Sample records for hybrid turbulence effects

  1. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert


    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  2. 2-D Hybrid Model to Study Flow Curvature Effect on Low Frequency Plasma Turbulence (United States)

    Sen, S.; Lin, D.; Scales, W.; Goldstein, M.


    In this study of flow curvature effects, a two-dimensional hybrid model is used to simulate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The hybrid model treats the ions as particles, and electrons as massless fluid. Pressure and resistivity are assumed as isotropic. A classical configuration for the study of KHI is investigated, i.e. transverse shear flow to uniform background magnetic field. This is thought as the most unstable situation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. There are 50 super particles per cell in the current simulations, which number could be increased to as much as 200 in the future. The boundary is periodic along the flow direction and reflective in the perpendicular direction. The code was originally developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and has been successfully applied to the study of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the Earth's magnetopause. In this study, the code has been running on the Advanced Research Computing (ARC) platforms of Virginia Tech. Four distinct shear profiles are simulated to investigate the effects of flow curvature on the growth of the KH instability: uniform flow, linear shear without curvature, quadratic profile with positive curvature, and quadratic profile with negative curvature. This work is supported by the DOE Grant DE-SC0016397.

  3. Effect of lower hybrid waves on turbulence and transport of particles and energy in the FTU tokamak scrape-off layer plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [ENEA-CR Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)


    All the main features of the scrape-off layer turbulence, magnitude, frequency spectrum and perpendicular wave vector, {xi}{sub t}, are strongly affected by the injection of lower hybrid (LH) power into the FTU tokamak. The governing parameters are the local last closed magnetic surface values of density, n{sub e,LCMS}, and temperature, T{sub e,LCMS}. n{sub e,LCMS} determines the perpendicular wave vector of the LH waves, which is a key parameter for the multiple scattering processes, and together with T{sub e,LCMS} the collisionality that exerts a stabilizing effect on the fluctuations. This effect, still to be examined in the light of theoretical models, leads to an asymptotic value for the fluctuation relative amplitude in the ohmic phase close to 25%, and {approx}10% in the LH phase, or even less, since the saturation level is not yet attained. The LH waves also can strongly raise {xi}{sub t}, about 3 times, and double the root mean square frequency. The transfer of momentum and energy in the mutual scattering of LH and turbulence 'waves' drives these changes. An increase also of the cross-correlation between temperature and electric potential fluctuations should occur in order to explain the magnitude of the fluctuation amplitude drop and the large increment of the temperature e-folding decay, by more than a factor of 2.5. Particle transport, however, does not appear to be affected to a large extent-the density e-folding decay length is almost unchanged but the power flow typical length rises by about a factor of 1.5, which is a relevant figure in view of the problem of mitigating the power loads on divertor targets in future reactors. These changes are confined mainly within the flux tube connected with the LH waves launching antenna, but start to spread significantly out of it at high plasma densities.

  4. Effect of lower hybrid waves on turbulence and transport of particles and energy in the FTU tokamak scrape-off layer plasma (United States)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.


    All the main features of the scrape-off layer turbulence, magnitude, frequency spectrum and perpendicular wave vector, ξt, are strongly affected by the injection of lower hybrid (LH) power into the FTU tokamak. The governing parameters are the local last closed magnetic surface values of density, ne,LCMS, and temperature, Te,LCMS. ne,LCMS determines the perpendicular wave vector of the LH waves, which is a key parameter for the multiple scattering processes, and together with Te,LCMS the collisionality that exerts a stabilizing effect on the fluctuations. This effect, still to be examined in the light of theoretical models, leads to an asymptotic value for the fluctuation relative amplitude in the ohmic phase close to 25%, and ~10% in the LH phase, or even less, since the saturation level is not yet attained. The LH waves also can strongly raise ξt, about 3 times, and double the root mean square frequency. The transfer of momentum and energy in the mutual scattering of LH and turbulence 'waves' drives these changes. An increase also of the cross-correlation between temperature and electric potential fluctuations should occur in order to explain the magnitude of the fluctuation amplitude drop and the large increment of the temperature e-folding decay, by more than a factor of 2.5. Particle transport, however, does not appear to be affected to a large extent—the density e-folding decay length is almost unchanged but the power flow typical length rises by about a factor of 1.5, which is a relevant figure in view of the problem of mitigating the power loads on divertor targets in future reactors. These changes are confined mainly within the flux tube connected with the LH waves launching antenna, but start to spread significantly out of it at high plasma densities.

  5. Statistical acceleration of electrons by lower-hybrid turbulence (United States)

    Wu, C. S.; Gaffey, J. D., Jr.; Liberman, B.


    The statistical acceleration of electrons along an ambient magnetic field by large-amplitude lower-hybrid turbulence is discussed. Perturbations driven by a crossfield current and propagating nearly perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are considered. It is assumed that the instability saturates rapidly and that the fluctuating electric field is predominantly electrostatic. If the turbulence is characterized by a spectrum of small parallel wavenumbers, such that the parallel phase velocity of the waves is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the turbulence can only accelerate electrons moving with large velocities along the magnetic field. The quasi-linear diffusion equation is solved using a Green's function technique, assuming a power law spectral energy density. The time evolution of an initial Maxwellian distribution is given and the time rate of change of the mean electron energy is calculated for various cases.

  6. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.


    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

  7. Simulation of a Wall-Bounded Flow using a Hybrid LES/RAS Approach with Turbulence Recycling (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Mcdaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.


    Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/ Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters the three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case, and these comparisons indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. The effect of turbulence recycling on the solution is illustrated by performing coarse grid simulations with and without inflow turbulence recycling. Two shock sensors, one of Ducros and one of Larsson, are assessed for use with the hybridized inviscid flux reconstruction scheme.

  8. The characteristic analysis of a hybrid multifluid turbulent-mix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, B.; Cranfill, C.W.


    A thorough analysis of the characteristics of a multifluid turbulent mix model in the case of one-dimensional two phase flows is presented under various physical circumstances. It has been found that the new hybrid multifluid turbulent mix model has all real characteristics if either real or turbulent viscosity is present. When real viscosity vanishes, the model still has all real characteristics for zero relative motion between fluids. For nonzero relative motions between fluids, the model will have all real characteristics if the disordered motions and turbulent viscosity together are generated with the nonzero relative motions simultaneously. The implications of the results are further discussed.

  9. Compressibility effects in turbulence modeling (United States)

    Rubesin, M. W.


    Numerical turbulence modeling is discussed with attention given to fluid property variations caused by compressibility in an adiabatic flow. The models are considered in terms of integral quantities expressed by ordinary differential equations and by those formulated as partial differential equations. Compressibility corrections for both integral and partial differential methods are reviewed. Eddy-viscosity models are explored for their capability to characterize the mass-weighted Reynolds stress, which can be accounted for with primitive and/or mass-weighted variables. Compressible flow simulations are currently constrained to low Re and zero mean dilation. The effects of compressibility are defined in wave number space by resolving the Fourier transforms of the velocity vectors into components which are perpendicular and parallel to the wave number vector. Statistical correlations then permit obtaining a value for each contribution.

  10. A Hybrid Monte Carlo importance sampling of rare events in Turbulence and in Turbulent Models (United States)

    Margazoglou, Georgios; Biferale, Luca; Grauer, Rainer; Jansen, Karl; Mesterhazy, David; Rosenow, Tillmann; Tripiccione, Raffaele


    Extreme and rare events is a challenging topic in the field of turbulence. Trying to investigate those instances through the use of traditional numerical tools turns to be a notorious task, as they fail to systematically sample the fluctuations around them. On the other hand, we propose that an importance sampling Monte Carlo method can selectively highlight extreme events in remote areas of the phase space and induce their occurrence. We present a brand new computational approach, based on the path integral formulation of stochastic dynamics, and employ an accelerated Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm for this purpose. Through the paradigm of stochastic one-dimensional Burgers' equation, subjected to a random noise that is white-in-time and power-law correlated in Fourier space, we will prove our concept and benchmark our results with standard CFD methods. Furthermore, we will present our first results of constrained sampling around saddle-point instanton configurations (optimal fluctuations). The research leading to these results has received funding from the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 642069, and from the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under ERC Grant Agreement No. 339032.

  11. Turbulent energization of ions in warm collisionless plasmas - hybrid simulation study (United States)

    Maneva, Yana; Vinas, Adolfo; Poedts, Stefaan


    Turbulent waves and structures are ubiquitous and indispensable part of the solar wind throughout the Heliosphere and have crucial contribution to the energization of particles in the warm collisionless plasma near the Earth, especially in regions where strong wave activity is observed. Wave-based turbulent energization of protons and minor ions in the undisturbed solar wind can occur through resonant and non-resonant wave-particle interactions and related wave absorption, particle scattering and diffusion in phase space. The efficiency of the ion heating depends on the characteristics of the waves carrying energy at the ion scales, such as polarization, direction of propagation and spectral properties of the fluctuations. The observed solar wind turbulence includes different types of waves at all scales, starting from the large-scale fluid regime and reaching towards the small electron scales, where the magnetic fluctuations are ultimately dissipated. Although the spatial and temporal scales of these fluctuation are separated by few orders of magnitudes, they can still exchange energy due to large and small-scales turbulent cascades. Trying to model part of the solar wind turbulence at the ion scales we assume a superposition of non-resonant Alfvén waves, which follow Kolmogorov-type spectral slope by construction. Such waves are frequently observed in situ in the solar wind, and yet their specific role for the energization of minor ions remains unclear. We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations with fluid electrons, kinetic ions and minor ions to study the effects of turbulent energization of minor ions by initial broad-band spectra, consisting of parallel and oblique forward propagating Alfvén waves. The numerical model is driven by observations of the solar wind plasma parameters at 1AU and takes into account the differential streaming between the protons and the minor ions. For the chosen spectral range of the external initial wave spectra we observe preferential

  12. Model experiment to study sonic boom propagation through turbulence. Part II. Effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence. (United States)

    Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T


    A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms.

  13. Modelling Shallow Water Wakes Using a Hybrid Turbulence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Rodriguez-Cuevas


    Full Text Available A numerical research with different turbulence models for shallow water equations was carried out. This was done in order to investigate which model has the ability to reproduce more accurately the wakes produced by the shock of the water hitting a submerged island inside a canal. The study of this phenomenon is important for the numerical methods application advancement in the simulation of free surface flows since these models involve a number of simplifications and assumptions that can have a significant impact on the numerical solutions quality and thus can not reproduce correctly the physical phenomenon. The numerical experiments were carried out on an experimental case under controlled conditions, consisting of a channel with a submerged conical island. The numerical scheme is based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian finite volume method with four turbulence models, three mixing lengths (ml, and one joining k-ϵ on the horizontal axis with a mixing-length model (ml on the vertical axis. The experimental results show that a k-ϵ with ml turbulence model makes it possible to approach the experimental results in a more qualitative manner. We found that when using only a k-ϵ model in the vertical and horizontal direction, the numerical results overestimate the experimental data. Additionally the computing time is reduced by simplifying the turbulence model.

  14. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.


    Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.

  15. Shear and Turbulence Effects on Lidar Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Sathe, Ameya; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. It is known that lidar wind speed measure-ments are affected by both turbulence and wind shear. This report explains the mechanisms behind these sensitivities. For turbulence, it is found that errors in the scalar mean speed...... are usually only small. However, particularly in re-spect of a lidar calibration procedure, turbulence induced errors in the cup anemometer speed are seen to be signifi-cantly larger. Wind shear is shown to induce measurement errors both due to possible imperfections in the lidar sensing height and due...... to the averaging of a non-linear speed profile. Both effects in combination have to be included when modelling the lidar error. Attempts to evaluate the lidar error from ex-perimental data have not been successful probably due to a lack of detailed knowledge of both the wind shear and the actual lidar sensing...

  16. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli


    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  17. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe


    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  18. Effects of compressibility on boundary-layer turbulence (United States)

    Acharya, M.


    A series of turbulence measurements in a subsonic compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow in the Mach number range of 0.1 to 0.7 is described. Measurements include detailed surveys of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses, and other quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy. These data are examined to bring out the effects of compressibility and show that the stream-wise and transverse fluctuations and the turbulent shear stress follow a universal scaling law. A preliminary attempt is made to examine some of the assumptions made in turbulence models commonly used in numerical codes for the calculation of compressible flows.

  19. Development of a hybrid gyrokinetic ion and isothermal electron fluid code and its application to turbulent heating in astrophysical plasma (United States)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Barnes, Michael; Plasma theory group Team


    Understanding the ion-to-electron temperature ratio is crucial for advancing our knowledge in astrophysics. Among the possible thermalization mechanisms, we focus on the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence. Although several theoretical studies based on linear Alfvén wave damping have estimated the dependence of heating ratio on plasma parameters, there have been no direct nonlinear simulation that has investigated the heating ratio scanning plasma parameters. Schekochihin et al. (2009) proved that the turbulent heating ratio is determined at the ion Lamor radius scale. Therefore, we do not need to resolve all the scales up to the electron dissipation scale. To investigate the ion kinetic scale effectively, we developed a new code that solves a hybrid model composed of gyrokinetic ions and an isothermal electron fluid (ITEF). The code is developed by incorporating the ITEF approximation into the gyrokinetics code type="monospace">AstroGK (Numata et al., 2010). Since electron kinetic effects are eliminated, the new hybrid code runs approximately 2√{mi /me } times faster than full gyrokinetics codes. We will present linear and nonlinear benchmark tests of the new code and our first result of the heating ratio sweeping the plasma beta and ion-to-electron temperature ratio. This work was supported by STFC Grant ST/N000919/1. The authors also acknowledge the use of ARCHER through the Plasma HEC Consortium EPSRC Grant Number EP/L000237/1 under the projects e281-gs2.

  20. A Hybrid MPI-OpenMP Scheme for Scalable Parallel Pseudospectral Computations for Fluid Turbulence (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. L.; Mininni, P. D.; Reddy, R. N.; Pouquet, A.


    A hybrid scheme that utilizes MPI for distributed memory parallelism and OpenMP for shared memory parallelism is presented. The work is motivated by the desire to achieve exceptionally high Reynolds numbers in pseudospectral computations of fluid turbulence on emerging petascale, high core-count, massively parallel processing systems. The hybrid implementation derives from and augments a well-tested scalable MPI-parallelized pseudospectral code. The hybrid paradigm leads to a new picture for the domain decomposition of the pseudospectral grids, which is helpful in understanding, among other things, the 3D transpose of the global data that is necessary for the parallel fast Fourier transforms that are the central component of the numerical discretizations. Details of the hybrid implementation are provided, and performance tests illustrate the utility of the method. It is shown that the hybrid scheme achieves near ideal scalability up to ~20000 compute cores with a maximum mean efficiency of 83%. Data are presented that demonstrate how to choose the optimal number of MPI processes and OpenMP threads in order to optimize code performance on two different platforms.

  1. Toward Better Understanding of Turbulence Effects on Bridge Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Cao


    Full Text Available With the trend of variable cross-sections for long-span bridges from truss-stiffened to quasi-streamlined, and then to multiple-box cross-section geometries, the importance of aeroelastic performance is becoming increasingly significant in wind-resistant design. This article shows that there is clearly insufficient qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of turbulence effects on bridge aerodynamics, particularly the mechanisms behind them. Although turbulence might help the stabilization of long-span bridges, and is thus not a conclusive parameter in wind-resistant design, turbulence effects on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of a bridge need to be better understood because interaction between a bridge and turbulence always exists. This article also briefly introduces a newly developed multiple-fan wind tunnel that is designed to control turbulence to assist the study of turbulence effects.

  2. The effect of turbulent clustering on particle reactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Jonas; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Løvås, Terese


    The effect of turbulence on the heterogeneous (solid-fluid) reactions of solid particles is studied numerically with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). A simplified reaction system is used, where the solid-fluid reaction is represented by a single isothermal reaction step. It is found that, due to the clustering of particles by the isotropic turbulence, the overall reaction rate is entirely controlled by the turbulence for large Damk\\"ohler numbers. The particle clustering significantly slows down the reaction rate for increasing Damk\\"ohler numbers which reaches an asymptotic limit that can be analytically derived. This implies that the effect of turbulence on heterogeneously reacting particles should be included in models that are used in CFD simulations of e.g. char burnout in combustors or gasifiers. Such a model, based on the chemical and turbulent time scales, is here proposed for the heterogeneous reaction rate in the presence of turbulence.

  3. A dynamic hybrid RANS/LES modeling methodology for turbulent/transitional flow field prediction (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Faridul

    A dynamic hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling framework has been investigated and further developed to improve the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) prediction of turbulent flow features along with laminar-to-turbulent transitional phenomena. In recent years, the use of hybrid RANS/LES (HRL) models has become more common in CFD simulations, since HRL models offer more accuracy than RANS in regions of flow separation at a reduced cost relative to LES in attached boundary layers. The first part of this research includes evaluation and validation of a dynamic HRL (DHRL) model that aims to address issues regarding the RANS-to-LES zonal transition and explicit grid dependence, both of which are inherent to most current HRL models. Simulations of two test cases---flow over a backward facing step and flow over a wing with leading-edge ice accretion---were performed to assess the potential of the DHRL model for predicting turbulent features involved in mainly unsteady separated flow. The DHRL simulation results are compared with experimental data, along with the computational results for other HRL and RANS models. In summary, these comparisons demonstrate that the DHRL framework does address many of the weaknesses inherent in most current HRL models. Although HRL models are widely used in turbulent flow simulations, they have limitations for transitional flow predictions. Most HRL models include a fully turbulent RANS component for attached boundary layer regions. The small number of HRL models that do include transition-sensitive RANS models have issues related to the RANS model itself and to the zonal transition between RANS and LES. In order to address those issues, a new transition-sensitive HRL modeling methodology has been developed that includes the DHRL methodology and a physics-based transition-sensitive RANS model. The feasibility of the transition-sensitive dynamic HRL (TDHRL) model has been investigated by

  4. The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow (United States)

    Sarkar, S.


    Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.


    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  6. Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.

  7. Effect of Turbulence Modeling on Hovering Rotor Flows (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Chaderjian, Neal M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Holst, Terry L.


    The effect of turbulence models in the off-body grids on the accuracy of solutions for rotor flows in hover has been investigated. Results from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes and Laminar Off-Body models are compared. Advection of turbulent eddy viscosity has been studied to find the mechanism leading to inaccurate solutions. A coaxial rotor result is also included.

  8. Formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates by specific host-guest interactions in a turbulent flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart-Mejia, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan


    A multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) was used to investigate the formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates under highly turbulent flow conditions. To form aggregates, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (CD) and mixed with adamantyl (Ad)-terminated

  9. Kinetic Cascade in Solar-wind Turbulence: 3D3V Hybrid-kinetic Simulations with Electron Inertia (United States)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Servidio, Sergio; Califano, Francesco


    Understanding the nature of the turbulent fluctuations below the ion gyroradius in solar-wind (SW) turbulence is a great challenge. Recent studies have been mostly in favor of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW)-type fluctuations, but other kinds of fluctuations with characteristics typical of magnetosonic, whistler, and ion-Bernstein modes could also play a role depending on the plasma parameters. Here, we investigate the properties of the subproton-scale cascade with high-resolution hybrid-kinetic simulations of freely decaying turbulence in 3D3V phase space, including electron inertia effects. Two proton plasma beta are explored: the “intermediate” β p = 1 and “low” β p = 0.2 regimes, both typically observed in the SW and corona. The magnetic energy spectum exhibits {k}\\perp -8/3 and {k}\\parallel -7/2 power laws at β p = 1, while they are slightly steeper at β p = 0.2. Nevertheless, both regimes develop a spectral anisotropy consistent with {k}\\parallel ˜ {k}\\perp 2/3 at {k}\\perp {ρ }p> 1 and pronounced small-scale intermittency. In this context, we find that the kinetic-scale cascade is dominated by KAW-like fluctuations at β p = 1, whereas the low-β case presents a more complex scenario suggesting the simultaneous presence of different types of fluctuations. In both regimes, however, a possible role of the ion-Bernstein-type fluctuations at the smallest scales cannot be excluded.

  10. Dynamic simulation for distortion image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects (United States)

    Du, Huijie; Fei, Jindong; Qing, Duzheng; Zhao, Hongming; Yu, Hong; Cheng, Chen


    The imaging through atmospheric turbulence is an inevitable problem encountered by infrared imaging sensors working in the turbulence atmospheric environment. Before light-rays enter the window of the imaging sensors, the atmospheric turbulence will randomly interfere with the transmission of the light waves came from the objects, causing the distribution of image intensity values on the focal plane to diffuse, the peak value to decrease, the image to get blurred, and the pixels to deviate, and making image identification very difficult. Owing to the fact of the long processing time and that the atmospheric turbulent flow field is unknown and hard to be described by mathematical models, dynamic simulation for distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects is much more difficult and challenging in the world. This paper discusses the dynamic simulation for distortion Image of turbulence atmospheric transmission effect. First of all, with the data and the optical transmission model of the turbulence atmospheric, the ray-tracing method is applied to obtain the propagation path of optical ray which propagates through the high-speed turbulent flow field, and then to calculate the OPD from the reference wave to the reconverted wave front and obtain the point spread function (PSF). Secondly, infrared characteristics models of typical scene were established according to the theory of infrared physics and heat conduction, and then the dynamic infrared image was generated by OpenGL. The last step is to obtain the distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects .With the data of atmospheric transmission computation, infrared simulation image of every frame was processed according to the theory of image processing and the real-time image simulation, and then the dynamic distortion simulation images with effects of blurring, jitter and shifting were obtained. Above-mentioned simulation method can provide the theoretical bases for recovering

  11. A projection hybrid high order finite volume/finite element method for incompressible turbulent flows (United States)

    Busto, S.; Ferrín, J. L.; Toro, E. F.; Vázquez-Cendón, M. E.


    In this paper the projection hybrid FV/FE method presented in [1] is extended to account for species transport equations. Furthermore, turbulent regimes are also considered thanks to the k-ε model. Regarding the transport diffusion stage new schemes of high order of accuracy are developed. The CVC Kolgan-type scheme and ADER methodology are extended to 3D. The latter is modified in order to profit from the dual mesh employed by the projection algorithm and the derivatives involved in the diffusion term are discretized using a Galerkin approach. The accuracy and stability analysis of the new method are carried out for the advection-diffusion-reaction equation. Within the projection stage the pressure correction is computed by a piecewise linear finite element method. Numerical results are presented, aimed at verifying the formal order of accuracy of the scheme and to assess the performance of the method on several realistic test problems.

  12. Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsaeter, H.R.


    Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.

  13. High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows: Intrinsic Flame Instability and its Effects on the Turbulent Cascade (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei


    Turbulent reacting flows are pervasive both in our daily lives on Earth and in the Universe. They power modern society being at the heart of many energy generation and propulsion systems, such as gas turbines, internal combustion and jet engines. On astronomical scales, thermonuclear turbulent flames are the driver of some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, knows as Type Ia supernovae. Despite this ubiquity in Nature, turbulent reacting flows still pose a number of fundamental questions often exhibiting surprising and unexpected behavior. In this talk, we will discuss several such phenomena observed in direct numerical simulations of high-speed, premixed, turbulent flames. We show that turbulent flames in certain regimes are intrinsically unstable even in the absence of the surrounding combustor walls or obstacles, which can support the thermoacoustic feedback. Such instability can fundamentally change the structure and dynamics of the turbulent cascade, resulting in a significant (and anisotropic) redistribution of kinetic energy from small to large scales. In particular, three effects are observed. 1) The turbulent burning velocity can develop pulsations with significant peak-to-peak amplitudes. 2) Unstable burning can result in pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks when the flame speed approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. 3) Coupling of pressure and density gradients across the flame can lead to the anisotropic generation of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. We extend our earlier analysis, which relied on a simplified single-step reaction model, by demonstrating existence of these effects in realistic chemical flames (hydrogen and methane) and in thermonuclear flames in degenerate, relativistic plasmas found in stellar interiors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for subgrid-scale LES combustion models. This work was supported by the Air Force

  14. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent


    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  15. Turbulence and Beam Size Effects on Reflectometry Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, T.; Sanchez, J.; Zhuravlev, V.; Luna, E. de la; Branas, B. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)


    A two dimensional code based on the WKB approximation is used to simulate reflectometry measurements in plasmas with turbulence. The work aims to understand, first the role of turbulence in the determination of density profiles with reflectometry and, second, the ability of reflectometry techniques to give reliable information on the characteristics of the turbulence itself. The effects on the profile determination of a rotating turbulence structure with non-perpendicular reflection are analysed. The influence of the turbulence level, fluctuation wavelengths and antenna beam size on the density profile determination has been studied in a static plasma with perpendicular launching. The code has been used to simulate correlation measurements. The results show the correlation of the reflectometry signals for different turbulence parameters. Errors in the correlation length increase when 2-dimensional effects become important, though the homodyne signal works better than the phase. The correlation simulations also show the way for new methods to determine the group delay and therefore the density profile. (Author) 15 refs.

  16. Effects of the computational time step on numerical solutions for turbulent flow (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon; Moin, Parviz


    Effects of large computational time steps on the computed turbulence were investigated using a fully implicit method. In turbulent channel flow computations the largest computational time step in wall units which led to accurate prediction of turbulence statistics was determined. Turbulence fluctuations could not be sustained if the computational time step was near or larger than the Kolmogorov time scale.

  17. Theoretical investigation of some thermal effects in turbulence modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathelin, Lionel [LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay (France); Bataille, Francoise [PROMES-CNRS, Perpignan (France); Ye, Zhou [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Fluid compressibility effects arising from thermal rather than dynamical aspects are theoretically investigated in the framework of turbulent flows. The Mach number is considered low and not to induce significant compressibility effects which here occur due to a very high thermal gradient within the flowfield. With the use of the Two-Scale Direct Interaction Approximation approach, essential turbulent correlations are derived in a one-point one-time framework. In the low velocity gradient limit, they are shown to directly depend on the temperature gradient, assumed large. The impact of thermal effects onto the transport equations of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate is also investigated, together with the transport equation for both the density and the internal energy variance.

  18. Drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds: effects of turbulent mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magaritz-Ronen


    Full Text Available The mechanism of drizzle formation in shallow stratocumulus clouds and the effect of turbulent mixing on this process are investigated. A Lagrangian–Eularian model of the cloud-topped boundary layer is used to simulate the cloud measured during flight RF07 of the DYCOMS-II field experiment. The model contains ~ 2000 air parcels that are advected in a turbulence-like velocity field. In the model all microphysical processes are described for each Lagrangian air volume, and turbulent mixing between the parcels is also taken into account. It was found that the first large drops form in air volumes that are closest to adiabatic and characterized by high humidity, extended residence near cloud top, and maximum values of liquid water content, allowing the formation of drops as a result of efficient collisions. The first large drops form near cloud top and initiate drizzle formation in the cloud. Drizzle is developed only when turbulent mixing of parcels is included in the model. Without mixing, the cloud structure is extremely inhomogeneous and the few large drops that do form in the cloud evaporate during their sedimentation. It was found that turbulent mixing can delay the process of drizzle initiation but is essential for the further development of drizzle in the cloud.

  19. Effects of coastal forcing on turbulence and boundary- layer structure (United States)

    Strom, Linda Maria Viktoria

    Coastal mountains of significant elevation impose constraints for the surrounding flow. The aim of this study is to describe the modifications of the marine atmospheric boundary layer that occur offshore of the west coast of the United States. Aircraft measurements, up to 1000 km off the coast from two experiments, are used. This boundary layer is capped by a subsidence inversion, which slopes down toward the coast and produces large thermal winds. Low-level wind maxima (i.e. jets) are typical for these conditions, commonly a 40-50% increase relative to the 30 m wind speed. The effects of coastal forcing on low-level winds cancel in average when no regard is taken for position relative a cape or point. The variability of the low-level wind speed increases nevertheless significantly toward the coast, the standard deviation is +/-40% of the offshore value. The scale of the adjustment downstream of a cape or point is specifically addressed. Some measurements support a formulation of the coastal extent based on an inviscid shallow-water concept; mean variables (i.e. 30 m wind speed and boundary-layer depth) and turbulent parameters (i.e. dissipation and shear production of turbulent kinetic energy) vary in a uniform, predicted manner. The effects of coastal forcing on winds result in cold sea surface temperatures at the coast, due to upwelling. Stability becomes a function of offshore distance. Surface-layer turbulence statistics and spectra (and cospectra) of turbulence variables are presented. Across- and along-wind sampled spectra (and cospectra) show that large wind shear and shallow boundary layer affect the scales of the turbulence eddies. The relation between the standard deviations of wind components are affected. The turbulence appears to be non-local in some aspects, entrainment fluxes are proposed to be important due to a shallow boundary layer with a sharp, sloping inversion and a low-level jet.

  20. New hybrid turbulence modelling approach, with application to dynamic stall control (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert


    We present numerical studies of a stalled airfoil experiencing transitory flow control using a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach developed specifically for such challenging flow scenarios. Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. Our approach more naturally transitions between RANS to LES obviating the need for tuning and directly accounts for anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the flow and grid. The results of these simulations not only provide fundamental insight into experimentally observed stall control mechanisms but also display the versatility and accuracy of the new modeling method in simulating complex flow phenomena.

  1. Investigating the ion-scale spectral properties of solar wind turbulence with high-resolution hybrid simulations (United States)

    Franci, L.; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Hellinger, P.


    We investigate the properties of the solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, large-scale, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. These constitute the most accurate hybrid simulations of ion-scale turbulence ever presented so far, and let us explore a very wide range of scales, i.e., three decades in wave vectors simultaneously. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of in-plane large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. We perform a set of simulations with many different values of two fundamental parameters, i.e., the plasma beta, β, and the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, Brms, in order to investigate their relevance in determining the spectral properties of the turbulent cascade around ion scales. Once turbulence is fully developed, we observe the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations following a power law with a spectral index of -5/3 in the inertial range, with a spectral break around ion scales and a steeper power law in the sub-ion range. The scale at which the steepening of the spectrum occurs changes when exploring the (β,Brms) parameter space. Such a movement of the spectral break is clearer when looking at the spectra of the parallel magnetic fluctuations and of the density fluctuations. Moreover, these share the same power law behavior at sub-ion scales, exhibiting a spectral index of -2.8, which seems to be independent on the values of the two varying parameters. We compare our results with solar wind observations, and we suggest possible explanations for such behavior.

  2. Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows (United States)

    Sarkar, S.


    Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.

  3. Three-Dimensional Hybrid-Kinetic Simulations of Alfvénic Turbulence in the Solar Wind (United States)

    Arzamasskiy, Lev; Kunz, Matthew; Chandran, Ben; Quataert, Eliot


    It is well established that the solar wind is turbulent, exhibiting a power spectrum extending over several decades in scale and with most of the energy at large scales is in form of Alfvénic fluctuations. The solar wind is also weakly collisional, with a wide variety of non-Maxwellian features observed in the particle distribution functions. In this talk, we present the first hybrid-kinetic three-dimensional simulations of driven Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind. We confirm power-law indices obtained in previous analytical and numerical (e.g., gyrokinetic) studies, and carefully explore the location of and physics occurring at the ion Larmor scale. In the low-beta regime, we find evidence of stochastic heating, which arises when ions interact with strong fluctuations at wavelengths comparable to the ion Larmor scale. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of spacecraft measurements of the turbulence by testing the Taylor hypothesis with synthetic spacecraft measurements of our simulation data. This work was supported by Grant NNX16AK09G from NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program.

  4. Effects of swirl in turbulent pipe flows : computational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Frode


    The primary objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the effect of swirl in steady turbulent pipe flows. The work has been carried out by a numerical approach, with direct numerical simulations as the method of choice. A key target to pursue was the effects of the swirl on the wall friction in turbulent pipe flows. The motivation came from studies of rotating pipe flows in which drag reduction was achieved. Drag reduction was reported to be due to the swirl favourably influencing the coherent turbulent structures in the near-wall region. Based on this, it was decided to investigate if similar behaviour could be obtained by inducing a swirl in a pipe with a stationary wall. To do a thorough investigation of the general three-dimensional swirl flow and particularly of the swirl effects; chosen variations of mean and turbulent flow parameters were explored together with complementary flow visualizations. Two different approaches in order to induce the swirl in the turbulent pipe flow, have been carried out. However, the present thesis might be regarded to be comprised of three parts. The first part consists of the first approach to induce the swirl. Here a prescribed circumferential force was implemented in a serial open source Navier-Stokes solver. In the second approach, the swirl was intended induced by implementing structures at the wall. Simulations of flows through a pipe with one or more helical fin(s) at the pipe wall was decided to be performed. In order to pursue this approach, it was found necessary to do a parallelization of the existing serial numerical code. The key element of this parallelization has been included as a part of the present work. Additionally, the helical fin(s) were implemented into the code by use of an immersed boundary method. A validation of this work is also documented in the thesis. The work done by parallelizing the code and implementing an immersed boundary method constitutes the second part of the present thesis. The

  5. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama


    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, D/L, was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for D/L = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance (D/L=2.5 was greater than that without acoustic resonance (D/L=0.5. To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.

  6. Helical bottleneck effect in 3D homogeneous isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Stepanov, Rodion; Golbraikh, Ephim; Frick, Peter; Shestakov, Alexander


    We present the results of modelling the development of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a large-scale source of energy and a source of helicity distributed over scales. We use the shell model for numerical simulation of the turbulence at high Reynolds number. The results show that the helicity injection leads to a significant change in the behavior of the energy and helicity spectra in scales larger and smaller than the energy injection scale. We suggest the phenomenology for direct turbulent cascades with the helicity effect, which reduces the efficiency of the spectral energy transfer. Therefore the energy is accumulated and redistributed so that non-linear interactions will be sufficient to provide a constant energy flux. It can be interpreted as the ‘helical bottleneck effect’ which, depending on the parameters of the injection helicity, reminds one of the well-known bottleneck effect at the end of inertial range. Simulations which included the infrared part of the spectrum show that the inverse cascade hardly develops under distributed helicity forcing.

  7. Anisotropy effects in LES simulation of turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abba, A.; Cercignani, C.; Valdettaro, L. [Dipt. di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)


    We present Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent anisotropic flows. We consider first turbulent coaxial jets, separated by a thick wall. The simulation has been performed at a Reynolds number of 2000, based on the diameter and on the velocity of the inner jet. The diffusion of the external jet, the effect of the thick wall and the mixing of the two jets are derived from the analysis of the mean velocity profiles, of the root mean squares of the longitudinal velocity components, and of the skewness. We then present visualizations which show the instabilities in the shear layers, their development and the presence of the backscatter. We next consider Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection flow in an infinite horizontal fluid layer heated from below. The dynamic SGS closure is extended to take into account anisotropy of eddy thermal diffusivity. Average properties of the resulting flow are compared with experimental and numerical data in the literature. An a priori test is made, that allows to compare the models. The largest Rayleigh number successfully simulated is 10{sup 8} with an aspect ratio of 7. Probability distribution functions of temperature fluctuations at different Rayleigh numbers are compared. (orig.)

