shoot candidate reference materials from the German environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, F.; Bagschik, U.; Burow, M.; Froning, M.; Mohl, C.; Ostapczuk, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schladot, J.D.; Stoeppler, M.; Waidmann, E.; Byrne, A.R.; Zeisler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two new materials are introduced that might serve as useful aids for the harmonisation of analytical results. Spruce shoots, cryogenically homogenized and characterized for 50 elements from two sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) are presented as possible third generation reference materials that might also act as calibrating materials in speciation analysis. (author)

  9. Seasonal Changes of Coefficient Q10 in CO2 Flux from Soil Under Spruce Stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2002), s. 43-48. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:EVK2(XE) CT-1999-00032 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce * Q10 * respiration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Taxonomic identity of a galling adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from three spruce species in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakazu Sano; Nathan P. Havill; Kenichi. Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    Gall-forming insects are commonly highly host-specific, and galling species once thought to be oligo- or polyphagous are often found to represent a complex of host-specific races or cryptic species. A recent DNA barcoding study documented that an unidentified species of the genus Adelges is a gall-former associated with four spruce species (...

  11. Two-dimensional wavelet analysis of spruce budworm host basal area in the Border Lakes landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. James; Brian R. Sturtevant; Phil Townsend; Pete Wolter; Marie-Josee. Fortin

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the extent and severity of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreaks over the last century are thought to be the result of changes in forest structure due to forest management. A corollary of this hypothesis is that manipulations of forest structure and composition can be used to reduce future forest vulnerability....

  12. Cloning and characterization of chitinases from interior spruce and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, N; Breuil, C; Bohlmann, J

    2014-05-01

    Chitinases have been implicated in the defence of conifers against insects and pathogens. cDNA for six chitinases were cloned from interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii) and four from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The cloned interior spruce chitinases were annotated class I PgeChia1-1 and PgeChia1-2, class II PgeChia2-1, class IV PgeChia4-1, and class VII PgeChia7-1 and PgeChia7-2; lodgepole pine chitinases were annotated class I PcChia1-1, class IV PcChia4-1, and class VII PcChia7-1 and PcChia7-2. Chitinases were expressed in Escherichia coli with maltose-binding-protein tags and soluble proteins purified. Functional characterization demonstrated chitinolytic activity for the three class I chitinases PgeChia1-1, PgeChia1-2 and PcChia1-1. Transcript analysis established strong induction of most of the tested chitinases, including all three class I chitinases, in interior spruce and lodgepole pine in response to inoculation with bark beetle associated fungi (Leptographium abietinum and Grosmannia clavigera) and in interior spruce in response to weevil (Pissodes strobi) feeding. Evidence of chitinolytic activity and inducibility by fungal and insect attack support the involvement of these chitinases in conifer defense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Red spruce stand dynamics, simulations, and restoration opportunities in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler; W. Mark Ford; Gergory J. Nowacki

    2007-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens)-dominated forests occupied as much as 600,000 ha in West Virginia prior to exploitive logging era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Subsequently, much of this forest type was converted to northern hardwoods. As an important habitat type for a number of rare or sensitive species, only about 12,000 ha of...

  14. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  15. Processing of spruce and larch resins to obtain balsam for the confection industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buinova, E.F.; Yaremchenko, N.G.; Izotova, L.V.; Lepeiko, A.G.; Meteshkina, L.P.; Zhuravlev, P.I.; Chumakov, V. A.; Nikiforova, V.N.; Krylova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Modified balsam was prepared by esterification of purified and precipitated larch or spruce oleoresins with glycerol at 255-265 degrees for 4-6 hours. The modified balsams, which were obtained in 55-65% yield, can be used as a base for chewing gum manufacture.

  16. Climate driven changes in Engelmann spruce stands at timberline in the La Sal Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Steven Overby; Barb Smith

    2012-01-01

    Due to global warming spruce-fir forest and associated vegetation may experience elevational displacement and altered species composition at the timberline-treeline ecotone. These forests and their component species are predicted to migrate upslope and thus landscape features such as timberline and treeline may move upslope as well. Prior to this study, baseline data...

  17. Modelling long-term water yield effects of forest management in a Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, X.; Lamačová, A.; Duffy, Ch.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub; White, T.; Bhatt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 174-191 ISSN 0262-6667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lysina critical zone observatory * PIHM * Norway spruce * forest management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2015

  18. Chemical Basis of Host Plant Selection by Eastern Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Michael Montgomery; [Tech. Coords

    1983-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes from four host plants of the eastern spruce budworm are examined with respect to their influence on the feeding behavior of the sixth-instar larva. Both current and one-year old needles contain stimulating chemicals in their epicuticular wax layer. Some pure fatty acids known to occur in balsam fir wax are stimulatory, and may serve to enhance...

  19. Monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone- baited sticky traps to predict subsequent defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; David L. Overhulser

    2015-01-01

    A detailed procedure is described for monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone-baited sticky traps and interpreting the results to predict defoliation the following year. Information provided includes timing of the survey, how to obtain traps and baits, how many traps are needed, trap assembly, field placement of traps, and how to evaluate the catches.

  20. Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce budworm in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; Robert F. Scharpf

    1982-01-01

    Mature grand firs (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D. Don] Lindl.) were sampled in two stands, one cutover and one virgin, in the Little Salmon River drainage in west-central Idaho, to estimate stem volume losses associated with topkilling. Damage to the stands resulted from three outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis...

  1. Winter photosynthesis in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.): limitations, potential benefits, and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg

    2000-01-01

    Numerous cold-induced changes in physiology limit the capacity of northern conifers to photosynthesize during winter. Studies of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) have shown that rates of field photosynthesis (Pfield) and laboratory measurements of photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) generally parallel seasonal...

  2. Assessing the suitability of Norway spruce wood as an environmental archive for sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, T.; Ulrich, A.; Rennenberg, H.; Zwicky, C.N.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Norway spruces (Picea abies L. Karst.) as an environmental archive for sulphur. For this purpose spruce trees were sampled in two distinct regions of Switzerland: the Alps and the Swiss Plateau, which differ significantly with respect to S immission. Wood samples were measured using two methods: LASER Ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Independently corroborated by previous measurements of sulphur in peat bogs, the rise and fall of sulphur dioxide pollution in Switzerland appears to be reflected in spruce wood sulphur content. While the wood sulphur content profile of trees sampled in the Alps is relatively flat, the profiles of trees located on the Swiss Plateau display a characteristic sulphur peak. This corresponds to air pollution data in the different regions and indicates that the trees reacted on the changing S supply and recorded a pollution signal in the wood. - Norway spruce is a suitable archive for sulphur when physiological aspects and limitations are taken into account

  3. Aerodynamic parameter changes above a young spruce forest stand during five growing seasons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hurtalová, T.; Matejka, F.; Rožnovský, J.; Marková, Irena; Janouš, Dalibor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2004), s. 131-146 ISSN 1335-2806 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/0485 Keywords : aerodynamic parameters * roughness length * young spruce stand Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  4. Indicators of Population Viabllity in Red Spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive Traits and Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Mosseler; J.E. Major; J.D. Simpson; B. Daigle; K. Lange; Y.S. Park; K.H Johnsen; O.P. Rajora

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) has experienced a substantial decline across most of its range in eastern North America over the past centmy and probably also in the disjunct Ontario populations where it now occurs only in small isolated stands. Measurements of cone and seed traits from natural populations were used as indicators of the...

  5. Dynamics of calcium concentration in stemwood of red spruce and Siberian fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Rakesh Minocha; Vladislav A. Alexeyev

    1996-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition of strong acid anions such as sulfate and nitrate shifts the ion exchange equilibrium in the rooting zone of sensitive forests. Red spruce and other northern coniferous forests are especially sensitive to deposition due to the shallow rooting of trees in a mor-type forest floor. Initially, the deposition of strong acid ions mobilizes...

  6. Multipartite Symbioses Among Fungi, Mites, Nematodes, and the Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Cardoza; John Moser; Kier Klepzizg; Raffa Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, is an eruptive forest pest of signifcant economic and ecological importance. D. rufipennis has symbiotic associations with a number of microorganisms, especially the ophiostomatoid fungus Leptographium abietinum. The nature of this interaction is only partially understood. Additionally, mite and nematode associates can...

  7. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  8. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2004-01-01

    Abundant winter injury to the current-year (2002) foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) became apparent in the northeastern United States in late winter of 2003. To assess the severity and extent of this damage, we measured foliar winter injury at 28 locations in Vermont and surrounding states and bud mortality at a subset of these sites. Ninety percent of all...

  9. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Connolly

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, soil and foliar chemistry were sampled from 10 sites in the Monongahela National Forest which support red spruce. Soils were sampled from hand-dug pits, by horizon, from the O-horizon to bedrock or 152 cm, and each pit was described fully. Replicate, archived samples also were collected.

  10. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  11. The incidence of dwarf mistletoe in Minnesota black spruce stands detected by operational inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Baker; Mark Hansen; John D. Shaw; Manfred Mielke; Dixon Shelstad

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed black spruce stands within 0.5 miles of US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots and compared dwarf mistletoe status with that of the FIA and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) forest inventories. Our results differed from FIA results in 3 of 16 stands with FIA plots, with FIA most often not recording dwarf mistletoe in...

  12. Application of Raman spectroscopy to analyse lignin/cellulose ratio in Norway spruce tree rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, 1-2 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : dendrochronology * vibrational spectroscopy * lignification * Norway spruce * abiotic stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  13. Higher acid-chlorite reactivity of cell corner middle lamella lignin in black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    To determine if there was a delignification behavior difference between secondary wall (S2) and middle lamella (cell corner or CC) lignin, black spruce cross-sections were acid-chlorite delignified and the tissue was evaluated in-situ by Raman imaging. Lignin concentration in S2 and CC was determined in numerous latewood cell areas in the two hour delignified cross...

  14. Lead mobility within the xylem of red spruce seedlings: Implications for the development of pollution histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Donnelly; John B. Shane; Paul G. Schaberg

    1990-01-01

    Development of Pb pollution histories using tree ring analyses has been troubled by possible mobility of Pb within stem xylem. In a 2-yr study, we exposed red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings to Pb during one growing season, with Pb excluded in either the previous or following growing season. Lead levels within xylem rings and bark were...

  15. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  16. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics and lignin in Ascocalyx abietina infected Norway spruces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2006), s. 563-570 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerberg) * Lignin * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2006

  17. Use of gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging spruce knots by magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Amy H. Herlihy; Po-Wah So

    2006-01-01

    Treatments of knot-containing spruce wood blocks with a paramagnetic salt, gadolinium (III) chloride, in combination with solvent pretreatments, were evaluated as strategies to enhance the visualization of wood features by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial experiments with clear wood and excised knot samples showed differences in moisture uptake after...

  18. Natural and anthropogenic stress in spruce and beech ecosystems in the Solling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murach, D.

    1989-01-01

    The investigations show that low Ca/Al-ratios in mineral soil horizons cause a shallow root system with spruce. But obviously other soil conditions expect acidification can also be responsible for a shallow root system. Additional investigations and field experiments have to find out the driving forces. A new phenomenon in fine root investigations are the low fine root concentrations in the uppermost mineral soil horizons. It is to be observed with spruce as well as with beech in stands with strong acidification of the top soil. Further experiments are needed to evaluate what are the main chemical variables (pH, heavy metals etc.) In this way soil acidification can cause reductions of fine root biomasses in subsoils as well as in uppermost soil horizons. These reductions can influence the response of trees to water stress. Relations to the symptoms of needle losses with spruce are likely. The close correlations between the chemistry of the soil, the roots and the needles indicate, that the yellowing symptoms of spruce trees, which were related to Mg-deficiency, are caused by Mg-deficiency in the soil. It is to be emphazised that it is not a pure Mg-deficiency. Ion antagonism to Al and especially to H in connection with fine root distribution are of main importance. (orig.)