  8. Effect of mean velocity shear on the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing


    The dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in incompressible turbulence is investigated using a two-scale DIA. The dissipation rate is shown to consist of two parts; one corresponds to the dissipation rate used in the current turbulence models of eddy-viscosity type, and another comes from the viscous effect that is closely connected with mean velocity shear. This result can elucidate the physical meaning of the dissipation rate used in the current turbulence models and explain part of the discrepancy in the near-wall dissipation rates between the current turbulence models and direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation.

  9. Reynolds number effects on scale energy balance in wall turbulence (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan; Casciola, Carlo M.; Piva, Renzo


    The scale energy budget utilizes a modified version of the classical Kolmogorov equation of wall turbulence to develop an evolution equation for the second order structure function [R. J. Hill, "Exact second-order structure-function relationships," J. Fluid Mech. 468, 317 (2002)]. This methodology allows for the simultaneous characterization of the energy cascade and spatial fluxes in turbulent shear flows across the entire physical domain as well as the range of scales. The present study utilizes this methodology to characterize the effects of Reynolds number on the balance of energy fluxes in turbulent channel flows. Direct numerical simulation data in the range Reτ = 300-934 are compared to previously published results at Reτ = 180 [N. Marati, C. M. Casciola, and R. Piva, "Energy cascade and spatial fluxes in wall turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 521, 191 (2004)]. The present results show no Reynolds number effects in the terms of the scale energy budget in either the viscous sublayer or buffer regions of the channel. In the logarithmic layer, the transfer of energy across scales clearly varies with Reynolds number, while the production of turbulent kinetic energy is not dependent on Reynolds number. An envelope of inverse energy cascade is quantified in the buffer region within which energy is transferred from small to larger scales. This envelope is observed in the range 6 < y+ < 37, where all scales except the smallest scales display characteristics of an inverse energy cascade. The cross-over scale lc+, which indicates the transition between production dominated and scale transfer dominated regimes, increases with Reynolds number, implying a larger range of transfer dominated scales, before the dominant mechanism switches to production. At higher Reynolds numbers, two distinct regimes of lc+ as a function of wall-normal location are observed, which was not captured at Reτ = 180. The variations of lc+ match the trends of the shear scale, which is a

  10. Compressibility Effects on the Growth and Structure of Homogeneous Turbulent Shear Flow (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects within decaying isotropic turbulence and homogeneous turbulent shear flow have been studied using direct numerical simulation. The objective of this work is to increase our understanding of compressible turbulence and to aid the development of turbulence models for compressible flows. The numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence show that compressibility effects are highly dependent on the initial conditions. The shear flow simulations, on the other hand, show that measures of compressibility evolve to become independent of their initial values and are parameterized by the root mean square Mach number. The growth rate of the turbulence in compressible homogeneous shear flow is reduced compared to that in the incompressible case. The reduced growth rate is the result of an increase in the dissipation rate and energy transfer to internal energy by the pressure-dilatation correlation. Examination of the structure of compressible homogeneous shear flow reveals the presence of eddy shocklets, which are important for the increased dissipation rate of compressible turbulence.

  11. Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence Effect on Terrestrial FSO Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes


    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results in many effects causing fluctuation in the received optical power. Terrestrial laser beam communication is affected above all by scintillations. The paper deals with modeling the influence of scintillation on link performance, using the modified Rytov theory. The probability of correct signal detection in direct detection system in dependence on many parameters such as link distance, power link margin, refractive-index structure parameter, etc. is discussed and different approaches to the evaluation of scintillation effect are compared. The simulations are performed for a horizontal-path propagation of the Gaussian-beam wave.

  12. History effect on the Reynolds stress in turbulent swirling flow (United States)

    Hamba, Fujihiro


    The eddy-viscosity model for turbulence has some difficulty in predicting rotating and swirling flows. Turbulent swirling flow in a straight pipe is a typical example. A rapidly rotating core in the pipe decays too quickly in results obtained from the standard k-ɛ model. The eddy viscosity needs to be reduced to predict the velocity profiles well; the mechanism of the decrease in the eddy viscosity has not been clarified yet. In this work, the eddy-viscosity model was investigated using a temporally nonlocal expression for the Reynolds stress that represents the history effect. A simple transport equation for the Reynolds stress was integrated along a mean-flow pathline to obtain a temporally nonlocal model for the Reynolds stress. The nonlocal model was applied to simple swirling flows for which the time integral can be further calculated to investigate the history effect. It was shown that the history effect associated with the rotating motion gives rise to a small factor in the expression for the eddy viscosity. In order to confirm the history effect, the present model and the linear eddy-viscosity model were used to simulate a swirling pipe flow. The velocity profiles obtained from the present model agree well with experimental results; the reduced eddy viscosity can account for the slow decay of the swirling motion in the core region. The anisotropic nature of the eddy viscosity was also discussed in relation to the small factor caused by the history effect.

  13. Effects of Turbulent Reynolds Number on the Displacement Speed Statistics in the Thin Reaction Zones Regime of Turbulent Premixed Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty


    nature of the correlations remains unaffected. The dependence of displacement speed on strain rate and curvature is found to weaken with increasing turbulent Reynolds number when either Damköhler or Karlovitz number is held constant, but the qualitative nature of the correlation remains unaltered. The implications of turbulent Reynolds number effects in the context of Flame Surface Density (FSD modelling have also been addressed, with emphasis on the influence of displacement speed on the curvature and propagation terms in the FSD balance equation.

  14. Non-linear isotope and fast ions effects: routes for low turbulence in DT plasmas (United States)

    Garcia, Jeronimo


    The isotope effect, i.e. the fact that heat and particle fluxes do not follow the expected Gyro-Bohm estimate for turbulent transport when the plasma mass is changed, is one of the main challenges in plasma theory. Of particular interest is the isotope exchange between the fusion of deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) nuclei as there are no clear indications of what kind of transport difference can be expected in burning plasmas. The GENE code is therefore used for computing DD vs DT linear and nonlinear microturbulence characteristics in the core plasma region of a previously ITER hybrid scenario at high beta obtained in the framework of simplified integrated modelling. Scans on common turbulence related quantitates as external ExB flow shear, Parallel Velocity Gradient (PVG), plasma beta, colisionality or the number of ion species have been performed. Additionally, the role of energetic particles, known to reduce Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence has been also addressed. It is obtained that the ITER operational point will be close to threshold and in these conditions turbulence is dominated by ITG modes. A purely weak non-linear isotope effect, absent in linear scans, can be found when separately adding moderate ExB flow shear or electromagnetic effects, whereas collisionality just modulates the intensity. The isotope effect, on the other hand, becomes very strong in conditions with simultaneously moderate ExB flow shear, beta and low q profile with significant reductions of ion heat transport from DD to DT. By analyzing the radial structure of the two point electrostatic potential correlation function it has been found that the inherent Gyro-Bohm scaling for plasma microturbulence, which increases the radial correlation length at short scales form DD to DT, is counteracted by the concomitant appearance of a complex nonlinear multiscale space interaction involving external ExB flow shear, zonal flow activity, magnetic geometry and electromagnetic

  15. Atmospheric Turbulence Effects on Wind-Turbine Wakes: An LES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu


    Full Text Available A numerical study of atmospheric turbulence effects on wind-turbine wakes is presented. Large-eddy simulations of neutrally-stratified atmospheric boundary layer flows through stand-alone wind turbines were performed over homogeneous flat surfaces with four different aerodynamic roughness lengths. Emphasis is placed on the structure and characteristics of turbine wakes in the cases where the incident flows to the turbine have the same mean velocity at the hub height but different mean wind shears and turbulence intensity levels. The simulation results show that the different turbulence intensity levels of the incoming flow lead to considerable influence on the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit, turbulence intensity, and turbulent shear stress in the wake region. In particular, when the turbulence intensity level of the incoming flow is higher, the turbine-induced wake (velocity deficit recovers faster, and the locations of the maximum turbulence intensity and turbulent stress are closer to the turbine. A detailed analysis of the turbulence kinetic energy budget in the wakes reveals also an important effect of the incoming flow turbulence level on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the shear production and transport terms.

  16. Heat Release Effects on Scaling Laws for Turbulent Shear Flows (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Dahm, Werner J. A.


    Experiments have long suggested apparent differences in the fundamental scaling laws for turbulent shear flows between reacting and nonreacting flows. These differences result from the density changes produced by exothermic reaction, and are here shown to be similar to the changes produced by free-stream density differences in nonreacting flows. Motivated by this, we show that the fundamental scaling laws can be generalized to predict the changes due to heat release. The bilinear dependence of temperature T(ζ) on an appropriately defined conserved scalar ζ allows the density changes to be related to an equivalent nonreacting flow, in which one of the free-stream fluid temperatures is set to a value determined by the adiabatic flame temperature and the overall stoichiometry. This scaling principle is applied to turbulent jet diffusion flames, and leads to a generalized scaling variable d^+ for both reacting and nonreacting flows; it effectively extends the momentum diameter d^* of Thring & Newby (1952) and Ricou & Spalding (1961) to reacting flows. The resulting predicted effects of heat release show good agreement with all available data from momentum-dominated jet flames. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

  17. Filtering effect of wind flow turbulence on atmospheric pollutant dispersion. (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F


    This paper presents a model for coupling the statistics of wind velocity distribution and atmospheric pollutant dispersion. The effect of wind velocity distribution is modeled as a three-dimensional finite-impulse response (3D-FIR) filter. A phase space representation of the 3D-FIR filter window is discussed. The resulting pollutant dispersion is the multiplication in the phase space of the 3-D Fourier transform of the pollutant concentration and the volume described by the filter window coefficients. The shape of the filter window in the phase space enables representing such effects as vortex shedding thermal currents, etc. The impact of spatial distribution of the sensors on the resulting pollutant spatial distribution and the 3-D FIR filter model employed also discuss. The case of a neutrally buoyant plume emitted from an elevated point source in a turbulent boundary layer considers. The results show that wind turbulence is an important factor in the pollutant dispersion and introduces expected random fluctuations in pollutant distribution and leads to spreading the distribution due to wind mixing.

  18. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija


    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  19. Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence Intensity on Transonic Airfoil with Shock Wave (United States)

    Lutsenko, I.; Serikbay, M.; Akiltayev, A.; Rojas-Solórzano, L. R.; Zhao, Y.


    Airplanes regularly operate switching between various flight modes such as take-off, climb, cruise, descend and landing. During these flight conditions the free-stream approaching the wings undergo fundamental changes. In transonic flow conditions, typically in the military or aerospace applications, existence of nonlinear and unsteady effects of the airflow stream significantly alters the performance of an airfoil. This paper presents the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on transonic flow over an airfoil in the presence of a weak shock wave. In particular, NACA 0012 airfoil performance at Ma∞ = 0.7 is considered in terms of drag, lift, turbulence kinetic energy, and turbulence eddy dissipation parameters under the influence of varying angle of attacks and free-stream turbulence. The finite volume method in a commercial CFD package ANSYS-CFX is used to perform the numerical analysis of the flow. Mesh refinement using a mesh-adaption technique based on velocity gradient is presented for more accurate prediction of shocks and boundary layers. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model is validated against experimental data available in the literature. Numerical simulations were performed, with free stream turbulence intensity ranging from low (1%), medium (5%) to high (10%) levels. Results revealed that drag and lift coefficients are approximately the same at every aforementioned value of turbulence intensity. However, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation contours vary as turbulence intensity changes, but their changes are disproportionally small, compared with values adopted for free-stream turbulence.

  20. Effects of shock topology on temperature field in compressible turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Qionglin


    Effects of two types of shock topology, namely, small-scale shocklet and large-scale shock wave, on the statistics of temperature in compressible turbulence were investigated by simulations. The shocklet and shock wave are caused by the solenoidal and compressive modes of driven forces, respectively. Hereafter, the related two flows are called as SFT and CFT, respectively. It shows that in SFT the temperature spectrum follows the k^-5/3 power law, and the temperature field has "ramp-cliff" structures. By contrast, in CFT the temperature spectrum obeys the k^-2 power law, and the temperature field is dominated by large-scale rarefaction and compression. The power-law exponents for the p.d.f. of large negative dilatation are -2.5 in SFT and -3.5 in CFT, close to theoretical values. For the isentropic assumption of thermodynamic variables, the derivation in SFT grows with the turbulent Mach number (Mt), and for same Mt, the variables in CFT are more anisentropic. The angle statistics shows that the temperature g...

  1. Analysis Regarding the Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Aircraft Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE


    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the Gust Load Alleviation (GLA systems which can be used to reduce the effects of atmospheric turbulences generated by wind gusts on vertical acceleration of aircraft. Their purpose is to reduce airframe loads and to improve passenger comfort. The dynamic model of the aircraft is more realistic than a rigid-body model, since it includes the structural flexibility; due to its complexity, such model can make feedback control design for gust load alleviation more challenging. The gust is generated with the Dryden power spectral density model. This kind of model lends itself well to frequency-domain performance specifications in the form of the weighting functions. Two classical analytical representations for the power spectral density (PSD function of atmospheric turbulence as given by Von Kármán and Dryden, were used. The analysis is performed for a set of specified values for flight velocity and altitude (as test cases, with different gust signals that must be generated with the required intensity, scale lengths and PSD functions.

  2. Effects of Turbulence Intensity on Gaseous Diffusion around Two Model Buildings


    大場, 正昭; 小林, 信行; Masaaki, OHBA; Nobuyuki, Kobayashi; Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University


    Wind tunnel experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of the turbulence intensity of a oncoming flow on the gaseous diffusion around two buildings. In the experiments, the turbulence intensity of the oncoming flow is varied by setting a mesh grid on the upstream of the measured section in the wind tunnel. Air flow characteristics such as mean velocity, turbulence intensity and wake length are measured by a hot-wire anemometer, and concentration distributions around models are inves...

  3. Effects of unsteady free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on stagnation point heat transfer (United States)

    Gorla, R. S. R.


    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.

  4. Effects of Karlovitz number on turbulent kinetic energy transport in turbulent lean premixed methane/air flames (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyan; Abraham, John


    Direct numerical simulations of lean methane/air flames are carried out to study the effects of premixed combustion on turbulence. The equivalence ratio of the flame is 0.5 and non-dimensional turbulence intensities (urms/SL) are between 2 and 25. The mixture pressure is 20 bars and temperature is 810 K to simulate approximate conditions in lean-burn natural gas engines. The Karlovitz number (Ka) varies from 1.1 to 49.4, and the Damköhler number (Da) varies from 0.26 to 3.2 corresponding to turbulent premixed combustion in the thin reaction zone (TRZ) regime. It is found that turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its dissipation rate decrease monotonically across the flame brush while the integral length scale increases monotonically for flames in the TRZ regime. The transport equation of TKE is then examined, and the scaling of the terms in the equation is discussed. It is found that the sink term which represents molecular diffusion and viscous dissipation is the dominant term in the TKE balance and it scales with the square of Ka. The relative importance of the other terms with respect to the dissipation term is studied. With increasing Ka, the other terms in the TKE balance become less important compared to the dissipation term.

  5. Effects of unsteady free-stream velocity and free-stream turbulence at a stagnation point (United States)

    Gorla, R. S. R.


    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and turbulence at a stagnation point on a cylinder situated in a crossflow is investigated analytically, and a model is formulated for the eddy diffusivity induced by free-stream turbulence. The steepest descent method is used to integrate the governing momentum expression, and numerical solutions are given for the unsteady wall shear stress function for specific free-stream transients. It is found after correlation of the results by means of a new turbulence parameter that wall friction increases with increasing free-stream turbulence intensity, and that the friction factor increases with increasing reduced frequency of oscillation values.

  6. Fatigue Reliability and Effective Turbulence Models in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, S.; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    Offshore wind farms with 100 or more wind turbines are expected to be installed many places during the next years. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases slightly and the turbulence intensity increases significantly. This increase in turbulence intensity in wakes...

  7. A True Eddy Accumulation - Eddy Covariance hybrid for measurements of turbulent trace gas fluxes (United States)

    Siebicke, Lukas


    Eddy covariance (EC) is state-of-the-art in directly and continuously measuring turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor. However, low signal-to-noise ratios, high flow rates and missing or complex gas analyzers limit it's application to few scalars. True eddy accumulation, based on conditional sampling ideas by Desjardins in 1972, requires no fast response analyzers and is therefore potentially applicable to a wider range of scalars. Recently we showed possibly the first successful implementation of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) measuring net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide of a grassland. However, most accumulation systems share the complexity of having to store discrete air samples in physical containers representing entire flux averaging intervals. The current study investigates merging principles of eddy accumulation and eddy covariance, which we here refer to as "true eddy accumulation in transient mode" (TEA-TM). This direct flux method TEA-TM combines true eddy accumulation with continuous sampling. The TEA-TM setup is simpler than discrete accumulation methods while avoiding the need for fast response gas analyzers and high flow rates required for EC. We implemented the proposed TEA-TM method and measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) above a mixed beech forest at the Hainich Fluxnet and ICOS site, Germany, using a G2301 laser spectrometer (Picarro Inc., USA). We further simulated a TEA-TM sampling system using measured high frequency CO2 time series from an open-path gas analyzer. We operated TEA-TM side-by-side with open-, enclosed- and closed-path EC flux systems for CO2, H2O and CH4 (LI-7500, LI-7200, LI-6262, LI-7700, Licor, USA, and FGGA LGR, USA). First results show that TEA-TM CO2 fluxes were similar to EC fluxes. Remaining differences were similar to those between the three eddy covariance setups (open-, enclosed- and closed-path gas analyzers). Measured TEA-TM CO2 fluxes from our physical

  8. Effect of oceanic turbulence on polarization of stochastic beams (United States)

    Korotkova, Olga; Farwell, Nathan


    On the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization of light we determine the changes in various polarization properties of stochastic beams propagating through the turbulent clear-water ocean. The ocean-induced fluctuations in the refractive index are described via the recently developed power spectrum which takes into account both temperature and salinity variations. Numerical examples of changes in the spectral density, the degree of polarization and in the polarization ellipse are given for electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams. We demonstrate, in particular, how polarization of the propagating beam is affected by statistical properties of the source and by several parameters of oceanic turbulence. We find that propagation of light beams in the oceanic turbulence resembles that in the atmospheric turbulence qualitatively, however evolution and asymptotic saturation of polarization in the oceanic turbulence occurs at much shorter distances.

  9. Turbulence Model Effects on RANS Simulations of the HIFiRE Flight 2 Ground Test Configurations (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Mankbadi, Mina R.; Vyas, Manan A.


    The Wind-US Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was applied to the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Flight 2 scramjet ground test configuration. Two test points corresponding to flight Mach numbers of 5.9 and 8.9 were examined. The emphasis was examining turbulence model effects on the prediction of flow path pressures. Three variants of the Menter k-omega turbulence model family were investigated. These include the baseline (BSL) and shear stress transport (SST) as well as a modified SST model where the shear stress limiter was altered. Variations in the turbulent Schmidt number were also considered. Choice of turbulence model had a substantial effect on prediction of the flow path pressures. The BSL model produced the highest pressures and the SST model produced the lowest pressures. As expected, the settings for the turbulent Schmidt number also had significant effects on predicted pressures. Small values for the turbulent Schmidt number enabled more rapid mass transfer, faster combustion, and in turn higher flowpath pressures. Optimal settings for turbulence model and turbulent Schmidt number were found to be rather case dependent, as has been concluded in other scramjet investigations.

  10. Numerical simulation of the thermal effect of a laser--induced plasma on isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Mahesh, Krishnan


    The interaction of a laser--induced plasma with isotropic turbulence is studied using numerical simulations. The simulations use air as the working fluid and assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. The numerical method is fully spectral and uses a shock capturing scheme in a corrector step. Turbulent Reynolds number Reλ= 30 and fluctuation Mach numbers Mt= 0.001 and 0.3 are considered. Mt of 0.001 is chosen to correspond to low speed experiments (e.g. Comte--Bellot and Corrsin 1971). Here, the shock wave propagates on a much faster time--scale compared to the turbulence evolution. The turbulence ahead of the shock is therefore almost frozen. At Mt of 0.3 the time--scales of the shock wave are comparable to that of the background. In both cases, the mean flow has a significant effect on the turbulence. The effect of the turbulence on the time scale of shock formation and the shock velocity and distortion is studied. The turbulence experiences strong compression due to the shock wave and strong expansion in the core. Turbulence intensities are enhanced and suppressed due to the effects of compression and expansion respectively. This behavior is spatially inhomogeneous and non--stationary in time. Spatial and one--point temporal statistics are discussed. Also kinetic energy budgets are computed and will be discussed.

  11. Investigation of Turbulence Effects on the Aeroelastic Properties of a Truss Bridge Deck Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Trong Lam


    Full Text Available This paper presents the flutter derivatives (FDs extracted from a stochastic system identification (SSI method under different turbulent flows. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of oncoming turbulence on the flutter of suspended long-span bridges using a section model wind-tunnel test. Several wind-tunnel tests were performed on a truss bridge deck section with different oncoming turbulent properties involving reduced turbulence intensities and turbulent scales. This study includes an investigation of the effect of oncoming flows on modal dynamic responses. The transient and buffeting response data from the wind-tunnel test are analyzed using the system identification technique in extracting FDs, and the difficulties involved in this method are discussed. The time-domain SSI is applied to extract all FDs simultaneously from one and two degree-of-freedom (1DOF and 2DOF systems. Finally, the results under different conditions are discussed and conclusions are formed.

  12. Effective turbulence models and fatigue reliability in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    Modeling of turbulence within wind farms with 100 or more wind turbines is important both for extreme and fatigue limit states. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases slightly and the turbulence intensity increases significantly. This increase ill turbulence...... intensity in wakes behind wind turbines can imply a significant reduction in the fatigue lifetime of wind turbines placed in wakes. Ill this paper the design code model ill the wind turbine code [IEC 61400-1, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 1: Safety requirements. 2005] is evaluated from...

  13. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  14. Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility (United States)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.


    Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.

  15. The effect of temperature fluctuations of reaction rate constants in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Antaki, P. J.; Kassar, G. M.


    Current models of turbulent reacting flows frequently use Arrhenius reaction rate constants obtained from static or laminar flow theory and/or experiments, or from best fits of static, laminar, and turbulent data. By treating the reaction rate constant as a continuous random variable which is temperature-dependent, the present study assesses the effect of turbulent temperature fluctuations on the reaction rate constant. This model requires that a probability density function (PDF) describing the nature of the fluctuations be specified. Three PDFs are examined: the clipped Gaussian, the beta PDF, and the ramp model. All the models indicate that the reaction rate constant is greater in a turbulent flow field than in an equivalent laminar flow. In addition, an amplification ratio, which is the ratio of the turbulent rate constant to the laminar rate constant, is defined and its behavior as a function of the mean temperature fluctuations is described

  16. Effects of incident angles on reflective ghost imaging through atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Tang, Lingli; Bai, Yanfeng; Duan, Chao; Nan, Suqin; Shen, Qian; Fu, Xiquan


    The influence of the incident angle on the imaging quality of reflective ghost imaging is investigated through atmospheric turbulence. It is shown that under mediate turbulence, small angles have almost no effect on the imaging quality, while the result for direct imaging gets slightly worse. An increase of the incident angle leads to the degradation of the imaging quality of direct imaging and ghost imaging, while the imaging quality of the latter is better under the same angle and turbulent intensity. For large angles, the image from direct imaging cannot be distinguished under mediate turbulence, but ghost imaging can obtain a relatively good ghost image. Moreover, the relationship between the fidelity and the incident angle under different turbulent intensities is presented.

  17. Swirl effects on external intermittency in turbulent jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J., E-mail: [Energy Lancaster, Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Jenkins, K.W.; Savill, A.M. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kirkpatrick, M.P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modelling and Simulation of Intermittent Turbulent Flows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swirl Effects on External Intermittency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Probability Density Distribution. - Abstract: In this paper we present the modelled results of velocity and mixture fraction intermittency for selected isothermal swirling jet flows using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The modelled problems considered three different swirl numbers S = 0.3, 0.54 and 0.8 respectively. The probability density functions (pdfs) and intermittency of velocity and mixture fraction are presented. The simulations capture well complex flow features such as centre jet precession, a bluff body stabilised recirculation zone, and swirl induced vortex breakdown and also describe the effects of far field flow as well as scalar distributions. The calculated probability density distributions exhibit changes from a Gaussian to a delta function with increased radial distance from the jet centreline, and also a non-Gaussian shape on the jet centreline near the precession region. The radial variation of the intermittency shows differences between results with increased swirl number, especially inside the downstream swirl-induced recirculation region.

  18. Hybridization and genome evolution II: Mechanisms of species divergence and their effects on evolution in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. BAILEY, Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Glenn-Peter SæTRE


    Full Text Available Recent genomic studies have highlighted the importance of hybridization and gene exchange in evolution. We ask what factors cause variation in the impact of hybridization, through adaptation in hybrids and the likelihood of hybrid speciation. During speciation, traits that diverge due to both divergent and stabilizing selection can contribute to the buildup of reproductive isolation. Divergent directional selection in parent taxa should lead to intermediate phenotypes in hybrids, whereas stabilizing selection can also produce extreme, transgressive phenotypes when hybridization occurs. By examining existing theory and empirical data, we discuss how these effects, combined with differences between modes of divergence in the chromosomal distribution of incompatibilities, affect adaptation and speciation in hybrid populations. The result is a clear and testable set of predictions that can be used to examine hybrid adaptation and speciation. Stabilizing selection in parents increases transgression in hybrids, increasing the possibility for novel adaptation. Divergent directional selection causes intermediate hybrid phenotypes and increases their ability to evolve along the direction of parental differentiation. Stabilizing selection biases incompatibilities towards autosomes, leading to reduced sexual correlations in trait values and reduced pleiotropy in hybrids, and hence increased freedom in the direction of evolution. Directional selection causes a bias towards sex-linked incompatibilities, with the opposite consequences. Divergence by directional selection leads to greater dominance effects than stabilizing selection, with major but variable impacts on hybrid evolution [Current Zoology 59 (5: 675-685, 2013].

  19. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed


    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  20. Turbulent Flow Over Large Roughness Elements: Effect of Frontal and Plan Solidity on Turbulence Statistics and Structure (United States)

    Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.


    Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out on fully-rough boundary layers with large roughness (δ /h ≈ 10 , where h is the height of the roughness elements and δ is the boundary-layer thickness). Twelve different surface conditions were created by using LEGO™ bricks of uniform height. Six cases are tested for a fixed plan solidity (λ _P ) with variations in frontal density (λ _F ), while the other six cases have varying λ _P for fixed λ _F . Particle image velocimetry and floating-element drag-balance measurements were performed. The current results complement those contained in Placidi and Ganapathisubramani (J Fluid Mech 782:541-566, 2015), extending the previous analysis to the turbulence statistics and spatial structure. Results indicate that mean velocity profiles in defect form agree with Townsend's similarity hypothesis with varying λ _F , however, the agreement is worse for cases with varying λ _P . The streamwise and wall-normal turbulent stresses, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show a lack of similarity across most examined cases. This suggests that the critical height of the roughness for which outer-layer similarity holds depends not only on the height of the roughness, but also on the local wall morphology. A new criterion based on shelter solidity, defined as the sheltered plan area per unit wall-parallel area, which is similar to the `effective shelter area' in Raupach and Shaw (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 22:79-90, 1982), is found to capture the departure of the turbulence statistics from outer-layer similarity. Despite this lack of similarity reported in the turbulence statistics, proper orthogonal decomposition analysis, as well as two-point spatial correlations, show that some form of universal flow structure is present, as all cases exhibit virtually identical proper orthogonal decomposition mode shapes and correlation fields. Finally, reduced models based on proper orthogonal decomposition reveal that the small scales of the

  1. Effect of free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition. (United States)

    Goldstein, M E


    This paper is concerned with the transition to turbulence in flat plate boundary layers due to moderately high levels of free-stream turbulence. The turbulence is assumed to be generated by an (idealized) grid and matched asymptotic expansions are used to analyse the resulting flow over a finite thickness flat plate located in the downstream region. The characteristic Reynolds number Rλ based on the mesh size λ and free-stream velocity is assumed to be large, and the turbulence intensity ε is assumed to be small. The asymptotic flow structure is discussed for the generic case where the turbulence Reynolds number εRλ and the plate thickness and are held fixed (at O(1) and O(λ), respectively) in the limit as [Formula: see text] and ε→0. But various limiting cases are considered in order to explain the relevant transition mechanisms. It is argued that there are two types of streak-like structures that can play a role in the transition process: (i) those that appear in the downstream region and are generated by streamwise vorticity in upstream flow and (ii) those that are concentrated near the leading edge and are generated by plate normal vorticity in upstream flow. The former are relatively unaffected by leading edge geometry and are usually referred to as Klebanoff modes while the latter are strongly affected by leading edge geometry and are more streamwise vortex-like in appearance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of effectiveness of the Turco low profile turbulator reg sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grittmann, S.; McGlynn, J.F.; Long, J.R.; Rankin, W.N.


    This document discusses a turbulator which utilizes a heated chemical bath to reduce smearable contamination from small parts and tools. It is comprised of two agitators programmed to automatically alternate the flow of the cleaning solution within the tank in four separate and distinct high velocity flow patterns allowing access to the entire surface area of the part or tool being decontaminated. The turbulator is being evaluated to determine if agitation increases the effectiveness of waste minimization. Testing of the turbulator consisted of evaluation of the Sludgetrap Containment, Tool Cleaning Demonstration, and Coupon Testing. Results so far are that the sludgetrap is effective in containing particles the size of sand, agitation increases the effectiveness of the turbulator, abrasives can replace detergents for waste minimization, and Inconel 625 is more difficult to clean than Type 3041 Stainless Steel.

  3. Evaluation of effectiveness of the Turco low profile turbulator{reg_sign}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grittmann, S.; McGlynn, J.F.; Long, J.R.; Rankin, W.N.


    This document discusses a turbulator which utilizes a heated chemical bath to reduce smearable contamination from small parts and tools. It is comprised of two agitators programmed to automatically alternate the flow of the cleaning solution within the tank in four separate and distinct high velocity flow patterns allowing access to the entire surface area of the part or tool being decontaminated. The turbulator is being evaluated to determine if agitation increases the effectiveness of waste minimization. Testing of the turbulator consisted of evaluation of the Sludgetrap Containment, Tool Cleaning Demonstration, and Coupon Testing. Results so far are that the sludgetrap is effective in containing particles the size of sand, agitation increases the effectiveness of the turbulator, abrasives can replace detergents for waste minimization, and Inconel 625 is more difficult to clean than Type 3041 Stainless Steel.

  4. Study of the Temperature Turbulences Effect upon Optical Beam in Atmospheric Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dvorak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the effect of temperature turbulences upon the optical beam. The polarization parameters of optical radiation sources and different optical beam states of polarization have been investigated. The obtained polarization parameters are projected on the Poincare sphere by means of Stokes vectors. The optical power distribution curves of optical beams are processed into diagrams. The horizontal and vertical components of linearly and circularly polarized optical beams have been studied. The turbulence flux has vertical direction and the optical beam is propagating through an atmosphere environment with three different states of turbulence. The evaluation of the obtained data was done by means of variance and correlation functions computing. Different rates of effect of temperature turbulences upon horizontal and vertical components were found. To reduce the rate of effect the advantage of an optical beam with circular polarization has been proposed.

  5. The simulation of turbulence effect based on the technology of optical wavefront control (United States)

    Zhao, Hongming; Fei, Jindong; Du, Huijie; Yu, Hong; Du, Jian; Hu, Xinqi; Dong, Bing


    In the process of high-resolution astronomical observation and space optical mapping, the wavefront aberrations caused by atmosphere turbulence effect lead to reduced resolution of optical imaging sensor. Firstly, on the base of influence of atmosphere turbulence effect for the optical observation system, this paper investigates and analyses the development and technical characteristics of deformable mirror, which is the key device of optical wavefront control technology. In this part, the paper describes the basic principles of wavefront control and measurement using the current production line of deformable mirror, including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror which is one of the most promising technology for wavefront modulation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Secondly, a new method based on the technology of optical wavefront control and the data of optical path difference (OPD) for simulating the effect of optical transmission induced by turbulence is presented in this paper. The modeling and characteristics of atmosphere turbulence effect applied for optical imagery detector of astronomical observation and space optical mapping has been obtained. Finally, based on the theory model of atmosphere turbulence effects and digital simulation results, a preliminary experiment was done and the results verify the feasibility of the new method. The OPD data corresponding to optical propagation effect through turbulent atmosphere can be achieved by the calculation based on the method of ray-tracing and principle of physical optics. It is a common practice to decompose aberrated wavefronts in series over the Zernike polynomials. These data will be applied to the drive and control of the deformable mirror. This kind of simulation method can be applied to simulate the optical distortions effect, such as the dithering and excursion of light spot, in the space based earth observation with the influence of turbulent atmosphere. With the help of the

  6. Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max, C.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.

  7. Non-linear Phenomena of Wing Flutter and the Effect of Laminar-Turbulent Transition (United States)

    Marti, Ferran

    A Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is coupled with a Computa- tional Structural Dynamics (CSD) code to study the flutter boundary of the NACA64A010 airfoil using Isogai's structural model in transonic conditions. This model simulates aeroelas- tic conditions on a sweptback wing. A well-known feature, only present in the inviscid flutter boundary of this airfoil, is the existence of multiple flutter points for a fixed freestream Mach number. The fully-turbulent flutter boundary has not been studied by many researchers us- ing a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. In the present study, the fully-turbulent flutter boundary reveals the existence of multiple equilibrium positions for a narrow range of flight conditions. The system moves away from the initial equilibrium position, finding a new set of equilibrium points and oscillating around it. This new set of equilibrium points reveals as stable or unstable for different structural properties of the wing. We then proceed to study the effect of turbulent transition on flutter boundary. A laminar- to-turbulent transition model is implemented in the CFD code and validated. The effect of using a free-transition CFD code vs. a fully-turbulent approach is evaluated on three airfoils with different characteristics for subsonic and transonic conditions. While free-transition does not affect the pressure distribution at subsonic conditions, the transonic simulations reveal a change in the shock-wave position when laminar-turbulent effects are included. The effect of transition on the flutter boundary of the NACA64A010 airfoil at transonic conditions is then investigated. A comparison between the free-transition, inviscid and fully-turbulent flutter boundaries reveals similarities between the inviscid and free-transition elastic re- sponses. Those similarities are due to the shift in the fully-turbulent shock-wave position, when accounting for free-transition effects, moving closer to the inviscid

  8. Optimization FSO Performance Under Strong Turbulence Effect By Enhanced New Carrier Data Transmission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul K.R.


    Full Text Available This paper focus on mitigating the atmospheric turbulence effect in free space optical communication using a dual diffuser modulation (DDM technique. The most deteriorate the FSOC is scintillation where it affected the wave front cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. DD approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on Signal-to-Noise (SNR and Bit Error Rate (BER by using the Kolmogorov’s scintillation theory. The numerical result shows that the DD approach improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Turbulence on the Behavior of Migratory Fish, 2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed.


    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural hydraulic phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish (Coutant 1998) or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress, such turbulence, can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This report discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated

  10. Effects of turbulent fluctuations on density measurements with microwave reflectometry in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.


    The short-scale turbulence of tokamak plasmas has deleterious effects on the measurement of plasma density with microwave reflectometry. Density fluctuations may lead to large amplitude and phase modulations of the reflected wave which can impair the measurement of the wave group delay, and hence the determination of the plasma density. The role played by different types of turbulent fluctuations and the limitations imposed on microwave reflectometry are discussed in this paper.



    NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

  12. Distributed Roughness Effects on Blunt-Body Transition and Turbulent Heating (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.


    An experimental program has been conducted to obtain data on the effects of surface roughness on blunt bodies at laminar, transitional, and turbulent conditions. Wind tunnel models with distributed surface roughness heights from 0.06 mm to 1.75 mm were tested and heating data were obtained using global surface thermography. Heating rates of up to 85% higher than predicted, smooth-surface turbulent levels were measured.

  13. Combined effect of longitudinal riblets and Lebu-devices on turbulent friction on a plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudilin, I.V.; Lashkov, Yu.A.; Shumilkin, V.G.


    The possibility of reducing turbulent friction with the help of large-eddy-breakup devices (LEBUs) and riblets is studied experimentally. The tests were conducted in a low-turbulence wind tunnel on a flat plate for 2{center_dot}10{sup 6} {le} 7{center_dot}10{sup 6}. The local friction coefficient was measured using internal strain-gauge balances, and the total drag was estimated by the momentum-transfer method. It is shown that a combination of LEBUs and riblets makes it possible to reduce the total turbulent friction drag of a flat plate 1800 mm long by 16%. The effects of the length of a ribbed surface on the efficiency of friction reduction and of LEBUs and riblets on the structure of a turbulent boundary layer are analyzed.

  14. Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on the Performance of a Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine (United States)

    Vinod, Ashwin; Banerjee, Arindam


    The effects of controlled and elevated levels of free stream turbulence on the performance characteristics of a three bladed, constant chord, untwisted marine hydrokinetic turbine is tested experimentally. Controlled homogeneous free stream turbulence levels ranging from 3% to ~20% are achieved by employing an active grid turbulence generator that is placed at the entrance of the water channel test section and is equipped with motor controlled winglet shafts. In addition to free stream turbulence, various (turbine) operating conditions such as the free stream velocity and rotational speed are varied. A comparison of performance characteristics that includes the mean and standard deviations of the power coefficient (CP) , and thrust coefficient (CT) will be presented and compared to the case of a laminar free stream with FST levels <1%.

  15. Parallel Transport with Sheath and Collisional Effects in Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in FRCs (United States)

    Bao, Jian; Lau, Calvin; Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Zhihong; Fulton, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team


    Collisional and turbulent transport in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is studied in global particle simulation by using GTC (gyrokinetic toroidal code). The global FRC geometry is incorporated in GTC by using a field-aligned mesh in cylindrical coordinates, which enables global simulation coupling core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix. Furthermore, fully kinetic ions are implemented in GTC to treat magnetic-null point in FRC core. Both global simulation coupling core and SOL regions and independent SOL region simulation have been carried out to study turbulence. In this work, the ``logical sheath boundary condition'' is implemented to study parallel transport in the SOL. This method helps to relax time and spatial steps without resolving electron plasma frequency and Debye length, which enables turbulent transports simulation with sheath effects. We will study collisional and turbulent SOL parallel transport with mirror geometry and sheath boundary condition in C2-W divertor.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation and the effect of the turbulent inlet conditions in the mixing Tee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndombo, Jean-Marc, E-mail:; Howard, Richard J.A., E-mail:


    Highlights: > LES of Tee junctions can easily reproduce the bulk flow. > The presence or absence of a turbulent inlet condition has an affect on the wall heat transfer. > The maximum heat transfer moves 1 cm and reduces by 10% when a turbulent inlet is used. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue in Pressurized Water Reactor plants has been found to be very acute in some hot/cold Tee junction mixing zones. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can be used to capture the unsteadiness which is responsible for the large mechanical stresses associated with thermal fatigue. Here one LES subgrid model is studied, namely the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. This paper has two goals. The first is to demonstrate some results obtained using the EDF R and D Code Saturne applied to the Vattenfall Tee junction benchmark (version 2006) and the second is to look at the effect of including synthetic turbulence at the Tee junction pipe inlets. The last goal is the main topic of this paper. The Synthetic Eddy Method is used to create the turbulent inlet conditions and is applied to two kinds of grids. One contains six million cells and the other ten million. The addition of turbulence at the inlet does not seem to have much effect on the bulk flow and all computations are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the inlet turbulence does have an effect on the near wall flow. All cases show that the wall temperature fluctuation and the wall temperature/velocity correlation are not the same when a turbulent inlet condition is used. Inclusion of the turbulent inlet condition moves the downstream location of the maximum temperature/velocity correlation by 1 cm and reduces its magnitude by 10%. This result is very important because the temperature/velocity correlation is closely related to the turbulent heat transfer in the flow, which is in turn responsible for the mechanical stresses on the structure. Finally we have studied in detail the influence of the turbulent inlet condition just downstream

  17. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)


    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  18. Modélisation de la turbulence par approches URANS et hybride RANS-LES. Prise en compte des effets de paroi par pondération elliptique.


    Fadai-Ghotbi, Atabak


    The aim of this work is to take into account the natural large-scale unsteadiness in separated flows at a lower cost than a LES, and to model the wall effects on turbulence using second moment closures. Following Durbin's approaches, the elliptic blending model EB-RSM reproduces the non-local blocking effect of the wall, by solving a differential equation on the pressure term. The two-component limit of turbulence is well predicted in a channel flow. This model is applied to the backstep flow...

  19. Effect of turbulence on NO formation in swirling combustion


    Wang Fang; Xie Xiang; Jiang Qi; Zhou Lixing


    Turbulence affects both combustion and NO formation. Fluctuation correlations are ideally used for quantitative analysis. From the instantaneous chemical reaction rate expression, ignoring the third-order correlation terms, the averaged reaction rate will have four terms, including the term of averaged-variable product, a concentration fluctuation correlation term, and temperature-concentration fluctuation correlation term. If the reaction-rate coefficient is denoted as K, the temperature flu...

  20. Effect of magnetic islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations (United States)

    Bañón Navarro, A.; Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; Jenko, F.; Rhodes, T. L.


    Neoclassical tearing modes have deleterious effects on plasma confinement and, if they grow large enough, they can lead to discharge termination. Therefore, they impose a major barrier in the development of operating scenarios of present-day tokamaks. Gyrokinetics offers a path toward studying multi-scale interactions with turbulence and the effect on plasma confinement. As a first step toward this goal, we have implemented static magnetic islands in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. We investigate the effect of the islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport and the scaling of these effects with respect to island size. We find a clear threshold island width, below which the islands have little or no effect while beyond this point the islands significantly perturb flows, increase turbulence and transport. Additionally, we study the effect of radially asymmetric islands on shear flows for the first time. We find that island induced shear flows can regulate turbulent fluctuation levels in the vicinity of the island separatrices. Throughout this work, we focus on experimentally relevant quantities, such as rms levels of density and electron temperature fluctuations, as well as amplitude and phasing of turbulence modulation. These simulations aim to provide guidelines for interpreting experimental results by comparing qualitative trends in the simulations with those obtained in tokamak experiments.

  1. Effects of turbulence compressibility and unsteadiness in compression corner flow (United States)

    Brankovic, A.; Zeman, O.


    The structure of the separated flow region over a 20 degree compression corner at a free-stream Mach number of 2.84 is investigated computationally using a Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (R.A.N.S.) solver and kappa-epsilon model. At this Mach number and ramp angle, a steady-state recirculation region of order delta(sub o) is observed, with onset of a 'plateau' in the wall pressure distribution near the corner. At lower ramp angles, separation is negligible, while at an angle of 24 degrees, separation regions of length 2 delta(sub o) are expected. Of interest here is the response of the mathematical model to inclusion of the pressure dilatation term for turbulent kinetic energy. Compared with the experimental data of Smits and Muck (1987), steady-state computations show improvement when the pressure dilatation term is included. Unsteady computations, using both unforced and then forced inlet conditions, did not predict the oscillatory motion of the separation bubble as observed in laboratory experiments. An analysis of the separation bubble oscillation and the turbulent boundary layer (T.B.L.) frequencies for this flow suggests that the bubble oscillations are of nearly the same order as the turbulent frequencies, and therefore difficult for the model to separate and resolve.

  2. Wave-turbulence interaction-induced vertical mixing and its effects in ocean and climate models. (United States)

    Qiao, Fangli; Yuan, Yeli; Deng, Jia; Dai, Dejun; Song, Zhenya


    Heated from above, the oceans are stably stratified. Therefore, the performance of general ocean circulation models and climate studies through coupled atmosphere-ocean models depends critically on vertical mixing of energy and momentum in the water column. Many of the traditional general circulation models are based on total kinetic energy (TKE), in which the roles of waves are averaged out. Although theoretical calculations suggest that waves could greatly enhance coexisting turbulence, no field measurements on turbulence have ever validated this mechanism directly. To address this problem, a specially designed field experiment has been conducted. The experimental results indicate that the wave-turbulence interaction-induced enhancement of the background turbulence is indeed the predominant mechanism for turbulence generation and enhancement. Based on this understanding, we propose a new parametrization for vertical mixing as an additive part to the traditional TKE approach. This new result reconfirmed the past theoretical model that had been tested and validated in numerical model experiments and field observations. It firmly establishes the critical role of wave-turbulence interaction effects in both general ocean circulation models and atmosphere-ocean coupled models, which could greatly improve the understanding of the sea surface temperature and water column properties distributions, and hence model-based climate forecasting capability. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Wave–turbulence interaction-induced vertical mixing and its effects in ocean and climate models (United States)

    Qiao, Fangli; Yuan, Yeli; Deng, Jia; Dai, Dejun; Song, Zhenya


    Heated from above, the oceans are stably stratified. Therefore, the performance of general ocean circulation models and climate studies through coupled atmosphere–ocean models depends critically on vertical mixing of energy and momentum in the water column. Many of the traditional general circulation models are based on total kinetic energy (TKE), in which the roles of waves are averaged out. Although theoretical calculations suggest that waves could greatly enhance coexisting turbulence, no field measurements on turbulence have ever validated this mechanism directly. To address this problem, a specially designed field experiment has been conducted. The experimental results indicate that the wave–turbulence interaction-induced enhancement of the background turbulence is indeed the predominant mechanism for turbulence generation and enhancement. Based on this understanding, we propose a new parametrization for vertical mixing as an additive part to the traditional TKE approach. This new result reconfirmed the past theoretical model that had been tested and validated in numerical model experiments and field observations. It firmly establishes the critical role of wave–turbulence interaction effects in both general ocean circulation models and atmosphere–ocean coupled models, which could greatly improve the understanding of the sea surface temperature and water column properties distributions, and hence model-based climate forecasting capability. PMID:26953182

  4. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the return photon flux of sodium laser guide star (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyuan; Qian, Xianmei; Fan, Chuanyu; Du, Chengtao; Lu, Chengling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Huan


    The circular-polarized laser can excite Sodium Laser Guide Star (SLGS) to obtain a large number of the return photons. Re-pumping technology can further enhance the return photon flux of SLGS. But laser propagating in the atmosphere suffers the atmospheric turbulence which causes the stochastic distributions of laser intensity in mesosphere. This leads to the fluctuations of return photon flux as the strength of atmospheric turbulence. We study effects of atmospheric turbulence on the return photon flux of SLGS under the Hufnagle-vally5/7(HV5/7), Greenwood and Mod-HV models by numerical simulation. Results show that both the return photon flux and fluctuations under the strong atmospheric turbulence are more than those under the weak one. Comparing re-pumping with no re-pumping, increment of the return photon flux under the three atmospheric turbulence models increase with the decreasing strength of atmospheric turbulence. But the fluctuations of the return photon flux greatly decrease for re-pumping.

  5. Isotope effect on gyro-fluid edge turbulence and zonal flows

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ole Hauke Heinz


    The role of ion polarisation and finite Larmor radius on the isotope effect on turbulent tokamak edge transport and flows is investigated by means of local electromagnetic multi-species gyro-fluid computations. Transport is found to be reduced with the effective plasma mass for protium, deuterium and tritium mixtures. This isotope effect is found for both cold and warm ion models, but significant influence of finite Larmor radius and polarisation effects are identified. Sheared flow reduction of transport through self generated turbulent zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes in the present model (not including neoclassical flows) is found to play only a minor role on regulating isotopically improved confinement.

  6. Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important

  7. Effects of anisotropic turbulent thermal diffusion on spherical magnetoconvection in the Earth's core (United States)

    Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.


    We re-consider the plate-like model of turbulence in the Earth's core, proposed by Braginsky and Meytlis (1990), and show that it is plausible for core parameters not only in polar regions but extends to mid- and low-latitudes where rotation and gravity are not parallel, except in a very thin equatorial layer. In this model the turbulence is highly anisotropic with preferred directions imposed by the Earth's rotation and the magnetic field. Current geodynamo computations effectively model sub-grid scale turbulence by using isotropic viscous and thermal diffusion values significantly greater than the molecular values of the Earth's core. We consider a local turbulent dynamo model for the Earth's core in which the mean magnetic field, velocity and temperature satisfy the Boussinesq induction, momentum and heat equations with an isotropic turbulent Ekman number and Roberts number. The anisotropy is modelled only in the thermal diffusion tensor with the Earth's rotation and magnetic field as preferred directions. Nonlocal organising effects of gravity and rotation (but not aspect ratio in the Earth's core) such as an inverse cascade and nonlocal transport are assumed to occur at longer length scales, which computations may accurately capture with sufficient resolution. To investigate the implications of this anisotropy for the proposed turbulent dynamo model we investigate the linear instability of turbulent magnetoconvection on length scales longer than the background turbulence in a rotating sphere with electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and isothermal boundary conditions. The equations are linearised about an axisymmetric basic state with a conductive temperature, azimuthal magnetic field and differential rotation. The basic state temperature is a function of the anisotropy and the spherical radius. Elsasser numbers in the range 1-20 and turbulent Roberts numbers 0.01-1 are considered for both equatorial symmetries of the magnetic basic state. It is found

  8. Large-Eddy Simulation of Oil Slicks from Deep Water Blowouts: Effects of Droplet Buoyancy and Langmuir Turbulence (United States)

    Chamecki, M.; Yang, D.; Meneveau, C. V.


    Deep water blowouts generate plumes of oil droplets that rise through, and interact with various layers of the ocean. When plumes reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), the interactions among oil droplet plume, Ekman Spiral and Langmuir turbulence strongly affect the final rates of dilution and bio-degradation. The present study aims at developing a large-eddy simulation (LES) capability for the study of the physical distribution and dispersion of oil droplets under the action of physical oceanographic processes in the OML. In the current LES approach, the velocity and temperature fields are simulated using a hybrid pseudo-spectral and finite-difference scheme; the oil field is described by an Eulerian concentration field and it is simulated using a bounded finite-volume scheme. Fluid accelerations induced by buoyancy of the oil plume are included, and a number of subgrid-scale models for the flow solver are implemented and tested. The LES capability is then applied to the simulation of oil plume dispersion in the OML. Graphical visualization of the LES results shows surface oil slick distribution consistent with the satellite and aerial images of surface oil slicks reported in the literature. Different combinations of Lamgmuir turbulence and droplet size lead to different oil slick patterns at the surface and significantly impact oil concentration. Possible effects for bio-degradation are also discussed. Funding from the GoMRI RFP-II is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Mitigating effect on turbulent scintillation using non-coherent multi-beam overlapped illumination (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Tian, Yuzhen; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Canjin; Yang, Xiaotian


    In order to find an effective method to mitigate the turbulent scintillation for applications involved laser propagation through atmosphere, we demonstrated one model using non-coherent multi-beam overlapped illumination. Based on lognormal distribution and the statistical moments of overlapped field, the reduction effect on turbulent scintillation of this method was discussed and tested against numerical wave optics simulation and laboratory experiments with phase plates. Our analysis showed that the best mitigating effect, the scintillation index of overlapped field reduced to 1/N of that when using single beam illuminating, could be obtained using this method when the intensity of N emitting beams equaled to each other.

  10. Effects of Temperature on Hybrid Lens Performance (United States)

    Askins, Steve; Victoria, Marta; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel


    In hybrid Silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses, an optical silicone is molded onto a glass substrate and forms the Fresnel structure. These lenses offer a cost effective solution as a primary optical element in point-focus concentrator photovoltaic modules, as well as performance advantages. However, these lenses have a high performance variation with temperature due both to the change in index of refraction of silicone as well as to deformations in the facets caused by coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch. In this study we perform measurements of the light flux at the focal plane of a family of SOG lenses, varying temperature and lens-to-receiver distances. The effect of varying silicone cure temperature and the depth of the silicone between the lens and the glass substrate on temperature dependence was investigated. A preliminary computer model of this behavior is presented.

  11. Inertial effects on reactive particles advected by turbulence. (United States)

    Reigada, R; Sagués, F; Sancho, J M


    We study the problem of the advection of passive particles with inertia in a two-dimensional, synthetic, and stationary turbulent flow. The asymptotic analytical result and numerical simulations show the importance of inertial bias in collecting the particles preferentially in certain regions of the flow, depending on their density relative to that of the flow. We also study how these aggregates are affected when a simple chemical reaction mechanism is introduced through a Eulerian scheme. We find that inertia can be responsible for maintaining a stationary concentration pattern even under nonfavorable reactive conditions or destroying it under favorable ones.

  12. Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation (United States)


    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulationect...of a pseudospectral azimuthal-axial hybrid- PIC HET code which is designed to explicitly resolve and filter azimuthal fluctuations in the...661-275-5908 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulation IEPC

  13. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser (United States)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k

  14. Can High-Tech Ventures Benefit from Government Guanxi and Business Guanxi? The Moderating Effects of Environmental Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejin Su


    Full Text Available The construct of guanxi has become an interesting topic for analyzing how to do business more effectively and successfully in China’s economic transition period. Drawing on the guanxi strategy theory, this study examines when government guanxi (guanxi with the government and its officials and business guanxi (guanxi with the business sectors matter to new venture performance under two typical turbulent environments (institutional turbulence and market turbulence. According to empirical results using original data from 146 new ventures in clusters driven by China’s local governments, both government guanxi and business guanxi were positively related to new venture performance, and market turbulence was an important contextual factor influencing performance benefits of guanxi. However, the results reveal no moderating effects of institutional turbulence on direct relationships. Furthermore, the study provides a better conceptual and empirical understanding of why market turbulence is a double-edged sword for performance implications of guanxi in the rapidly changing business environment.

  15. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid


    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  16. Experimental analysis of turbulence effect in settling velocity of suspended sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salinas–Tapia


    Full Text Available Settling velocities of sediment particles for different size ranges were measured in this work using PIV with the help of discriminatory filters. An experimental channel 10x15 cm cross section was used in order to obtain two set of turbulent characteristics corresponding with two different flow rates. The purpose was to analyze the effect of turbulence on the solids settling velocity. The technique allowed us to measure the individual settling velocity of the particles and the flow velocity field of the fluid. Capture and image analysis was performed with digital cameras (CCD using the software Sharp–provision PIV and the statistical cross correlation technique. Results showed that settling velocity of particles is affected by turbulence which enhances the fluid drag coefficient. Physical explanation of this phenomenon is related with the magnitude of the vertical fluctuating velocity of the fluid. However, more research is needed in order to define settling velocity formulas that takes into account this effect

  17. Custom LSI plus hybrid equals cost effectiveness (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The possibility to combine various technologies, such as Bi-Polar linear and CMOS/Digital makes it feasible to create systems with a tailored performance not available on a single monolithic circuit. The custom LSI 'BLOCK', especially if it is universal in nature, is proving to be a cost effective way for the developer to improve his product. The custom LSI represents a low price part in contrast to the discrete components it will replace. In addition, the hybrid assembly can realize a savings in labor as a result of the reduced parts handling and associated wire bonds. The possibility of the use of automated system manufacturing techniques leads to greater reliability as the human factor is partly eliminated. Attention is given to reliability predictions, cost considerations, and a product comparison study.

  18. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob


    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  19. Effect of Small-Scale Turbulence on the Physiology and Morphology of Two Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Zhe; Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Jinsong


    The main goal of the present work is to test the hypothesis that small-scale turbulence affected physiological activities and the morphology of cyanobacteria in high turbulence environments. Using quantified turbulence in a stirring device, we conducted one set of experiments on cultures of two strains of cyanobacteria with different phenotypes; i.e., unicellular Microcystis flos-aquae and colonial Anabaena flos-aquae. The effect of small-scale turbulence examined varied from 0 to 8.01×10-2 m2s-3, covering the range of turbulence intensities experienced by cyanobacteria in the field. The results of photosynthesis activity and the cellular chlorophyll a in both strains did not change significantly among the turbulence levels, indicating that the potential indirect effects of a light regime under the gradient of turbulent mixing could be ignored. However, the experiments demonstrated that small-scale turbulence significantly modulated algal nutrient uptake and growth in comparison to the stagnant control. Cellular N and C of the two stains showed approximately the same responses, resulting in a similar pattern of C/N ratios. Moreover, the change in the phosphate uptake rate was similar to that of growth in two strains, which implied that growth characteristic responses to turbulence may be dependent on the P strategy, which was correlated with accumulation of polyphosphate. Additionally, our results also showed the filament length of A. flos-aquae decreased in response to high turbulence, which could favor enhancement of the nutrient uptake. These findings suggested that both M. flos-aquae and A. flos-aquae adjust their growth rates in response to turbulence levels in the ways of asynchronous cellular stoichiometry of C, N, and P, especially the phosphorus strategy, to improve the nutrient application efficiency. The fact that adaptation strategies of cyanobacteria diversely to turbulence depending on their physiological conditions presents a good example to

  20. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence (United States)

    Leconte, Michael


    In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high

  1. Modelling Detailed-Chemistry Effects on Turbulent Diffusion Flames using a Parallel Solution-Adaptive Scheme (United States)

    Jha, Pradeep Kumar

    Capturing the effects of detailed-chemistry on turbulent combustion processes is a central challenge faced by the numerical combustion community. However, the inherent complexity and non-linear nature of both turbulence and chemistry require that combustion models rely heavily on engineering approximations to remain computationally tractable. This thesis proposes a computationally efficient algorithm for modelling detailed-chemistry effects in turbulent diffusion flames and numerically predicting the associated flame properties. The cornerstone of this combustion modelling tool is the use of parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme with the recently proposed Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated-chemistry approach for modelling complex chemistry. The effect of turbulence on the mean chemistry is incorporated using a Presumed Conditional Moment (PCM) approach based on a beta-probability density function (PDF). The two-equation k-w turbulence model is used for modelling the effects of the unresolved turbulence on the mean flow field. The finite-rate of methane-air combustion is represented here by using the GRI-Mech 3.0 scheme. This detailed mechanism is used to build the FPI tables. A state of the art numerical scheme based on a parallel block-based solution-adaptive algorithm has been developed to solve the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) and other governing partial-differential equations using a second-order accurate, fully-coupled finite-volume formulation on body-fitted, multi-block, quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow geometries, respectively. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme is used for time-accurate temporal discretizations. Numerical predictions of three different diffusion flames configurations are considered in the present work: a laminar counter-flow flame; a laminar co-flow diffusion flame; and a Sydney bluff-body turbulent reacting flow

  2. The lift-up effect: the linear mechanism behind transition and turbulence in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Luca


    The formation and amplification of streamwise velocity perturbations induced by cross-stream disturbances is ubiquitous in shear flows. This disturbance growth mechanism, so neatly identified by Ellingsen and Palm in 1975, is a key process in transition to turbulence and self-sustained turbulence. In this review, we first present the original derivation and early studies and then discuss the non-modal growth of streaks, the result of the lift-up process, in transitional and turbulent shear flows. In the second part, the effects on the lift-up process of additives in the fluid and of a second phase are discussed and new results presented with emphasis on particle-laden shear flows. For all cases considered, we see the lift-up process to be a very robust process, always present as a first step in subcritical transition.

  3. Effects of polymer additives in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yi-Chao; Funfschilling, Denis; Li, Xiao-Ming; Ni, Rui; Xia, Ke-Qing


    We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the \\textit{suppression} of turbulent background fluctuations that give rise to incoherent heat fluxes that make no net contribution to heat transport, and at the same time to \\textit{increase} the coherency of temperature and velocity fields. The suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations leads to more coherent thermal plumes that result in the heat transport enhancement. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity-temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which c...

  4. Plasma beta dependence of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence: high-resolution 2D hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr


    We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma beta, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all the cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with $\\beta$ (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, $d_i$...

  5. Mechanical Effect of Sea Spray on Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Orographic Effect on Aviation Turbulence (United States)

    Villamil-Otero, Gian Alberto

    This dissertation consists of two topics, the impact of the mechanical effect of sea spray on tropical cyclone intensity, and the impact of orography on aviation turbulence. For the first research topic we study the mechanical effect of the ocean spray on idealized hurricane dynamics. Specifically, we have implemented the mathematical parameterization that describes the mechanical effect of the ocean spray into a numerical weather prediction code. The parameterization developed in our previous studies is based on the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory. The developed theoretical framework quantifies the decrease in turbulent intensity due to vertical spray stratification that causes the reduction in the surface friction, and, as a result, weakens the secondary circulation in a tropical cyclone. Numerical simulations of the idealized tropical cyclones with different sea spray production rates have demonstrated that the structural characteristics of the storm alter as the sea spray concentration increases. Specifically, the following changes have been observed: 1) increase in the tropical cyclone asymmetry, 2) longer development time of the hurricane, 3) outward displacement in the storm eyewall location, 4) decrease in the vertical extent of reflectivity, 5) reduction in the horizontal wind speeds, 6) decrease in the vertical motion and horizontal convergence of the hurricane, and 7) reduction of the total heat flux. For the second topic a thorough testing of the sponge layer depth is done to assess its effectiveness when using a real potential temperature profile in an idealized model such as CM1. The tests performed use a two-dimensional grid with a bell-shaped mountain of 2500 m high in a uniform flow of U=20 and 10 ms-1 with a potential temperature profile from the 2100 UTC 25 March 2006 Mobile GPS Advanced Upper-Air Sounding System (MGAUS) sounding upstream of the Sierra Nevada. The model top is specified at 35 km and the sponge layer depth is varied between

  6. Using Social Simulations to Assess and Train Potential Leaders to Make Effective Decisions in Turbulent Environments (United States)

    Hunsaker, L. Phillip


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe two social simulations created to assess leadership potential and train leaders to make effective decisions in turbulent environments. One is set in the novel environment of a lunar moon colony and the other is a military combat command. The research generated from these simulations for assessing…

  7. Effects of shear in the convective boundary layer: analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.


    Effects of convective and mechanical turbulence at the entrainment zone are studied through the use of systematic Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) experiments. Five LES experiments with different shear characteristics in the quasi-steady barotropic boundary layer were conducted by increasing the value of

  8. Chemistry in a dry cloud: the effects of radiation and turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vil...-Guerau, de J.; Cuijpers, J.W.M.


    The combined effect of ultraviolet radiation and turbulent mixing on chemistry in a cloud-topped boundary layer is investigated. The authors study a flow driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top. They consider a chemical cycle that is composed of a first-order reaction whose

  9. Log-law and compressibility effects in transcritical turbulent boundary layers at supercritical pressure (United States)

    Kawai, Soshi


    In this talk, we discuss the log-law and effects of compressibility in transcritical heated turbulent boundary layers on a zero-pressure-gradient flat plate at supercritical pressure conditions by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using direct numerical simulation. In the supercritical fluids (especially at transcritical conditions), due to the strong real fluid effects thermodynamic properties vary abruptly within a narrow temperature range through the pseudo-critical temperature and significantly deviate from the ideal fluid. Peculiar interactions between the strongly non-linear real fluid effects and wall turbulence, and its resultant log-law and turbulence statistics are discussed, which have never been seen in the ideal-fluid turbulent boundary layers. We also show non-negligible compressibility effects in the flow even in the low-Mach number regime considered in this study. This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Number 26709066. Computer time was provided by the K computer at the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science through the HPCI System Research project hp150035.

  10. The effect of boundary layer and surface characteristics on non-Gaussian turbulent fluctuations of temperature (United States)

    Graf, A.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Geiß, H.; Knaps, A.; Möllmann-Coers, M.; Schween, J. H.; Kollet, S.; Neininger, B.; Herbst, M.; Vereecken, H.


    We use simultaneously measured near-ground micrometeorological and boundary layer data to examine the relation between the probability density function (PDF) of a turbulent scalar such as temperature and its vertical profile. Turbulent temperature time series of 10 to 20 s-1 resolution are taken from eddy covariance stations measuring at 1.45 to 120 m above ground level, and vertical profiles of potential temperature were composed of tower and aircraft measurements. The relation between skewness and kurtosis of the turbulent near-ground data was evaluated using the Pearson system of distributions, and indicates that a part of their non-Gaussianity is due to the existence of a well-defined lower limit to fluctuations. To a lesser extend, an upper limit is also indicated. During unstable situations, the lower limit could be related to the minimum of potential temperature available in the boundary layer. During stable situations, it was related to the effective surface temperature at the measurement site estimated from outgoing longwave radiation. The upper limit could be related with considerably less rigidity and a systematic underestimation, which we attribute to well mixing by small-scale turbulence, to the surface temperature during unstable situations. Two types of theoretical PDFs are compared to the turbulent histograms. The first type, the beta distribution was empirically chosen from classical statistics based on matching the first four sample moments and has already been used to empirically model scalar concentrations in plumes. The second type was theoretically derived from simplified assumptions on atmospheric dispersion. Both support the assumption that turbulent scalar PDFs in horizontally homogeneous conditions have finite tails.

  11. Effect of glass hybridization and staking sequence on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    293–298. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Effect of glass hybridization and staking sequence on mechanical behaviour of interply coir–glass hybrid laminate. S JAYABAL. ∗. , U NATARAJAN and S SATHIYAMURTHY†. Department of Mechanical Engineering, A.C. College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630 004, ...

  12. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu


    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  13. Effects of Swirl on Strongly-Pulsed Turbulent Diffusion Flames (United States)

    Liao, Y.-H.; Hermanson, J. C.


    The dynamics of large-scale structures in strongly-pulsed, swirling, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally. The combustor used a combination of axial and tangentially-injected air to produce a range of swirl numbers. Gaseous ethylene fuel was injected through a 2 mm diameter nozzle on the combustor centerline with a jet-on Reynolds number of 5000. The flames were fully-modulated, with the fuel flow completely shut off between pulses. High-speed imaging of the flame luminosity was employed to examine the flame dimensions and the celerity of the large-scale flame structures. The flames were found to be approximately 15-20% shorter when swirl was imposed, depending on the injection time. The more compact flames in swirl appear to be due to the presence of recirculation inside the flames. For longer injection times, the celerity of the flame structures generally decreases as the swirl intensity increases. This is evidently due to the reversed velocity in the recirculation zone. For shorter injection times, the flame celerity has an increasing trend with increased swirl intensity due to flames being closer to the fuel nozzle at burnout.

  14. Organized turbulent motions in a hedgerow vineyard: effect of evolving canopy structure (United States)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Pitacco, Andrea


    Vegetation-atmosphere exchanges are determined by functional and structural properties of the plants together with environmental forcing. However, a fundamental aspect is the interaction of the canopy with the lower atmosphere. The vegetation deeply alters the composition and physical properties of the air flow, exchanging energy, matter and momentum with it. These processes take place in the bottom part of the atmospheric boundary layer where turbulence is the main mechanism transporting within-canopy air towards the mid- and upper atmospheric boundary layer and vice versa. Canopy turbulence is highly influenced by vegetation drag elements, determining the vertical profile of turbulent moments within the canopy. Canopies organized in rows, like vineyards, show peculiar turbulent transport dynamics. In addition, the morphological structure (phenology) of the vineyard is greatly variable seasonally, shifting from an empty canopy during vine dormancy to dense foliage in summer. The understanding of the canopy ventilation regime is related to several practical applications in vineyard management. For example, within-canopy turbulent motion is very important to predict small particles dispersion, like fungal spores, and minimize infection studying the effect on leaf wetness duration. Our study aims to follow the continuous evolution of turbulence characteristics and canopy structure during the growing season of a hedgerow vineyard, from bud break to fully developed canopy. The field experiment was conducted in a flat extensive vineyard in North-Eastern Italy, using a vertical array of five synchronous sonic anemometers within and above the canopy. Turbulent flow organization was greatly influenced by canopy structure. Turbulent coherent structures involved in momentum transport have been investigated using the classical quadrant analysis and a novel approach to identify dominant temporal scales. Momentum transport in the canopy was dominated by downward gusts showing

  15. Stirring turbulence with turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.F.D.; Water, W. van de


    We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the

  16. Effect of particle clusters on turbulence modulations in liquid flow laden with fine solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Pang


    Full Text Available Studies on particle distributions and interactions between the particles and the liquid turbulence are extremely significant and can help to improve efficiency of industrial processes and final product quality. In this paper, the particle distribution and the particle - turbulence interaction in the solid - liquid flow were investigated in detail by a numerical method. The governing equations of the liquid were solved by direct numerical simulations and the particle was tracked by Newtonian motion equations considering the effects of drag force, lift force, pressure gradient force, and virtual mass force. Two - way coupling was used to explain the effect of the particles on the turbulence. The results showed that the vortex has a great influence on the particle distribution. Most of the particles aggregate at the centre of the channel. Particle clusters along the vortex circumference modulate the development of the vortex. The turbulence modulations showed anisotropy. The Reynolds stress is slightly reduced in a broad range; the energy balance is changed; and an extra term is introduced to maintain a new energy balance.