  19. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  20. The variability of wood density and compression strength of Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Petr; Fajstavr, Marek; Stojanović, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 17-26 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Norway spruce * wood density * compression strength * variability Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry

  1. Tolerance of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) embryogenic tissue to penicillin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Pavingerová, Daniela; Cvrčková, H.; Bříza, Jindřich; Dostál, J.; Šíma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 156-161 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * Norway spruce * penicillin antibiotics * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * carbapenem antibiotics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurajdová, Jana; Acosta, Manuel; Pavelka, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 19 (2006), s. 1 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 627.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce stand * temperature * spatial and temporal heterogeneity * stand density Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  3. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  4. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  5. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  6. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  7. Soil Warming: Consequences for Foliar Litter Decay in a Spruce-Fir Forest in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey E. Rustad; Ivan J. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Increased rates of litter decay due to projected global warming could substantially alter the balance between C assimilation and release in forest soils, with consequent feedbacks to climate change. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil warming on the decomposition of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and red maple (...

  8. Experiences with the Haertel-Truebungstest at diagnosing injuries to spruce caused by atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    The Haertel-Truebungstest is based on the observation that spruce needles secrete more wax at the stomata in areas affected by atmospheric pollution than in areas without. The increased secretion of wax is taken for a symptom of injury caused by atmospheric pollution. The wax is extracted in boiling water and, after cooling down, the turbidity of the extract is measured quantitatively in a photometer. Investigations on spruce in Saxony and Thuringia confirm the tendency to increasing turbidity towards the source of smoke. A considerable dispersion of turbidity values however impairs the results of this method, so that a great number of samples must be used in order to find out a trend. The dispersion of turbidity values in spruce forests that are not directly influenced by atmospheric pollution substantially exceeds the dispersion of the +/- 1% of the turbidity value that was found by Haertel. As was stated by Haertel and Papesch, the dispersion of individual turbidity values grows with increasing doses of SO/sub 2/. In Saxony the individual smoke emissions so densely cover one another, that there are scarcely any areas without air pollution and, probably, a relation exists between this continuous influence of smoke and SO/sub 2/ and the dispersion of turbidity values. It may be, however, that the environmental factors have also a certain influence, as, on vast areas of Saxony, spruce is growing on sites that are not its natural habitat.

  9. Wood-thermoplastic composites manufactured using beetle-killed spruce from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Yadama; Eini Lowell; N. Petersen; D. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the critical properties of wood flour produced using highly deteriorated beetle-killed spruce for wood-plastic composite (WPC) production and evaluate important mechanical and physical properties of WPC extruded using an industry standard formulation. Chemical composition analysis indicated no significant...

  10. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive

  11. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  12. Management of spruce-fir in even-aged stands in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster

    1980-01-01

    Potential production of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in the central Rocky Mountains is simulated for vario.us combinations of stand density, site quality, ages, and thinning schedules. Such estimates are needed to project future development of stands managed in different ways for various uses.

  13. Aerodynamic resistance of spruce forest stand in relation to roughness length and airflow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hurtalová, T.; Matějka, F.; Rožnovský, J.; Janouš, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2003), s. 147-160 ISSN 1335-2806 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1104 Keywords : aerodynamic resistance * spruce forest stand * roughness length Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Ash-forming elements in four Scandinavian wood species part 3: Combustion of five spruce samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkelin, Johan; Lindberg, Daniel; Skrifvars, Bengt-Johan; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Bostroem, Dan [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Forest residue is the remaining fraction after the outtake of timber, which comprises the tree tops and branches. It may as fuel cause damage to the combustion device through ash slagging and fouling. The objective of this work was to model the ash composition from well-specified samples of a spruce tree: wood, bark, twigs, needles, and shoots. Their ash at 1000 C was modelled using global chemical equilibrium calculations, and laboratory-made ash of the five samples was analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDXA. According to the results, the risk of slagging arises from the spruce foliage: molten alkali silicates from spruce needles and probably molten alkali phosphates from spruce shoots may cause problems in the furnace. Fouling caused by condensing alkali vapours can be produced by all five samples. The amount of alkali vapours in the flue gas was in the same order of magnitude for all five samples, in spite of large differences in their original alkali contents. (author)

  15. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  16. Haloperoxidase-like activity in spruce forest soil. A source of volatile halogenated organic compounds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Mehrtens, G.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Haloperoxidase-like activity was monitored in samples from a podzol soil in an uncontaminated spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Activity for the oxidation of chloride and bromide was found. The pH optima for chlorination and bromination ranged between pH 2.5 and 4: Very high activity, up to 4...

  17. User's guide to the weather model: a component of the western spruce budworm modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. P. Kemp; N. L. Crookston; P. W. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic model useful in simulating daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation developed by Bruhn and others has been adapted for use in the western spruce budworm modeling system. This document describes how to use the weather model and illustrates some aspects of its behavior.

  18. Effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on private lands in eastern Oregon, 1980-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; David L. Overhulser

    2008-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis data from three inventory periods were used to examine the effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on private lands in eastern Oregon. Growth was negatively related to defoliation with differences between crown ratio and species. The mortality and salvage harvesting caused changes in stand structure on private lands. Although many...

  19. Enhanced thermal stability of the thylakoid membranes from spruce. A comparison with selected angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Václav; Kurasová, Irena; Ptáčková, B.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, 1-3 (2016), s. 357-371 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * Thermal stability * Circular dichroism * Photosystem II organization * Thylakoid membrane Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  20. Interaction of soil filamentous fungi affects needle composition and nutrition of Norway spruce seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrnka, Libor; Tokárová, H.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Matějka, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2009), s. 887-897 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycelial interaction s * norway spruce * nutrient cycling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.603, year: 2009

  1. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  2. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  3. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R-direct...

  4. Soil saprotrophic micromycetes in Norway spruce forests in the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2001), s. 177-184 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil saprotrophic micromycetes * Norway spruce forest * bark beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  6. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  7. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  8. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  9. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  11. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  12. Role of bark and wood destroying insect pests in drying off of spruce and pines in planting weakened by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed study made in 1958-62, indicating the part played by smoke and the various groups and individual species of insects, in the mortality in middle-aged and mature Pine and Spruce stands.

  13. Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis and parasitoids of late-instar larvae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, A.; Cusson, M.; Frankenhuyzen, van K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki and parasitoids that attack late instars of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). In a petri-dish arena, females of Tranosema rostrale rostrale (Brishke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were

  14. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  15. A 4-year record of sitka spruce and western hemlock seed fall on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1955-01-01

    Four years' measurement of seed fall in the spruce-hemlock type on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest indicates that an ample supply of seed is distributed over clear-cut areas under staggered-setting cutting. The largest tract sampled was 81 acres; in spite of a seed crop failure in 1950, it received an average of 243,000 viable spruce and hemlock seeds per...

  16. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  17. BVOC emission in Norway spruce: the effect of stand structure, high temperature and ozone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Večeřová, Kristýna; Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Juráň, Stanislav; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a widely distributed conifer species in the boreal zone and mountain areas of central Europe and is a moderate emitter of volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Although the vaporization and diffusion processes from resin ducts were generally considered to be the main processes for monoterpene emissions in conifers, recently it has been showed that a significant portion (up to one third) of monoterpene emissions of Norway spruce can originate from novel biosynthesis, thus depending on photosynthetic processes. For this reason, both biosynthesis and emission are strongly influenced by the environment and the stand structure. They increase with both increasing light and temperature during the warmer periods, although those are the periods with the higher ozone concentration that usually act as an inhibitor of both assimilation and isoprenoids synthesis and emission. On the other hand, stand structure can play an important role, because the photosynthetic capacity is influenced by temperature and light conditions through the canopy. In order to assess the effects of stand structure, temperature and ozone on isoprenoids emission of Norway spruce we carried out field and laboratory experiments. In the experimental field campaigns we measured: assimilation and BVOC emission from needles of sun and shade layers within the canopy of the spruce forest present at the Bily Kriz experimental research site (Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mountains, 49° 33' N, 18° 32' E, NE of Czech Republic, 908 m a.s.l.). Moreover in the same layers we measured continuously concentration of BVOCs in the air using a PTR-TOF-MS. In laboratory we analyzed the effects of short-term exposure to high temperature and high ozone concentrations on branches of spruce trees collected at the Bily Kriz experimental research site. Preliminary results show that in Norway spruce both stand structure and environmental conditions influenced the gas exchange and BVOC emission rates

  18. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  19. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  20. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  1. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  2. Influence of road salting on the adjacent Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forczek, S.T.; Benada, O.; Kofronova, O.; Sigler, K.; Matucha, M.

    2011-01-01

    Winter deicing and traffic spreads salt to road-adjacent Norway spruce trees in the form of spraying and salt slops. Our use of Na36Cl revealed roots as the main pathway of salt uptake. One-shot application of a concentrated Na36Cl solution to spruce saplings by both irrigation and spraying causes macroscopic damage to the needles and affects the needle phyllosphere. Irrigation affects the trees more than spraying because Cl uptake through roots is faster and eventually leads to higher chloride content in the plant. Along with the root-needle route, spray-deposited chloride from the needles is re-transported back into the soil and again taken up by roots to needles

  3. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E L; Holopainen, J; Kaerenlampi, L [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  4. QTL mapping in white spruce: gene maps and genomic regions underlying adaptive traits across pedigrees, years and environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The genomic architecture of bud phenology and height growth remains poorly known in most forest trees. In non model species, QTL studies have shown limited application because most often QTL data could not be validated from one experiment to another. The aim of our study was to overcome this limitation by basing QTL detection on the construction of genetic maps highly-enriched in gene markers, and by assessing QTLs across pedigrees, years, and environments. Results Four saturated individual linkage maps representing two unrelated mapping populations of 260 and 500 clonally replicated progeny were assembled from 471 to 570 markers, including from 283 to 451 gene SNPs obtained using a multiplexed genotyping assay. Thence, a composite linkage map was assembled with 836 gene markers. For individual linkage maps, a total of 33 distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were observed for bud flush, 52 for bud set, and 52 for height growth. For the composite map, the corresponding numbers of QTL clusters were 11, 13, and 10. About 20% of QTLs were replicated between the two mapping populations and nearly 50% revealed spatial and/or temporal stability. Three to four occurrences of overlapping QTLs between characters were noted, indicating regions with potential pleiotropic effects. Moreover, some of the genes involved in the QTLs were also underlined by recent genome scans or expression profile studies. Overall, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 3.0 to 16.4% for bud flush, from 2.7 to 22.2% for bud set, and from 2.5 to 10.5% for height growth. Up to 70% of the total character variance could be accounted for by QTLs for bud flush or bud set, and up to 59% for height growth. Conclusions This study provides a basic understanding of the genomic architecture related to bud flush, bud set, and height growth in a conifer species, and a useful indicator to compare with Angiosperms. It will serve as a basic reference to functional and association genetic studies of adaptation and growth in Picea taxa. The putative QTNs identified will be tested for associations in natural populations, with potential applications in molecular breeding and gene conservation programs. QTLs mapping consistently across years and environments could also be the most important targets for breeding, because they represent genomic regions that may be least affected by G × E interactions. PMID:21392393

  5. Can nutrient limitations explain low and declining white spruce growth near the Arctic treeline in the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, S.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline is of critical importance for global carbon cycling and surface energy budgets. However, controls on tree growth at treeline remain uncertain. In the Alaskan Brooks Range, 20th century warming has caused varying growth responses among treeline trees, with trees in the west responding positively, while trees in the east have responded negatively. The prevailing explanation of this trend ascribes the negative growth response to warming-induced drought stress in the eastern Brooks Range. However, recent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination in tree rings, xylem sap flow and needle gas exchange suggest that drought stress cannot explain these regional growth declines. Additionally, evidence from the western Brooks Range suggests that nutrient availability, rather than drought stress, may be the proximate control on tree growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that low and declining growth of eastern Brooks Range trees is due to low and declining soil nutrient availability, which may continue to decrease with climate change as soils become drier and microbial activity declines. We compared microclimate, tree performance, and a wide range of proxies for soil nutrient availability in four watersheds along a west-east transect in the Brooks Range during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We hypothesized that soil nutrient availability would track closely with the strong west-east precipitation gradient, with higher rainfall and greater soil nutrient availability in the western Brooks Range. We expected to find that soil water contents in the west are near optimum for nitrogen mineralization, while those in the east are below optimum. Needle nitrogen concentration, net photosynthesis, branch extension growth, and growth in the main stem are expected to decline with the hypothesized decrease in soil nutrient availability. The results of our study will elucidate the current controls on growth of trees near the Arctic treeline, enabling improved predictions of future treeline position and more accurate reconstructions of past climate.