  17. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  18. Experimental study of the effect of turbulence on a section model blade oscillating in stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amandolese, X.; Szechenyi, E. [Institut Aero Technique, Saint Cyr (France)


    This article highlights part of the recent static and dynamic section model tests performed on a NACA 63{sub 4-} 421 aerofoil for Reynolds numbers close to 10{sup 6} and three flow turbulence levels, 1.1%, 4.5% and 7.5%. These tests were conducted in the 5 m x 3 m S4 wind tunnel at the Institut Aero Technique, using an experimental rig which forces the section model to oscillate in pitch. An upwind grid was used to generate the higher turbulence intensities characterized by turbulence length scales smaller than the chord of the aerofoil. The aerofoil's static characteristics were measured at angles of attack ranging from 0{sup o} to 30{sup o}. In the dynamic tests the aerofoil was made to oscillate in pitch around its fore quarter-chord line at different values of mean angle of attack (below, in and beyond the static stall region), reduced frequency (ranging from 0.0183 to 0.183) and amplitude of motion (from 2{sup o} to 8{sup o}). For all tests the aerodynamic loads were obtained through unsteady surface pressure measurements. The unsteady lift, pitching moment and pressure distributions are analysed and the effects of both the motion characteristics and the turbulence level of the incident flow are highlighted. (author)

  19. Particle-size distributions and their effect on entrainment in turbulent buoyant plumes (United States)

    Jessop, D.; Jellinek, M.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce turbulent, buoyant jets that contain entrained particles. In these flows, turbulent entrainment of ambient air controls the ultimate rise height and spread of the jet. Volcanic jets are a natural example of these dilute particle-gas systems and the particles they contain can strongly control the dynamics of the bulk flow through the coupling between themselves and the surrounding fluid. The metric for the type of particle-fluid coupling is the Stokes number, St, which measures the timescale for the particles inertia against the timescale for the flow field, typically the overturn time of an eddy. We show that particles that are critically coupled to the flow (St=O(1)) change the turbulent structure of the flow by eddy stretching leading to energy cascades which are anisotropic in the horizontal and vertical directions. Crucially, flows laden with such particles carry considerably more energy in the stream-wise direction than particle-free flows which leads to a decrease in entrainment. This behaviour suggests that turbulent entrainment can effectively be shut down under critical St, giving rise to collapsing fountains whereas particle-free flows under the same source conditions would produce buoyant plumes. Changes in entrainment rates in volcanic jets are also manifested in readily observable features such as the rise height. We may therefore infer entrainment rates and their evolution over the course of an eruption from the maximum height and neutral buoyancy level.

  20. Finite Larmor radius effects on test particle transport in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence (United States)

    Dewhurst, J. M.; Hnat, B.; Dendy, R. O.


    The effect of finite Larmor radius on the transport of passive charged test particles moving in turbulent electrostatic fields is investigated. The turbulent field is governed by a flexible model which is able to produce turbulence where zonal flows are damped or free to self-generate. A subtle interplay between trapping in small scale vortices and entrainment in larger scale zonal flows determines the rate, character and Larmor radius dependence of the test particle transport. When zonal flows are damped, the transport is classically diffusive, with Gaussian statistics, and the rate of transport decreases with increasing Larmor radius. Once the Larmor radius is larger than the typical radius of the turbulent vortices, the rate of transport remains roughly constant. When zonal flows are allowed non-Gaussian statistics are observed. Radial transport (across the zones) is subdiffusive and decreases with the Larmor radius at a slower rate. Poloidal transport (along the zones), however, is superdiffusive and increases with small values of the Larmor radius.

  1. Finite Larmor radius effects on test particle transport in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewhurst, J M; Hnat, B; Dendy, R O, E-mail: [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    The effect of finite Larmor radius on the transport of passive charged test particles moving in turbulent electrostatic fields is investigated. The turbulent field is governed by a flexible model which is able to produce turbulence where zonal flows are damped or free to self-generate. A subtle interplay between trapping in small scale vortices and entrainment in larger scale zonal flows determines the rate, character and Larmor radius dependence of the test particle transport. When zonal flows are damped, the transport is classically diffusive, with Gaussian statistics, and the rate of transport decreases with increasing Larmor radius. Once the Larmor radius is larger than the typical radius of the turbulent vortices, the rate of transport remains roughly constant. When zonal flows are allowed non-Gaussian statistics are observed. Radial transport (across the zones) is subdiffusive and decreases with the Larmor radius at a slower rate. Poloidal transport (along the zones), however, is superdiffusive and increases with small values of the Larmor radius.

  2. Temperature Effects on Hybrid Composite Plates Under Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SAYER


    Full Text Available In this work, impact responses of carbon-glass fiber/epoxy (hybrid composites were investigated under various temperatures and increasing impact energies. The increasing impact energies were applied to the specimens at various temperatures as -20, 0, 20 and 40 oC until perforation took place of specimens. Those specimens are composed by two types of fiber orientation with eight laminates hybrid composites. An Energy profiling diagram, used for showing the relationship between impact and absorbed energy, has been used to obtain penetration and perforation thresholds of hybrid composites. Beside those, temperature effects on impact characteristics such as maximum contact force (Fmax, total deflection (d and maximum contact duration (t were also presented in figures. Finally, glass and carbon fibers exhibited more brittle characteristics at -20 oC according to other temperatures. So, perforation threshold of each hybrid composites at -20 oC was found higher than other temperatures. Keywords : Hybrid composite

  3. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ° and ± 45° was used and its effect on mechanical properties were studied. Composites containing hybrid fibres found to possess better mechanical properties, when compared to pure bamboo. In order to justify this, the following mechanical.

  4. Effect of the prosthetic mitral valve on vortex dynamics and turbulence of the left ventricular flow (United States)

    Querzoli, G.; Fortini, S.; Cenedese, A.


    Mechanical heart valves implanted in mitral position have a great effect on the ventricular flow. Changes include alteration of the dynamics of the vortical structures generated during the diastole and the onset of turbulence, possibly affecting the efficiency of the heart pump or causing blood cell damage. Modifications to the hemodynamics in the left ventricle, when the inflow through the mitral orifice is altered, were investigated in vitro using a silicone rubber, flexible ventricle model. Velocity fields were measured in space and time by means of an image analysis technique: feature tracking. Three series of experiments were performed: one with a top hat inflow velocity profile (schematically resembling physiological conditions), and two with mechanical prosthetic valves of different design, mounted in mitral position—one monoleaflet and the other bileaflet. In each series of runs, two different cardiac outputs have been examined by changing the stroke volume. The flow was investigated in terms of phase averaged velocity field and second order moments of turbulent fluctuations. Results show that the modifications in the transmitral flow change deeply the interaction between the coherent structures generated during the first phase of the diastole and the incoming jet during the second diastolic phase. Top hat inflow gives the coherent structures which are optimal, among the compared cases, for the systolic function. The flow generated by the bileaflet valve preserves most of the beneficial features of the top hat inflow, whereas the monoleaflet valve generates a strong jet which discourages the permanence of large coherent structures at the end of the diastole. Moreover, the average shear rate magnitudes induced by the smoother flow pattern of the case of top hat inflow are nearly halved in comparison with the values measured with the mechanical valves. Finally, analysis of the turbulence statistics shows that the monoleaflet valves yield higher turbulence

  5. Observation of a new turbulence-driven limit-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.


    The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L–H transition, a small-amplitude, low...... correlated with each other, with nearly no phase differences poloidally and toroidally, and finite phase difference radially, thus providing strong evidence for zonal flows. The growth, saturation and disappearance of the zonal flows are strongly correlated with those of the high-frequency turbulence....... And the measurements demonstrate that the energy gain of zonal flows is of the same order as the energy loss of turbulence. This strongly suggests the interactions between zonal flows and high-frequency turbulences at the pedestal during the limit-cycle state....

  6. Hot electron effect in terahertz hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, B; Gao, [No Value; Klapwijk, TM; Jackson, BD; Laauwen, WM; de Lange, G

    We analyse both the direct current and submillimeter pumped cut-rent-voltage characteristics of a hybrid superconductor-insulator-superconductor terahertz, mixer consisting of a Nb tunnel junction integrated with NbTiN tuning striplines. We And that the presence of the Nb/NbTiN interface gives rise

  7. Investigating electromagnetic effects on transport and turbulence in DIII-D QH-modes (United States)

    Guttenfelder, Walter; Grierson, B. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Burrell, K. H.; Staebler, G. M.; Ernst, D. R.


    Previous experiments and gyrokinetic simulations in the core (ρ = 0.3) of QH-modes have found that the coupling of electrostatic turbulence to magnetic fluctuations (δB) at finite beta is very stabilizing to ITG/TEM turbulence. As expected from theory, the electromagnetic (EM) effects are significant as the profile is locally within 90% of the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) threshold. Additional gyrokinetic and TGLF simulations have been run in advance of a planned QH-mode experiment aiming to directly measure core δB using cross polarization scattering (CPS). These ``predict first'' simulations will be shown to highlight the expected strength of EM effects, the scaling of the predicted amplitude of δB, and the proximity of profiles to the KBM threshold. This work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim


    by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube......The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements effect...

  9. On the compressibility effect in test particle acceleration by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    González, C A; Mininni, P D; Matthaeus, W H


    The effect of compressibility in charged particle energization by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fields is studied in the context of test particle simulations. This problem is relevant to the solar wind and the solar corona due to the compressible nature of the flow in those astrophysical scenarios. We consider turbulent electromagnetic fields obtained from direct numerical simulations of the MHD equations with a strong background magnetic field. In order to explore the compressibilty effect over the particle dynamics we performed different numerical experiments: an incompressible case, and two weak compressible cases with Mach number M = 0.1 and M = 0.25. We analyze the behavior of protons and electrons in those turbulent fields, which are well known to form aligned current sheets in the direction of the guide magnetic field. We show that compressibility enhances the efficiency of proton acceleration, and that the energization is caused by perpendicular electric fields generated between currents sheets. On the ot...

  10. Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Turbulence Models on Impingement Cooling of Double Chamber Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglei Yu


    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of impingement cooling for the different turbulence models and study of the aerodynamic behavior of a simplified transition piece model (TP are the two themes of this paper. A model (double chamber model of a one-fourth cylinder is designed which could simulate the transition piece structure and performance. The relative strengths and drawbacks of renormalization group theory k-ε (RNG, the realizable k-ε (RKE, the v2-f, the shear stress transport k-ω (SST, and large-eddy simulation (LES models are used to solve the closure problem. The prediction of the inner wall temperature, cooling effectiveness, and velocity magnitude contours in various conditions are compared in five different turbulence models. Surprisingly, the v2-f and SST models can produce even better predictions of fluid properties in impinging jet flows. It is recommended as the best compromise between solution speed and accuracy.

  11. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.


    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directions...... where the mean flow was horizontal. This difference was large enough to be attributed to the well-known overspeeding effect related to the differing distance constant (ranging from 1.7 to 5 m) of the cup anemometers. The application of a theoretical model of the cup-anemometer behaviour in a three...... to correct the 10-min mean wind speed. The necessary information for the correction is the turbulent intensity (preferably in the vertical direction) and the mean flow inclination. For demanding applications, the angular response parameters of cup anemometers should be taken into account. The incorporation...

  12. Explaining the convector effect in canopy turbulence by means of large-eddy simulation (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; De Roo, Frederik; Mauder, Matthias


    Semi-arid forests are found to sustain a massive sensible heat flux in spite of having a low surface to air temperature difference by lowering the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (rH) - a property called the canopy convector effect (CCE). In this work large-eddy simulations are used to demonstrate that the CCE appears more generally in canopy turbulence. It is indeed a generic feature of canopy turbulence: rH of a canopy is found to reduce with increasing unstable stratification, which effectively increases the aerodynamic roughness for the same physical roughness of the canopy. This relation offers a sufficient condition to construct a general description of the CCE. In addition, we review existing parameterizations for rH from the evapotranspiration literature and test to what extent they are able to capture the CCE, thereby exploring the possibility of an improved parameterization.

  13. Explaining the convector effect in canopy turbulence by means of large-eddy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Banerjee


    Full Text Available Semi-arid forests are found to sustain a massive sensible heat flux in spite of having a low surface to air temperature difference by lowering the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (rH – a property called the canopy convector effect (CCE. In this work large-eddy simulations are used to demonstrate that the CCE appears more generally in canopy turbulence. It is indeed a generic feature of canopy turbulence: rH of a canopy is found to reduce with increasing unstable stratification, which effectively increases the aerodynamic roughness for the same physical roughness of the canopy. This relation offers a sufficient condition to construct a general description of the CCE. In addition, we review existing parameterizations for rH from the evapotranspiration literature and test to what extent they are able to capture the CCE, thereby exploring the possibility of an improved parameterization.


    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary


    Morphological consequences of hybridization were studied in a group of three interbreeding species of Darwin's finches on the small Galápagos island of Daphne Major in the inclusive years 1976 to 1992. Geospiza fortis bred with G. scandens and G. fuliginosa. Although interbreeding was always rare (Darwin's finch data suggest that these constraints become stronger when species with similar proportions hybridize, but some become weaker when the interbreeding species have different allometries. This latter effect of hybridization, together with an enhancement of genetic variation, facilitates evolutionary change in a new direction. © 1994 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. The effect of bedload transport on mean and turbulent flow properties (United States)

    Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Bergeron, Normand E.


    This paper reports the results of a flume experiment that was designed to investigate the effect of bedload transport on mean and turbulent properties of the flow. The experiment consisted of varying the bedload transport rate for a given hydraulic condition, and of measuring the flow velocity profiles using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) for each transport rate in order to allow for comparison. Bedload transport was produced by injecting gravel-size particles ( D50=7.4 mm) with a conveyer belt mounted at the upstream end of the flume. The results indicate that the effect of bedload on flow characteristics is complex. It is shown that bedload transport causes opposite effects on flow velocity depending on the roughness of the bed and the relative magnitude of flow and sediment transport variables. A better understanding of these conflicting results is obtained from the application of an energy budget approach to the analysis of velocity data. This approach demonstrates that bedload affects flow velocity by modifying the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. However, the mechanisms responsible for the modification of turbulent dissipation are still unknown.

  16. Compressibility and Turbulence Effects Due to Airfoil Clocking in Axial Compressors (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Sharma, Om P.; GundyBurlet, Karen L.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)


    Axial compressors have inherently unsteady flow fields because of relative motion between rotor and stator airfoils. This relative motion leads to viscous and inviscid (potential) interactions between blade rows. As the number of stages increases in a turbomachine, the buildup of convected wakes can lead to progressively more complex wake/wake and wake/airfoil interactions. Variations in the relative circumferential positions of stators or rotors can change these interactions, leading to different unsteady forcing functions on airfoils and different compressor efficiencies. In addition, as the Mach number increases the interaction between blade rows is intensified due to potential effects. The current study uses an unsteady, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes approach to investigate the unsteady aerodynamics of stator clocking in a 1-1/2 stage compressor, typical of high-pressure compressors used in advanced commercial jet engines. The effects of turbulence are modeled with both algebraic and two-equation models. Results include surface pressures, efficiencies, boundary layer quantities and turbulence quantities. In addition, the growth of turbulence and the effects of compressibility on airfoil are discussed.

  17. Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Turbulence and Finite Larmor Radius Effects at Mercury (United States)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Donovan, E. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.


    We use a nonstationary generalization of the higher-order structure function technique to investigate statistical properties of the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by MESSENGER spacecraft during its first flyby (01/14/2008) through the near-Mercury space environment, with the emphasis on key boundary regions participating in the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. Our analysis shows, for the first time, that kinetic-scale fluctuations play a significant role in the Mercury's magnetosphere up to the largest resolvable timescale (approx.20 s) imposed by the signal nonstationariry, suggesting that turbulence at this plane I is largely controlled by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, we report the presence of a highly turbulent and extended foreshock system filled with packets of ULF oscillations, broad-band intermittent fluctuations in the magnetosheath, ion-kinetic turbulence in the central plasma sheet of Mercury's magnetotail, and kinetic-scale fluctuations in the inner current sheet encountered at the outbound (dawn-side) magnetopause. Overall, our measurements indicate that the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as the surrounding region, are strongly affected by non-MHD effects introduced by finite sizes of cyclotron orbits of the constituting ion species. Physical mechanisms of these effects and their potentially critical impact on the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetic field remain to be understood.

  18. Quantum interference effects in molecular spin hybrids (United States)

    Esat, Taner; Friedrich, Rico; Matthes, Frank; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Tautz, F. Stefan; Schneider, Claus M.


    We have studied by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) single molecular spin hybrids formed upon chemisorbing a polycyclic aromatic, threefold symmetric hydrocarbon molecule on Co(111) nanoislands. The spin-dependent hybridization between the Co d states and the π orbitals of the molecule leads to a spin-imbalanced electronic structure of the chemisorbed organic molecule. Spin-sensitive measurements reveal that the spin polarization shows intramolecular variations among the different aromatic rings in spite of the highly symmetric adsorption geometry promoted by symmetry matching of the threefold symmetric molecule and the sixfold symmetric Co(111) lattice. Hence the varying degree of spin polarization on the organic molecule does not stem from a different hybridization of the aromatic rings with the Co atoms, but is proposed to be a consequence of the superposition of the spin polarization of the molecule and the spatially modulated spin polarization of the spin-dependent quantum interference pattern of the Co(111) surface state.

  19. Gyrofluid computation of magnetic perturbation effects on turbulence and edge localized bursts (United States)

    Peer, J.; Kendl, A.; Ribeiro, T. T.; Scott, B. D.


    The effects of non-axisymmetric resonant magnetic perturbation fields (RMPs) on saturated drift-wave turbulence and on ballooning mode bursts in the edge pedestal of tokamak plasmas are investigated by numerical simulations with a nonlinear six-moment electromagnetic gyrofluid model including zonal profile evolution. The vacuum RMP fields are screened by plasma response currents, so that magnetic transport by perturbed parallel motion is not significantly changed. Radial transport of both particles and heat is dominated by turbulent convection even for large RMP amplitudes, where formation of quasi-stationary convective structures leads to edge profile degradation. Modelling of ideal ballooning mode unstable edge profiles for single bursts including RMP fields causes resonant mode locking and destabilization.

  20. The effect of a turbulent wake on the stagnation point. II - Heat transfer results (United States)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Wilson, Dennis E.


    A phenomenological model is proposed which relates the effects of freestream turbulence to the increase in stagnation point heat transfer. The model requires both turbulence intensity and energy spectra as inputs to the unsteady velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The form of the edge velocity contains both a pulsation of the incoming flow and an oscillation of the streamlines. The incompressible unsteady and time-averaged boundary layer response is determined by solving the momentum and energy equations. The model allows for arbitary two-dimensional geometry, however, results are given only for a circular cylinder. The time-averaged Nusselt number is determined theoretically and compared to existing experimental data.

  1. Effect Of Turbulence Modelling In Numerical Analysis Of Melting Process In An Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliński P.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the velocity field and turbulence effects that occur inside a crucible of a typical induction furnace were investigated. In the first part of this work, a free surface shape of the liquid metal was measured in a ceramic crucible. Then a numerical model of aluminium melting process was developed. It took into account coupling of electromagnetic and thermofluid fields that was performed using commercial codes. In the next step, the sensitivity analysis of turbulence modelling in the liquid domain was performed. The obtained numerical results were compared with the measurement data. The performed analysis can be treated as a preliminary approach for more complex mathematical modelling for the melting process optimisation in crucible induction furnaces of different types.

  2. Coulomb collisional effects on high energy particles in the presence of driftwave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, B; Cheng, C Z


    High energy particles' behavior including fusion born alpha particles in an ITER like tokamak in the presence of background driftwave turbulence is investigated by an orbit following calculation. The background turbulence is given by the toroidal driftwave eigenmode combined with a random number generator. The transport level is reduced as the particle energy increase; the widths of the guiding center islands produced by the passing particles are inverse proportional to the square root of parallel velocities. On the other hand, the trapped particles are sensitive to $E \\times B$ drift at the banana tips whose radial displacement is larger for lower energy particles. Coulomb collisional effects are incorporated which modifies the transport process of the trapped high energy particles whose radial excursion resides in limited radial domains without collisions.

  3. Effects of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of wall bounded turbulent flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Lessani, B.


    The effect of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of a non-isothermal turbulentchannel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation. The particles inertia is varied by changingthe particles diameter. The density of particles is kept constant. A two-way coupled...... Eulerian–Lagrangianapproach is adopted to solve the carrier flow field and the motion of dispersed particles. Three differentparticle Stokes numbers of St = 24, 60, 192, at a constant particle mass loading of φm = 0:54, are considered.The mean and rms profiles of velocity and temperature for fluid...... and particles, and the scatter plotsof fluid-particle temperature differences are presented. In addition, the variations of different budgetterms for the turbulent kinetic energy equation and fluctuating temperature variance equation in thepresence of particles are reported. The fluid turbulent heat flux...

  4. Proton Kinetic Effects and Turbulent Energy Cascade Rate in the Solar Wind (United States)

    Osman, K.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Kiyani, K. H.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.


    The first observed connection between kinetic instabilities driven by proton temperature anisotropy and estimated energy cascade rates in the turbulent solar wind is reported using measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. We find enhanced cascade rates are concentrated along the boundaries of the (β‖,T⊥/T‖)-plane, which includes regions theoretically unstable to the mirror and firehose instabilities. A strong correlation is observed between the estimated cascade rates and kinetic effects such as temperature anisotropy and plasma heating, resulting in protons 5-6 times hotter and 70-90% more anisotropic than under typical isotropic plasma conditions. These results offer new insights into kinetic processes in a turbulent regime.

  5. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim


    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  6. A model for the effect of submerged aquatic vegetation on turbulence induced by an oscillating grid (United States)

    Pujol, Dolors; Colomer, Jordi; Serra, Teresa; Casamitjana, Xavier


    The aim of this study is to model, under controlled laboratory conditions, the effect of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on turbulence generated in a water column by an oscillating grid turbulence (OGT). Velocity profiles have been measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (MicroADV). Experimental conditions are analysed in two canopy models (rigid and semi-rigid), using nine plant-to-plant distances (ppd), three stem diameters (d), four types of natural SAV (Cladium mariscus, Potamogeton nodosus, Myriophyllum verticillatum and Ruppia maritima) and two oscillation grid frequencies (f). To quantify this response, we have developed a non-dimensional model, with a specific turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), f, stroke (s), d, ppd, distance from the virtual origin to the measurement (zm) and space between grid bars (M). The experimental data show that, at zm/zc power law, zm-2, and does not depend on the vegetation characteristics. In contrast, at zm/zc > 1, TKE decreases faster with zm and scales to the model variables according to TKE/(f·s)∝(·(. Therefore, at zm/zc > 1 the TKE is affected by the geometric characteristics of the plants (both diameter and plant-to-plant distance), an effect called sheltering. Results from semi-rigid canopies and natural SAV are found to scale with the non-dimensional model proposed for rigid canopies. We also discuss the practical implications for field conditions (wind and natural SAV).

  7. Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Sihao, L. V.


    A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent flows. In this model, the anisotropy of gas and solid phase two-phase Reynolds stresses and their correlation of velocity fluctuation are fully considered using a presented Reynolds stress model and the transport equation of two-phase stress correlation. Experimental measurements (Xu and Zhou in ASME-FED Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Paper FEDSM99-7909, 1999) are used to validate this model, source codes and prediction results. It showed that the particles collision leads to decrease in the intensity of gas and particle vortices and takes a larger effect on particle turbulent fluctuations. The time-averaged velocity, the fluctuation velocity of gas and particle phase considering particles colli-sion are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Particle kinetic energy is always smaller than gas phase due to energy dissipation from particle collision. Moreover, axial– axial and radial–radial fluctuation velocity correlations have stronger anisotropic behaviors. © King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013

  8. The Effect of Small Scale Turbulence on the Physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterium (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Guala, Michele


    Microcystis aeruginosa is a single-celled blue-green alga, or cyanobacterium, that is responsible for poor water quality and microcystin production, which in high concentrations can be harmful to humans and animals. These harmful effects arise during cyanobacterium blooms. Blooms occur mainly in the summer when the algae grow uncontrollably and bond together to form colonies which accumulate on the surface of freshwater ecosystems. The relationship between fluid motion generated by wind and internal waves in stratified aquatic ecosystems and Microcystis can help explain the mechanisms of such blooms. We investigated the effect of small scale fluid motion on the physiology of Microcystis in a reactor with two underwater speakers. Different turbulent intensities were achieved by systematically changing the input signal frequency (30-50 Hz) and magnitude (0.1-0.2V) to the speakers. The role of turbulence is quantified by relating energy dissipation rates with the cell number, chlorophyll amount, dissolved oxygen production/uptake, and pH. The results suggest that turbulence mediates the physiology of Microcystis. The findings could be instrumental in designing restoration strategies that can minimize Microcystis blooms. This work was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and University of Minnesota start-up funding.

  9. Effects of Taylor-Görtler vortices on turbulent flows in a spanwise-rotating channel (United States)

    Dai, Yijun; Huang, Weixi; Xu, Chunxiao


    Fully developed turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation has been studied by direct numerical simulation at Rem = 2800, 7000 and 20000 with rotation number 0 conditional average method is employed to investigate the effects. In the upwash region where the fluid is pumped away from the pressure wall by the TG vortices, turbulence is enhanced, while the reverse is the case in the downwash region. Through budget analysis of the transport equation of vorticity fluctuation, it is revealed that the stretching along the wall-normal direction caused by the TG vortices plays an important role in initiating the difference of turbulence intensity between the two regions, which is further augmented by the Coriolis force in the streamwise direction. The effects of TG vortices is weakened at higher Reynolds number. Meanwhile, the shear stress on the suction wall is observed to fluctuate in a quasi-periodic manner at Rem = 7000 and Rom = 0.3, which is induced by the TG vortices. The work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 11490551, 11472154, 11322221, 11132005).

  10. Direct Numerical Simulation of Twin Swirling Flow Jets: Effect of Vortex-Vortex Interaction on Turbulence Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai Xu


    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation (DNS was carried out to study twin swirling jets which are issued from two parallel nozzles at a Reynolds number of Re = 5000 and three swirl levels of S = 0.68, 1.08, and 1.42, respectively. The basic structures of vortex-vortex interaction and temporal evolution are illustrated. The characteristics of axial variation of turbulent fluctuation velocities, in both the near and far field, in comparison to a single swirling jet, are shown to explore the effects of vortex-vortex interaction on turbulence modifications. Moreover, the second order turbulent fluctuations are also shown, by which the modification of turbulence associated with the coherent or correlated turbulent fluctuation and turbulent kinetic energy transport characteristics are clearly indicated. It is found that the twin swirling flow has a fairly strong localized vortex-vortex interaction between a pair of inversely rotated vortices. The location and strength of interaction depend on swirl level greatly. The modification of vortex takes place by transforming large-scale vortices into complex small ones, whereas the modulation of turbulent kinetic energy is continuously augmented by strong vortex modification.

  11. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian


    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices...... is consistent with classical coagulation theory. We then demonstrate that differences in larval search strategy (pause- travel versus cruise search) and behaviour (e.g. reactive distance, swimming speed, pause duration) will lead to substantial differences in estimated encounter rates. In general, small larvae...... are more likely to benefit from turbulence-increased encounter than larger larvae. Overall ingestion rate probability (= probability of encounter x probability of successful pursuit) is likely to be highest at moderate-high levels of turbulence. In most larval fish habitats, turbulence levels appear to lie...

  12. The feedback effect caused by bed load on a turbulent liquid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Erick de Moraes; Rosa, Eugênio Spanó


    Experiments on the effects due solely to a mobile granular layer on a liquid flow are presented (feedback effect). Nonintrusive measurements were performed in a closed conduit channel of rectangular cross section where grains were transported as bed load by a turbulent water flow. The water velocity profiles were measured over fixed and mobile granular beds of same granulometry by Particle Image Velocimetry. The spatial resolution of the measurements allowed the experimental quantification of the feedback effect. The present findings are of importance for predicting the bed-load transport rate and the pressure drop in activities related to the conveyance of grains.

  13. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi


    Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  14. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin


    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control.

  15. Effects of Gravity on Sheared Turbulence Laden with Bubbles or Droplets (United States)

    Elghobashi, Said; Lasheras, Juan


    This is a new project which started in May 1996. The main objective of the experimental/numerical study is to improve the understanding of the physics of two-way coupling between the dispersed phase and turbulence in a prototypical turbulent shear flow - homogeneous shear, laden with small liquid droplets (in gas) or gaseous bubbles (in liquid). The method of direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to solve the full three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations including the terms describing the two-way coupling between the dispersed phase and the carrier flow. The results include the temporal evolution of the three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra and the rate of energy transfer across the energy spectrum to understand the fundamental physics of turbulence modulation, especially the effects of varying the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. The mean-square displacement and diffusivity of the droplets (or bubbles) of a given size and the preferential accumulation of droplets in low vorticity regions and bubbles in high vorticity regions will be examined in detail for different magnitudes of gravitational acceleration. These numerical results which will be compared with their corresponding measured data will provide a data base from which a subgrid-scale (SGS) model can be developed and validated for use in large-eddy simulation (LES) of particle-laden shear flows. Two parallel sets of experiments will be conducted: bubbles in an immiscible liquid and droplets in air. In both experiments homogeneous shear will be imposed on the turbulent carrier flow. The instantaneous velocities of the fluid and polydispersed-size particles (droplets or bubbles) will be measured simultaneously using a two-component Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). Also, the velocity statistics and energy spectra for the carrier flow will be measured.

  16. Temperature dependence of stream aeration coefficients and the effect of water turbulence: a critical review. (United States)

    Demars, B O L; Manson, J R


    the Dobbins model may be used tentatively as a simple theoretical guide for streams with free surface water but not self-aerated flows encountered in whitewater rapids, cascades or weirs. Greater awareness of the different models and conditions of applications should help choosing an appropriate correction. Three case studies investigated the effect of the temperature coefficient on reaeration and stream metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration). In practice, the temperature correction may be an important parameter under constant turbulence conditions, but as the range in turbulence increases, the role of temperature may become negligible in determining K(L), whatever the temperature correction. The theoretical models reviewed here are also useful references to correct K(L) values determined using a reference tracer gas to a second species of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geostrophic convective turbulence: The effect of boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Kunnen, Rudie P J; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    This Letter presents results of the first direct numerical simulations of rotating Rayleigh--B\\'enard convection in the so-called geostrophic regime, (hence very small Ekman numbers $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-7})$ and high Rayleigh numbers~$Ra=10^{10}$ and~$5\\cdot 10^{10}$), employing the \\emph{full} Navier--Stokes equations. In the geostrophic regime the criteria of very strong rotation and large supercriticality are met simultaneously, which is true for many geophysical and astrophysical flows. Until now, numerical approaches of this regime have been based on \\emph{reduced} versions of the Navier--Stokes equations (cf. Sprague \\emph{et al.} J. Fluid Mech., \\textbf{551}, 141 (2006)), omitting the effect of the viscous (Ekman) boundary layers. By using different velocity boundary conditions at the plates, we study the effect of these Ekman layers. We find that the formation of large-scale structures (Rubio \\emph{et al.} (Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{112} (2014)), which indicates the presence of an inverse energy cascade, ...

  18. 3-D numerical simulations of eruption clouds: Effects of the environmental wind on the turbulent mixing (United States)

    Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.


    During an explosive volcanic eruption, a mixture of volcanic gas and solid pyroclasts are ejected from a volcanic vent with a high temperature. As it rises, the mixture entrains ambient air owing to turbulent mixing. The entrained air expands by heating from the hot pyroclasts, and the eruption cloud (i.e., the ejected material plus the entrained air) rises as a buoyant plume. Because the plume height is principally determined by the balance between the thermal energy ejected at the vent and the work done in transporting the ejected material plus entrained air through the atmospheric stratification, it is controlled by the efficiency of turbulent mixing; as the amount of entrained air increases, the plume height decreases. In the 1-D models of eruption column (e.g., Woods, 1988), the plume height is calculated on the assumption that the mean inflow velocity across the edge of turbulent jet and/or plume is proportional to the mean vertical velocity (Morton et al., 1956). Experimental studies suggest that the proportionality constant (i.e., entrainment coefficient, k), which represents the efficiency of turbulent mixing, is about 0.10 for pure plumes when there is no wind. When an environmental wind is present, however, the interaction between a buoyant plume and the wind may enhance the entrainment of air and can significantly decrease the plume height (Bursik, 2001). In order to investigate the effects of wind on the vortical structures and the efficiency of turbulent mixing in an eruption cloud, we have carried out 3-D numerical simulations of eruption column which is ejected in a wind field. The simulation results indicate that a buoyant plume vertically rises as a "strong plume" (e.g., Bonadonna et al., 2003) when the wind velocity is low: the cloud reaches the neutral buoyancy level and overshoots until the upward momentum is exhausted. In this case, the plume height is consistent with prediction by the 1-D model with k~0.10. When the wind velocity is high, on

  19. Effect of ion mass on transition to drift-zonal flow turbulence in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment (United States)

    Hong, Rongjie; Thakur, Saikat; Tynan, George


    The Controlled Shear De-correlation eXperiment (CSDX) is a helicon plasma device dedicated to studies of drift wave turbulence, zonal flow interaction and generation of intrinsic rotation in a cylindrical plasma configuration. Previous studies in argon plasma demonstrated existence of a weak turbulence driven azimuthally symmetric, radially sheared plasma flow. More recent studies at higher B field with larger plasma size have shown the coexistence of radially separated multiple instabilities during the transition to strongly developed plasma turbulence. To better understand the underlying mechanism and the role of the drift wave turbulence in the formation of the zonal shear layer and of the spatially separated multiple instabilities, we study the effects of the ion mass to further vary the effective system size via the parameter (Ln /ρs). Using an upgraded RF power source, we have achieved high-density helicon plasmas in gases such as argon, neon, helium, deut erium and hydrogen in CSDX. Therefore, the impact of the ρs and isotope effect on turbulent transport, including the energy transfers and self-organization mechanisms between turbulence and sheared flows, will be addressed. CMTFO - # DE-SC0008378, MIT - #DE-SC0010593.