  6. Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Wilmking; Glenn P. Juday; Valerie A. Barber; Harold S.J. Zald

    2004-01-01

    Northern and high-latitude alpine treelines are generally thought to be limited by available warmth. Most studies of tree-growth-climate interaction at treeline as well as climate reconstructions using dendrochronology report positive growth response of treeline trees to warmer temperatures. However, population-wide responses of treeline trees to climate remain largely...

  7. White Spruce Plantations on Abandoned Agricultural Land: Are They More Effective as C Sinks than Natural Succession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Tremblay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare organic carbon (C accumulation in plantations (PL and natural succession (NS established on fallow lands along a 50-year chronosequence in the eastern mixed forest subzone of Quebec (Canada. Above- and below-ground woody biomass were estimated from vegetation measurement surveys, and litter and soil (0–50 cm depth C from samplings. At the year of abandonment, total C content of both PL and NS sites averaged 100 ± 13 Mg C ha−1. Over 50 years, total C content doubled on NS sites and tripled on PL sites (217.9 ± 28.7 vs. 285.7 ± 31.0 Mg ha−1 with respect to fallow land. On NS sites, the new C stocks accumulated entirely in the vegetation. On PL sites, C accumulated mostly in the vegetation and to a lesser extent in the litter, whereas it decreased by a third in the soil. As a result, the net C accumulation rate was 1.7 ± 0.7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 greater on PL sites than on NS sites over 50 years. By the 23rd year, PL sites became greater net C sinks than NS sites in the fallow lands of the study area, even with the loss of soil C.

  8. Norway spruce crown structure changes under long-term multiple stress impact in Central European Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 252-255 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * crown transformation * tree status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  9. Seasonal courses of photosynthetic parameters in sun- and shade-acclimated spruce shoots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Holub, Petr; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : CO2 assimilation * gas-exchange * Norway spruce * ontogeny * temperature * vapour pressure deficit * vertical canopy profile Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0049/

  10. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  11. Fine root status element contents in three Norway spruce stands in the Krkonose Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldbold, D.; Fritz, H.; Cudlín, Pavel; Bonifacio, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 91-94 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Ca:Al ratios, fine roots, spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  12. Actin distribution in mitotic apparatus of somatic embryo cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cenklová, Věra; Binarová, Pavla; Havel, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2003), s. 167-174 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/99/D092; GA AV ČR IAA5020803; GA ČR GV522/96/K186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytoskeleton * embryogenesis of spruce * mitosis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  13. Utilization of hyperspectral image optical indices to assess the Norway spruce forest health status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mišurec, J.; Kopáčková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Hanuš, Jan; Weyermann, J.; Entcheva-Campbel, P.; Albrechtová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUN 2012 (2012), 63545-1-63545-25 ISSN 1931-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll * optical indices * Norway spruce * continuum removal * HyMap * actual physiological status * Sokolov basin * forest management Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2012

  14. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  15. Physiological responses of Norway spruce trees to elevated CO2 and SO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausz, M.; De Kok, L.J.; Stulen, I.

    Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (0.8 mL L(-1)), SO2 (0.06 mu L L(-1)), and elevated CO2 and SO2 (0.8 mL L(-1) and 0.06 mu L L(-1), respectively) for three months. Exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in an increased biomass production of the needles,

  16. H and Al ionic toxicity in seedlings of spruce and beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost-Siebert, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of aluminium and hydrogen on seedlings of spruce and beech trees was tested. Parameters as root growth, state of health, minerals content and production of dry matter were measured. The results are discussed and show that ion concentrations of hydrogen and aluminium, average for todays forest soils, reduce root growth, damage roots and disturb the uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ and Mg/sup 2+/.

  17. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Z.; Homolová, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukeš, Petr; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan; Gastellu-Etchegory, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 131, APR (2013), s. 85-102 ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll retrieval * Imaging spectroscopy * Continuum removal * Radiative transfer * PROSPECT * DART * Optical indices * Norway spruce * High spatial resolution * AISA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.769, year: 2013

  18. Afforestation of Boreal Open Woodlands: Early Performance and Ecophysiology of Planted Black Spruce Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Pascal; Boucher, Jean-Francois; Tremblay, Marc; Lord, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Open lichen woodlands (LWs) are degraded stands that lack the ability to regenerate naturally due to a succession of natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances. As they represent both interesting forest restoration and carbon sequestration opportunities, we tested disc scarification and planting of two sizes of containerized black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)) seedlings for their afforestation. We compared treatment of unproductive LWs to reforestation of harvested, closed-crown black spr...

  19. Influence of sulfur dioxide on the mineral composition of needles from spruces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J

    1961-01-01

    Until recently all the authors knew about changes in the mineral composition of plants exposed to air pollution was that the sulfur content increases considerably. The question arises whether other mineral substances, too, accumulate in the assimilating organs of smoke injured plants, particularly cations such as calcium, potassium and magnesium. Results of analyses of spruce needles from an air polluted forest in the Erzebirge in Czechoslovakia yielded no relationship between the accumulation of sulfates and the mentioned cations.

  20. Norway spruce fine root dynamics and carbon input into soil in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the quantity of belowground litter carbon (C) input is scarce but highly valued in C budget calculations. Specifically, the turnover rate of fine roots is considered to be one of the most important parameters in the estimation of changes in soil C stock. In this thesis Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) fine root lifespan and litter production and their responses to nutrient availability and temperature were examined. Aboveground foliage and understory litter C inputs were a...

  1. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive measurements with the TRAC instrument were conducted to produce mainly the element clumping index. The aim of the study was to compare the performances of LAI-2000 and DHP and to evaluate effect of...

  2. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Pretel, J.; Chroust, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 267-273 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC10022; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Stomatal ozone flux * AOT40 * Phytotoxic Ozone Dose * Norway spruce * Net ecosystem production * Ozone * Climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  3. Management intensity affects traits of soil microarthropod community in montane spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 75, March (2014), s. 71-79 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce forest * trait * management intensity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2014

  4. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbohydrate content in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s552-s553 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Norway spruce * needles * carbohydrates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  5. Estimation of Spruce Needle-Leaf Chlorophyll Content Based on DART and PARAS Canopy Reflectance Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yáñez-Rausell, L.; Malenovský, Z.; Rautiainen, M.; Clevers, J G P W.; Lukeš, Petr; Hanuš, Jan; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2015), s. 1534-1544 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll a plus b estimation * CHRIS-PROBA * coniferous forest * continuum removal * discrete anisotropic radiative transfer model (DART) * needle-leaf * Norway spruce * optical indices * PARAS * PROSPECT * radiative transfer * recollision probability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015

  6. Oxyfluorfen safe to use engelmann spruce seedbeds. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, J.P.

    1993-06-01

    Oxyfluorfen, a diphenylether herbicide, can be applied to Engelmann spruce nursery beds without significant damage to seedlings. Oxyfluorfen, applied at 0.5 lb/acre with preemergence timing for two years, reduced seedling dry mass. When the rate of herbicide application was reduced, the timing was delayed, or the applications were discontinued the second year, there was little damage to seedlings. Five of 10 herbicide treatments significantly reduced seedling densities compared to the no-treatment plots.

  7. Testing two novel stump-lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), Email: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2008 it was around 1.2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research tested two new stump-lifting devices for lifting stumps in a final felling Norway spruce (picea abies) stand. In the time study with the Vaekevae Stump Processor lifting head, the productivity of stump lifting was 7,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 30 cm from clayey soil, and 8.3 m3 /E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps from sandy soil. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the stump-lifting productivity was 9.0 m3 /E{sub 0}-h (clay) and 10,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-h (sand). The results of this relatively restricted test indicated that the Vaekevae Stump Processor is s reliable and effective stump-lifting head that enables the harvesting of high-quality stump raw material for energy generation. The stump lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jaervinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Strump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jaervinen lifting head were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Ecosystem structure and function in the SPRUCE chambers at fine resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Graham, J.; Spaete, L.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental change (SPRUCE; operated by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory) aims to assess biological and ecological responses in a peat bog to a range of increased temperatures and the presence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We are using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to monitor vegetation productivity and hummock-hollow structure at cm-scale in the SPRUCE plots to complement in-situ measurements of gross and net primary production. The hummock-hollow peatland microtopography is associated with fluctuating water levels and sphagnum mosses, and ultimately controls C and methane cycling. We estimate tree growth by calculating increases in tree height and canopy voxel volume between years with the TLS data. Microtopography is also characterized over time with TLS but by using gridded cells to classify regions into hummocks or hollows. Spectroscopy to quantify water content in the sphagnum is used to further classify these microtopographic regions. As multiple years of data collection occur, we will couple our fine-scale remote sensing measurements with in-situ measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux measures to capture species-specific productivity responses to warming and increased CO2.

  9. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O 3 (COE), (2) O 3 with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O 3 , as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O 3 . Respiration (R d ) generally was not affected by treatments; however, R d in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O 3 may be causing higher R d

  11. Extraction of antioxidants from spruce (Picea abies) bark using eco-friendly solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Fagerlund, Amelie; Engman, Lars; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Afforestation of Boreal Open Woodlands: Early Performance and Ecophysiology of Planted Black Spruce Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lord

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Open lichen woodlands (LWs are degraded stands that lack the ability to regenerate naturally due to a succession of natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances. As they represent both interesting forest restoration and carbon sequestration opportunities, we tested disc scarification and planting of two sizes of containerized black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. (BSP seedlings for their afforestation. We compared treatment of unproductive LWs to reforestation of harvested, closed-crown black spruce-feathermoss (BSFM stands. After one year, seedling survival and nutritional status were equivalent among stand types but despite higher root elongation index (REI, planted seedlings in LWs had lower relative growth rate, smaller total biomass and stem diameter than those in BSFM stands. Soil fertility variables, soil temperature, nor seedling water potential, helped at explaining this early growth response. Disc scarification significantly improved seedling first-year survival, biomass and foliar nutrient concentrations of P, Ca, and Mg. Smaller planting stock showed higher REI, higher shoot water potential, and higher foliar nutrient concentration of all but one of the measured nutrients (N, P, K and Mg. Hence, preliminary results suggest that planting of smaller containerized black spruce stock, combined with disc scarification, shows potential for afforestation of unproductive LWs. The impact of the lichen mat and other potential growth limiting factors on afforestation of these sites requires further investigation.

  13. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, Milos; Cudlin, Pavel; Chroust, Petr; Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek; Edwards-Jonasova, Magda; Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel; Paoletti, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s -1 and 0.36 cm s -1 by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s -1 . In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O 3 concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: → We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. → The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. → We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. → We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 imply a reduction of NEP. → Deposition and stomatal uptake of O 3 decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  14. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES): CONCORDANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ALLOZYMIC VARIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Ulf; Ryman, Nils

    1990-02-01

    This study describes the population structure of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as revealed by protein polymorphisms and morphological variation. Electrophoretically detectable genetic variability was examined at 22 protein loci in 70 populations from the natural range of the species in Europe. Like other conifers, Norway spruce exhibits a relatively large amount of genetic variability and little differentiation among populations. Sixteen polymorphic loci (73%) segregate for a total of 51 alleles, and average heterozygosity per population is 0.115. Approximately 5% of the total genetic diversity is explained by differences between populations (G ST = 0.052), and Nei's standard genetic distance is less than 0.04 in all cases. We suggest that the population structure largely reflects relatively recent historical events related to the last glaciation and that Norway spruce is still in a process of adaptation and differentiation. There is a clear geographic pattern in the variation of allele frequencies. A major part of the allelefrequency variation can be accounted for by a few synthetic variables (principal components), and 80% of the variation of the first principal component is "explained" by latitude and longitude. The central European populations are consistently depauperate of genetic variability, most likely as an effect of severe restrictions of population size during the last glaciation. The pattern of differentiation at protein loci is very similar to that observed for seven morphological traits examined. This similarity suggests that the same evolutionary forces have acted upon both sets of characters. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Transformation of solar radiation in Norway spruce stands into produced biomass - the effect of stand density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marková, I.; Marek, M.V.; Pokorný, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the assessment of the effects of stand density and leaf area development on radiation use efficiency in the mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand. The young even-aged (17-years-old in 1998) plantation of Norway spruce was divided into two experimental plots differing in their stand density in 1995. During the late spring of 2001 next cultivating high-type of thinning of 15% intensity in a reduction of stocking density was performed. The PAR regime of investigated stands was continually measured since 1992. Total aboveground biomass (TBa) and TBa increment were obtained on the basis of stand inventory. The dynamic of LAI development showed a tendency to be saturated, i.e. the LAI value close to 11 seems to be maximal for the local conditions of the investigated mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand in the Beskids Mts. Remarkable stimuli (up to 17%) of LAI formation were started in 2002, i.e. as an immediate response to thinning. Thus, the positive effect of thinning on LAI increase was confirmed. The data set of absorbed PAR and produced TBa in the period 1998-2003 was processed by the linear regression of Monteith's model, which provided the values of the coefficient of solar energy conversion efficiency into biomass formation. The differences in biomass formation values between the dense and sparse plot after thinning amounted to 18%

  16. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  17. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  18. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  19. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  20. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE ECKLONIA MAXIMA EXTRACT ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE AND THUJA STABBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski Sosnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the impact of an extract of Ecklonia maxima on selected morphological features of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex C. Lawson, prickly spruce (Picea pungens Engelm. Variety Glauca, thuja (Thuja occidentalis variety Smaragd. The experiment was established in April 12, 2012 on the forest nursery in Ceranów. April 15, 2013 was introduced research agent in the form of a spraying an aqueous solution extract of Ecklonia maxima with trade name Kelpak SL. Biologically active compounds in the extract are plant hormones: auxin and cytokinin. There were studied increment in plant height, needle length of yellow pine, twigs length in prickly spruce and thuja. The measurements of increment in length of twigs and needles were made in each case on the same, specially marked parts of plants and have carried them on the 27th of each month beginning in May and ending in September. The results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance. Medium differentiations were verified by Tukey's test at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. The study showed that the diversity of traits features in the experiment was depended on the extract, the tree species and the measurement time. The best results after the extract using showed a pine and spruce. Seaweed preparation contributed to increment increased of trees height for in the pine and spruce and the needles length of pine and twigs of spruce. The species showing no reaction to the extract was thuja.

  1. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  2. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  3. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  4. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  5. Intermediate-scale community-level flux of CO2 and CH4 in a Minnesota peatland: putting the SPRUCE project in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Hanson; A. L. Gill; X. Xu; J. R. Phillips; D. J. Weston; Randy Kolka; J. S. Riggs; L. A. Hook

    2016-01-01

    Peatland measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux were obtained at scales appropriate to the in situ biological community below the tree layer to demonstrate representativeness of the spruce and peatland responses under climatic and environmental change (SPRUCE) experiment. Surface flux measurements were made using dual open-path...

  6. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Petia S.; Andersen, Christian P.; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O 3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ 13 C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O 3 under beech and spruce, and was related to O 3 -stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O 3 on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O 3 regime. δ 13 C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g s of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O 3 in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O 3 effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  7. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar

    2011-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  8. Techno-economic and ex-ante environmental assessment of C6 sugars production from spruce and corn. Comparison of organosolv and wet milling technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moncada, Jonathan; Vural Gursel, Iris; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Ramírez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic and environmental performance of C6 sugars production from softwood (spruce) and corn. Two technologies were considered in the assessment: organosolv of spruce woodchips (2nd generation) and corn wet milling (1st generation). Process models were developed to

  9. The diversity of microhabitats and their impact on the regeneration of spruce and rowan in the mountain forests of the Low Tatras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloncak, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the questions: what is proportion of different types of microhabitats in natural spruce?; which types of microhabitats prefers spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) in the early stages of their development?; what role do ground vegetation and dead wood play?

  10. The diversity of microhabitats and their impact on the regeneration of spruce and rowan in the mountain forests of the Low Tatras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloncak, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation the authors describe the questions: what is proportion of different types of microhabitats in natural spruce?; which types of microhabitats prefers spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) in the early stages of their development?; what role do ground vegetation and dead wood play?

  11. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  12. Defence response of sitka spruce before and after inoculation with heterobasidion annosum: 1H NMR fingerprinting of bark and sapwood metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Stephen; Horgan, Graham; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Metabolite fingerprinting of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) bark and sapwood was carried out by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance after wounding and artificial inoculation with the white rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto. The aim was to determine whether metabolites would differ in clones showing differing levels of susceptibility to H. annosum, in the fungal as compared with the control treatment (wounding, no fungus) and the reference (healthy sample collected at 0 days), at two different locations on the host, and at different sampling times (3 and 43 days after treatment). The results suggested that different metabolic processes occur in bark and sapwood after wounding and fungal inoculation, compared with healthy samples collected before treatment: In bark, greater peaks were elicited in the aromatic region whereas, in sapwood, lower amounts of all metabolites were observed in inoculated samples, compared with healthy samples. Multivariate statistical analysis carried out with analysis of variance-principal component analysis showed highly significant effects of reference, location, and time (PC1), and significant effects of clone and fungus. Differences between clones were apparent in sapwood but not in bark and were due to peaks in the aliphatic and carbohydrate regions. Over time, in bark, there was a decrease in carbohydrate peaks, followed by an increase in aliphatic and aromatic peaks. Sapwood, by contrast, showed a decrease in all peaks, followed by an increase in carbohydrate and aliphatic peaks. Changes in carbohydrate levels were observed within the lesion compared with the more distal location in both bark and sapwood. (orig.)

  13. Defence response of sitka spruce before and after inoculation with heterobasidion annosum: {sup 1}H NMR fingerprinting of bark and sapwood metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Stephen [University of Aberdeen, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Horgan, Graham [Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Jaspars, Marcel [University of Aberdeen, Department of Chemistry, Marine Biodiscovery Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Metabolite fingerprinting of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) bark and sapwood was carried out by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance after wounding and artificial inoculation with the white rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto. The aim was to determine whether metabolites would differ in clones showing differing levels of susceptibility to H. annosum, in the fungal as compared with the control treatment (wounding, no fungus) and the reference (healthy sample collected at 0 days), at two different locations on the host, and at different sampling times (3 and 43 days after treatment). The results suggested that different metabolic processes occur in bark and sapwood after wounding and fungal inoculation, compared with healthy samples collected before treatment: In bark, greater peaks were elicited in the aromatic region whereas, in sapwood, lower amounts of all metabolites were observed in inoculated samples, compared with healthy samples. Multivariate statistical analysis carried out with analysis of variance-principal component analysis showed highly significant effects of reference, location, and time (PC1), and significant effects of clone and fungus. Differences between clones were apparent in sapwood but not in bark and were due to peaks in the aliphatic and carbohydrate regions. Over time, in bark, there was a decrease in carbohydrate peaks, followed by an increase in aliphatic and aromatic peaks. Sapwood, by contrast, showed a decrease in all peaks, followed by an increase in carbohydrate and aliphatic peaks. Changes in carbohydrate levels were observed within the lesion compared with the more distal location in both bark and sapwood. (orig.)

  14. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  15. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  16. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  17. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  18. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  19. Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopatin E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

  20. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA DULMAN

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  1. Near real time/low latency data collection for climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Riggs, J. S.; Nettles, W. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    Climate change studies are one of the most important aspects of modern science and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. One such experiment is the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE, http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) conducted in in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The SPRUCE experimental mission is to assess ecosystem-level biological responses of vulnerable, high carbon terrestrial ecosystems to a range of climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 atmosphere. This manipulation experiment generates a lot of observational data and requires a reliable onsite data collection system, dependable methods to transfer data to a robust scientific facility, and real-time monitoring capabilities. This presentation shares our experience of establishing near real time/low latency data collection and monitoring system using satellite communication.

  2. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  3. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  4. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  5. A Norway Spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Is Implicated in Control of Growth Rhythm in Conifers1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants. PMID:17369429

  6. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  7. Proportion of various dendromass components of spruce (Picea abies), and partial models for modification of wind speed and radiation by pure spruce stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmerstädt, J.; Sharma, S.C.; Marsch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Means for quantifying dendromass components of spruce stands have been discussed, and partial models for modification of radiation and wind by the pure spruce stand were developed. By means of a sampling procedure, the components needle dry mass and branchwood dry mass without needles of individual trees are recorded. Using the relationship between branch basal diameter and needle respectively branchwood dry mass, the total needle and branchwood dry mass of trees is estimated. Based on that, stand or regional parameters for the allometric function between diameter breast height and needle respectively branchwood dry mass can be determined for defined H/D-clusters. Published data from various sources were used in this paper. The lowest coefficients of determination were found in H/D-cluster 120 (H/D-values over 114). Therefore, further differentiation within this range seems to be necessary. For assimilation models, there should be quantification of needle dry mass separately for needle age classes and morphological characteristics of needles. Basis for the estimate of tree-bole volume is the relationship between H/D-value and oven-dry weight. There are problems as far as methods for quantifying the subterranean dendromass (e.g. dynamics of fine roots) are concerned; this is requiring considerable efforts, too. Spatial structure was also described by allometric functions (crown length and crown cover in relation to diameter breast height). For the partial model to express wind modification by the stand, standardized wind profiles as related to crown canopy density were used. The modification of radiation by the stand is closely related with the vertical needle mass distribution (sum curves). These two partial models have to be considered as an approach for the description of the modifying effect by the stocking [de

  8. Genetic variability and health of Norway spruce stands in the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Krosno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2015 in six spruce stands situated in different forest districts administratively belonging to the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Krosno. Each spruce population was represented by 30 trees and assessed in terms of their current health status. Genetic analyses were performed on shoot samples from each tree using nine nuclear DNA markers and one mitochondrial DNA marker (nad1. The health status of the trees was described according to the classification developed by Szczepkowski and Tarasiuk (2005 and the correlation between health classes and the level of genetic variability was computed with STATISTICA (α = 0.05.