  20. Effect of nozzle length-to-diameter ratio on atomization of turbulent liquid jets (United States)

    Osta, Anu Ranjan

    Breakup of liquid jets is of considerable interest motivated by its applicability in combustion and propulsion systems (CI and SI engines), and agricultural fertilizer/pesticide sprays, among others. Almost all of the practical liquid injectors introduce some degree of turbulence in the liquid jet leaving the injector passage and an intriguing question is the relative importance of the liquid turbulence, cavitation, and the aerodynamic forces in the breakup processes of fuel injectors. A better design of liquid fuel injector would reduce pollutants and increase the efficiency of liquid fuel combustion processes. An experimental study to investigate the effect of nozzle length to diameter ratio on the surface properties of turbulent liquid jets in gaseous crossflow and still air was carried out. Straight cavitation-free nozzles with length/diameter ratios of 10, 20 and 40 were used to generate turbulent liquid jets in gaseous crossflow. The present study was limited to small Ohnesorge number liquid jets (Oh 110). The diagnostics consisted of pulsed shadowgraphy, pulsed digital holographic microscopy and x-ray diagnostics. The x-ray tests were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility of Argonne National Laboratory. The test matrix was designed to maintain the same aerodynamic forces in order to isolate the effects of jet turbulence on the breakup process. The measurements included liquid jet surface properties, breakup location of the liquid column as a whole, the breakup regime transitions, bubble size inside the jet and seeding particle displacement inside the jet structures. The results include the jet surface characteristics, the liquid column breakup lengths, bubble growth, and phenomenological analysis to explain the observed results. It is observed that for a jet breakup in crossflow the injector passage length does play a role in determining the breakup length as well as influence the characteristics of the jet upwind surface. The present

  1. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper evaluates effect of fibre surface modification and hybridization on dynamic mechanical properties of Roystonea regia/epoxy composites. Surface modification involved alkali and silane treatments. Alkali treatment proved to be more effective on dynamic mechanical properties as compared to silane treatment.

  2. Simulation of turbulences and fog effects on the free space optical link inside of experimental box (United States)

    Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hajek, Lukas; Vanderka, Ales; Koudelka, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir


    This paper deals with problematic of Free Space Optical (FSO) Links. The theoretical part describes the effects of atmospheric transmission environment on these FSO connections. The practical part is focused on the creation of an appropriate experimental workplace for turbulences simulation (mechanical and thermal turbulences), fog effects and subsequent measurement of these effects. For definition how big impact these effects on the FSO system have is used the statistical analysis and simulation software Optiwave. Overall there were tested three optical light sources operating at wavelengths of 632.8 nm, 850 nm and 1550 nm respectively. Influences of simulated atmospheric effects on the signal attenuation were observed. Within the frame of simulation in Optiwave software there were studied influences of attenuation on given wavelengths in form of FSO link transmission parameters degradation. Also for the purposes of real measurements it was necessary to fabricate an experimental box. This box was constructed with sizes of 2.5 and 5 meters and was used for simulation of atmospheric environment.

  3. Coherent Structure Dynamics and Turbulent Effects of Horizontal Axis Marine Energy Devices (United States)

    Gajardo, D. I.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Ingram, D.


    Harnessing the energy available in the oceans constitutes one of the most promising alternatives for generating clean electricity. There are vast amounts of energy present both in waves and tidal currents so it is anticipated that marine energy will have a major role in non-conventional renewable energy generation in the near to mid future. Nevertheless, before marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices can be installed in large numbers a better understanding of the physical, social and environmental implications of their operation is needed. This includes understanding the: hydrodynamic processes, interaction with bathymetry, and the local flow characteristics. This study is focused on the effects horizontal axis MHK devices have on flow turbulence and coherent structures. This is especially relevant considering that sites with favourable conditions for MHK devices are tidal channels where a delicate balance exists between the strong tidal currents and the ecosystems. Understanding how MHK devices influence flow conditions, turbulence and energy flux is essential for predicting and assessing the environmental implications of deploying MHK technologies. We couple a Blade Element Momentum Actuator Disk (BEM-AD) model to a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) flow solver in order to study flow conditions for different configurations of horizontal axis MHK turbines. In this study, we contribute to the understanding of the hydrodynamic behaviour of MHK technologies, and give insights into the effects devices will have on their environment, with emphasis in ambient turbulence and flow characteristics, while keeping in mind that these effects can alter electricity quality and device performance. Work supported by CONICYT grant 80160084, Fondecyt grant 1130940, Chile's Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) CORFO project 14CEI2-28228, and the collaboration between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the University of Edinburgh, UK, partially supported by the RC

  4. Turbulence intensity measurements using particle image velocimetry in diseased carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration. (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L


    Clinical decision-making for the treatment of patients with diseased carotid artery is mainly based on the severity of the stenosis. However, stenosis severity alone is not a sensitive indicator, and other local factors for the assessment of stroke risk are required. Flow disturbance is of particular interest due to its proven association with increased thromboembolic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of turbulence intensity (TI) with regards to certain geometrical features of the plaque - namely stenosis severity, eccentricity, and ulceration. A family of eight carotid-artery bifurcation models was examined using particle image velocimetry. Results showed a marked difference in turbulence intensity among these models; increasing degree of stenosis severity resulted in increased turbulence intensity, going from 0.12 m/s for mild stenosis to 0.37 m/s for severe stenosis (with concentric geometry). Moreover, independent of stenosis severity, eccentricity led to further elevations in turbulence intensity, increasing TI by 0.05-0.10 m/s over the counterpart concentric plaque. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) produced a larger portion of moderate turbulence intensity (~0.10 m/s) compared to the non-ulcerated model, more proximal to the bifurcation apex in the post-stenotic recirculation zone. The effect of plaque eccentricity and ulceration in enhancing the downstream turbulence has potential clinical implications for a more sensitive assessment of stroke risk beyond stenosis severity alone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Study of Thermal Radiation Effect on Confined Turbulent Free Triangular Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyan Parham


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of thermal radiation on turbulent free triangular jets. Finite volume method is applied for solving mass, momentum, and energy equations simultaneously. Discrete ordinate method is used to determine radiation transfer equation (RTE. Results are presented in terms of velocity, kinetic energy, and its dissipation rate fields. Results show that thermal radiation speeds the development of velocity on the jet axis and enhances kinetic energy; therefore, when radiation is added to free jet its mixing power, due to extra kinetic energy, increases.

  6. Effects of including electrojet turbulence in LFM-RCM simulations of geospace storms (United States)

    Oppenheim, M. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Merkin, V. G.; Zhang, B.; Toffoletto, F.; Wang, W.; Lyon, J.; Liu, J.; Dimant, Y. S.


    Global geospace system simulations need to incorporate nonlinear and small-scale physical processes in order to accurately model storms and other intense events. During times of strong magnetospheric disturbances, large-amplitude electric fields penetrate from the Earth's magnetosphere to the E-region ionosphere where they drive Farley-Buneman instabilities (FBI) that create small-scale plasma density turbulence. This induces nonlinear currents and leads to anomalous electron heating. Current global Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (MIT) models disregard these effects by assuming simple laminar ionospheric currents. This paper discusses the effects of incorporating accurate turbulent conductivities into MIT models. Recently, we showed in Liu et al. (2016) that during storm-time, turbulence increases the electron temperatures and conductivities more than precipitation. In this talk, we present the effect of adding these effects to the combined Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD magnetosphere simulator and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The LFM combines a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the magnetosphere with a 2D electrostatic solution of the ionosphere. The RCM uses drift physics to accurately model the inner magnetosphere, including a storm enhanced ring current. The LFM and coupled LFM-RCM simulations have previously shown unrealistically high cross-polar-cap potentials during strong solar wind driving conditions. We have recently implemented an LFM module that modifies the ionospheric conductivity to account for FBI driven anomalous electron heating and non-linear cross-field current enhancements as a function of the predicted ionospheric electric field. We have also improved the LFM-RCM code by making it capable of handling dipole tilts and asymmetric ionospheric solutions. We have tested this new LFM version by simulating the March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm. These simulations showed a significant reduction in the cross-polar-cap potential

  7. Damköhler number effects on soot formation and growth in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio


    The effect of Damköhler number on turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames is investigated via large scale direct numerical simulation in three-dimensional n-heptane/air jet flames at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000 and at three different Damköhler numbers. A reduced chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene, and a high-order method of moments are employed. At the highest Damköhler number, local extinction is negligible, while flames holes are observed in the two lowest Damköhler number cases. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by fuel oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the Damköhler number. Consequently, the overall soot mass fraction decreases by more than one order of magnitude for a fourfold decrease of the Damköhler number. On the contrary, the overall number density of soot particles is approximately the same, but its distribution in mixture fraction space is different in the three cases. The total soot mass growth rate is found to be proportional to the Damköhler number. In the two lowest Da number cases, soot leakage across the flame is observed. Leveraging Lagrangian statistics, it is concluded that soot leakage is due to patches of soot that cross the stoichiometric surface through flame holes. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionisation in turbulent magnetic molecular clouds. I. Effect on density and mass-to-flux ratio structures (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu; Caselli, Paola


    Context. Previous studies show that the physical structures and kinematics of a region depend significantly on the ionisation fraction. These studies have only considered these effects in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations with microturbulence. The next logical step is to explore the effects of turbulence on ionised magnetic molecular clouds and then compare model predictions with observations to assess the importance of turbulence in the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds. Aims: In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the effect of ionisation fractions on star formation to clouds that include both non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and turbulence. We aim to quantify the importance of a treatment of the ionisation fraction in turbulent magnetised media and investigate the effect of the turbulence on shaping the clouds and filaments before star formation sets in. In particular, here we investigate how the structure, mass and width of filamentary structures depend on the amount of turbulence in ionised media and the initial mass-to-flux ratio. Methods: To determine the effects of turbulence and mass-to-flux ratio on the evolution of non-ideal magnetised clouds with varying ionisation profiles, we have run two sets of simulations. The first set assumes different initial turbulent Mach values for a fixed initial mass-to-flux ratio. The second set assumes different initial mass-to-flux ratio values for a fixed initial turbulent Mach number. Both sets explore the effect of using one of two ionisation profiles: step-like (SL) or cosmic ray only (CR-only). We compare the resulting density and mass-to-flux ratio structures both qualitatively and quantitatively via filament and core masses and filament fitting techniques (Gaussian and Plummer profiles). Results: We find that even with almost no turbulence, filamentary structure still exists although at lower density contours. Comparison of simulations shows that for turbulent Mach numbers above 2, there is

  9. BEPS Action 2: Neutralizing the Effects on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.; Marres, O.


    Curbing tax arbitrage is one of the main priorities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (endorsed by the G20 and the G8) ever since the public debate on base erosion fully erupted. Neutralizing the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements has become Action No. 2 of the

  10. The Effects Of Calcium On Dietary Phosphorus Uptake By Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the dietary increase of P and Ca levels on weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also not significant (P > 0.05). This study showed that dietary fortification with Ca and P probably suppressed weight gain and FCR in the hybrid catfish between 28 and 35 days of the experimental period, with ...

  11. Effects of molecular transport on turbulence-chemistry interactions in a hydrogen-argon-air jet diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, S.; Calhoon, W.H. Jr.; Goldin, G. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Aerospace Engineering; Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    A numerical simulation of entrainment, turbulent advection, molecular import and chemical kinetics in a turbulent diffusion flame is used to investigate effects of molecular transport on turbulence-chemistry interactions. A fun finite-rate chemical mechanism is used to represent the combustion of a hydrogen-argon mixture issuing into air. Results based on incorporation of differential diffusion and variable Lewis number are compared to cases with the former effect, or both-effects, suppressed. Significant impact on radical species production and on NO emission index (based on a reduced mechanism for thermal NO) is found. A reduced mechanism for hydrogen-air combustion, omitting both effects and incorporating other simplifications, performs comparably except that its NO predictions agree well with the case of full chemistry and molecular transport, possibly due to cancellation of errors.

  12. Understanding and representing the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transfer in the convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronda, R.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Pino, D.


    Goal of this study is to quantify the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transport in the dry Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Questions addressed include the effect of wind shear on the depth of the mixed layer, the effect of wind shear on the depth and structure of the capping inversion, and

  13. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise (United States)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.


    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  14. The effects of sampling location and turbulence on discharge estimates in short converging turbine intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Harding, S. F.; Richmond, M. C.


    Standards provide recommendations for best practices when installing current meters to measure fluid flow in closed conduits. A central guideline requires the velocity distribution to be regular and the flow steady. Because of the nature of the short converging intakes typical of low-head hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to estimate discharge. Usual concerns are (1) the effects of the number of devices, (2) the sampling location and (3) the high turbulence caused by blockage from submersible traveling screens usually deployed for safe downstream fish passage. These three effects were examined in the present study by using 3D simulated flow fields in both steady-state and transient modes. In the process of describing an application at an existing hydroturbine intake at Ice Harbor Dam, the present work outlined the methods involved, which combined computational fluid dynamics, laboratory measurements in physical models of the hydroturbine, and current meter performance evaluations in experimental settings. The main conclusions in this specific application were that a steady-state flow field sufficed to determine the adequate number of meters and their location, and that both the transverse velocity and turbulence intensity had a small impact on estimate errors. However, while it may not be possible to extrapolate these findings to other field conditions and measuring devices, the study laid out a path to conduct similar assessments in other applications.

  15. Numerical investigation of diffuser solidity effect on turbulent airflow and performance of the turbocharger compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehhat A.


    Full Text Available Low solidity diffuser in centrifugal compressors can achieve both high efficiency and wide operating ranges which is of great importance for turbocharger compressor. Low solidity is achieved by using a low chord to pitch ratio. In this work, a CFD simulation is carried out to examine the effect of solidity on airflow field of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor which consists of a simple-splitter impeller and a vaned diffuser. By changing the number of diffuser vanes while keeping the number of impeller blades constant, the solidity value of the diffuser is varied. The characteristics of the compressor are evaluated for 6, 8, 10 and 12 stator vanes which correspond to solidity of: 0.78, 1.04, 1.29 and 1.55, respectively. The spatial distribution of the pressure, velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show that the diffuser solidity has significant effect on flow field and compressor performance map. The compressor with a 6 vanes diffuser has higher efficiency and operates at a wider range of flow rate relative to that obtained with larger vans number. However a non-uniform flow at the compressor exit was observed with relatively high turbulent kinetic energy.

  16. Correlation and prediction of thermophoretic and inertial effects on particle deposition from non-isothermal turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.


    The problem of small particle deposition which can cause hot stage corrosion and/or fouling in combustion turbines operating on fuels containing ash or inorganic salts is investigated. Two boundary layer transport phenomena are shown to assume importance in these cases: particle thermophoresis (migration down a temperature gradient) and particle inertia. Thermophoretic and eddy transport across turbulent boundary layers without and with particle inertia effects are quantitatively analyzed. The effects of streamwise blade curvature on particle transport across turbulent boundary layers are determined. It is shown that these phenomena destroy the analogy between mass and heat transfer or mass and momentum transfer. Also studied are the effects on particle deposition of distributed or localized wall blowing, surface roughness, and mainstream turbulence.

  17. Effects of compressibility and free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition in high-subsonic and transonic flows (United States)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.


    Based on the existing boundary layer transition data, the effects of compressibility, pressure fluctuations, and free-stream turbulence have been reexamined for subsonic and transonic flow speeds. It is confirmed that the compressibility effects may be adequately expressed in terms of a simple correlation with free-stream Mach number. Pressure fluctuations, especially at low levels, do not seem to significantly affect the transition phenomenon. Effects of free-stream turbulence in high-subsonic and transonic flows are similar to the trends observed for low-speed flows and the transition process is hastened. The trends, as seen from slender cone flow data, seem to suggest power law correlations between transition Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence.

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine turbulent response model. Part 2: Response of Sandia National laboratories' 34-meter VAWT with aeroelastic effects (United States)


    The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending.

  19. Effect of air turbulence on gas transport in soil; comparison of approaches (United States)

    Pourbakhtiar, Alireza; Papadikis, Konstantinos; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Bridge, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Stephen


    Greenhouse gases are playing the key role in global warming. Soil is a source of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4). Radon (Rn) which is a radioactive gas can emit form subsurface into the atmosphere and leads to health concerns in urban areas. Temperature, humidity, air pressure and vegetation of soil can affect gas emissions inside soil (Oertel et al., 2016). It's shown in many cases that wind induced fluctuations is an important factor in transport of gas through soil and other porous media. An example is: landfill gas emissions (Poulsen et al., 2001). We applied an experimental equipment for measuring controlled air turbulence on gas transport in soil in relation to the depth of sample. Two approaches for measurement of effect of wind turbulence on gas transport were applied and compared. Experiments were carried out with diffusion of CO2 and air as tracer gases with average vertical wind speeds of 0 to 0.83 m s-1. In approach A, Six different sample thicknesses from 5 to 30 cm were selected and total of 4 different wind conditions with different speed and fluctuations were applied. In approach B, a sample with constant depth was used. Five oxygen sensors were places inside sample at different depths. Total of 111 experiments were carried out. Gas transport is described by advection-dispersion equation. Gas transport is quantified as a dispersion coefficient. Oxygen breakthrough curves as a function of distance to the surface of the sample exposed to wind were derived numerically with an explicit forward time, central space finite-difference based model to evaluate gas transport. We showed that wind turbulence-induced fluctuations is an important factor in gas transport that can increase gas transport with average of 45 times more than molecular diffusion under zero wind condition. Comparison of two strategies for experiments, indicated that, constant deep samples (Approach B) are more reliable for measurement of gas transport under influence of wind

  20. The effects of sea surface temperature gradients on surface turbulent fluxes (United States)

    Steffen, John

    A positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress perturbation near strong SST gradients (DeltaSST) has been observed in different parts of the world ocean, such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. These changes in winds and SSTs can modify near-surface stability, surface stress, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. In general, these small scale processes are poorly modeled in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models. Failure to account for these air--sea interactions produces inaccurate values of turbulent fluxes, and therefore a misrepresentation of the energy, moisture, and momentum budgets. Our goal is to determine the change in these surface turbulent fluxes due to overlooking the correlated variability in winds, SSTs, and related variables. To model these air--sea interactions, a flux model was forced with and without SST--induced changes to the surface wind fields. The SST modification to the wind fields is based on a baroclinic argument as implemented by the University of Washington Planetary Boundary-Layer (UWPBL) model. Other input parameters include 2-m air temperature, 2-m dew point temperature, surface pressure (all from ERA--interim), and Reynolds Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST). Flux model runs are performed every 6 hours starting in December 2002 and ending in November 2003. From these model outputs, seasonal, monthly, and daily means of the difference between DeltaSST and no DeltaSST effects on sensible heat flux (SHF), latent heat flux (LHF), and surface stress are calculated. Since the greatest impacts occur during the winter season, six additional December-January-February (DJF) seasons were analyzed for 1987--1990 and 1999--2002. The greatest differences in surface turbulent fluxes are concentrated near strong SST fronts associated with the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. On average, 2002---2003 DJF seasonal differences in SHF

  1. Effect of wall-mounted cylinders on a turbulent boundary layer: hot wire measurements (United States)

    Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Ryan, Mitchell; Longmire, Ellen


    Wall-mounted cylinders with height-to-diameter ratio H/D = 2 and large enough to protrude into the logarithmic region, H^+= 200, are used to alter a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ=1150 in an attempt to affect the organization of the coherent vortical structures. Hot-wire measurements, including velocity profiles and frequency spectra, were acquired downstream of a single cylinder and spanwise arrays of cylinders. The single cylinder yielded a momentum deficit that extended from z^+=20 to 200, and a redistribution of the streamwise rms velocity towards the half cylinder height with a corresponding increase in the power spectral density over a broad frequency range. Cylinder arrays with 3D spanwise spacing yielded significant wake interactions. The largest mean streamwise velocity deficits and rms values occurred in the log region at mid-span between cylinders. More detail on the effect of cylinder spacing will be provided in the talk. The results suggest that turbulence within the boundary layer leads to broader spanwise interactions than those occurring in wakes of cylinder arrays in uniform cross flow.

  2. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.


    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within the pilot stream. The inner tube, carrying fuel, can be recessed, leading to a varying degree of inhomogeneity in mixing with the outer air stream. Three fuels are tested: dimethyl ether (DME), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and compressed natural gas (CNG). It is found that improvement in flame stability at the optimal compositional inhomogeneity is highest for CNG and lowest for DME. Three possible reasons for this different enhancement in stability are investigated: mixing patterns, pilot effects, and fuel chemistry. Numerical simulations realized in the injection tube highlight similarities and differences in the mixing patterns for all three fuels and demonstrate that mixing cannot explain the different stability gains. Changing the heat release rates from the pilot affects the three fuels in similar ways and this also implies that the pilot stream is unlikely to be responsible for the observed differences. Fuel reactivity is identified as a key factor in enhancing stability at some optimal compositional inhomogeneity. This is confirmed by inference from joint images of PLIF-OH and PLIF-CHO, collected at a repetition rate of 10kHz in turbulent flames of DME, and from one-dimensional calculations of laminar flames using detailed chemistry for DME, CNG, and LPG.

  3. Cavitating nozzle flows in micro- and minichannels under the effect of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Morteza; Kosar, Ali; Yildiz, Mehmet; Gozuacik, Devrim [Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)


    The cavitation phenomenon inside micro- and minichannel configurations was numerically investigated. The simulations for each channel were performed at different upstream pressures varying from 1 to 15 MPa. Two microchannel configurations with inner diameters of 152 and 254 μm and two minichannel configurations with inner diameters of 504 and 762 μm were simulated. To validate the numerical approach, micro-jet impingement from a microchannel with an inner diameter of 152 μm was first simulated at different Reynolds numbers. Then, the mixture model was used to model the multiphase flow inside the channels. The results of this study present major differences in the cavitating flows between the micro- and miniscale channels and show that the pressure profile and vapor phase distribution exhibit different features. The static pressure drops to negative values (tensile stress) in microchannels, while the minimum static pressure in minichannels is found to be equal to vapor saturation pressure, and higher velocity magnitudes especially at the outlet are visible in the microchannels. It is shown that for higher upstream pressures, the cavitating flow extends over the length of the micro/minichannel, thereby increasing the possibility of collapse at the outlet. The effect of energy associated with turbulence was investigated at high Reynolds numbers for both micro/minichannels and its impact was analyzed using wall shear stress, turbulence kinetic energy and mean velocity at various locations of the micro/minichannels.

  4. Investigation on Effect of Air Velocity in Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazian Zafar


    Full Text Available In this study, the turbulent non-premixed methane-air flame is simulated to determine the effect of air velocity on the length of flame, temperature distribution and mole fraction of species. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique is used to perform this simulation. To solve the turbulence flow, k-ε model is used. In contrast to the previous works, in this study, in each one of simulations the properties of materials are taken variable and then the results are compared. The results show that at a certain flow rate of fuel, by increasing the air velocity, similar to when the properties are constant, the width of the flame becomes thinner and the maximum temperature is higher; the penetration of oxygen into the fuel as well as fuel consumption is also increased. It is noteworthy that most of the pollutants produced are NOx, which are strongly temperature dependent. The amount of these pollutants rises when the temperature is increased. As a solution, decreasing the air velocity can decrease the amount of these pollutants. Finally, comparing the result of this study and the other work, which considers constant properties, shows that the variable properties assumption leads to obtaining more exact solution but the trends of both results are similar.

  5. Reynolds and swirl number effects on turbulent pipe flow in a 90 degree pipe bend (United States)

    Kalpakli, Athanasia; Oerlue, Ramis; Alfredsson, P. Henrik


    Flows in pipe bends have been studied extensively over the last decades due to their occurrence both in the human respiratory and blood systems as well as in many technical applications. The centrifugal effect of the bend may give rise to Dean vortices and the behaviour of these has been of particular interest. While their motion has nicely been illustrated in laminar flows, the picture of their motion in turbulent flows remains rather blurred. Within the framework of the present work, fully developed turbulent pipe flow from a 100 diameter (D) long pipe is fed to a 90° bend and the flow field at 0 . 5 D downstream the bend has been studied by means of Time-Resolved Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry, covering a Reynolds number range from 7000 to 34000 based on bulk velocity (Ub) and D. Additionally, a well defined swirl profile could be introduced by rotating the 100 D long straight pipe along its axis, yielding a variation in swirl number (S), defined as the ratio between the azimuthal velocity of the pipe wall and Ub, from 0 (the non-rotating case) to 1.2. The three-dimensional time-averaged and instantaneous flow field illustrating the symmetrical Dean vortices for S = 0 and the influence by the swirling motion for S ≠ 0 , the so-called ``swirl-switching phenomenon,'' as well as the large-scale structures will be presented and discussed.

  6. Confinement effects in shock/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction through wall-modeled LES (United States)

    Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Campo, Laura; Larsson, Johan; Bodart, Julien; Helmer, David; Eaton, John


    Wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) are used to investigate three-dimensional effects imposed by lateral confinement on the interaction of oblique shock waves impinging on turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) developed along the walls of a nearly-square duct. A constant Mach number, M = 2 . 05 , of the incoming air stream is considered, with a Reynolds number based on the incoming turbulent boundary layer momentum thickness Reθ 14 , 000 . The strength of the impinging shock is varied by increasing the height of a compression wedge located at a constant streamwise location that spans the top wall of the duct at a 20° angle. Simulation results are first validated with particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data obtained at several vertical planes. Emphasis is placed on the study of the instantaneous and time-averaged structure of the flow for the stronger-interaction case, which shows mean flow reversal. By performing additional spanwise-periodic simulations, it is found that the structure and location of the shock system and separation bubble are significantly modified by the lateral confinement. Low-frequency unsteadiness and downstream evolution of corner flows are also investigated. Financial support from the United States Department of Energy under the PSAAP program is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex: High resolution experiments and numerical simulations (United States)

    Apsilidis, Nikolaos; Raben, Sam; Diplas, Panayiotis; Dancey, Clinton; Vlachos, Pavlos; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Turbulent flows past wall-mounted obstacles are dominated by dynamically rich, slowly evolving coherent structures producing most of the turbulence in the junction region. Numerical simulations [Paik et al., Phys. of Fluids 2007] elucidated the large-scale instabilities but important questions still remain unexplored. One such question is with regard to the effect of the Reynolds number on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV). We carry out high-resolution laboratory experiments for the flow past a wall mounted cylinder in a laboratory water tunnel for ReD= 26000, 48000 and 117000. We employ the Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry technique to resolve the dynamics of the flow at the symmetry plane of the cylinder and analyze the instantaneous velocity fields using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition technique. The experimental study is integrated with coherent-structure-resolving numerical simulations providing the first comprehensive investigation of Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the THV.

  8. A comprehensive model to determine the effects of temperature and species fluctuations on reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Foy, E.; Ronan, G.; Chinitz, W.


    A principal element to be derived from modeling turbulent reacting flows is an expression for the reaction rates of the various species involved in any particular combustion process under consideration. A temperature-derived most-likely probability density function (pdf) was used to describe the effects of temperature fluctuations on the Arrhenius reaction rate constant. A most-likely bivariate pdf described the effects of temperature and species concentrations fluctuations on the reaction rate. A criterion is developed for the use of an "appropriate" temperature pdf. The formulation of models to calculate the mean turbulent Arrhenius reaction rate constant and the mean turbulent reaction rate is considered and the results of calculations using these models are presented.

  9. Improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy of a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system with turbulence effects. (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Liu, Qiang; Lu, Zhenli; Li, Bin


    There exists a performance limitation in a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system because of the echo intensity random fluctuation caused by turbulence effects. To suppress the influence of turbulence effects, we present a cumulative pulse detection technique with the ability to achieve improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy. Based on the modulated Poisson model, the cumulative probabilities, range accuracy, and their influencing factors are investigated for a cumulative Q-switched laser pulse train. The results show that the improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy can be obtained by utilizing cumulative pulse detection, with the condition that the echo intensity is 10, the echo pulse width is 10 ns, and the turbulence degree is 3, the target detection probability increases by 0.4, the false alarm probability decreases by 0.08, and the accuracy and precision increase by 46 cm and 27 cm, respectively.

  10. Electrostatic effects in Majorana hybrid structures (United States)

    Sitthison, Piyapong; Stanescu, Tudor


    We study the electrostatic effects that emerge in proximity-coupled semiconductor- superconductor (SM-SC) structures due to the charge transfer induced by the work function difference between the two materials. The effects are described theoretically using a tight-binding model of the heterostructure solved within a self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger scheme. We find that these effects are responsible for i) generating an effective Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and ii) modifying the spatial dependence of the low-energy wave functions near the SM-SC interface. This change in the wave-function amplitude at the interface strongly affects the proximity-induced superconducting gap. Both effects have critical consequences on the stability of the Majorana-hosting topological superconducting phase that is predicted to emerge in this type of structures. For a thin-film geometry, we determine the dependence of the effective spin-orbit coupling and induced superconducting gap on the film thickness and on the strength of the SM-SC coupling.

  11. The effect of capturing the correct turbulence dissipation rate in BHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ristorcelli, Raymond [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In this manuscript, we discuss the shortcoming of a quasi-equilibrium assumption made in the BHR closure model. Turbulence closure models generally assume fully developed turbulence, which is not applicable to 1) non-equilibrium turbulence (e.g. change in mean pressure gradient) or 2) laminar-turbulence transition flows. Based on DNS data, we show that the current BHR dissipation equation [modeled based on the fully developed turbulence phenomenology] does not capture important features of nonequilibrium flows. To demonstrate our thesis, we use the BHR equations to predict a non-equilibrium flow both with the BHR dissipation and the dissipation from DNS. We find that the prediction can be substantially improved, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the correct dissipation rate. We conclude that a new set of nonequilibrium phenomenological assumptions must be used to develop a new model equation for the dissipation to accurately predict the turbulence time scale used by other models.

  12. History effects in the sedimentation of light aerosols in turbulence: the case of marine snow

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, Ksenia; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás


    We analyze the effect of the Basset history force on the sedimentation of nearly neutrally buoyant particles, exemplified by marine snow, in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Particles are characterized by Stokes numbers much smaller than unity, and still water settling velocities, measured in units of the Kolmogorov velocity, of order one. The presence of the history force in the Maxey-Riley equation leads to individual trajectories which differ strongly from the dynamics of both inertial particles without this force, and ideal settling tracers. When considering, however, a large ensemble of particles, the statistical properties of all three dynamics become more similar. The main effect of the history force is a rather slow, power-law type convergence to an asymptotic settling velocity of the center of mass, which is found numerically to be the settling velocity in still fluid. The spatial extension of the ensemble grows diffusively after an initial ballistic growth lasting up to ca. one large eddy turnove...

  13. Curvature Effect in Shear Flow: Slowdown of Turbulent Flame Speeds with Markstein Number (United States)

    Lyu, Jiancheng; Xin, Jack; Yu, Yifeng


    It is well-known in the combustion community that curvature effect in general slows down flame propagation speeds because it smooths out wrinkled flames. However, such a folklore has never been justified rigorously. In this paper, as the first theoretical result in this direction, we prove that the turbulent flame speed (an effective burning velocity) is decreasing with respect to the curvature diffusivity (Markstein number) for shear flows in the well-known G-equation model. Our proof involves several novel and rather sophisticated inequalities arising from the nonlinear structure of the equation. On a related fundamental issue, we solve the selection problem of weak solutions or find the "physical fluctuations" when the Markstein number goes to zero and solutions approach those of the inviscid G-equation model. The limiting solution is given by a closed form analytical formula.

  14. Effect of initial tangential velocity distribution on the mean evolution of a swirling turbulent free jet (United States)

    Farokhi, S.; Taghavi, R.; Rice, E. J.


    An existing cold jet facility at NASA-Lewis was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Distinctly different swirl velocity profiles were produced, and their effects on jet mixing characteristics were measured downstream of an 11.43 cm diameter convergent nozzle. It was experimentally shown that in the near field of a swirling turbulent jet, the mean velocity field strongly depends on the initial swirl profile. Two extreme tangential velocity distributions were produced. The two jets shared approximately the same initial mass flow rate of 5.9 kg/s, mass averaged axial Mach number and swirl number. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S = 0.48 reported in the literature. It is concluded that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field.

  15. Effect of Pressure Gradients on Plate Response and Radiation in a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer (United States)

    Frendi, Abdelkader


    Using the model developed by the author for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, results are obtained for adverse and favorable pressure gradients. It is shown that when a flexible plate is located in an adverse pressure gradient area, it vibrates more than if it were in a favorable pressure gradient one. Therefore the noise generated by the plate in an adverse pressure gradient is much greater than that due to the plate in a favorable pressure gradient. The effects of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness are also analyzed and found to have the same effect in both adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases. Increasing the Reynolds number is found to increase the loading on the plate and therefore acoustic radiation. An increase in boundary layer thickness is found to decrease the level of the high frequencies and therefore the response and radiation at these frequencies. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  16. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga


    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  17. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.


    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  18. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  19. Effects of finite-size neutrally buoyant particles on the turbulent flows in a square duct (United States)

    Lin, Zhaowu; Yu, Zhaosheng; Shao, Xueming; Wang, Lian-Ping


    Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations of the particle-laden turbulent flows in a square duct are performed with a direct-forcing fictitious domain method. The effects of the finite-size particles on the mean and root-mean-square (RMS) velocities are investigated at the friction Reynolds number of 150 (based on the friction velocity and half duct width) and the particle volume fractions ranging from 0.78% to 7.07%. Our results show that the mean secondary flow is enhanced and its circulation center shifts closer to the center of the duct cross section when the particles are added. The reason for the particle effect on the mean secondary flow is analyzed by examining the terms in the mean streamwise vorticity equation. It is observed that the particles enhance the gradients of the secondary Reynolds normal stress difference and shear stress in the near-wall region near the corners, which we think is mainly responsible for the enhancement in the mean secondary flow. Under a prescribed driving pressure gradient, the presence of particles attenuates the bulk velocity and the turbulent intensity. All particle-induced effects are intensified with increasing particle volume fraction and decreasing particle size, if other parameters are fixed. In addition, the particles accumulate preferentially in the near-corner region. The effects of the type of the collision model (i.e., if friction and damping are included or not) on the results are found significant, but not so significant to bring about qualitatively different results.

  20. Effect of external turbulence on the efficiency of film cooling with coolant injection into a transverse trench (United States)

    Khalatov, A. A.; Panchenko, N. A.; Severin, S. D.


    Film cooling is among the basic methods used for thermal protection of blades in modern high-temperature gas turbines. Results of computer simulation of film cooling with coolant injection via a row of conventional inclined holes or a row of holes in a trench are presented in this paper. The ANSYS CFX 14 commercial software package was used for CFD-modeling. The effect is studied of the mainstream turbulence on the film cooling efficiency for the blowing ratio range between 0.6 and 2.3 and three different turbulence intensities of 1, 5, and 10%. The mainstream velocity was 150 and 400 m/s, while the temperatures of the mainstream and the injected coolant were 1100 and 500°C, respectively. It is demonstrated that, for the coolant injection via one row of trenched holes, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity reduces the film cooling efficiency in the entire investigated range of blowing ratios. It was revealed that freestream turbulence had varied effects on the film cooling efficiency depending on the blowing ratio and mainstream velocity in a blade channel. Thus, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity from 1 to 10% decreases the surface-averaged film cooling efficiency by 3-10% at a high mainstream velocity (400 m/s) in the blade channel and by 12-23% at a moderate velocity (of 150 m/s). Here, lower film cooling efficiencies correspond to higher blowing ratios. The effect of mainstream turbulence intensity on the film cooling efficiency decreases with increasing the mainstream velocity in the modeled channel for both investigated configurations.

  1. The synergetic effects of turbulence and turbidity on the zooplankton community structure in large, shallow Lake Taihu. (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia


    Climate change is predicted to influence the heat budget of aquatic ecosystems and, in turn, affect the stability of the water column leading to increased turbulence coupled with enhanced turbidity. However, the synergetic effects of turbulence and turbidity on zooplankton community structure remain to be understood in large, shallow lakes. To determine the possible synergetic effects of these factors on zooplankton communities, a 15-day mesocosm experiment was carried out and tested under four turbulence and turbidity regimes namely control (ɛ = 0, 7.6 ± 4.2 NTU), low (ɛ = 6.01 × 10-8 m2 s-3, 19.4 ± 8.6 NTU), medium (ɛ = 2.95 × 10-5 m2 s-3, 55.2 ± 14.4 NTU), and high (ɛ = 2.39 × 10-4 m2 s-3, 741.6 ± 105.2 NTU) conditions, which were comparable to the natural conditions in Lake Taihu. Results clearly showed the negative effects of turbulence and turbidity on zooplankton survival, which also differed among taxa. Specifically, increased turbulence and turbidity levels influenced the competition among zooplankton species, which resulted to the shift from being large body crustacean-dominated (copepods and cladocerans) to rotifer-dominated community after 3 days. The shift could be associated with the decrease in vulnerability of crustaceans in such environments. Our findings suggested that changes in the level of both turbidity and turbulence in natural aquatic systems would have significant repercussions on the zooplankton communities, which could contribute to the better understanding of community and food web dynamics in lake ecosystems exposed to natural mixing/disturbances.

  2. Effects of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry


    The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the ......The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together...

  3. Airfoils in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse

    . However, it turns out that the velocities in the inner part of the boundary layer only increase slightly, and there is no effect on the obtained surface pressures or lift coefficients. It appears that the resolved turbulence has a too large length scale to cause the effect as seen in experiments...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...

  4. Effect of turbulence and convection on melting of the ice shelves in stratified environment (United States)

    Gayen, Bishakdatta; Mondal, Mainak; Griffiths, Ross


    We have performed high-resolution simulations to investigate the convective boundary layer when a wall of ice dissolves into stratified seawater under polar ocean conditions. Under the stratified ambient condition, melt water spreads out into the interior in a series of nearly horizontal layers due to double diffusive convection. The layer thickness depends on the ambient density gradient and the difference in density between the freezing point (interface temperature) and the ambient water temperature. For a small O(1) m hight box the layers are laminar and results for layer depth are in agreement with the experimental results. However, for significantly higher ice walls the layer scaling differs as a result of turbulent mixing. Stratification has a significant effect on melt rate which further helps in the shaping of ice-wall. The temperature and density structures found under Pine Island Glacier show several layers having a vertical scale that can also be explained by this study.

  5. The effect of a turbulent wake on the stagnation point. I - Skin friction results (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis E.; Hanford, Anthony J.


    The response of a boundary layer in the stagnation region of a two-dimensional body to fluctuations in the freestream is examined. The analysis is restricted to laminar incompressible flow. The assumed form of the velocity distribution at the edge of the boundary layer represents both a pulsation of the incoming flow, and an oscillation of the stagnation point streamline. Both features are essential in accurately representing the effect which freestream spatial and temporal nonuniformities have upon the unsteady boundary layer. Finally, a simple model is proposed which relates the characteristic parameters in a turbulent wake to the unsteady boundary-layer edge velocity. Numerical results are presented for both an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry and a circular cylinder.

  6. Finite-size effects lead to supercritical bifurcations in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Stephan; Zhong, Jin-Qiang; Clercx, Herman J H; Lohse, Detlef; Ahlers, Guenter; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.224501


    In turbulent thermal convection in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio \\Gamma = D/L (D is the diameter and L the height) the Nusselt number Nu is enhanced when the sample is rotated about its vertical axis, because of the formation of Ekman vortices that extract additional fluid out of thermal boundary layers at the top and bottom. We show from experiments and direct numerical simulations that the enhancement occurs only above a bifurcation point at a critical inverse Rossby number $1/\\Ro_c$, with $1/\\Ro_c \\propto 1/\\Gamma$. We present a Ginzburg-Landau like model that explains the existence of a bifurcation at finite $1/\\Ro_c$ as a finite-size effect. The model yields the proportionality between $1/\\Ro_c$ and $1/\\Gamma$ and is consistent with several other measured or computed system properties.

  7. Modeling of 3D magnetic equilibrium effects on edge turbulence stability during RMP ELM suppression in tokamaks (United States)

    Wilcox, R. S.; Wingen, A.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hirshman, S. P.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Seal, S. K.; Shafer, M. W.; Unterberg, E. A.


    Recent experimental observations have found turbulent fluctuation structures that are non-axisymmetric in a tokamak with applied 3D fields. In this paper, two fluid resistive effects are shown to produce changes relevant to turbulent transport in the modeled 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of tokamak pedestals with these 3D fields applied. Ideal MHD models are insufficient to reproduce the relevant effects. By calculating the ideal 3D equilibrium using the VMEC code, the geometric shaping parameters that determine linear turbulence stability, including the normal curvature and local magnetic shear, are shown to be only weakly modified by applied 3D fields in the DIII-D tokamak. These ideal MHD effects are therefore not sufficient to explain the observed changes to fluctuations and transport. Using the M3D-C1 code to model the 3D equilibrium, density is shown to be redistributed on flux surfaces in the pedestal when resistive two fluid effects are included, while islands are screened by rotation in this region. The redistribution of density results in density and pressure gradient scale lengths that vary within pedestal flux surfaces between different helically localized flux tubes. This would produce different drive terms for trapped electron mode and kinetic ballooning mode turbulence, the latter of which is expected to be the limiting factor for pedestal pressure gradients in DIII-D.

  8. A hybrid multi-effect distillation and adsorption cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    This paper describes the development of a simple hybrid desalination system of a Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and an adsorption (AD) cycle operating at sub-atmospheric pressures and temperatures. By hybridizing the conventional MED with an AD cycle, there is a symbiotic enhancement of performances of both cycles. The performance enhancement is attributed to (i) the cascade of adsorbent\\'s regeneration temperature and this extended the usage of thermal energy emanating from the brine heater and (ii) the vapor extraction from the last MED stage by AD cycle which provides the effect of lowering saturation temperatures of all MED stages to the extent of 5°C, resulting in scavenging of heat leaks into the MED stages from the ambient. The combined effects of the hybrid cycles increase the water production capacity of the desalination plant by nearly twofolds.In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid cycle by simulating an 8-stage MED cycle which is coupled to an adsorption cycle for direct vapor extraction from the last MED stage. The sorption properties of silica gel is utilized (acting as a mechanical vapor compressor) to reduce the saturation temperatures of MED stages. The modeling utilizes the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the adsorbent. +. adsorbate (silica-gel. +. water) pair along with the governing equations of mass, energy and concentration. For a 8-stage MED and AD cycles operating at assorted temperatures of 65-90°C, the results show that the water production rate increases from 60% to twofolds when compared to the MED alone. The performance ratio (PR) and gain output ratio (GOR) also improve significantly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin


    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Langmuir Turbulence (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Langmuir Turbulence Eric A. D’Asaro, Ramsey Harcourt...definitive experimental tests of the hypothesis that Langmuir Turbulence , specifically the equations of motion with the addition of the Craik-Leibovich...vortex force and advection by the surface wave Stokes drift, can accurately describe turbulence in the upper ocean boundary layer under conditions of

  11. Experimental analysis of turbulence characteristics and flow conveyance effects in a vegetated channel (United States)

    Termini, D.


    Natural rivers are characterized by a strong hydraulic and geomorphic complexity. Many studies conducted in this field (Malthus and Mumby, 2003; Muhar, 1996) show that the accurate estimation both of the river morphological changes and of local hydraulic characteristics of flow (i.e. the local flow velocities and water depths) is necessary for the restoration and protection of biodiversity. Vegetation is a key factor to analyze the interrelated system of flow, sediment transport, and morphodynamic in rivers (Tsujimoto, 1999; Maione et al., 2000). On one hand, some kind of species of vegetation affect the habitat conditions, being crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity (Larkum et al, 2004); on the other hand, effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and are of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. In particular, it has been generally agreed that vegetation increases flow resistance and modifies sediment transport and deposition (Tsujimoto et al., 1996; Yen 2002). The analysis of the hydrodynamic conditions in vegetated channels is complex because vegetation is flexible in varying degrees and it oscillates in the flow changing position. Furthermore, because of temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. In this paper the flow over real flexible vegetation is experimentally studied. A 2D-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) is used to measure the local flow velocities, for different vegetation concentrations and varying the discharge and the flume slope. The influence of both vegetation concentration and depth/vegetation height ratio on the measured velocity profiles is analyzed. The comparison between the velocity distribution and the turbulence intensity distribution is also presented. The spectral analysis is operated in order to verify the formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer and the flow conveyance


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  13. Effects of water turbulence on variations in cell ultrastructure and metabolism of amino acids in the submersed macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John. (United States)

    Atapaththu, K S S; Miyagi, A; Atsuzawa, K; Kaneko, Y; Kawai-Yamada, M; Asaeda, T


    The interactions between macrophytes and water movement are not yet fully understood, and the causes responsible for the metabolic and ultrastructural variations in plant cells as a consequence of turbulence are largely unknown. In the present study, growth, metabolism and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in the aquatic macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, after exposure to turbulence for 30 days. The turbulence was generated with a vertically oscillating horizontal grid. The turbulence reduced plant growth, plasmolysed leaf cells and strengthened cell walls, and plants exposed to turbulence accumulated starch granules in stem chloroplasts. The size of the starch granules increased with the magnitude of the turbulence. Using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), analysis of the metabolome found metabolite accumulation in response to the turbulence. Asparagine was the dominant amino acid that was concentrated in stressed plants, and organic acids such as citrate, ascorbate, oxalate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) also accumulated in response to turbulence. These results indicate that turbulence caused severe stress that affected plant growth, cell ultrastructure and some metabolic functions of E. nuttallii. Our findings offer insights to explain the effects of water movement on the functions of aquatic plants. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Effect of Electromagnetic Ruler Braking (EMBr) on Transient Turbulent Flow in Continuous Slab Casting using Large Eddy Simulations (United States)

    Chaudhary, R.; Thomas, B. G.; Vanka, S. P.


    Static electromagnetic braking (EMBr) fields affect greatly the turbulent flow pattern in steel continuous casting, which leads to potential benefits such as decreasing flow instability, surface defects, and inclusion entrapment if applied correctly. To gain a fundamental understanding of how EMBr affects transient turbulent flow, the current work applies large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the effect of three EMBr ruler brake configurations on transient turbulent flow through the bifurcated nozzle and mold of a liquid-metal GaInSn model of a typical steel slab-casting process, but with deep nozzle submergence and insulated walls with no solidifying shell. The LES calculations are performed using an in-house graphic-processing-unit-based computational-fluid-dynamics code (LES-CU-FLOW) on a mesh of ~7 million brick cells. The LES model is validated first via ultrasonic velocimetry measurements in this system. It is then applied to quantify the mean and instantaneous flow structures, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its budgets, and proper orthogonal modes of four cases. Positioning the strongest part of the ruler magnetic field over the nozzle bottom suppresses turbulence in this region, thus reducing nozzle well swirl and its alternation. This process leads to strong and focused jets entering the mold cavity making large-scale and low-frequency (mold with detrimental surface velocity variations. Lowering the ruler below nozzle deflects the jets upward, leading to faster surface velocities than the other cases. The double-ruler and no-EMBr cases have the most stable flow. The magnetic field generates large-scale vortical structures tending toward two-dimensional (2-D) turbulence. To avoid detrimental large-scale, low-frequency flow variations, it is recommended to avoid strong magnetic fields across the nozzle well and port regions.

  15. Evaluation of Supercapacitors Effects on Hybrid Energy Systems for Automotive (United States)

    Lungoci, Carmen; Helerea, Elena

    This work aims at evaluating the effects of the supercapacitors presence in hybrid energy systems used in automotive. The design and the electrical schema of a hybrid energy system that contains batteries and supercapacitors and propel a synchronous motor are purposed. The motor operating regime is described, detailing the drive evolution of the cycle speed imposed. In these conditions, to model the systems behavior, simulations developed in Matlab/Simulink environment are carried out. Two energies management strategies for the ensemble energy system-motor are implemented. Simulations are done and the energy management is discussed, making the comparative analyses. Applying a current control strategy on the supercapacitors, under two working conditions, functional diagrams are showed and compared. The results obtained highlight the advantages of the supercapacitors.

  16. Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic photonic crystals. (United States)

    Caballero, B; García-Martín, A; Cuevas, J C


    We present a theoretical study of the Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic crystals that consist of Au-Co-Au perforated membranes with a periodic array of sub-wavelength holes. We show that in these hybrid systems the interplay between the extraordinary optical transmission and the magneto-optical activity leads to a resonant enhancement of the Faraday rotation, as compared to purely ferromagnetic membranes. In particular, we determine the geometrical parameters for which this enhancement is optimized and show that the inclusion of a noble metal like Au dramatically increases the Faraday rotation over a broad bandwidth. Moreover, we show that the analysis of the Faraday rotation in these periodically perforated membranes provides a further insight into the origin of the extraordinary optical transmission.

  17. Isotope Effects on Trapped-Electron-Mode Driven Turbulence and Zonal Flows in Helical and Tokamak Plasmas. (United States)

    Nakata, Motoki; Nunami, Masanori; Sugama, Hideo; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko


    Impacts of isotope ion mass on trapped-electron-mode (TEM)-driven turbulence and zonal flows in magnetically confined fusion plasmas are investigated. Gyrokinetic simulations of TEM-driven turbulence in three-dimensional magnetic configuration of helical plasmas with hydrogen isotope ions and real-mass kinetic electrons are realized for the first time, and the linear and the nonlinear nature of the isotope and collisional effects on the turbulent transport and zonal-flow generation are clarified. It is newly found that combined effects of the collisional TEM stabilization by the isotope ions and the associated increase in the impacts of the steady zonal flows at the near-marginal linear stability lead to the significant transport reduction with the opposite ion mass dependence in comparison to the conventional gyro-Bohm scaling. The universal nature of the isotope effects on the TEM-driven turbulence and zonal flows is verified for a wide variety of toroidal plasmas, e.g., axisymmetric tokamak and non-axisymmetric helical or stellarator systems.

  18. Combined effects of turbulence and different predation regimes on zooplankton in highly colored water-implications for environmental change in lakes. (United States)

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka


    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10-6 m2 s-3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L-1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to intraguild

  19. Combined Effects of Turbulence and Different Predation Regimes on Zooplankton in Highly Colored Water—Implications for Environmental Change in Lakes (United States)

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka


    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10−6 m2 s−3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L−1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to

  20. Effect of small-scale turbulence on feeding rates of larval cod and haddock in stratified water on Georges Bank (United States)

    Gregory Lough, R.; Mountain, David G.

    the observed and estimated values had similar profiles. However, differences in vertical profiles may be attributed to differential digestion time, pursuit behavior affected by high turbulence, vertical migration of the larger larvae, an optimum light level for feeding, smaller-scale prey patchiness, and the gross estimates of turbulence. Response-surface estimation of averaged feeding ratios as a function of averaged prey density (0-50 m) with a minimum water-column turbulence value predicted that 5-6 mm larvae have a maximum feeding response at the highest prey densities (> 30 prey 1 -1) and lower turbulence estimates ( 10 prey 1 -1) as turbulence increases to intermidiate levels, clearly showing an interaction effect. In general, maximum feeding ratios occur at low to intermediate levels of turbulence where average prey density is greater than 10-20 prey 1 -1.

  1. Aerosol indirect effect from turbulence-induced broadening of cloud-droplet size distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; Cantrell, Will; Chang, Kelken; Ciochetto, David; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.; Yang, Fan


    The influence of aerosol concentration on cloud droplet size distribution is investigated in a laboratory chamber that enables turbulent cloud formation through moist convection. The experiments allow steady-state microphysics to be achieved, with aerosol input balanced by cloud droplet growth and fallout. As aerosol concentration is increased the cloud droplet mean diameter decreases as expected, but the width of the size distribution also decreases sharply. The aerosol input allows for cloud generation in the limiting regimes of fast microphysics (τc < τt) for high aerosol concentration, and slow microphysics (τc > τt) for low aerosol concentration; here, τc is the phase relaxation time and τt is the turbulence correlation time. The increase in the width of the droplet size distribution for the low aerosol limit is consistent with larger variability of supersaturation due to the slow microphysical response. A stochastic differential equation for supersaturation predicts that the standard deviation of the squared droplet radius should increase linearly with a system time scale defined as τs-1c-1 + τt-1, and the measurements are in excellent agreement with this finding. This finding underscores the importance of droplet size dispersion for the aerosol indirect effect: increasing aerosol concentration not only suppresses precipitation formation through reduction of the mean droplet diameter, but perhaps more importantly, through narrowing of the droplet size distribution due to reduced supersaturation fluctuations. Supersaturation fluctuations in the low aerosol / slow microphysics limit are likely of leading importance for precipitation formation.

  2. Turbulent current drive mechanisms (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua


    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  3. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  4. Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion...

  5. A comparative study of numerical schemes and turbulence models for wind turbine aerodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxevanou, Catherine A.; Vlachos, Nicolas S.


    This paper is a comparative study of combining turbulence models and interpolation schemes to calculate turbulent flow around a NACA0012 airfoil before and after separation. The calculations were carried out using the code CAFFA of Peric, which was appropriately modified to include more numerical schemes and turbulence models. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations for 2D incompressible flow, using finite volumes and structured, collocated, curvilinear, body fitted grids. Seven differencing schemes were investigated: central, upwind, hybrid, QUICK, Harten-Yee upwind TVD with five limiters, Roe-Sweby upwind TVD with three limiters, and Davis-Yee symmetric TVD with three limiters. Turbulence effects were incorporated using four turbulence models: standard {kappa}-{epsilon}, {kappa}-{omega} high Re with wall functions, {kappa}-{omega} high Re with integration up to the wall, and the {kappa}-{omega} low Re model. A parametric study showed that best results are obtained: a) for the {kappa}-{epsilon} model, when using the Harten-Yee upwind TVD scheme for the velocities and the upwind interpolation for the turbulence properties {kappa} and {epsilon}, and b) for the {kappa}-{omega} models, when using the Harten-Yee upwind TVD scheme with different limiters for the velocities and the turbulence quantities {kappa} and {omega}. The turbulence models that integrate up to the wall are more accurate when separation appears, while those using wall functions converge much faster. (Author)

  6. A comparative study of numerical schemes and turbulence models for wind turbine aerodynamics modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxevanou, C.A.; Vlachos, N.S.


    This paper is a comparative study of combining turbulence models and interpolation schemes to calculate turbulent flow around a NACA0012 airfoil before and after separation. The calculations were carried out using the code CAFFA of Peric, which was appropriately modified to include more numerical schemes and turbulence models. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations for 2D incompressible flow, using finite volumes and structured, collocated, curvilinear, body fitted grids. Seven differencing schemes were investigated: central, upwind, hybrid, QUICK, Harten-Yee upwind TVD with five limiters, Roe-Sweby upwind TVD with three limiters, and Davis-Yee symmetric TVD with three limiters. Turbulence effects were incorporated using four turbulence models: standard k-{epsilon}, k-{omega} high Re with wall functions, k-{omega} high Re with integration up to the wall, and the k-{omega} low Re model. A parametric study showed that best results are obtained: a) for the k-{epsilon} model, when using the Harten-Yee upwind TVD scheme for the velocities and the upwind interpolation for the turbulence properties k and {epsilon}, and b) for the k-{omega}, models, when using the Harten-Yee upwind TVD scheme with different limiters for the velocities and the turbulence quantities k and {omega}. The turbulence models that integrate up to the wall are more accurate when separation appears, while those using wall functions converge much faster. (author)

  7. Turbulent Dynamos and Magnetic Helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Hantao


    It is shown that the turbulent dynamo alpha-effect converts magnetic helicity from the turbulent field to the mean field when the turbulence is electromagnetic while the magnetic helicity of the mean-field is transported across space when the turbulence is elcetrostatic or due to the elcetron diamagnetic effect. In all cases, however, the dynamo effect strictly conserves the total helicity expect for a battery effect which vanishes in the limit of magnetohydrodynamics. Implications for astrophysical situations, especially for the solar dynamo, are discussed.

  8. Gyrokinetic characterization of the isotope effect in turbulent transport at the FT-2 tokamak (United States)

    Niskala, P.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Altukhov, A. B.; Esipov, L. A.; Kantor, M. Yu; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Kouprienko, D.; Korpilo, T.; Lashkul, S. I.; Leerink, S.; Perevalov, A. A.; Rochford, R.


    Isotope effect allows fusion devices to perform better when heavier hydrogen isotopes are used as fuel, but the reason for this improvement is not yet understood. We present the first direct evidence of the isotope effect on particle confinement in the FT-2 tokamak and investigate it via gyrokinetic simulations. Experimental measurements for comparable hydrogen and deuterium discharges show that the particle confinement time increases by 40% for the heavier isotope species. The isotope effect on particle flux is reproduced in global and local gyrokinetic simulations. Global ELMFIRE simulations demonstrate a systemic reduction in particle fluxes across the radial range, showing a ratio of fluxes {{{Γ }}}{{H}}/{{{Γ }}}{{D}}=1.3 at the edge and {{{Γ }}}{{H}}/{{{Γ }}}{{D}}=1.4 at r/a=0.6. Local GENE simulations agree qualitatively with the result. Besides the fluctuation level, smaller scales and a favorable shift in the cross-phase between the turbulent fluctuations are found to contribute to the isotope effect in the simulations.

  9. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn


    Wind turbines require methods to predict the power produced as inflow conditions change. We compare the standard method of binning with a turbulence renormalization method and a machine learning approach using a data set derived from simulations. The method of binning is unable to cope with changes...... in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could...

  10. The relative effects of particles and turbulence on acoustic scattering from deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes. (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; Di Iorio, Daniela


    Acoustic methods are applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume within the Main Endeavor vent field at the Endeavor segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Forward propagation and scattering from suspended particulates using Rayleigh scattering theory is shown to be negligible (log-amplitude variance σ(χ) (2)~10(-7)) compared to turbulence induced by temperature fluctuations (σ(χ) (2)~0.1). The backscattering from turbulence is then quantified using the forward scattering derived turbulence level, which gives a volume backscattering strength of s(V)=6.5 × 10(-8) m(-1). The volume backscattering cross section from particulates can range from s(V)=3.3 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-10) m(-1) depending on the particle size. These results show that forward scatter acoustic methods in hydrothermal vent applications can be used to quantify turbulence and its effect on backscatter measurements, which can be a dominant factor depending on the particle size and its location within the plume. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Turbulent effects of strong irradiance fluctuations on the orbital angular momentum mode of fractional Bessel Gauss beams. (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yixin; Dan, Weiyi; Hu, Zhengda


    The turbulent effects of strong irradiance fluctuations on the probability densities and the normalized powers of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes are modeled for fractional Bessel Gauss beams in paraxial turbulence channel. We find that the probability density of signal OAM modes is a function of position deviation from the beam center, and the farther away from the beam center the detection position is, the smaller the probability density is. For fractional OAM quantum numbers, the average probability densities of signal/crosstalk modes oscillate along the beam radius except the half-integer. When the beam waist of source decreases or the irradiance fluctuation increases, the average probability density of the signal OAM mode drops. The peak of the average probability density of crosstalk modes shifts to outward of the beam center as beam waist gets larger. In the nearby region of beam center, the larger the quantum number deviation of OAM, the smaller the beam waist and the turbulence fluctuations are, the lower average probability densities of crosstalk OAM modes are. Especially, the increase of turbulence fluctuations can make the crosstalk stronger and more concentrated. Lower irradiance fluctuation can give rise to higher the normalized powers of the signal OAM modes, which is opposite to the crosstalk normalized powers.

  12. Experimental investigation of effect of spacer on two phase turbulent mixing rate in subchannels of pressure tube type BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shashi Kant; Sinha, S.L. [National Institute of Technology, Raipur (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Chandraker, D.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Design and Development Group


    Turbulent mixing rate between adjacent subchannels in a two-phase flow has been known to be strongly dependent on the flow pattern. The most important aspect of turbulent motion is that the velocity and pressure at a fixed point do not remain constant with time even in steady state but go through very irregular high frequency fluctuations. These fluctuations influence the diffusion of scalar and vector quantities. The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a vertical pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light water cooled natural circulation based reactor. The fuel bundle of AHWR contains 54 fuel rods set in three concentric rings of 12, 18 and 24 fuel rods. This fuel bundle is divided into number of imaginary interacting flow channel called subchannels. Alteration from single phase to two phase flow situation occurs in reactor rod bundle with raise in power. The two phase flow regimes like bubbly, slug-churn, and annular flow are generally encountered in reactor rod bundle. Prediction of thermal margin of the reactor has necessitated the investigation of turbulent mixing rate of coolant between these subchannels under these flow regimes. Thus, it is fundamental to estimate the effect of spacer grids on turbulent mixing between subchannels of AHWR rod bundle.

  13. Test Particle Energization and the Anisotropic Effects of Dynamical MHD Turbulence (United States)

    González, C. A.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.; Matthaeus, W. H.


    In this paper, we analyze the effect of dynamical three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on test particle acceleration and compare how this evolving system affects particle energization by current sheet interaction, as opposed to frozen-in-time fields. To do this, we analyze the ensemble particle acceleration for static electromagnetic fields extracted from direct numerical simulations of the MHD equations, and compare it with the dynamical fields. We show that a reduction in particle acceleration in the dynamical model results from particle trapping in field lines, which forces the particles to be advected by the flow and suppresses long exposures to the strong electric field gradients that take place between structures and generate (among other effects) an efficient particle acceleration in the static case. In addition, we analyze the effect of anisotropy caused by the mean magnetic field. It is well known that for sufficiently strong external fields, the system experiences a transition toward a two-dimensional flow. This causes an increment in the size of the coherent structures, resulting in a magnetized state of the particles and a reduction in particle energization.

  14. Inlet effects on roll-wave development in shallow turbulent open-channel flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campomaggiore Francesca


    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of the flow profile induced by an inlet condition on the roll-wave evolution in turbulent clear-water flows. The study employs theoretical and numerical analyses. Firstly, the influence of the inlet condition on the spatial evolution of a single perturbation in a hypercritical flow is examined through the expansion near a wavefront analysis. The results show that an accelerated unperturbed profile reduces the disturbance spatial growth. A decelerated profile causes an increase. The effect of the flow profile on the spatial evolution of roll-wave trains is then numerically investigated solving the Saint Venant equations with a second-order Runge-Kutta Total Variation Diminishing (TVD Finite Volume scheme. The numerical simulations comply with the analytical results for the initial and transition phases of the roll-wave development. The unperturbed profile influences even the roll-waves statistical characteristics in the final stage, with a more evident effect in case of accelerated profiles. The influence of the flow profile should be therefore accounted for in the formulation of predictive criteria for roll-waves appearance based on the estimation of the disturbance spatial growth rate.

  15. Mitigating the Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence: Towards More Useful Micro Air Vehicles (United States)


    pressures and forces on aerofoils in order to examine the possibility of “feeling” through turbulent air and to also understanding the influence on...10 Adjunct Experiments 11 Dynamic Pressure Measurements on Thin Aerofoils 11 Low Cost Video Tracking Investigation 17 Dynamic...investigating the influence of large scale (> 1m) turbulence of the performance of Low Reynolds number thin aerofoils . Interim results are given

  16. Diffusional and accretional growth of water drops in a rising adiabatic parcel: effects of the turbulent collision kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Grabowski


    Full Text Available A large set of rising adiabatic parcel simulations is executed to investigate the combined diffusional and accretional growth of cloud droplets in maritime and continental conditions, and to assess the impact of enhanced droplet collisions due to small-scale cloud turbulence. The microphysical model applies the droplet number density function to represent spectral evolution of cloud and rain/drizzle drops, and various numbers of bins in the numerical implementation, ranging from 40 to 320. Simulations are performed applying two traditional gravitational collection kernels and two kernels representing collisions of cloud droplets in the turbulent environment, with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of 100 and 400 cm2 s−3. The overall result is that the rain initiation time significantly depends on the number of bins used, with earlier initiation of rain when the number of bins is low. This is explained as a combination of the increase of the width of activated droplet spectrum and enhanced numerical spreading of the spectrum during diffusional and collisional growth when the number of model bins is low. Simulations applying around 300 bins seem to produce rain at times which no longer depend on the number of bins, but the activation spectra are unrealistically narrow. These results call for an improved representation of droplet activation in numerical models of the type used in this study.

    Despite the numerical effects that impact the rain initiation time in different simulations, the turbulent speedup factor, the ratio of the rain initiation time for the turbulent collection kernel and the corresponding time for the gravitational kernel, is approximately independent of aerosol characteristics, parcel vertical velocity, and the number of bins used in the numerical model. The turbulent speedup factor is in the range 0.75–0.85 and 0.60–0.75 for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of 100 and

  17. Detection of nocturnal coherent turbulence in the US Great Plains and effects on wind turbine fatigue (United States)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Wiersema, D. J.; Zhou, B.; Chow, F. K.


    Strong low-level jet winds that develop in the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL) create some of the most energetic wind energy resources in Great Plains of North America. These stratified flows, however, can cause strong wind shear and veer across wind turbine rotors. Additionally, turbulent bursting events triggered by strong vertical wind shear can lead to fatigue and damage of wind turbine blades and components, increasing maintenance costs and reducing wind turbine power production. Coherent structures which are the signature of turbulent bursting events can be observed in heavily instrumented wind farms and in high-resolution simulations. Large-scale adoption of wind energy will benefit from the ability to predict these turbulence events with limited in-situ data. By identifying signatures of these bursting events, new turbine control technologies could be used to reduce wind turbine damage and increase overall wind farm energy yield (for example using algorithms with the ability to proactively and independently pitch blades). This research analyzes SBL turbulence in the Great Plains to develop methods to identify these structures at wind farms. Nested large-eddy simulations down to about 20m horizontal resolution are performed and compared to high-resolution Doppler wind LIDAR data (1 Hz) to determine if the model is able to create similar wind and turbulence conditions. Wavelet analysis of the LIDAR and model wind fields is used to detect coherent turbulent structures at frequencies that could be potentially damaging for wind turbines and provide guidance for design of turbine control technologies.

  18. The effect of wave-induced turbulence on intertidal mudflats: Impact of boat traffic and wind (United States)

    Verney, R.; Deloffre, J.; Brun-Cottan, J.-C.; Lafite, R.


    Semi-diurnal and fortnightly surveys were carried out to quantify the effects of wind- and navigation-induced high-energy events on bed sediments above intertidal mudflats. The mudflats are located in the upper fluvial part (Oissel mudflat) and at the mouth (Vasière Nord mudflat) of the macrotidal Seine estuary. Instantaneous flow velocities and mudflat bed elevation were measured at a high frequency and high resolution with an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) and an ALTUS altimeter, respectively. Suspended particulate matter concentrations were estimated by calibrating the ADV acoustic backscattered intensity with bed sediments collected at the study sites. Turbulent bed shear stress values were estimated by the turbulent kinetic energy method, using velocity variances filtered from the wave contribution. Wave shear stress and maximum wave-current shear stress values were calculated with the wave-current interaction (WCI) model, which is based on the bed roughness length, wave orbital velocities and the wave period ( TS). In the fluvial part of the estuary, boat passages occurred unevenly during the surveys and were characterized by long waves ( TS>50 s) induced by the drawdown effect and by short boat-waves ( TSBoat waves generated large bottom shear stress values of 0.5 N m -2 for 2-5 min periods and, in burst of several seconds, larger bottom shear stress values up to 1 N m -2. At the mouth of the estuary, west south-west wind events generated short waves ( TShydrodynamic forcing parameters above the two mudflats. Bed elevation and SPM concentration time series showed that these high energy events induced erosion processes of up to several centimetres. Critical erosion shear stress ( τce) values were determined from the SPM concentration and bed elevation measurements. Rough τce values were found above 0.2 N m -2 for the Oissel mudflat and about 1 N m -2 for the Vasière Nord mudflat. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining the measurement of

  19. Effect of wall-mounted cylinders on a turbulent boundary layer: V3V measurements (United States)

    Ryan, Mitchell; Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Longmire, Ellen; Troolin, Dan


    Volumetric 3-Component Velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the flow structure downstream of arrays of wall mounted-cylinders in a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ=2460. The cylinders, which had height-to-diameter ratio H/D = 4 and H^+= 455, extended through the logarithmic region. Measurements were acquired in fields that extended over a range 16 to 34 cylinder-diameters downstream of spanwise arrays of cylinders with a spacing of four and eight cylinder diameters (0.2δ and 0.4δ). The cylinder array with 4D spacing yielded significant wake interactions: the streamwise velocity deficit was greater at the mid-spacing than directly behind a cylinder; the distinction between the downwash regions (behind a cylinder) and the upwash regions (at the mid-spacing) diminishes with increasing downstream distance; and the rms velocity in all components is highest at the half-cylinder-height. These effects occur to a much lesser degree in the case of the array with 8D spacing. Details on parametric effects as well as the instantaneous three-dimensional structure will be provided in the talk.

  20. Heat transfer and wall temperature effects in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio; Grasso, Francesco


    Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the wall temperature on the behavior of oblique shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions at freestream Mach number $2.28$ and shock angle of the wedge generator $\\varphi = 8^{\\circ}$. Five values of the wall-to-recovery-temperature ratio ($T_w/T_r$) are considered, corresponding to cold, adiabatic and hot wall thermal conditions. We show that the main effect of cooling is to decrease the characteristic scales of the interaction in terms of upstream influence and extent of the separation bubble. The opposite behavior is observed in the case of heating, that produces a marked dilatation of the interaction region. The distribution of the Stanton number shows that a strong amplification of the heat transfer occurs across the interaction, and the maximum values of thermal and dynamic loads are found in the case of cold wall. The analysis reveals that the fluctuating heat flux exhibits a strong intermittent behavior, characterized by ...

  1. The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.


    Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

  2. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee


    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  3. The significance of turbulent flow representation in single-continuum models (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Rehrl, C.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Geyer, T.; Birk, S.


    Karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features caused from rock dissolution processes. Flow within these structures can become turbulent and therefore can be expressed by nonlinear gradient functions. One way to account for these effects is by coupling a continuum model with a conduit network. Alternatively, turbulent flow can be considered by adapting the hydraulic conductivity within the continuum model. Consequently, the significance of turbulent flow on the dynamic behavior of karst springs is investigated by an enhanced single-continuum model that results in conduit-type flow in continuum cells (CTFC). The single-continuum approach CTFC represents laminar and turbulent flow as well as more complex hybrid models that require additional programming and numerical efforts. A parameter study is conducted to investigate the effects of turbulent flow on the response of karst springs to recharge events using the new CTFC approach, existing hybrid models, and MODFLOW-2005. Results reflect the importance of representing (1) turbulent flow in karst conduits and (2) the exchange between conduits and continuum cells. More specifically, laminar models overestimate maximum spring discharge and underestimate hydraulic gradients within the conduit. It follows that aquifer properties inferred from spring hydrographs are potentially impaired by ignoring flow effects due to turbulence. The exchange factor used for hybrid models is necessary to account for the scale dependency between hydraulic properties of the matrix continuum and conduits. This functionality, which is not included in CTFC, can be mimicked by appropriate use of the Horizontal Flow Barrier package for MODFLOW. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Modeling and simulation of turbulent multiphase flows (United States)

    Li, Zhaorui

    The atomization of liquid spray in turbulent reacting and non-reacting flows usually occurs in two successive steps, i.e., primary breakup and secondary breakup. In the primary breakup region, the evolution of the interface between the phases is usually complex and very difficult to model. In the secondary breakup region, the average droplet size and volume occupied by the droplets are relatively small but the number of droplets is usually very significant. In this study, we use different mathematical and numerical models for different regions of the spray. For dense spray simulations, a coupled Lagrangian interface-tracking and Eulerian level set method is developed and implemented. In this method, the interface is identified based on the locations of notional particles and the geometrical information concerning the interface and fluid properties are obtained from the level set function. The level set function maintains a signed distance function via the particle-based Lagrangian re-initialization technique. Numerical simulations of several 'standard interface-moving' problems and two-fluid laminar and turbulent flows are conducted to assess this new hybrid method. The results of our analysis indicate that the hybrid particle-level set method can handle interfaces with complex shape change, and can accurately predict the interface values without any significant mass loss or gain. The results obtained for isotropic two-fluid turbulence via the new particle-level set method are validated by comparison with those obtained by the 'zero Mach number', variable-density method. The two-way interactions between the turbulent velocity field and the interface are studied by the particle-level set method. Extensive analysis of vorticity and energy equations indicates that the destabilization effect of turbulence and stability effect of surface tension on the interface motion and interface's effect on turbulence are strongly dependent on the density ratio and Weber number. For

  5. Effect of turbulent gas-liquid contact in a static mixer on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation by ozone. (United States)

    Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Chandrakanth, Mysore; Belosevic, Miodrag


    Static mixers may be used to dissolve gaseous ozone in water treatment facilities in order to provide protection against the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a brief exposure to turbulent gas-liquid mixing conditions in a static mixer on inactivation of C. parvum oocysts by ozone. Inactivation measured in an ozone contacting apparatus that employed a static mixer for ozone dissolution was compared to predictions based on a previously published kinetic model of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone in gently stirred batch reactors. Although initial contact in the static mixer had no immediate effect on the oocysts, a 20% increase in the rate of inactivation during subsequent contact with dissolved ozone was observed. Increasing the degree of turbulence within the static mixer did not yield additional inactivation. Use of static mixers for dissolution of ozone in drinking water treatment systems may provide limited enhancement of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone.

  6. Wake Turbulence (United States)


    THIS IS A SAFETY NOTICE. The guidance contained herein supersedes : the guidance provided in the current edition of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, relating to selected wake turbulence separations and aircraft weight classifications. This Notice ...

  7. Cylinder array height effects on evolution of tracked vortex packets within a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Tan, Yan Ming; Longmire, Ellen


    A zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer with Reτ = 2480 was perturbed by a spanwise array of cylinders. When a narrowly spaced array extended to the top of the log region, perturbed packets appeared to reorganize via a top-down mechanism, suggesting that packet organization can originate from above. We test this hypothesis by extending the array height to the edge of the boundary layer to completely disrupt the packet organization. On the other hand, previous measurements showed that the downstream packet organization was reinforced by an array spacing matching the dominant spanwise spacing of unperturbed packets. A shorter array with reduced blockage was tested to see whether the same effect is achievable. To compare the flow organization in the different cases, fixed and flying PIV measurements were obtained in streamwise-spanwise planes at multiple wall normal locations. The flying PIV system allows tracking and quantification of packet evolution through the array and over a distance of 7 δ downstream.

  8. Troitskaya-Bolshakova effect as a manifestation of the solar wind wave turbulence (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Polyushkina, T. N.; Guglielmi, A. V.


    The impact of changes in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the amplitude of geomagnetic Pc3 pulsations (the Troitskaya-Bolshakova effect) is demonstrated using observations of several pulsation events. We show that the source of changes in the IMF cone angle is sometimes Alfvén waves propagating in the solar wind. For the analysis, measurements of geomagnetic pulsations at the mid-latitude Uzur magneto-telluric observatory and on three spacecraft outside the bow shock wave were used. The results show that the influence is exerted only by waves with a period of more than 40-60 min in a coordinate system fixed relative to the Earth. The Alfvén turbulence of a higher frequency is incoherent; the oscillations are of a chaotic nature, not coordinated in amplitude and phase either between satellites or with variations in the amplitude of Pc3. In some cases, the modulation of the pulsation amplitude is associated with the passage of the IMF sector boundary. An evaluation of the direction of propagation of Alfvén waves showed that they predominantly propagate from the Sun, but the normal of the wave fronts can deviate from the Sun-Earth line. This is quite consistent with earlier published results. The statistics of the basic properties of the oscillatory structures in the interplanetary medium, which we observed during the observation period, are given.

  9. Effects of pressure fluctuations on the combustion process in turbulent premixed flames (United States)

    Beardsell, Guillaume; Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume


    The need for a thorough understanding of turbulence-combustion interactions in compressible flows is driven by recent technological developments in propulsion as well as renewed interest in the development of next generation supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. In such flows, pressure fluctuations displaying a wide range of length and timescales are present. These fluctuations are expected to impact the combustion process to varying degrees, depending amongst other things on the amplitude of the pressure variations and the timescales of the chemical reactions taking place in the flame. In this context, numerical simulations of these flows can provide insight into the impact of pressure fluctuations on the combustion process. In the present work, we analyze data from simulations of statistically-flat premixed n-heptane/air flames at high Karlovitz numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved exactly (DNS) and results obtained with both detailed kinetic modeling and one-step chemistry are considered. The effects of pressure fluctuations on the fuel burning rate are investigated. The findings are compared with results obtained from simulations of one-dimensional premixed flames subjected to various pressure waves.

  10. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  11. Cryogenic turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.

  12. Effects of Turbulence Model on Prediction of Hot-Gas Lateral Jet Interaction in a Supersonic Crossflow (United States)


    Yoder DA, Vyas MA, Engblom WA. Status of turbulence modeling for hypersonic propulsive flowpaths. Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics...operation of a lateral reaction jet in the atmosphere leads to an interference flow between the jet plume and the flow over the vehicle that produces an... vehicle . The jet thrust may be either attenuated or amplified depending on the jet nozzle location along the body. In addition, the effective

  13. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jiahe, E-mail:; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  14. Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Zeoli, S.; Buffin, S.; Caprace, D.-G.; Winckelmans, G.; Bricteux, L.


    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed.

  15. Effects of Homogenous Isotropic Turbulence on the Droplet Size Distribution and Clustering (United States)

    Hager, Rachael; Savas, Ömer


    In clouds, the main growth mechanism of droplets with diameters 10-50 μm , known as the size-gap, is collision and coalescence. Atmospheric turbulence is known to increase the droplet growth rate in this range by enhancing the relative velocity between droplets and the formation of droplet clustering, thus increasing the droplet collision rate. The purpose here is to understand further how isotropic, homogeneous turbulence affects the evolution of the droplet size spectrum and the droplet concentration characteristics in the size-gap. Two sets of experiments are conducted in a 40-cm Eaton box, at the center of which homogeneous turbulence is generated. Flow images are taken of aluminum-oxide particles ranging from 0.5-5 μm in various flow conditions using a continuous wave laser sheet. Particle clustering and flow structures are examined for a range of Stokes numbers, where clustering is quantified using the radial distribution function. Secondly, droplets with an average diameter of 10 μm are injected into the turbulence box under various flow conditions. PDA is used to study the development of the droplet size distribution in isotropic, homogeneous turbulence.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire


    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  17. Proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids for quasiparticle traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    Coherent transport of charges in the form of Cooper pairs is the main feature of Josephson junctions which plays a central role in superconducting qubits. However, the presence of quasiparticles in superconducting devices may lead to incoherent charge transfer and limit the coherence time of superconducting qubits. A way around this so-called ''quasiparticle poisoning'' might be using a normal-metal island to trap quasiparticles; this has motivated us to revisit the proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids. Using the semiclassical Usadel equations, we study the density of states (DoS) both within and away from the trap. We find that in the superconducting layer the DoS quickly approaches the BCS form; this indicates that normal-metal traps should be effective at localizing quasiparticles.

  18. Effect of turbulence intensity on cross-injection film cooling at a stepped or smooth endwall of a gas turbine vane passage. (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shey; Tsai, Shen-Ta; Jhuo, Yue-Hua


    This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I. = 1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20 × 10(4), 1.24 × 10(5), and 1.50 × 10(5)), three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0), and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step). Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  19. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server


    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  20. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bons, Jeffrey [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)


    levels found on in service vanes (Bons, et al., 2001, up to 300 microns) flow blockage in first stage turbine nozzles can easily reach 1 to 2 percent in conventional turbines. Deposition levels in syngas fueled gas turbines are expected to be even more problematic. The likelihood of significant deposition to the leading edge of vanes in a syngas environment indicates the need to examine this effect on the leading edge cooling problem. It is critical to understand the influence of leading edge geometry and turbulence on deposition rates for both internally and showerhead cooled leading edge regions. The expected level of deposition in a vane stagnation region not only significantly changes the heat transfer problem but also suggests that cooling arrays may clog. Addressing the cooling issue suggests a need to better understand stagnation region heat transfer with realistic roughness as well as the other variables affecting transport near the leading edge. Also, the question of whether leading edge regions can be cooled internally with modern cooling approaches should also be raised, thus avoiding the clogging issue. Addressing deposition in the pressure side throat region of the nozzle is another critical issue for this environment. Issues such as examining the protective effect of slot and full coverage discrete-hole film cooling on limiting deposition as well as the influence of roughness and turbulence on effectiveness should be raised. The objective of this present study is to address these technical challenges to help enable the development of high efficiency syngas tolerant gas turbine engines.

  1. Vorticity and turbulence effects in fluid structure interaction an application to hydraulic structure design

    CERN Document Server

    Brocchini, M


    This book contains a collection of 11 research and review papers devoted to the topic of fluid-structure interaction.The subject matter is divided into chapters covering a wide spectrum of recognized areas of research, such as: wall bounded turbulence; quasi 2-D turbulence; canopy turbulence; large eddy simulation; lake hydrodynamics; hydraulic hysteresis; liquid impacts; flow induced vibrations; sloshing flows; transient pipe flow and air entrainment in dropshaft.The purpose of each chapter is to summarize the main results obtained by the individual research unit through a year-long activity on a specific issue of the above list. The main feature of the book is to bring state of the art research on fluid structure interaction to the attention of the broad international community.This book is primarily aimed at fluid mechanics scientists, but it will also be of value to postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of fluid structure interaction.

  2. Stretch rate effects and flame surface densities in premixed turbulent combustion up to 1.25 MPa

    KAUST Repository

    Bagdanavicius, Audrius


    Independent research at two centres using a burner and an explosion bomb has revealed important aspects of turbulent premixed flame structure. Measurements at pressures and temperatures up to 1.25MPa and 673K in the two rigs were aimed at quantifying the influences of flame stretch rate and strain rate Markstein number, Masr , on both turbulent burning velocity and flame surface density. That on burning velocity is expressed through the stretch rate factor, Io , or probability of burning, Pb 0.5. These depend on Masr , but they grow in importance as the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, increases, and are evaluated from the associated burning velocity data. Planar laser tomography was employed to identify contours of reaction progress variable in both rigs. These enabled both an appropriate flame front for the measurement of the turbulent burning velocity to be identified, and flame surface densities, with the associated factors, to be evaluated. In the explosion measurements, these parameters were derived also from the flame surface area, the derived Pb 0.5 factor and the measured turbulent burning velocities. In the burner measurement they were calculated directly from the flame surface density, which was derived from the flame contours.A new overall correlation is derived for the Pb 0.5 factor, in terms of Masr at different K and this is discussed in the light of previous theoretical studies. The wrinkled flame surface area normalised by the area associated with the turbulent burning velocity measurement, and the ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocity, ut /ul , are also evaluated. The higher the value of Pb0.5, the more effective is an increased flame wrinkling in increasing ut /ul A correlation of the product of k and the laminar flame thickness with Karlovitz stretch factor and Markstein number is explored using the present data and those of other workers. Some generality is revealed, enabling the wave length associated with the spatial change in mean

  3. Modeling the effect of small-scale magnetic turbulence on the X-ray properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.; Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.


    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) constitute an ideal astrophysical environment to test our current understanding of relativistic plasma processes. It is well known that magnetic fields play a crucial role in their dynamics and emission properties. At present, one of the main issues concerns the level of magnetic turbulence present in these systems, which in the absence of space resolved X-ray polarization measures cannot be directly constrained. In this work, we investigate, for the first time using simulated synchrotron maps, the effect of a small-scale fluctuating component of the magnetic field on the emission properties in X-ray. We illustrate how to include the effects of a turbulent component in standard emission models for PWNe and which consequences are expected in terms of net emissivity and depolarization, showing that the X-ray surface brightness maps can provide already some rough constraints. We then apply our analysis to the Crab and Vela nebulae and by comparing our model with Chandra and Vela data, we found that the typical energies in the turbulent component of the magnetic field are about 1.5-3 times the one in the ordered field.

  4. Turbulence Effects on Modified State Observer-Based Adaptive Control: Black Kite Micro Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramani S. R. Pappu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a modified state observer-based adaptive dynamic inverse controller for the Black Kite micro aerial vehicle. The pitch and velocity adaptations are computed by the modified state observer in the presence of turbulence to simulate atmospheric conditions. This state observer uses the estimation error to generate the adaptations and, hence, is more robust than model reference adaptive controllers which use modeling or tracking error. In prior work, a traditional proportional-integral-derivative control law was tested in simulation for its adaptive capability in the longitudinal dynamics of the Black Kite micro aerial vehicle. This controller tracks the altitude and velocity commands during normal conditions, but fails in the presence of both parameter uncertainties and system failures. The modified state observer-based adaptations, along with the proportional-integral-derivative controller enables tracking despite these conditions. To simulate flight of the micro aerial vehicle with turbulence, a Dryden turbulence model is included. The turbulence levels used are based on the absolute load factor experienced by the aircraft. The length scale was set to 2.0 meters with a turbulence intensity of 5.0 m/s that generates a moderate turbulence. Simulation results for various flight conditions show that the modified state observer-based adaptations were able to adapt to the uncertainties and the controller tracks the commanded altitude and velocity. The summary of results for all of the simulated test cases and the response plots of various states for typical flight cases are presented.

  5. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.


    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  6. Effects of changes in upwind surface characteristics of mean wind speed and turbulence near a coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SethuRaman, S.; Raynor, G.S.


    Analysis of mean wind speed and longitudinal turbulence at a height of 8 m at an offshore buoy and the beach indicated that the mean winds at the buoy were always higher by 30 to 100% depending on the wind speed. A relationship seems to exist between the changes in turbulence and the direction of flow. Generally minimum values were observed for onshore and maximum for offshore flows. In order to increase the statistical significance of the results, analysis has to be done with a larger set of data.

  7. Spatial averaging-effects on turbulence measured by a continuous-wave coherent lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob


    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused continuous-wave coherent Doppler lidar on observed wind turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is described and analysed. For the first time, comparisons of lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast......-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height over homogeneous terrain at the test station for large wind turbines at Høvsøre in Western Jutland, Denmark are presented for various backscattering and cloud conditions. Good agreement is found between lidar-measured spectra and spectra predicted by applying...

  8. Study Of Compressibility Corrections To Turbulence Models (United States)

    Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.


    Effects on shear layers in simulated confined and unconfined flows studied. Report presents comparative study of some terms that correct for effects of compressibility in standard k-epsilon mathematical model of turbulence where k denotes turbulence kinetic energy and epsilon denotes rate of dissipation of turbulence kenetic energy. Involved simulation of flows by numerical solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Nonlinear effects associated with the finite frequency pump kinetic Alfvén wave and turbulent spectrum in solar wind (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Modi, K. V.


    The paper contains a numerical simulation of the nonlinear coupling between the kinetic Alfvén wave and the ion acoustic wave for an intermediate β-plasma ( m e/ m i≪ β≪1). For this study, we have introduced the nonlinear ponderomotive force (due to the finite frequency ( ω 0acoustic wave. The main aim of the present paper is to study the nonlinear effects associated with the different driving finite frequencies ( ω 0pump kinetic Alfvén wave on the formation of localized structures and a turbulent spectrum applicable to the solar wind around 1 AU. As a result, we found that the different driving frequencies of the pump kinetic Alfvén wave affect the formation of the localized structures. We have also studied the turbulent scaling which follows (˜ k -3.6) for ω 0/ ω ci≈0.2, (˜ k -3.4) for ω 0/ ω ci≈0.3 and (˜ k -3.2) for ω 0/ ω ci≈0.4, at small scales. Further, we have also found that different finite driving frequencies of the pump kinetic Alfvén wave affect the turbulence scaling at small scales, which may affect the heating of the plasma particles in solar wind. The present study is correlated with the observation made by the Cluster spacecraft for the solar wind around 1 AU.

  10. The relative effect of particles and turbulence on acoustic scattering from deep sea hydrothermal vent plumes revisited. (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; Jackson, Darrell R; Bemis, Karen G


    The relative importance of suspended particles and turbulence as backscattering mechanisms within a hydrothermal plume located on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is determined by comparing acoustic backscatter measured by the Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) with model calculations based on in situ samples of particles suspended within the plume. Analysis of plume samples yields estimates of the mass concentration and size distribution of particles, which are used to quantify their contribution to acoustic backscatter. The result shows negligible effects of plume particles on acoustic backscatter within the initial 10-m rise of the plume. This suggests turbulence-induced temperature fluctuations are the dominant backscattering mechanism within lower levels of the plume. Furthermore, inversion of the observed acoustic backscatter for the standard deviation of temperature within the plume yields a reasonable match with the in situ temperature measurements made by a conductivity-temperature-depth instrument. This finding shows that turbulence-induced temperature fluctuations are the dominant backscattering mechanism and demonstrates the potential of using acoustic backscatter as a remote-sensing tool to measure the temperature variability within a hydrothermal plume.

  11. Occurrence Rates and Heating Effects of Tangential and Rotational Discontinuities as Obtained from Three-dimensional Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Yang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua


    MHD discontinuities are ubiquitous in the solar wind and are often found at the origin of turbulence intermittency. They may also play a key role in the turbulence dissipation and heating of the solar wind. The tangential discontinuities (TDs) and rotational discontinuities (RDs) are the two most important types of discontinuities. Recently, the connection between turbulence intermittency and proton thermodynamics has been observationally investigated. Here, we present numerical results from a three-dimensional MHD simulation with pressure anisotropy and we define new methods for identifying and distinguishing TDs and RDs. Three statistical results obtained for the relative occurrence rates and heating effects are highlighted: (1) RDs tend to take up the majority of the discontinuities along with time; (2) the thermal states embedding TDs tend to be associated with extreme plasma parameters or instabilities while RDs do not; (3) TDs have a higher average T as well as perpendicular temperature {{T}\\bot }. The simulation shows that TDs and RDs evolve and contribute to solar wind heating differently. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that generate discontinuities and cause plasma heating.

  12. Alfvénic turbulence in solar wind originating near coronal hole boundaries: heavy-ion effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano


    Full Text Available The mid-latitude phases of the Ulysses mission offer an excellent opportunity to investigate the solar wind originating near the coronal hole boundaries. Here we report on Alfvénic turbulence features, revealing a relevant presence of in-situ generated fluctuations, observed during the wind rarefaction phase that charaterizes the transition from fast to slow wind. Heavy-ion composition and magnetic field measurements indicate a strict time correspondence of the locally generated fluctuations with 1 the crossing of the interface between fast and slow wind and 2 the presence of strongly underwound magnetic field lines (with respect to the Parker spiral. Recent studies suggest that such underwound magnetic configurations correspond to fast wind magnetic lines that, due to footpoint motions at the Sun, have their inner leg transferred to slow wind and are stretched out by the velocity gradient. If this is a valid scenario, the existence of a magnetic connection across the fast-slow wind interface is a condition that, given the different state of the two kinds of wind, may favour the development of processes acting as local sources of turbulence. We suggest that heavy-ion effects could be responsible of the observed turbulence features.

  13. Effect of Fluid Viscoelasticity on Turbulence and Large-Scale Vortices behind Wall-Mounted Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukahara


    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic fluid flows in a channel with wall-mounted plates were performed to investigate the influence of viscoelasticity on turbulent structures and the mean flow around the plate. The constitutive equation follows the Giesekus model, valid for polymer or surfactant solutions, which are generally capable of reducing the turbulent frictional drag in a smooth channel. We found that turbulent eddies just behind the plates in viscoelastic fluid decreased in number and in magnitude, but their size increased. Three pairs of organized longitudinal vortices were observed downstream of the plates in both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids: two vortex pairs were behind the plates and the other one with the longest length was in a plate-free area. In the viscoelastic fluid, the latter vortex pair in the plate-free area was maintained and reached the downstream rib, but its swirling strength was weakened and the local skin-friction drag near the vortex was much weaker than those in the Newtonian flow. The mean flow and small spanwise eddies were influenced by the additional fluid force due to the viscoelasticity and, moreover, the spanwise component of the fluid elastic force may also play a role in the suppression of fluid vortical motions behind the plates.

  14. Effects of turbulence and heterogeneous emissions on photochemically active species in the convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.C.; Molemaker, M.J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.


    Photochemistry is studied in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The essential reactions that account for the ozone formation and depletion are included in the chemical mechanism which, as a consequence, contains a wide range of timescales. The turbulent reacting flow is modeled with a

  15. Effect of an inhibitor on high-speed turbulent flames and the transition to detonation (United States)

    Johnston, M. H.; Zhang, F.; Frost, D. L.; Lee, J. H. S.


    The influence of an inhibitor (CF3Br or Halon 1301) on the propagation of high-speed turbulent flames, quasi-detonations and the transition to detonation has been investigated for methane-air, propane-air and acetylene-air mixtures. The experiments are carried out in a 13 m tube (15 cm diameter) filled with regularly spaced orifice plates (blockage ratio of 0.39) to ensure rapid flame acceleration. In all cases, the addition of the inhibitor reduces the turbulent flame velocity and extinguishes the flame with sufficient inhibitor concentration (2.7% and 7.5% for methane-air and propane-air, respectively). For acetylene-air mixtures, the quasi-detonation speed is progressively reduced with increasing inhibitor concentration and eventually causes the failure of the quasi-detonation and transition back to a fast turbulent flame. The inhibitor also narrows the propagation limits in all cases. To elucidate the inhibition mechanism, detailed modelling of both the turbulent flame structure as well as the chemical kinetics are required.

  16. Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of the laser wireless power transfer system (United States)

    Kapranov, V. V.; Matsak, I. S.; Tugaenko, V. Yu.; Blank, A. V.; Suhareva, N. A.


    Application of adaptive correction is necessary to control wandering of the laser beam in wireless power transfer (WPT) system. In this paper we describe experimental results of using different adaptive correction techniques for both weak and strong turbulence conditions. All experiments were performed over a 1.5 km near-horizontal atmospheric path. Some criteria for choosing parameters of adaptive correction are given.

  17. Effect of Reynolds number and inflow parameters on mean and turbulent flow over complex topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpatrick, Ryan; Hangan, Horia; Siddiqui, Kamran


    A characterization of mean and turbulent flow behaviour over complex topography was conducted using a large-scale (1 : 25) model in the WindEEE Dome at Western University. The specific topographic feature considered was the Bolund Hill escarpment facing westerly winds. A total of eight unique...


    Numerical simulations of the turbulent diffusion equation coupled with the electrohydrodynamics (EHD) are carried out for the plate-plate and wire-plate ESPs. The local particle concentration profiles and fractional collection efficiencies have been evaluated as a function of thr...

  19. On the Effect of an Anisotropy-Resolving Subgrid-Scale Model on Turbulent Vortex Motions (United States)


    expression coincides with the modified Leonard stress proposed by Ger- mano et al. (1991). In this model, the SGS turbulence energy kSGS may be evaluated as... mano subgridscale closure method. Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 4, pp. 633-635. Morinishi, Y. and Vasilyev, O.V. (2001), A recommended modification to the

  20. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  1. The lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziheng; Lv, Ting; Li, Min; Zhang, Yusi; Xue, Ting; Yang, Linsong; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Weiming


    Nymphaea hybrid, a water lily from the Nymphaeaceae family, has been found to exhibit some in vivo beneficial effects. In the present study we investigated the lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that Nymphaea hybrid root extract significantly extended the lifespan of C.elegans and improved its locomotion during aging. Moreover, Nymphaea hybrid root extract increased the resistance of C.elegans to both heat stress and oxidative stress. We found that the ability of Nymphaea hybrid root extract to increase lifespan was independent of its antimicrobial effects and was probably associated with its effects on the reproduction of C.elegans. In addition, the lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract were found to be dependent on the insulin/IGF signaling pathway. We also found that total flavones of Nymphaea hybrid could increase survival of C.elegans in both normal and adverse conditions, indicating that total flavones comprise the major fractions with lifespan-extending effects. Therefore, Nymphaea hybrid root extract has lifespan-extending effects in C.elegans and could be developed as a functional food.

  2. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens


    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  3. Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 1. Effects on dry matter yield, nutritional value, fermentation characteristics, and aerobic stability of silage hybrids in Florida. (United States)

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T


    This study determined effects of maturity, stay-green (SG) ranking, and hybrid source on dry matter (DM) yield, nutritive value, fermentation, and aerobic stability of corn hybrids. One high stay-green (HSG) hybrid and one average stay-green (ASG) hybrid with similar relative maturity (117 d) from each of 2 seed companies (Croplan Genetics, St. Paul, MN; Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Des Moines, IA) were grown on 1-× 6-m plots at random locations within each of 4 blocks. The hybrids were harvested at 25, 32, and 37% DM from each plot and separated into thirds for botanical fractionation and analysis, whole-plant chemical analysis, and ensiling. Chopped, whole plants were ensiled (8 kg) in quadruplicate in 20-L mini-silos for 107 d. A split-plot design was used for the study. Yields of whole-plant and digestible DM and concentrations of starch and DM increased with maturity, whereas concentrations of crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, and neutral detergent fiber decreased. High SG hybrids had greater DM yield than ASG hybrids when harvested at 25 and 37%, but not 32% DM. Unlike those from Croplan Genetics, the Pioneer HSG hybrid had greater ear and whole-plant DM concentration than their ASG hybrids. Stover moisture and CP concentration were greater among HSG versus ASG hybrids, particularly among Croplan Genetics hybrids. Croplan Genetics HSG hybrids had greater neutral and acid detergent fiber concentrations and lower in vitro DM digestibility in the unensiled whole-plant, the stover, and the silage than their ASG hybrids, whereas contrasting trends were evident for Pioneer hybrids. Silage fermentation indices were largely unaffected by hybrid SG ranking, maturity, or source. Yeast counts increased with maturity and exceeded 10(5) cfu/g; therefore, all silages deteriorated with 26 h, irrespective of treatment. Among the hybrids examined, the optimal maturity for optimizing DM yield and nutritive value of the ASG and HSG hybrids was 37% DM. Stay

  4. Turbulence closure: turbulence, waves and the wave-turbulence transition – Part 1: Vanishing mean shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Baumert


    Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.

    The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E2. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E1. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.

  5. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth Performance of Hybrids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus♀ and Oreochromis urolepis urolepis♂ hybrids were reared at stocking densities of control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 at 15 Practical Salinity Units (PSU) in 1m3 plastic tanks for 63 days. They were kept at low, intermediate and high densities respectively. All hybrids were fed on a ...

  6. Effect of glass hybridization and staking sequence on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, woven coir–glass hybrid polyester composites were developed and their mechanical properties were evaluated for different stacking sequences. Scanning electron micrographs of fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of interfacial properties of woven coir–glass hybrid polyester ...

  7. Parent-of-origin growth effects and the evolution of hybrid inviability in dwarf hamsters. (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D; Good, Jeffrey M


    Mammalian hybrids often show abnormal growth, indicating that developmental inviability may play an important role in mammalian speciation. Yet, it is unclear if this recurrent phenotype reflects a common genetic basis. Here, we describe extreme parent-of-origin-dependent growth in hybrids from crosses between two species of dwarf hamsters, Phodopus campbelli and Phodopus sungorus. One cross type resulted in massive placental and embryonic overgrowth, severe developmental defects, and maternal death. Embryos from the reciprocal cross were viable and normal sized, but adult hybrid males were relatively small. These effects are strikingly similar to patterns from several other mammalian hybrids. Using comparative sequence data from dwarf hamsters and several other hybridizing mammals, we argue that extreme hybrid growth can contribute to reproductive isolation during the early stages of species divergence. Next, we tested if abnormal growth in hybrid hamsters was associated with disrupted genomic imprinting. We found no association between imprinting status at several candidate genes and hybrid growth, though two interacting genes involved in embryonic growth did show reduced expression in overgrown hybrids. Collectively, our study indicates that growth-related hybrid inviability may play an important role in mammalian speciation but that the genetic underpinnings of these phenotypes remain unresolved. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. A comprehensive model to determine the effects of temperature and species fluctuations on reaction rates in turbulent reaction flows (United States)

    Magnotti, F.; Diskin, G.; Matulaitis, J.; Chinitz, W.


    The use of silane (SiH4) as an effective ignitor and flame stabilizing pilot fuel is well documented. A reliable chemical kinetic mechanism for prediction of its behavior at the conditions encountered in the combustor of a SCRAMJET engine was calculated. The effects of hydrogen addition on hydrocarbon ignition and flame stabilization as a means for reduction of lengthy ignition delays and reaction times were studied. The ranges of applicability of chemical kinetic models of hydrogen-air combustors were also investigated. The CHARNAL computer code was applied to the turbulent reaction rate modeling.

  9. Effects of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear on turbulence and transport in magnetic confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K.H.


    One of the scientific success stories of fusion research over the past decade is the development of the ExB shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices. This model was originally developed to explain the transport barrier formed at the plasma edge in tokamaks after the L (low) to H (high) transition. This concept has the universality needed to explain the edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines. More recently, this model has been applied to explain the further confinement improvement from H (high)-mode to VH (very high)-mode seen in some tokamaks, where the edge transport barrier becomes wider. Most recently, this paradigm has been applied to the core transport barriers formed in plasmas with negative or low magnetic shear in the plasma core. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to a higher energy state with reduced turbulence and transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease that is associated with ExB velocity shear effects also has significant practical consequences for fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of ExB shear on the growth, radial extent and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same fundamental transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number ways to change the radial electric field Er. An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the ExB velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of ExB velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization.

  10. Magnetic fields in turbulent quark matter and magnetar bursts (United States)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    We analyze the magnetic field evolution in dense quark matter with unbroken chiral symmetry, which can be found inside quark and hybrid stars. The magnetic field evolves owing to the chiral magnetic effect in the presence of the electroweak interaction between quarks. In our study, we also take into account the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence effects in dense quark matter. We derive the kinetic equations for the spectra of the magnetic helicity density and the magnetic energy density as well as for the chiral imbalances. On the basis of the numerical solution of these equations, we find that turbulence effects are important for the behavior of small scale magnetic fields. It is revealed that, under certain initial conditions, these magnetic fields behave similarly to the electromagnetic flashes of some magnetars. We suggest that fluctuations of magnetic fields, described in frames of our model, which are created in the central regions of a magnetized compact star, can initiate magnetar bursts.

  11. Reflective liquid crystal light valve with hybrid field effect mode (United States)

    Boswell, Donald D. (Inventor); Grinberg, Jan (Inventor); Jacobson, Alexander D. (Inventor); Myer, Gary D. (Inventor)


    There is disclosed a high performance reflective mode liquid crystal light valve suitable for general image processing and projection and particularly suited for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. A preferred example of the device uses a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The non-coherent light image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the AC voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state (voltage off the liquid crystal) and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal thus modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out or projection light responsively to the non-coherent image. An analyzer is used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  12. The PDF method for turbulent combustion (United States)

    Pope, S. B.


    Probability Density Function (PDF) methods provide a means of calculating the properties of turbulent reacting flows. They have been successfully applied to many turbulent flames, including some with finite rate kinetic effects. Here the methods are reviewed with an emphasis on computational issues and their application to turbulent combustion.

  13. Ionospheric effects of magnetic storm observed by means of oblique sounding of artificial ionospheric turbulence (United States)

    Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Ponyatov, A. A.

    Results of experimental studies of the influence of the artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) on HF propagation are presented. Ionospheric modification and the creation of a scatterer was produced by powerful radio emission of the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod region). For diagnostics of the AIT were used the Russian chirp sounders network and HF Doppler radar. The reception of scattered signals was carried out in the Rostov-Don on the oblique V-type antenna oriented to the SURA heating facility. It is investigated ionospheric effects of magnetic storm during August 17-22, 2003 accompanied a period of the experiment. It is shown that ionospheric effects of the magnetic storm observed by means of Doppler frequency shift (DFS) measurements signals scattered from artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities correlate well with the behavior of the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field and with variations in the geomagnetic field near the Earth surface. It has been found that at heights of the mid-latitude ionospheric F region under undisturbed conditions the electric field and the drift velocity of irregularities correspond to the typical values about 1 mV m-1 and 20 m s-1, respectively. During magnetic storm these values increase up to values of about 8.6 mV m-1 and 186 m s-1, which better correspond to the values typical for the high-latitude ionosphere. It is found that in the magnetically-disturbed period sporadically appearing trains with quasi-periodical modulation of DFS for the scattered signal with a period of ˜ 40-60 s and amplitude reaching 2 Hz were observed. The relation of the quasi-periodical oscillations of the DFS for the scattered signal to the presence of magnetohydrodynamics waves excited during a magnetic storm is considered. It is concluded that use HF Doppler radar for AIT sounding is of interest for diagnostics of wave processes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The conditions of formation of the HF

  14. Tariff Turbulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tariff Turbulence. * See also Information File on p. 1340 this issue. licence to practice should he deviate from the norm unduly. The Standard Tariff of fees is reviewed regularly in the light of increased costs, the rise in the cost of living, for the elimination of anomalies and so forth and this tariff for private patients, with its 10% ...