  9. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas; Seifert, Ana; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the dominant tree species in the European boreal zone with the capacity to grow over large areas within Europe. It is an important emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which can act as precursors of photochemical smog and ozone and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees and contained two separate provenances. The remaining three sites were part of other networks which have been used to conduct studies in the European boreal zone. There were minimal differences in the standardized emission rates between sites and across latitudes. The emission profile differed between provenances and sites, but there were not any distinct patterns which could be connected to a change in latitude. By using genetically identical trees and comparing the emission rates between sites and with genetically different trees, it was observed that the emission patterns were mostly influenced by genetics. But in order to confirm this possible stability of the relative emission profile based on genetics, more studies need to be performed. The effects of branch height, season and variation between years on observed emission pattern variations were also investigated. There were indications of potential influences of all three factors. However, due to different experimental setups between measurement campaigns, it is difficult to draw any robust conclusions.

  10. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  11. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Photosynthesis in Norway spruce seedlings infected by the needle rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helmut; Plattner, Karin; Volgger, Waltraud

    2000-02-01

    Chrysomyxa rhododendri (DC.) De Bary is a needle rust with a host shift between Rhododendron sp. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), penetrating only the new developing flushes of the conifer. Because little is known about its effects on trees, we investigated several parameters related to photosynthesis in artificially infected 3-year-old Norway spruce seedlings. The potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII; derived from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements) was reduced in infected current-year needles as soon as disease symptoms were visible, about three weeks after inoculation. Two weeks later, photosynthetic O(2) evolution (P(max)) of infected needles was less than 20% of control needles, whereas respiratory O(2) uptake (R(D)) was about three times higher than that of control needles. Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations were about 60% of control values in all parts of the shoots of infected trees. Photosynthetic inhibition was associated with marked decreases in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll a/b ratio but only a small reduction in carotenoid concentration. In infected trees, P(max) of noninfected 1-year-old and 2-year-old needles was 50 and 80% higher than in the corresponding age class of needles of control trees. Estimation of potential daily net dry mass production, based on P(max), R(D), specific leaf area, carbon content and needle biomass, indicated that seedlings infected once were able to produce 60%, and those infected twice only 25%, of the dry mass of controls. We conclude that afforestation and regeneration of Norway spruce is seriously impaired in regions where seedlings are frequently attacked by Chrysomyxa.

  13. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  14. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  15. A study on the development of photoelastic experimental hybrid method for colour isochromatics (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawong, Jai Sug; Nam, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Kyo Hyoung; Kwon, O Sung; Kwon, Gun; Park, Sung Han

    2010-01-01

    Isochromatics obtained from photoelastic experiment shows the stress distributions of the full field of a structure under load. Therefore, stress distributions of the structure can be read at a glance through isochromatics. Many experimental data can be obtained from isochromatics which are then used in various photoelastic experimental hybrid methods for stress analysis. Monochromatic light has however, until now been used in the photoelastic experimental hybrid method to produce black and white isochromatics. The use of black and white isochromatics in photoelastic experimental hybrid method for black and white isochromatics requires high fringe orders in order to obtain sufficient experimental data for photoelastic hybrid techniques. Accordingly, this paper develops the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics in which a fringe order of 1 is enough to gather the experimental data of the photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The method was applied to validate stress concentration problems. Experimental results from this study indicated that the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics is more precise than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for black and white isochromatics. The use of few fringe orders in photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics can offer significant advantages in stress analysis of real components using reflective-type photoelastic experimental method

  16. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. variability in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce is one of the most important economic species is Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the species at the edge of its natural range; nevertheless it attains significant growth and yield results. The species is often used for afforestation purposes. In the previous period, 4 progeny tests of Norway spruce were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The offspring from 6 natural populations: Han Pijesak 1, Han Pijesak 2, Foča, Potoci, Olovo and Kneževo were build-in the progeny tests. In 2016, the samples of Norway spruce from 2 progeny tests: Srebrenica and Drinić were collected. In total, 360 samples were collected. DNA isolation was done according to Dumoline et al. (1990. For assessment of genetic differences among populations, co-dominant nSSR microsatellite system had been used. The number of effective alleles ranged from 7.78 in the population Potoci up to 15 in the population Kneževo, the average number of alleles was 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.61 for the population Han Pijesak 2 up to 0.68 for population Kneževo. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.65. Fixation index was in the range from -0.073 in the population Potoci, to 0.030 for the population Han Pijesak 2. The average value of Wright fixation index is -0.007. The average fixation index indicates the existence of a very small number of homozygotes. Concerning the variability among populations it has been concluded that the total level of genetic differentiation among populations was very low (FST= 0.026. The result of Nei’s genetic distance shows that the populations Olovo and Potoci are separated from other populations. The results obtained by genetic markers, in addition with other, morphological and physiological markers will be the basis for the further investigation of Norway spruce adaptability and possibility for the transfer of genetic material in light of climate changes.

  17. Surface coating influence on elastic properties of spruce wood by means of holographic vibration mode visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongova, M.; Urgela, Stanislav

    1999-07-01

    Physicoacoustical properties of wood influenced by surface coating are studied by modal analysis. Resonant spruce plates were coated by stain, nitrocellulose varnish, special violin paint and shellac. The modal testing was performed by electronic speckle pattern interferometry. For this purpose, equipment called VIBROVIZER was used. The collected values of physicoacoustical characteristics (density, Young's modulus, acoustic constant) were compared using the graphic plots of data. The 3D plots help to evaluate wooden plates from a viewpoint of the quality control. This fact offers new opportunity for musical instrument manufacturers.

  18. Observation on the effect of gamma rays on spruce (Picea smithiana) seeds germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    Spruce (Picea smithiana) forests cover extensive areas in western Himalayas and account for 48.80% of the total conifer forest area and growing stock in the region. Baldwin studied the effect of x-rays on the seeds of conifers trees. A little work has been done on the genus Picea in respect of physical mutagens. Keeping this in consideration the present trial has been done at preliminary level to study the effect of gamma rays on the germination behaviour. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  19. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  20. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  1. Natural regeneration ecology of a secondary altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman, Elizabeta; Diaci, Jurij

    2008-01-01

    Natural regeneration of altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol is retarded dueto many factors. In autumn 2003, gaps of different size and parts of the surrounding stand were covered with a 5 x 5 grid m to define sampling plots. Atotal of 227 plots with 1,5 x 1,5 m in size were installed to analyse generalregeneration conditions and inhibitors. The following ecological parameters were estimated on each plot: micro relief, inclination, soil depth,ground cover, direct and diffuse solar radiation...

  2. Beech and spruce under the influence of electromagnetic radiation by radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, G.; Matyssek, R.; Käs, G.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout a three-year study period beech and spruce trees were examined for potential effects of electromagnetic radiation by radar on the morphological and physiological performance at the crown level. No effects of radar on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal regulation as well as twig and foliage differentiation were found in late summer after seasonal exposure to this kind of radiation, when comparing radar-exposed with shielded crown parts. Adverse effects caused by radar on forest trees appear to be unlikely on a short-term scale, given conditions similar to those of this case study [de

  3. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  4. `Assessment of Hybrid White Yam (Discorea Rotundata) Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ako-Isu had black colour while the remaining amala samples had varying shades of grey colouration. Though all the elubo samples from the experimental yam genotypes were found to be usable in amala preparation, only the amala sample made from TDr 89/02677 compared favourably (especially in the handfeel sensory ...

  5. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  7. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  9. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  10. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  11. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  12. Determination of stress bioindicators in three Norway spruce stands in northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbold, D.L.; Feig, R.; Cremer-Herms, A.; Huettermann, A.

    1993-01-01

    At three sites in northern Germany (Witzenhausen, Egge-Mountains and Hamburg-Eissendorf) biochemical stress bioindicators (chlorophyll, starch, proline and acid phosphatase and peroxidase activity) were determined in the needles of healthy and damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Peroxidase activity was higher in 1 and 2 yr old needles of damaged Norway spruce at the Witzenhausen and Hamburg-Eissendorf sites. Phosphatase activity was significantly higher in needles of damaged trees in all needle ages at the Egge-mountains site in 1983, and at the Witzenhausen site in current and 1 yr old needles. At the Hamburg-Eissendorf site lower phosphatase activity in needless of damaged trees was determined. At the Witzenhausen site lower levels of chlorophyll were determined in the 1 and 2 yr old needles of damaged trees, whereas at the Hamburg-Eissendorf and Egge-mountains sites lower chlorophyll levels were found in current needles. Thus between healthy and damaged trees at a specific site differences in the stress bioindicators could be found, however no common pattern between the sites could be determined. The study indicates that these biochemical bioindicators may be used to show a general stress, but it is difficult to relate them to a specific stress factor. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Experimental Study Regarding the Freezing and Thawing Dynamics of Spruce Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results regarding theevolution of the temperature field in spruce wood(Picea abies L. during freezing at two differentfreezing rates: -100C/h (rapid freezing and -10C/h(slow freezing and then during thawing at +50C,+30°C, +50°C temperature.This approach aimed at simulating thetemperature variations which occur inside timberduring open air storage in winter in two situations(sudden vs. gradual drop of temperature, and thenwhen the timber enters the drying kiln, depending onthe temperature applied in the initial heating phase.The results clearly show that the freezing ratesignificantly influences the thawing time and speed,which increase by 13-17% in the case of slowly frozenwood (at -10C/min compared to rapidly frozen wood(at -100C/min. It was also established that theoptimum temperature in the heating-up phase whendrying frozen spruce is 300C instead of the usual500C. This value leads to much better dryinguniformity without significantly prolonging the dryingtime.

  14. HEAT TREATMENTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE DRIED NORWAY SPRUCE BOARDS: SACCHARIDES AND FURFURALS IN SAPWOOD SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates that migrate to wood surfaces in sapwood during drying might influence properties such as mould susceptibility and colour. Sugars on the surface of Norway spruce boards during various heat treatments were studied. Samples (350mmx125mmx25mm were double-stacked, facing sapwood-side outwards, and dried at 110oC to a target moisture content (MC of 40%. Dried sub-samples (80 mm x 125 mm x 25 mm were stacked in a similar way and further heated at 110oC and at 130oC for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and furfural in the sapwood surface layer of treated wood were analysed using HPLC (RI- and UV-detectors. Carbohydrates degraded to a lower extent at 110oC than at 130oC. Furfural and to a larger extent HMF increased with treatment period and temperature. Heat treatment led to a decrease in lightness and hue of the sapwood surface of sub-samples, while chroma increased somewhat. Furthermore, considerably faster degradation (within a few minutes of the carbohydrates on the surface of the dried spruce boards was observed when single sub-samples were conductively hot pressed at 200oC. Treatment period and initial MC influenced the presence of the carbohydrates in wood surface as well as colour change (Eab of the hot pressed sub-samples.

  15. Ecosystem warming does not affect photosynthesis or aboveground autotrophic respiration for boreal black spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, D.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Gower, S.T. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management

    2010-04-15

    Substantial increases in climatic temperatures may cause boreal forests to become a carbon source. An improved understanding of the effect of climatic warming on photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration is needed in order to determine the impact of temperature increases on net carbon balances. This study measured the light-saturated photosynthesis foliage respiration and stem respiration of black spruce in heated and control plots during a 3-year period at a site located in Thompson, Manitoba. Greenhouses and soil-heating cables were used to maintain air and soil temperatures at 5 degrees C above ambient air and soil temperatures. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil and air warming; soil-only warming; and greenhouses maintained at ambient temperatures. The study showed that treatment differences for photosynthesis, foliage respiration, and stem respiration were not significant over the 3-year period. Results suggested that black spruce may not have significant changes in photosynthesis or respiration rates in warmer climates. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  17. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reithmeier

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+ and the other half were free of host plants (host(-. Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(- soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  18. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  19. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Townshend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  20. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  1. Natural regeneration ecology of a secondary altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozman, E.; Diaci, J.

    2008-01-01

    Natural regeneration of altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol is retarded due to many factors. In autumn 2003, gaps of different size and parts of the surrounding stand were covered with a 5 x 5 grid m to define sampling plots. A total of 227 plots with 1,5 x 1,5 m in size were installed to analyse general regeneration conditions and inhibitors. The following ecological parameters were estimated on each plot: micro relief, inclination, soil depth,ground cover, direct and diffuse solar radiation. Woody regeneration (density, height, height increment) and ground vegetation were recorded at each plot. Considering that N-S and E-W radiation asymmetry was explicit, the distribution of direct and diffuse radiation was divided into four groups among the plots. Spruce regeneration (28.,605 per ha) was mainly found at the edge of the large gap, though total regeneration density and radiation were not correlated. However, in both the stand and the small gaps, the lack of radiation hindered further development. This study showed that light conditions were not the only factors affecting the regeneration success at an altitude of 1,500 m. The presence of woody debris was important, while the influence of the herb layer (predominant species were Festuca altissima All. and Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth.) and soil depth proved to be negative. The impact of browsing, however, remained the main problem. (author)

  2. The complete nitrogen cycle of an N-saturated spruce forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, K; Butterbach-Bahl, K; Rennenberg, H; Papen, H

    2009-09-01

    Long-term nitrogen deposition into forest ecosystems has turned many forests in Central Europe and North America from N-limited to N-saturated systems, with consequences for climate as well as air and groundwater quality. However, complete quantification of processes that convert the N deposited and contributed to ecosystem N cycling is scarce. In this study, we provide the first complete quantification of external and internal N fluxes in an old-growth spruce forest, the Höglwald, Bavaria, Germany, exposed to high chronic N deposition. In this forest, N cycling is dominated by high rates of mineralisation of soil organic matter, nitrification and immobilisation of ammonium and nitrate into microbial biomass. The amount of ammonium available is sufficient to cover the entire N demand of the spruce trees. The data demonstrate the existence of a highly dynamic internal N cycle within the soil, driven by growth and death of the microbial biomass, which turns over approximately seven times each year. Although input and output fluxes are of high environmental significance, they are low compared to the internal fluxes mediated by microbial activity.

  3. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p metal production factory was estimated at 6.8 mg/kg in the depth of 0-10 cm beneath the level of the soil. The length of roots in the saplings planted around the factory of metal production stood at 11 and 14.5 cm in the observer region which had a significant difference with the observer region (p production processes in the factory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  5. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway Spruce Clones in Sweden and Potential Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pettersson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disease. Symptom development after 8–11 months was mainly mild and lesion lengths under bark were generally minor. However, N. fuckeliana could still be reisolated and/or molecularly detected. Slow disease development is in line with older studies describing N. fuckeliana as a weak pathogen. However, the results do not explain the serious increased damage by N. fuckeliana registered in Nordic forests and Christmas tree plantations. Potential management implications, such as shearing Christmas trees during periods of low inoculum pressure, cleaning secateurs between trees, and removal and burning of diseased branches and trees to avoid inoculum transfer and to keep disease pressure low, are based on experiments presented here and experiences with related pathogens.

  7. Preservation of beech and spruce wood by allyl alcohol-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-01-01

    Allyl alcohol (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), monomers and monomer mixtures AA+AN, AA+MMA were used to conserve and consolidate Beech and Spruce. After impregnation, copolymerisation and polymerisation were accomplished by gamma irradiation. The fine structure of wood+polymer(copolymer) composites was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that copolymer obtained from AA+MMA monomer mixture showed the optimum compatibility. The compressional strength and Brinell Hardness Numbers determined for untreated and treated wood samples indicated that the mechanical strength of wood+copolymer composites was increased. It was found that the mechanical strength of the wood samples containing the AA+MMA copolymer was higher than the others. In the presence of P(AA/MMA), at highest conversion, the compressive strength perpendicular to the fibres in Beech and Spruce increased approximately 100 times. The water uptake capacity of wood+copolymer composites was observed to decrease by more than 50% relative to the original samples, and biodegradation did not take place

  8. Developing silvicultural systems based on partial cutting in western hemlock–Sitka spruce stands of southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; J.C. Tappeiner; Paul E. Hennon

    2002-01-01

    The effects of partial cutting on species composition, stand structure and growth, tree size distribution, and tree disease and mortality were evaluated on 73 plots in 18 stands that were harvested 12–96 years ago in southeast Alaska. Partially-cut stands had diverse and highly complex stand structures similar to uncut stands. Sitka spruce was maintained in mixed...

  9. Dynamics and composition of litterfall in an unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cudlín, Pavel; Fluksová, H.; Kaňa, Jiří; Picek, T.; Šantrůčková, H.; Svoboda, M.; Vaněk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2015), s. 305-323 ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * litter * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2015

  10. Long-distance dispersal of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) in Minnesota (USA) and Ontario (Canada) via the atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Gary L. Achtemeier; Joseph J. Charney; Dean P. Anderson; Barry J. Cooke; Phillip A. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal can play an important role in the population dynamics of forest insects, but the role of long-distance immigration and emigration remains unclear due to the difficulty of quantifying dispersal distance and direction. We designed an agent-based spruce budworm flight behavior model that, when interfaced with temperature, wind speed, and precipitation output...

  11. Enhanced UV-B radiation may lead to the decrease of specific phenolic compounds in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Marek, Michal V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2008), s. 564-567 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : 4-hydroxyacetophenone * catechin * Norway spruce * picein * screening pigments * ultraviolet radiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2008

  12. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  13. Relationship between norway spruce status and soil water base cations/aluminum rations in the Czech republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hruška, J.; Cudlín, Pavel; Krám, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2001), s. 983-988 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/0832 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : BC/Al molar ratio * norway spruce * crown structure Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2001

  14. Development of a comprehensive analytical method for the determination of chlorinated paraffins in spruce needles applied in passive air sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozza, Saverio; Schmid, Peter; Oehme, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Conifer needles are used for the monitoring of atmospheric persistent organic pollutants. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for the detection of airborne chlorinated paraffins (CPs) using spruce needles as a passive sampler. The method is based on liquid extraction of the cuticular wax layer followed by chromatographic fractionation and detection of CPs using two different GCMS techniques. Total CP concentrations (sum of short (SCCP), medium (MCCP) and long chain CPs (LCCP)) were determined by EI-MS/MS. SCCP and MCCP levels as well as congener group patterns (n-alkane chain length, chlorine content) could be evaluated using ECNI-LRMS. For the first time, data on environmental airborne CPs on spruce needles taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) are presented providing evidence that spruce needles are a suitable passive sampling system for the monitoring of atmospheric CPs. - A developed method for chlorinated paraffins (CPs) provided evidence that spruce needles are a suitable passive sampling system for the monitoring of atmospheric CPs.

  15. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Smith; Keith N.C. Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poiret) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occur as codominant trees in six relic, mountain-top populations that make up the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SA). These two relic species of the former boreal forest have experienced a significant decline over the past...

  16. Recent evolution and divergence among populations of a rare Mexican endemic, Chihuahua spruce, following holocene climatic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Virginia Jacob-Cervantes; Paul D. Hodgskiss

    1997-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduction in population size are expected to reduce genetic diversity. However, examples from natural populations of forest trees are scarce. The range of Chihuahua spruce retreated northward and fragmented coincident with the warming climate that marked the early Holocene. The isolated populations vary from 15 to 2441 trees, which provided an...

  17. Assessment of weather-associated causes of red spruce winter injury and consequences to aboveground carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Brynne E. Lazarus; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Catherine H. Borer; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable study, it remains uncertain what environmental factors contribute to red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) foliar winter injury and how much this injury influences tree C stores. We used a long-term record of winter injury in a plantation in New Hampshire and conducted stepwise linear regression analyses with local weather and regional...

  18. Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie V. Spellman; Christa P.H. Mulder; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    As climate rapidly warms at high-latitudes, the boreal forest faces the simultaneous threats of increasing invasive plant abundances and increasing area burned by wildfire. Highly flammable and widespread black spruce (Picea mariana) forest represents a boreal habitat that may be increasingly susceptible to non-native plant invasion. This study assess the role of burn...

  19. Ground vegetation dynamics in mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forests recovering after air pollution stress impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, O.; Vavříček, D.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-321 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest decline * norway spruce * microsite conditions * recovery * understorey layer Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2009

  20. The influence of red wood ants .i.Formica polyctena./i. on nutrient availability ant growth of spruce tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Rybníček, M.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2007) ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Formica polyctena * nutrient availability * growth of spruce tree Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment on bud phenology and shoot growth patterns of Norway spruce juvenile trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Drápelová, I.; Kulhavý, J.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2010), s. 251-257 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bud * elevated CO2 * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Fine and coarse root parameters from mature black spruce displaying genetic x soil moisture interaction in growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Fine and coarse root biomass, C, and N mass parameters were assessed by root size and soil depths from soil cores in plots of 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on a dry and wet...

  3. Bioecology of the conifer swift moth, Korscheltellus gracilis, a root feeder associated with spruce-fir decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; David L. Wagner; Bruce L. Parker; Donald L. Tobi

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades, the decline of red spruce, Picea rubens Sargent, and balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L), at high elevations (900-1200 m) in eastern North America has evoked concern about the effects of anthropogenic deposition upon terrestrial ecosystems. In many high-elevation forests across New England, as many as 50...

  4. Carbon pools in a montane old-growth Norway spruce ecosystem in Bohemian Forest: Effects of stand age and elevation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seedre, M.; Kopáček, Jiří; Janda, P.; Bače, R.; Svoboda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 346, June (2015), s. 106-113 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon dynamics * soil carbon * spruce biomass C * dead root C * unmanaged ecosystem Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  5. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  6. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Jouni K.; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH 4 –N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO 3 –N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. -- Highlights: •Spruces were fertilized with anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS). •CSS increased soil N, proportion of NO 3 –N, and N concentration of spruce needles. •CSS reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans. •CSS increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes. •Sucrose did not reduce N pools or counteract negative CSS effects on soil animals. -- Composting and carbohydrate addition do not mitigate the harmful effects of anaerobically digested sewage sludge in boreal forest soil

  7. Genotype-environment interaction and stability in ten-year height growth of Norway spruce Clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit

    1986-01-01

    Norway spruce cuttings of 40 clones were tested on seven contrasting sites in northern Germany. Analysis of variance for ten-year height growth indicate a highly significant clone x site interaction. This interaction may be reduced by selection of stable clones. Several measures of stability were calculated and discussed. Characterization of sites by the method of...

  8. Culturable bacterial populations associated with ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce stands with different degrees of decline in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avidano, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Gindro, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Martinotti, M G.; Fracchia, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-64 ISSN 0008-4166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizae * Norway spruce * forest decline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2010

  9. The historical role of Ips hauseri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spruce forest of Ile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Mukhamadiev; A. Lynch; C. O' Connor; A. Sagitov; N. Ashikbaev; I. Panyushkina

    2014-01-01

    On 17 May and 27 June 2011 severe cyclonic storms damaged several hundred hectares of spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana) in the Tian Shan Mountains. Bark beetle populations increased rapidly in dead and damaged trees, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographus, I. sexdentatus, and Piiyogenesperfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and there is concern about the...

  10. Central-European mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests: regeneration of tree species after a bark beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-27 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest management * mountain spruce forest * natural regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2004 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  11. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  12. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  14. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  15. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  16. Near Real-time Ecological Forecasting of Peatland Responses to Warming and CO2 Treatment through EcoPAD-SPRUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Stacy, M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Sundi, N.; Luo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological forecasting is critical in various aspects of our coupled human-nature systems, such as disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change mitigation. Novel advancements are in urgent need to deepen our understandings of ecosystem dynamics, boost the predictive capacity of ecology, and provide timely and effective information for decision-makers in a rapidly changing world. Our Ecological Platform for Assimilation of Data (EcoPAD) facilitates the integration of current best knowledge from models, manipulative experimentations, observations and other modern techniques and provides both near real-time and long-term forecasting of ecosystem dynamics. As a case study, the web-based EcoPAD platform synchronizes real- or near real-time field measurements from the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change Experiment (SPRUCE), a whole ecosystem warming and CO2 enrichment treatment experiment, assimilates multiple data streams into process based models, enhances timely feedback between modelers and experimenters, and ultimately improves ecosystem forecasting and makes best utilization of current knowledge. In addition to enable users to (i) estimate model parameters or state variables, (ii) quantify uncertainty of estimated parameters and projected states of ecosystems, (iii) evaluate model structures, (iv) assess sampling strategies, and (v) conduct ecological forecasting, EcoPAD-SPRUCE automated the workflow from real-time data acquisition, model simulation to result visualization. EcoPAD-SPRUCE promotes seamless feedback between modelers and experimenters, hand in hand to make better forecasting of future changes. The framework of EcoPAD-SPRUCE (with flexible API, Application Programming Interface) is easily portable and will benefit scientific communities, policy makers as well as the general public.

  17. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  18. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  19. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  20. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  1. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  2. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  3. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  4. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  5. Contrasting development of declining and living larch-spruce stands after a disturbance event: A case study from the High Tatra Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebeň Vladimír

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline of spruce stands caused by bark beetle outbreaks is a serious economic and ecological problem of forestry in Slovakia. In the preceding period, the decline affected mainly secondary spruce forests. Over the last decade, due to large bark-beetle outbreaks this problem has been observed also in natural spruce forests, even at high elevations. We dealt with this issue in a case study of short-term development of larch-spruce stands in the High Tatras (at a site called Štart. We compared the situation in the stand infested by bark beetles several years after the wind-throw in 2004 with the stand unaffected by bark beetles. We separately analysed the development of the mature (parent stands and the regeneration. The results indicated that forest decline caused by bark beetles significantly depended on the stand structure (mainly tree species composition, which affected the period of stand disintegration. Mortality of spruce trees slowed down biomass accumulation (and thus carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In the new stand, pioneer tree species dominated (in the conditions of the High Tatras it is primarily rowan, although their share in the parent stand was negligible. The results showed different trends in the accumulation of below-ground and above-ground biomass in the declined and living stands. In the first years after the stand decline, rowan accumulated significantly more biomass than the main tree species, i.e. spruce. The reverse situation was under the surviving stand, where spruce trees accumulated more biomass than rowan. The different share of spruce and pioneer tree species, mainly rowan, affected the ratio between fixed (in woody parts of trees and rotating (in foliage carbon in the undergrowth. Forest die-back is a big source of carbon emissions from dead individuals, and the compensation of these losses in the form of carbon sequestration by future stands is a matter of several decades.

  6. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  7. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  8. White organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad

    2011-03-22

    Three approaches were taken in order to achieve reproducible and highly efficient white OLEDs with excellent colour quality. The first approach is based on the triplet harvesting concept. Otherwise unused triplet excitons are transferred from a fluorescent to a phosphorescent emitter with a smaller triplet energy. Because a blue emitter allowing for triplet transfer to a phosphorescent green emitter was not available, a model system for a three-colour white OLED was developed and investigated. This model device consists of the fluorescent blue emitter 4P-NPD and the phosphorescent emitters Ir(dhfpy){sub 2}acac and Ir(MDQ){sub 2}acac emitting in the yellow and red region, respectively. Here, it was shown that both phosphorescent emitters are excited by triplet diffusion and not by direct charge carrier recombination. The second approach is based on a hybrid white OLED with a single emission layer. This layer is a combination of a fluorescent blue and two phosphorescent emitters in a common matrix material. Because of the above mentioned lack of a blue emitter, which allows for triplet transfer to a green phosphorescent emitter, the concentrations of all emitters were chosen in a way that exciton transfer between the emitters was suppressed. The result is a non-radiative recombination of triplet excitons on the fluorescent blue emitter and an accordingly low quantum efficiency. However, a remarkable colour stability against varying brightness was achieved with this OLED. The most successful approach is based on a stacked OLED. Here, the concept of triplet harvesting is limited to triplet transfer between a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter. The resulting spectral gap is filled by a full phosphorescent unit comprising the emission of a green and a yellow emitter, which is stacked on top of the triplet harvesting OLED. By individually optimising both units, it was possible to reach lighting relevant luminous efficacies up to {eta}{sub {nu}}=33 lm/W at

  9. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  10. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  11. PCDD/F and PCB in spruce forests of the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenthaler, I., E-mail: ivo.offenthaler@umweltbundesamt.a [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Jakobi, G.; Kirchner, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Sedivy, I. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in remote mountainous spruce stands of the Central European Alps show strong geographic variation. Independent of the matrix (0.5 year old needles, humus or mineral soil), the highest pollutant levels were always found at the lateral zones of the mountain range. High levels coincided with strong precipitation, particularly along the northern margin of the study region. The most volatile PCB congener propagated farther into the colder, drier central Alps than the heavier species. Matrices with different accumulation history (needles and humus) repeatedly reflected different spatial immission patterns. Consistent with its much longer exposure, pollutant levels in humus exceeded those of needles by up to two orders of magnitude. Needle contamination varied with altitude but the vertical trends were highly variable between transsects and changed between years, too. - Dioxin-like pollution of forests in the Alps shows strong geographic variation.

  12. The effects of pelleted sewage sludge on Norway spruce establishment and nitrogen dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden there is a big resource in unutilised sewage sludge. Studies have shown that application of municipal sewage sludge can improve forest productivity and planting environment. This study is examining the effects of two types of pelleted sewage sludge (pure sludge and a mixture of sludge and domestic wastes compost) on nitrogen turnover. Large differences were found in the fertilisation effect of the different treatments. The pure sewage sludge pellets treatment showed significant increases for NH 4 -accumulation, nitrification and NO 3 -leaching in the top 10 cm of the soil. Uptake of nitrogen was increased in spruce plants and vegetation. The mixed sludge/domestic waste pellets treatment showed indications of a minor initial release of nitrogen. This is seen as a small but significant initial increase in soil nitrification. These results suggest that the pure sewage sludge pellet is an adequate nitrogen fertiliser. The mixed sludge though is inadequate at least in the short run

  13. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  14. Curing Characterisation of Spruce Tannin-based Foams using the Advanced Isoconversional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Čop

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The curing kinetics of foam prepared from the tannin of spruce tree bark was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and the advanced isoconversional method. An analysis of the formulations with differing amounts of components (furfuryl alcohol, glycerol, tannin, and a catalyst showed that curing was delayed with increasing proportions of glycerol or tannins. An optimum amount of the catalyst constituent was also found during the study. The curing of the foam system was accelerated with increasing temperatures. Finally, the advanced isoconversional method, based on the model-free kinetic algorithm developed by Vyazovkin, appeared to be an appropriate model for the characterisation of the curing kinetics of tannin-based foams.

  15. Pollutant exclusion experiments on spruce at the Edelmannshof site. Results of physiological and biochemical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt; Bauer; Bourgois

    1993-01-01

    From 1987-1992 within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach extensive studies of physiological and biochemical parameters of spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing on natural site in a forest decline area (Schwaebisch-Fraenkischer Wald) north-west of the conurbation Stuttgart were carried out. This pollutant-exclusion experiment was a further part of a threepart research program including field observations and defined pollutant experiments with young forest trees in modelecosystems. The results show, that also low concentrations of air pollutants cause effects in plant metabolism before the occurence of visible symptoms. The pollutant effects caused specially by ozone have to be linked to climatic factors such as drought which occured in the last years. In a final view some factors influencing the long-term project Edelmannshof are shown. Ultimately possible key-reactions for bioindication methods on the synecological level are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. CS-137 transfer factors soil-plant and density of hyphae in soil of spruce forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemt, E.; Deuss, H.; Drissner, J.; Krapf, M.; Miller, R.; Zibold, G.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of soil and plants were taken at spruce stand sites in southern Baden-Wuerttemberg. Fern always had the highest aggregated Cs-137 transfer factor (T ag ) varying between 0.01 and 0.27 m 2 kg -1 . There is a tendency for higher T ag s in soils with thicker raw humus layers, lower pH, lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the O h horizon, and lower clay content below the organic deposit. The density of hyphae is determined by the season and its weather conditions and it usually decreases continuously from O f to top B horizon. In analyzing our data no correlation between aggregated or horizon-specific transfer factors of different plants and density of hyphae could be found. Refs. 5 (author)

  17. Ant-mediated effects on spruce litter decomposition, solution chemistry, and microbial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, B.; Schramm, Andreas; Kalbitz, K.

    2006-01-01

    the effects of ants and aphid honeydew on litter solution of Norway spruce, microbial enzyme activities, and needle decomposition in a field and greenhouse experiment during summer 2003. In the field, low ant densities had relatively little effects on litter solution 30 cm away from a tree trunk...... and %N were not affected by ants or honeydew. Our results suggest that ants have a distinct and immediate effect on solution composition and microbial activity in the litter layer indicating accelerated litter decay whereas the effect of honeydew was insignificant. Keywords: Ants; Decomposition; Formica......Forest management practices often generate clear-cut patches, which may be colonized by ants not present in the same densities in mature forests. In addition to the associated changes in abiotic conditions ants can initiate processes, which do not occur in old-growth stands. Here, we analyse...

  18. Exclusion experiment for gaseous pollutants in spruces at Edelmannshof: concept and first element-budget data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seufert, G.; Evers, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The results presented focus on the translocation of substances in the canopy by water; analyses carried through on the element budget comprise, interalia, ion concentrations in leachate, element contents in needle and litter samples, and concentrations of exchangeable cations in soil. Depositions and leaching from needles depend on air quality. Whereas dissolved and solid phase depositions are identical, stress to trees from the different gas phase variants is non-uniform. Cation losses in the indicated site are immediately compensated by uptake in the area of the roots: so far, no difference in the nutrition status of spruces subjected to different treatments has been established by needle analysis. Provided the soil has sufficient capacity for compensating loss of nutritive elements, leaching processes do not trigger recognizable disturbance of mineral nutrition. (orig.) [de

  19. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  20. Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2015-01-01

    As wood construction increasingly uses engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives used. Bondline strength is a crucial issue for engineered wood applications, especially in cold climates. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) joints (150 mm...... adhesive was tested at six temperatures: 20, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −60 °C. Generally, within the temperature test range, temperature changes significantly affected the shear strength of solid wood and wood joints. As the temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR adhesive in most cases...... resulted in the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive resulted in the weakest. MF and PRF adhesives responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of the PUR adhesive. The shear strengths of wood joints with PVAc and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. At low...

  1. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...... at conditions with easterly winds, the air have passed central Jutland with large emission areas. Some of the relatively low deposition velocities or emissions were observed during conditions with low ammonia concentration and westerly winds. These observations might relate to a compensation point of the forest...

  2. Climatic control of stand thinning in unmanaged spruce forests of the southern taiga in European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vygodskaya, N.N.; Schulze, E.D.; Tchebakova, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The demography of Picea abies trees was studied over a period of about 30 yr on permanent plots in six forest types of an unmanaged forest located in a forest reserve of the Southern Taiga, NW of Moscow. This study encompassed a broad range of conditions that are typical for old growth spruce forests in the boreal region, including sites with a high water table and well drained sites, podzolic soils, acidic soils and organic soils. At all sites stand density, tree height, breast height diameter and age has been periodically recorded since 1968. Tree density ranged between 178 and 1035 trees/ha for spruce and between 232 and 1168 trees/ha for the whole stand, including mainly Betula and Populus. Biomass ranged between 5.4 and 170 tdw/ha for spruce and between 33 to 198 tdw/ha for the whole stand. Averaged over a long period of time, biomass did not change with stand density according to the self-thinning rule. In fact, on most sites biomass remained almost constant in the long term, while stand density decreased. The study demonstrates that the loss of living trees was not regulated by competitive interactions between trees, but by disturbances caused by climatic events. Dry years caused losses of minor and younger trees without affecting biomass. In contrast, periodic storms resulted in a loss of biomass without affecting density, except for extreme events, where the whole stand may fall. Dry years followed by wet years enhance the effect on stand density. Since mainly younger trees were lost, the apparent average age of the stand increased more than real time (20% for Picea). Average mortality was 2.8 ± 0.5% yr 1 for spruce. Thus, the forest is turned over once every 160-180 yr by disturbances. The demography of dead trees shows that the rate of decay depends on the way the tree died. Storm causes uprooting and stem breakage, where living trees fall to the forest floor and decay with a mean residence time (t1/2) of about 16 yr (decomposition rate constant k d = 0

  3. Effect of dust and soot on the growth of spruce trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohmeder, E

    1960-07-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to road dust, calcium carbonate and soot on plant growth, was investigated in an experiment with 40 spruces of common heredity that were three years old at the start of the experiment and five years old at its conclusion. The plants were exposed for the entire 1956 growing season to the effect of a heavy coating of dust. In the following year, the growth performance and the production of shoots and needle mass in plants treated with dust were substantially below the untreated control plants. The root mass produced was also smaller in the treated plants than in those untreated. The considerable growth retardation after a heavy layering of dust lasting one growing season is primarily explained by the withdrawal of light and the resultant reduction in assimilation performance. In exposure to soot, however, the corrosive effect of the chemicals contained in the soot increased the extent of the damage to the plants.

  4. GENERAL ASSESMENT OF SEED STANDS OF ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Turna

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds for afforestation studies with oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.Link. populations are usually gathered from already established seed stands. This study showed that most of the seed stands were not selected appropriately and some of them were not properly protected and maintained when evaluated according to the “criteria for selection and management of seed stands”. The average slope of seed stands was as high as 43% and the average size varied from 33.5 ha to 147.5 ha Since the stands were open to social disturbances and wind effects, the number of trees per ha decreased 51% and the number of seed trees dropped to a level of 56%. In conclusion, seeds collected from poorly established seed stands will likely jeopardize the success in reforestation studies in the future.

  5. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    is currently being developed at Göttingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  6. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, A. M.; Ingerslev, M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.

    2004-01-01

    by an index of injury, based on conductivity measurements of ion leakage from needles. Despite fertilization, all trees indicated N, P and K deficiency. The foliage, collected in late winter, was generally not very frost sensitive, but foliage from trees with the lowest K and P status were more sensitive......The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the N, P and K status on frost sensitivity of Norway spruce needles in a fertilization experiment situated in a nutrient poor 29-year-old Picea abies stand in western Denmark. The relative difference in frost sensitivity among trees was assessed...... to frost, and the current year needles were more sensitive than the second and third year needles. The advancement of bud burst was assessed in May. Trees with a relatively high N concentration in the current year needles had a more advanced bud burst than trees with a lower N concentration, increasing...

  7. Heavy metal distribution in a spruce ecosystem in the Solling mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.; Lamersdorf, N.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation the distribution of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was studied in a spruce forest. Heavy metal content was analysed in different compartments of the ecosystem. Inventory of these elements was calculated for tree layer, humus layer and upper soil. A decrease in meter concentration in wood from root to shoot showed strong immobilization of heavy metals in roots. Increasing content of Cu in wood of branches can be explained as storage of this micronutrient. Atmospherically deposited Cr, Cu and Pb were strongly adsorbed to organic substances and accumulate in bark, dead fine roots and humus layer. On the other hand Zn and Cd are more mobile in the ecosystem. High amounts of these elements were found in biomass. Accumulation in bark probably can be a strategy of the tree to store these elements in physiologically inactive forms. Increasing mobilization of Zn, Cd and Co in soil led to intensified root uptake and to higher seepage output. (orig.)

  8. Hartig' net formation of Tricholoma vaccinum-spruce ectomycorrhiza in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    For re-forestation of metal-contaminated land, ectomycorrhizal trees may provide a solution. Hence, the study of the interaction is necessary to allow for comprehensive understanding of the mutually symbiotic features. On a structural level, hyphal mantle and the Hartig' net formed in the root apoplast are essential for plant protection and mycorrhizal functioning. As a model, we used the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its host spruce (Picea abies). Using an optimized hydroponic cultivation system, both features could be visualized and lower stress response of the tree was obtained in non-challenged cultivation. Larger spaces in the apoplasts could be shown with high statistical significance. The easy accessibility will allow to address metal stress or molecular responses in both partners. Additionally, the proposed cultivation system will enable for other experimental applications like addressing flooding, biological interactions with helper bacteria, chemical signaling, or other biotic or abiotic challenges relevant in the natural habitat.

  9. Importance of Arboreal Cyanolichen Abundance to Nitrogen Cycling in Sub-Boreal Spruce and Fir Forests of Central British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Kobylinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of N2-fixing arboreal cyanolichens to the nitrogen (N-balance of sub-boreal interior hybrid spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests was examined at field sites in central BC, Canada. Host trees were accessed by a single-rope climbing technique and foliage as well as arboreal macrolichen functional groups were sampled by branch height in eight random sample trees from each of two high (High Cyano and two low (Low Cyano cyanolichen abundance sites for a total of 32 sample trees. Natural abundances of stable isotopes of N (15N, 14N and carbon (13C, 12C were determined for aggregate host tree and epiphytic lichen samples, as well as representative samples of upper organic and soil horizons (Ae and Bf from beneath host trees. As expected, N2-fixing cyanolichens had 2–6-fold greater N-contents than chlorolichens and a δ15N close to atmospheric N2, while foliage and chlorolichens were more depleted in 15N. By contrast, soils at all trees and sites were 15N-enriched (positive δ15N, with declining (not significant δ15N with increased tree-level cyanolichen abundance. Lichen functional groups and tree foliage fell into three distinct groups with respect to δ13C; the tripartite cyanolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (lightest, host-tree needles (intermediate, and bipartite cyanolichens, hair (Alectoria and Bryoria spp. and chlorolichens (heaviest. Branch height of host trees was an effective predictor of needle δ13C. Our results showed a modest positive correlation between host tree foliage N and cyanolichen abundance, supporting our initial hypothesis that higher cyanolichen abundances would elevate host tree foliar N. Further study is required to determine if high cyanolichen abundance enhances host tree and/or stand-level productivity in sub-boreal forests of central BC, Canada.

  10. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  11. Increased transpiration and plant water stress in a black spruce bog exposed to whole ecosystem warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/) in Northern Minnesota, USA, has exposed 12.8 m diameter plots of an ombrotrophic Picea mariana-Ericaceous shrub bog to whole ecosystem warming (0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75, +9 °C) since August 2015, and elevated CO2 treatments (ambient or +500 ppm) since June 2016. The mixed-age stand has trees up to 40 year old, and a 5-8 m tall canopy. Thermal dissipation sap flow probes were installed into dominant Picea mariana and Larix laricina trees in each of the 10 open-top chambers in fall 2015. This talk will focus on the first two years of sap flux data from the 10 treatment plots and the relationships with seasonal growth and prevailing environmental conditions. Sap flow was scaled to whole tree and plot level transpiration based on prior in situ calibrations using cut trees, establishment of a sapwood depth: tree diameter relationship, and the tree size distribution within each plot. We also assessed water potential in the trees and two dominant shrubs at the site: Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata. The warming treatments increased the growing season by up to 6 weeks, with sapflow beginning earlier in spring and lasting later into the fall. The deciduous Larix was the only species exhibiting substantial predawn water stress under the treatments, where water potentials reached -2.5 MPa for the warmest plots. The elevated CO2 reduced midday water stress in the Rhododendron, but not the Chamaedaphne, which could lead to shifts in shrub species composition.

  12. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panferov, O; Rauch, E; Doering, C; Ahrends, B; Sogachev, A

    2009-01-01

    Wind damage is one of the major natural disturbances that can occur worldwide in most types of forests. Enhanced management using adequate decision support systems (DSS) can considerably reduce the risk of windthrow. The decision support system 'Forest and Climate Change' (DSS-WuK) which is currently being developed at Goettingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks-changes of microclimate as a result of tree fall and consequent stabilization or destabilization of a forest stand. The results of the study indicate that in Solling the risk of windthrow for spruce and pine forest stands is likely to increase considerably during the 21st century. The general tendencies indicate that under A1B the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected. Therefore, the adequate projection of future damage probabilities can be performed only with a process-based coupled soil-atmosphere model with corresponding high spatial

  13. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  14. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  15. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  16. Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T.

    2003-02-01

    Understanding the effects of wildfire on the carbon (C) cycle of boreal forests is essential to quantifying the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle. Soil surface CO2 flux (Rs), the second largest C flux in boreal forests, is directly and indirectly affected by fire and is hypothesized to change during forest succession following fire. The overall objective of this study was to measure and model Rs for a black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) postfire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. The experiment design was a nested factorial that included two soil drainage classes (well and poorly drained) × seven postfire aged stands. Specific objectives were (1) to quantify the relationship between Rs and soil temperature for different aged boreal black spruce forests in well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions, (2) to examine Rs dynamics along postfire successional stands, and (3) to estimate annual soil surface CO2 flux for these ecosystems. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly affected by soil drainage class (p = 0.014) and stand age (p = 0.006). Soil surface CO2 flux was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2 = 0.78, p aged stand combination. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly greater at the well-drained than the poorly drained stands (p = 0.007) during growing season. Annual soil surface CO2 flux for the 1998, 1995, 1989, 1981, 1964, 1930, and 1870 burned stands averaged 226, 412, 357, 413, 350, 274, and 244 g C m-2 yr-1 in the well-drained stands and 146, 380, 300, 303, 256, 233, and 264 g C m-2 yr-1 in the poorly drained stands. Soil surface CO2 flux during the winter (from 1 November to 30 April) comprised from 5 to 19% of the total annual Rs. We speculate that the smaller soil surface CO2 flux in the recently burned than the older stands is mainly caused by decreased root respiration.

  17. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  18. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  20. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.