  15. Effect of the characteristics of beam polarization on performance of 90 degree optical hybrid (United States)

    Hang, Nan; Zhang, Peng; Tong, Shoufeng; Chang, Shuai; Fan, Xuebing; Cao, Haishuai


    90 degree optical hybrid is the key part of space coherent optical communication and the high efficient mixing technology is an effective means to achieve great detect sensitivity. Most of optical components in optical hybrid are sensitive to polarization state, therefore, the polarization state of incident light will affect the function of hybrid. Through an theoretical analysis and simulation of the performance of hybrid whose incident light is linearly or elliptically polarized light, the result shows that the heterodyne efficiency of hybrid reaches its maximum when incident light is 45°linearly, and the change of polarization orientation can decrease the optical power entering I branch, making the heterodyne efficiency declines. Degree of polarization will increase phase difference of both branch which is orthometric in hybrid, causing the process of phase locking more difficult. Moreover, the effect of deviation of directivity of wave plate on hybrid performance is studied, for 1/4 wave plate, its deviation will change the power allegation and phase error of IandQ branch, but for 1/2 wave plate, phase error cannot be brought in, but it will change the direct current(DC) component of branch. The above polarization state changes will not bring additional phase error in I branch, ensuring the normal functioning of hybrid. This study gives a theoretical foundation to the design of space optical hybrid.

  16. Differential pollinator effectiveness and importance in a milkweed (Asclepias, Apocynaceae) hybrid zone. (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Edge, Andrea; Steel, Anna; O'Quinn, Robin L; Fishbein, Mark


    Exceptions to the ideal of complete reproductive isolation between species are commonly encountered in diverse plant, animal, and fungal groups, but often the causative ecological processes are poorly understood. In flowering plants, the outcome of hybridization depends in part on the effectiveness of pollinators in interspecific pollen transport. In the Asclepias exaltata and A. syriaca (Apocynaceae) hybrid zone in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, extensive introgression has been documented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the extent of pollinator overlap among A. exaltata, A. syriaca, and their hybrids and (2) identify the insect taxa responsible for hybridization and introgression. We observed focal plants of parental species and hybrids to measure visitation rate, visit duration, and per-visit pollinia removal and deposition, and we calculated pollinator effectiveness and importance. Visitation rates varied significantly between the 2 yr of the study. Overall, Apis mellifera, Bombus sp., and Epargyreus clarus were the most important pollinators. However, Bombus sp. was the only visitor that was observed to both remove and insert pollinia for both parent species as well as hybrids. We conclude that Bombus may be a key agent of hybridization and introgression in these sympatric milkweed populations, and hybrids are neither preferred nor selected against by pollinators. Thus, we have identified a potential mechanism for how hybrids act as bridges to gene flow between A. exaltata and A. syriaca. These results provide insights into the breakdown of prezygotic isolating mechanisms.

  17. Large Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels


    Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...

  18. High-altitude and high-latitude O+ and H+ outflows: the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Saleh


    Full Text Available The energization of ions, due to interaction with electromagnetic turbulence (i.e. wave-particle interactions, has an important influence on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the polar region. The effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the auroral region were investigated by using Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo simulation included the effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction, gravity, polarization electrostatic field, and divergence of auroral geomagnetic field within the simulation tube (1.2–10 earth radii, RE. As the ions are heated due to wave-particle interactions (i.e. ion interactions with electromagnetic turbulence and move to higher altitudes, the ion gyroradius ρi may become comparable to the electromagnetic turbulence wavelength λ⊥ and consequently (k⊥ρi becomes larger than unity. This turns the heating rate to be negligible and the motion of the ions is described by using Liouville theorem. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 the formation of H+ and O+ conics at lower altitudes and for all values of λ⊥; (2 O+ toroids appear at 3.72 RE, 2.76 RE and 2 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; however, H+ toroids appear at 6.6 RE, 4.4 RE and 3 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; and H+ and O+ ion toroids did not appear for the case λ⊥ goes to infinity, i.e. when the effect of velocity dependent wave-particle interaction was not included; (3 As λ⊥ decreases, H+ and O+ ion drift velocity decreases, H+ and O+ ion density increases, H+ and O+ ion perpendicular temperature and H+ and O+ ion parallel temperature decrease; (4 Finally, including the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength, i.e. the effect of velocity dependent diffusion coefficient and consequently, the velocity dependent wave-particle interactions produce realistic H+ and O+ ion temperatures and H+ and O+ toroids, and this is, qualitatively

  19. Dynamic scaling and large scale effects in turbulence in compressible stratified fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharasi, Hirdesh K., E-mail:; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.


    We consider the propagation of sound in a turbulent fluid which is confined between two horizontal parallel plates, maintained at different temperatures. In the homogeneous fluid, Staroselsky et al. had predicted a divergent sound speed at large length scales. Here we find a divergent sound speed and a vanishing expansion coefficient at large length scales. Dispersion relation and the question of scale invariance at large distance scales lead to these results. - Highlights: • Turbulence in a stratified fluid has been studied in the Boussinesq approximation. • We extend this study to include density fluctuations due to pressure fluctuations. • For a homogeneous weakly compressible fluid the sound speed is known to become scale dependent. • For the stratified fluid we show that the expansion coefficient is also scale dependent. • Our results are based on general dynamic scaling arguments rather than detailed calculation.

  20. Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive wear of reinforced LLDPE. S A R HASHMI*, AJAY NAIK and NAVIN CHAND. Regional Research Laboratory, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462 026, India. MS received 1 August 2005. Abstract. The hybrid of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) fibres and glass ...

  1. The Effects of Damkohler Number on a Turbulent Shear Layer - Experimental Results


    Mungal, M. G.; Frieler, C. E.


    A chemical reaction for which the reaction rate can be varied is studied in a fully developed, two-dimensional, turbulent mixing layer. The layer is formed between two nitrogen streams, one carrying low concentrations of fluorine and the other hydrogen and nitric oxide. For fixed concentrations of fluorine and hydrogen and for nitric oxide concentrations that are small fractions of the fluorine concentration, the heat release is fixed but the overall reaction rate is controlled by the n...

  2. Inertial Effects on the Vertical Transport of Suspended Particles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer (United States)

    Richter, David; Chamecki, Marcelo


    In many atmospheric flows, a dispersed phase is actively suspended by turbulence, whose competition with gravitational settling ultimately dictates its vertical distribution. Examples of dispersed phases include snow, sea-spray droplets, dust, or sand, where individual elements of much larger density than the surrounding air are carried by turbulent motions after emission from the surface. In cases where the particle is assumed to deviate from local fluid motions only by its gravitational settling (i.e., they are inertialess), traditional flux balances predict a power-law dependence of particle concentration with height. It is unclear, however, how particle inertia influences this relationship, and this question is the focus of this work. Direct numerical simulations are conducted of turbulent open-channel flow, laden with Lagrangian particles of specified inertia; in this way the study focuses on the turbulent transport which occurs in the lowest few meters of the planetary boundary layer, in regions critical for connecting emission fluxes to the fluxes felt by the full-scale boundary layer. Simulations over a wide range of particle Stokes number, while holding the dimensionless settling velocity constant, are performed to understand the role of particle inertia on vertical dispersion. It is found that particles deviate from their inertialess behaviour in ways that are not easily captured by traditional theory; concentrations are reduced with increasing Stokes number. Furthermore, a similarity-based eddy diffusivity for particle concentration fails as particles experience inertial acceleration, precluding a closed-form solution for particle concentration as in the case of inertialess particles. The primary consequence of this result is that typical flux parametrizations connecting surface emission models (e.g., saltation models or sea-spray generation functions) to elevated boundary conditions may overestimate particle concentrations due to the reduced vertical

  3. Turbulence Model Effects on Cold-Gas Lateral Jet Interaction in a Supersonic Crossflow (United States)


    cases, the center of gravity, or MRP , is assumed to be the same location as the jet nozzle axis and equation 4 is used to calculate Km. 19 Table 4...number MBL Menter’s baseline turbulence model moment induced by jet thrust force, N-m moment about MRP induced by jet interaction...force, N-m (0) moment about missile nose induced by jet interaction force, N-m MRP moment reference point total moment induced by

  4. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.


    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  5. Anisotropic turbulence and zonal jets in rotating flows with a β-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Galperin


    Full Text Available Numerical studies of small-scale forced, two-dimensional turbulent flows on the surface of a rotating sphere have revealed strong large-scale anisotropization that culminates in the emergence of quasi-steady sets of alternating zonal jets, or zonation. The kinetic energy spectrum of such flows also becomes strongly anisotropic. For the zonal modes, a steep spectral distribution, E(n=CZ (Ω/R2 n-5, is established, where CZ=O(1 is a non-dimensional coefficient, Ω is the angular velocity, and R is the radius of the sphere, respectively. For other, non-zonal modes, the classical, Kolmogorov-Batchelor-Kraichnan, spectral law is preserved. This flow regime, referred to as a zonostrophic regime, appears to have wide applicability to large-scale planetary and terrestrial circulations as long as those are characterized by strong rotation, vertically stable stratification and small Burger numbers. The well-known manifestations of this regime are the banded disks of the outer planets of our Solar System. Relatively less known examples are systems of narrow, subsurface, alternating zonal jets throughout all major oceans discovered in state-of-the-art, eddy-permitting simulations of the general oceanic circulation. Furthermore, laboratory experiments recently conducted using the Coriolis turntable have basically confirmed that the lateral gradient of ''planetary vorticity'' (emulated via the topographic β-effect is the primary cause of the zonation and that the latter is entwined with the development of the strongly anisotropic kinetic energy spectrum that tends to attain the same zonal and non-zonal distributions, −5 and , respectively, in both the slope and the magnitude, as the corresponding spectra in other environmental conditions. The non-dimensional coefficient CZ in the −5 spectral law appears to be invariant, , in a variety of simulated and natural flows. This paper provides a brief review of the zonostrophic regime. The review includes the

  6. Effect of inflow condition on near-field prediction of Large Eddy Simulations of isothermal and non-isothermal turbulent jets (United States)

    Salkhordeh, Sasan; Kimber, Mark


    In order to develop an experimentally validated computational model, turbulent round jets have been studied extensively under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology. Capturing the near-field physics of a turbulent jet has been a challenge when utilizing LES. To address this concern, the effect of inlet flow profile and turbulent fluctuations on the evolution of both type of jets has been analyzed in detail by performing separate large eddy simulations of the flow in the nozzle upstream of the jet inlet to accurately determine the inlet turbulent spectra. From the precursor simulations, the accurate turbulence fluctuations at the jet nozzle can be sampled and then implement to the inlet boundary of the main jet simulation. Properly specifying the turbulent fluctuations at the jet inlet was found to play a vital role in order to accurately predict key characteristics throughout the computational domain. For isothermal jets, the experimental measurements of Hussein et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1994 Jan;258:31-75) has been simulated computationally using LES. The experimental measurement of Mi et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2001 Apr;432:91-125) has been chosen for performing LES for a non-isothermal jet at the same Reynolds number and identical temperature difference. The LES results show good agreement for first and higher order statistics of velocities and temperatures in both near field and far-field data.

  7. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.


    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  8. Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of a Compressible Mixing Layer and the Significance of Inflow Turbulence (United States)

    Mankbadi, Mina Reda; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Debonis, James R.


    In the context of Large Eddy Simulations (LES), the effects of inflow turbulence are investigated through the Synthetic Eddy Method (SEM). The growth rate of a turbulent compressible mixing layer corresponding to operating conditions of GeobelDutton Case 2 is investigated herein. The effects of spanwise width on the growth rate of the mixing layer is investigated such that spanwise width independence is reached. The error in neglecting inflow turbulence effects is quantified by comparing two methodologies: (1) Hybrid-RANS-LES methodology and (2) SEM-LES methodology. Best practices learned from Case 2 are developed herein and then applied to a higher convective mach number corresponding to Case 4 experiments of GeobelDutton.

  9. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A


    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  10. Study of pedestrian hybrid beacon's effectiveness for motorists at midblock pedestrian crossings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjit Prasad Godavarthy; Eugene R. Russell


    Pedestrian signals, particularly at signalized, midblock crossings, delay drivers, which is termed "unnecessary delay" in this study. A pedestrian hybrid beacon was proven to be effective in decreasing this unnecessary delay to the drivers at midblock pedestrian crossings when compared to standard signalized midblock crossings. Two pedestrian hybrid beacons were installed at midblock pedestrian crossings in Lawrence, Kansas. A study was conducted at these two locations to determine the effectiveness of the pedes-trian hybrid beacon in decreasing the unnecessary delay to drivers by comparing them with a signalized midblock on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas. In addition to the delay measurements for drivers at pedestrian hybrid beacon and signalized treatment at midblock pedestrian crossings, other parameters such as driver compliance rate, pedes-trian compliance rate, and other driver and pedestrian characteristics were also studied. Video cameras were used at these test locations and the effectiveness of the pedestrian hybrid beacon was analyzed from the video. A more than 90% reduction in delays was observed for the drivers at the pedestrian hybrid beacon at midblock crossings compared to the signalized crossing. Further, a better driver compliance rate was also recorded at the pedestrian hybrid beacon. Information about reductions in unnecessary delay to drivers and improvements to driver and pedestrian compliance rates from the use of pedestrian hybrid beacons would be useful to engineers, decision makers, and researchers to deter-mine an optimum treatment at desired pedestrian crossings.

  11. Differential predation on tadpoles influences the potential effects of hybridization between Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.


    Long-term effects of hybridization and introgression are influenced by performance of hybrids in habitats of parental species. The treefrogs Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa, which typically breed in permanent and temporary habitats, respectively, have occasionally hybridized throughout the Southeastern United States. To predict in which of the parental habitats effects of hybridization might be strongest, I performed experiments to evaluate predation on tadpoles of H. cinerea, H. gratiosa, and F1 hybrids with predators typical of the breeding habitats of the parental species. Hybrid tadpoles had lower survival with sunfish than odonate naiad (dragonfly) predators and tended to increase hiding behavior in response to sunfish predation. Tadpoles of H. gratiosa also had higher survival with odonates than sunfish, but H. cinerea had similar survival with both predator types. These results suggest that hybrids are most likely to survive and return to breed in temporary habitats used by H. gratiosa. Thus, hybridization and introgression might be more likely to have adverse effects on populations of H. gratiosa than H. cinerea. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.

  13. Effects of non-unity Lewis number of gas-phase species in turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio


    Turbulence statistics from two three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of planar n-heptane/air turbulent jets are compared to assess the effect of the gas-phase species diffusion model on flame dynamics and soot formation. The Reynolds number based on the initial jet width and velocity is around 15, 000, corresponding to a Taylor scale Reynolds number in the range 100 ≤ Reλ ≤ 150. In one simulation, multicomponent transport based on a mixture-averaged approach is employed, while in the other the gas-phase species Lewis numbers are set equal to unity. The statistics of temperature and major species obtained with the mixture-averaged formulation are very similar to those in the unity Lewis number case. In both cases, the statistics of temperature are captured with remarkable accuracy by a laminar flamelet model with unity Lewis numbers. On the contrary, a flamelet with a mixture-averaged diffusion model, which corresponds to the model used in the multi-component diffusion three-dimensional DNS, produces significant differences with respect to the DNS results. The total mass of soot precursors decreases by 20-30% with the unity Lewis number approximation, and their distribution is more homogeneous in space and time. Due to the non-linearity of the soot growth rate with respect to the precursors\\' concentration, the soot mass yield decreases by a factor of two. Being strongly affected by coagulation, soot number density is not altered significantly if the unity Lewis number model is used rather than the mixture-averaged diffusion. The dominant role of turbulent transport over differential diffusion effects is expected to become more pronounced for higher Reynolds numbers. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  14. Transonic turbine blade loading calculations using different turbulence models - effects of reflecting and non-reflecting boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouimaa, S. [Physical Department, Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Messaoudi, L. [Mechanical Department, Engineering Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Giel, Paul W. [QSS Group, Inc., NASAGlenn Research Center Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)


    The objective of this study is to simulate the transonic gas turbine blade-to-blade compressible fluid flow. We are interested mainly in the determination of the pressure distribution around the blade. The particular blade architecture makes these simulations more complex due to the variety of phenomena induced by this flow. Our study is based on the experiment performed by Giel and colleagues. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article was a turbine rotor with design flow turning of 136{sup o} and an axial chord of 12.7cm. Simulations were performed on an irregular quadratic structured grid with the FLUENT software package which solves the Navier-Stokes equations by using finite volume methods. Two-dimensional stationary numerical simulations were made under turbulent conditions allowing us to compare the characteristic flow effects of Reflecting Boundary Conditions (RBC) and Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions (NRBC) newly implemented in FLUENT 6.0. Many simulations were made to compare different turbulence models: a one equation model (Spalart-Allmaras), several two-equation models (k-{epsilon}, RNG k-{epsilon}, Realizable k-{epsilon}, SST k-{omega}), and a Reynolds-stress model (RSM). Also examined were the effects of the inlet turbulence intensities (0.25% and 7%), the exit Mach numbers (1.0 and 1.3) and the inlet Reynolds numbers (0.5x10{sup 6} and 1x10{sup 6}). The results obtained show a good correlation with the experiment. (author)

  15. Effects of urban trees on mean wind, turbulence and momentum exchange within and above a realistic urban canopy (United States)

    Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Egli, P. E.; Schmid, M.; Tooke, T. R.; Coops, N. C.; Salesky, S.; Christen, A.


    Accurate modeling of flow and turbulence within and above urban canopies is key to properly predict weather, hydrology, air quality and dispersion in urban environments. Trees are an integral part of the urban canopy, but their effects on wind, turbulence and evaporation is not typically accounted for in urban weather, hydrology, air pollution and dispersion models. Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of flow over a realistic suburban canopy are used to gain insight into the contribution of vegetation to the overall momentum budget in the atmosphere within and above an urban canopy. The simulated areas are representative subsets of an urban surface in the City of Vancouver, BC, Canada where trees are slightly taller than the buildings. In this area, long-term wind and turbulence measurements are available from a 30 m meteorological tower. Data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging are used to represent both buildings and vegetation at high spatial resolution of 1 m in the LES. In the LES algorithm, buildings are ac- counted through a direct-forcing immersed boundary method, whereas vegetation is parameterized through a location-specific leaf area density, which results in an additional drag force balancing the imposed external pressure gradient. LES are performed including and excluding vegetation on different subsets of the surface, different wind directions and different leaf area density. Results compare well against corresponding tower measurements, validating the chosen tower location and the LES approach. Seasonal variations in vegetation result in up to 60% variation in the hydrodynamic roughness length z0 characterizing the surface experienced in the inertial sublayer. Conversely, within the urban canopy, trees effect are twofold: on one hand, they act as a direct momentum sink for the mean flow; on the other, they act as a barrier to vertical fluxes of mean kinetic energy from above, thus reducing the vertical momentum exchange rates and the intensity of mean

  16. Hybrid graphene/silicon Schottky photodiode with intrinsic gating effect (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Luongo, Giuseppe; Giubileo, Filippo; Funicello, Nicola; Niu, Gang; Schroeder, Thomas; Lisker, Marco; Lupina, Grzegorz


    We propose a hybrid device consisting of a graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) Schottky diode in parallel with a Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor for high-performance photodetection. The device, fabricated by transfer of commercial graphene on low-doped n-type Si substrate, achieves a photoresponse as high as 3 \\text{A} {{\\text{W}}-1} and a normalized detectivity higher than 3.5× {{10}12} \\text{cm} \\text{H}{{\\text{z}}1/2} {{\\text{W}}-1} in the visible range. It exhibits a photocurrent exceeding the forward current because photo-generated minority carriers, accumulated at Si/SiO2 interface of the Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor, diffuse to the Gr/Si junction. We show that the same mechanism, when due to thermally generated carriers, although usually neglected or disregarded, causes the increased leakage often measured in Gr/Si heterojunctions. We perform extensive I-V and C-V characterization at different temperatures and we measure a zero-bias Schottky barrier height of 0.52 eV at room temperature, as well as an effective Richardson constant A **  =  4× {{10}-5} \\text{A} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} {{\\text{K}}-2} and an ideality factor n≈ 3.6 , explained by a thin (<1 nm) oxide layer at the Gr/Si interface.

  17. Topological proximity effect in a topological insulator hybrid. (United States)

    Shoman, T; Takayama, A; Sato, T; Souma, S; Takahashi, T; Oguchi, T; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi


    It is well known that a topologically protected gapless state appears at an interface between a topological insulator and an ordinary insulator; however, the physics of the interface between a topological insulator and a metal has largely been left unexplored. Here we report a novel phenomenon termed topological proximity effect, which occurs between a metallic ultrathin film and a three-dimensional topological insulator. We study one bilayer of bismuth metal grown on the three-dimensional topological insulator material TlBiSe2, and by using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we found evidence that the topological Dirac-cone state migrates from the surface of TlBiSe2 to the attached one-bilayer Bi. We show that such a migration of the topological state occurs as a result of strong spin-dependent hybridization of the wave functions at the interface, which is also supported by our first-principles calculations. This discovery points to a new route to manipulating the topological properties of materials.

  18. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids. (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P


    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  19. Multilevel turbulence simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tziperman, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.

  20. Effects of trees on mean wind, turbulence and momentum exchange within and above a real urban environment (United States)

    Giometto, M. G.; Christen, A.; Egli, P. E.; Schmid, M. F.; Tooke, R. T.; Coops, N. C.; Parlange, M. B.


    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are used to gain insight into the effects of trees on turbulence, aerodynamic parameters, and momentum transfer rates characterizing the atmosphere within and above a real urban canopy. Several areas are considered that are part of a neighborhood in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada where a small fraction of trees are taller than buildings. In this area, eight years of continuous wind and turbulence measurements are available from a 30 m meteorological tower. Data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) are used to represent both buildings and vegetation at the LES resolution. In the LES algorithm, buildings are accounted through an immersed boundary method, whereas vegetation is parameterized via a location-specific leaf area density. LES are performed including and excluding vegetation from the considered urban areas, varying wind direction and leaf area density. Surface roughness lengths (z0) from both LES and tower measurements are sensitive to the 0 ≤ LAI /λfb b = 0.74 , leaves-on LAI /λfb = 2.24). Removing vegetation from such a canopy would cause a dramatic drop of approximately 50% in z0 when compared to the reference summer value. The momentum displacement height (d) from LES also consistently increases as LAI / λfb increases, due in large part to the disproportionate amount of drag that the (few) relatively taller trees exert on the flow. LES and measurements both predict an increase in the ratio of turbulent to mean kinetic energy (TKE/MKE) at the tower sampling height going from winter to summer, and LES also show how including vegetation results in a more (positive) negatively skewed (horizontal) vertical velocity distribution - reflecting a more intermittent velocity field which favors sweep motions when compared to ejections. Within the urban canopy, the effects of trees are twofold: on one hand, they act as a direct momentum sink for the mean flow; on the other, they reduce downward turbulent transport of

  1. Turbulent hydraulic jumps: Effect of Weber number and Reynolds number on air entrainment and micro-bubble generation (United States)

    Mortazavi, Milad; Mani, Ali


    Air entrainment in breaking waves is a ubiquitous and complex phenomenon. It is the main source of air transfer from atmosphere to the oceans. Furthermore, air entrainment due to ship-induced waves contributes to bubbly flows in ship wakes and also affect their performance. In this study, we consider a turbulent hydraulic jump as a canonical setting to investigate air entrainment due to turbulence-wave interactions. The flow has an inlet Froude number of 2.0, while three different Weber numbers (We = 1820, 729, 292), and two different Reynolds numbers (Re = 11000, 5500) based on the inlet height and inlet velocity are investigated. Air entrainment is shown to be very sensitive to the We number, while Re number has a minor effect. Wave breaking and interface collisions are significantly reduced in the low Weber number cases. As a result, micro-bubble generation is significantly reduced with decreasing Weber number. Vortex shedding events are observed to emerge at the toe of the jump in all of the cases. For high Weber number regimes, shedding of vortices is accompanied by engulfment of air pockets into the jump in a periodic manner, while for lower Webber number regimes such events are significantly suppressed. Reynolds number is shown to have a negligible effect on the air entrainment, wave breaking and micro-bubble generation, contrary to the previous assumptions in other studies. Supported by ONR.

  2. The effects of nonuniform magnetic field strength on density flux and test particle transport in drift wave turbulence (United States)

    Dewhurst, J. M.; Hnat, B.; Dendy, R. O.


    The extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations generate fully nonlinear self-consistent solutions for coupled density n and vorticity ∇2ϕ, where ϕ is electrostatic potential, in a plasma with background density inhomogeneity κ =-∂ ln n0/∂x and magnetic field strength inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. Finite C introduces interchange effects and ∇B drifts into the framework of drift turbulence through compressibility of the E ×B and diamagnetic drifts. This paper addresses the direct computation of the radial E ×B density flux Γn=-n∂ϕ/∂y, tracer particle transport, the statistical properties of the turbulent fluctuations that drive Γn and tracer motion, and analytical underpinnings. Systematic trends emerge in the dependence on C of the skewness of the distribution of pointwise Γn and in the relative phase of density-velocity and density-potential pairings. It is shown how these effects, together with conservation of potential vorticity Π =∇2ϕ-n+(κ -C)x, account for much of the transport phenomenology. Simple analytical arguments yield a Fickian relation Γn=(κ -C)Dx between the radial density flux Γn and the radial tracer diffusivity Dx, which is shown to explain key trends in the simulations.

  3. Effect of Smart Rotor Control Using a Deformable Trailing Edge Flap on Load Reduction under Normal and Extreme Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhong Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a newly developed aero-servo-elastic platform for implementing smart rotor control and shows its effectiveness with aerodynamic loads on large-scale offshore wind turbines. The platform was built by improving the FAST/Aerodyn codes with the integration of an external deformable trailing edge flap controller in the Matlab/Simulink software. Smart rotor control was applied to an Upwind/NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine under various operating wind conditions in accordance with the IEC Normal Turbulence Model (NTM and Extreme Turbulence Model (ETM. Results showed that, irrespective of whether the NTM or ETM case was considered, aerodynamic load in terms of blade flapwise root moment and tip deflection were effectively reduced. Furthermore, the smart rotor control also positively affected generator power, pitch system and tower load. These results laying a foundation for a future migration of the “smart rotor control” concept into the design of large-scale offshore wind turbines.

  4. Body-turbulence interaction (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.


    The paper reviews the area of body-turbulence interaction with particular emphasis upon the influence of the body upon an incident turublent field. Cases considered include two-dimensional (high and low fineness ratio, porous, and impervious) and three-dimensional bodies in-stream, adjacent to, and attached to walls. Particular physics common to several geometric and incident flow configurations include (1) eddy severing at relatively sharp leading edges, (2) production of vorticity of the opposite sense on bluff bodies, and (3) body region production of control vortices which affect the incident turbulence field for the order of 100 boundary-layer thicknesses downstream. The major local effects of the body upon the incident turbulent field include (1) a blocking effect, (2) influence of the body momentum deficit/near wake, (3) distortion due to the body time-averaged flow field, and (4) unsteady body circulation. The review may be of particular interest for turbulence alteration/control using fixed geometry in applications such as drag reduction, separation control, noise reduction, and augmentor optimization.

  5. Turbulence Model Sensitivity and Scour Gap Effect of Unsteady Flow around Pipe: A CFD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbod Ali


    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of incompressible and transient flow around circular pipe has been carried out at different five gap phases. Flow equations such as Navier-Stokes and continuity equations have been solved using finite volume method. Unsteady horizontal velocity and kinetic energy square root profiles are plotted using different turbulence models and their sensitivity is checked against published experimental results. Flow parameters such as horizontal velocity under pipe, pressure coefficient, wall shear stress, drag coefficient, and lift coefficient are studied and presented graphically to investigate the flow behavior around an immovable pipe and scoured bed.

  6. Effect of Turbulence on Power for Bend-Twist Coupled Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    that it might be related to the dynamic response of bend-twist coupled blades in turbulent flow. This paper contains estimations of the power curve from nonlinear time simulations, a linear frequency domain based method and a normal distribution weighted average method. It is shown that the frequency domain...... based estimation is highly dependant on the validity of the linearized model, thus estimations are poor for operational points close to rated wind speed. The weighted average method gives good results if an appropriate standard deviation is known a priori. The nonlinear time simulations show...

  7. Bed slope effects on turbulent wave boundary layers: 2. Comparison with skewness, asymmetry, and other effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    contributions believed to play a prominent role in cross-shore boundary layer and sediment transport processes: (1) converging-diverging effects from bed slope, (2) wave skewness, (3) wave asymmetry, and (4) waves combined with superposed negative currents (intended to loosely represent, for example, return...... from beach slope may make a significant onshore bed load contribution. Generally, however, the results suggest wave skewness (in addition to conventional steady streaming) as the most important onshore contribution outside the surf zone. Streaming induced within the wave boundary layer is also...... investigated for each component, and skewness and asymmetry are demonstrated to promote largely negative streaming velocities, consistent with earlier work. For hydraulically smooth cases, however, a thin region of positive streaming is revealed in the viscous sublayer which is effectively absent...

  8. Extraordinary Magnetoresistance Effect in Semiconductor/Metal Hybrid Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian


    In this dissertation, the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) effect in semiconductor/metal hybrid structures is studied to improve the performance in sensing applications. Using two-dimensional finite element simulations, the geometric dependence of the output sensitivity, which is a more relevant parameter for EMR sensors than the magnetoresistance (MR), is studied. The results show that the optimal geometry in this case is different from the geometry reported before, where the MR ratio was optimized. A device consisting of a semiconductor bar with length/width ratio of 5~10 and having only 2 contacts is found to exhibit the highest sensitivity. A newly developed three-dimensional finite element model is employed to investigate parameters that have been neglected with the two dimensional simulations utilized so far, i.e., thickness of metal shunt and arbitrary semiconductor/metal interface. The simulations show the influence of those parameters on the sensitivity is up to 10 %. The model also enables exploring the EMR effect in planar magnetic fields. In case of a bar device, the sensitivity to planar fields is about 15 % to 20 % of the one to perpendicular fields. 5 A “top-contacted” structure is proposed to reduce the complexity of fabrication, where neither patterning of the semiconductor nor precise alignment is required. A comparison of the new structure with a conventionally fabricated device shows that a similar magnetic field resolution of 24 nT/√Hz is obtained. A new 3-contact device is developed improving the poor low-field sensitivity observed in conventional EMR devices, resulting from its parabolic magnetoresistance response. The 3-contact device provides a considerable boost of the low field response by combining the Hall effect with the EMR effect, resulting in an increase of the output sensitivity by 5 times at 0.01 T compared to a 2-contact device. The results of this dissertation provide new insights into the optimization of EMR devices

  9. Effect of Engine Installation on Jet Noise using a Hybrid LES/RANS Approach Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Installation effects arising from propulsion airframe interaction are known to produce substantial variations in the in-situ jet noise. A hybrid LES/RANS...

  10. Serious Games: improving the Learning Effect with Hybrid Games


    Barhaug, Martin


    Previous work at NTNU has sparked an interest in hybrid board games. These kinds of games combine elements in digital and board games together. This has resulted in a platform called AnyBoard, which is a platform that makes it easier for developers to create and develop hybrid board games. The platform was created at NTNU and has been worked on by students and employees at the IDI institute. This thesis aims to investigate this platform, and look at the potential it has to influence learn...

  11. Hybridization effect on generation capability of an embedded CPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klach


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare performances of two configurations of an embedded Claw Pole Alternator (CPA where the excitation winding is transferred to the stator side. These configurations are: the Simple Excited Automotive Alternator (SE2A and the Hybrid Excited Automotive Alternator (HE2A. Performed study is based on test at no-load and under load operation regimes, using Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC models validated experimentally. It has been found that the hybrid Excited claw pole alternator provides higher performances, due to the increase of leakage flux through the integration of permanent magnets between adjacent rotor claws.

  12. Pooled effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine powered with biodiesel blend. (United States)

    Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J; Parthasarathy, M; Dhinesh, B; Annamalai, K


    In this study, the effect of injection pressure on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine powered with turbulence inducer piston was studied. Engine tests were executed using conventional diesel and 20% blend of adelfa biodiesel [A20]. The results acquired from renewable fuel A20 in the conventional engine showed reduction in brake thermal efficiency being the result of poor air fuel mixing characteristics and the higher viscosity of the tested fuel. This prompted further research aiming at the improvement of turbulence for better air fuel mixing by a novel turbulence inducer piston [TIP]. The investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston. Considerable improvement in the emission characteristics like hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke was acheived as a result of optimised injection pressure. Nevertheless, the nitrogen oxide emissions were slightly higher than those of the conventional unmodified engine. The engine with turbulence inducer piston shows the scope for reducing the major pollution and thus ensures environmental safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric


    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  14. Reynolds number effects on scale energy analysis of turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan


    Scale energy analysis combines two approaches of studying wall- bounded turbulent flows - analysis in physical space and analysis in scale space. Previously, scale energy analysis has been performed on DNS channel flow data for a range of friction Reynolds numbers Reτ= 180-934 and dual plane PIV boundary layer data at Reτ= 1100. The dual plane technique allows determination of the full velocity gradient tensor in the measurement plane. Dual Plane PIV data were acquired in streamwise-spanwise planes in the logarithmic region of a water channel boundary layer at two higher Reynolds numbers - Reτ= 2400 and 3000. The results of this study will be described and compared with the lower Re data. It is observed that in general, the production and scale transfer terms of the turbulent kinetic energy increase with increasing Reynolds number. The cross-over scale, which divides the range of scales into a transfer-dominated region and a production- dominated region, increases with increasing Reynolds numbers, resulting in a larger range of transfer-dominated scales at higher Reynolds numbers.

  15. The effect of turbulent structures on hood design -- A review of CFD and flow visualization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, J.O.; Ghorashi, B. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)


    This paper reviews separate flow visualization studies and numerical techniques as related to the fluid behavior of industrial ventilation systems and hood design. The results of these separate studies re brought together in order to shed some light on the fluid behavior in these systems. It is observed that empirically-derived velocity contours continue to be the standard for the design of ventilation systems. However, the practice of sizing exhaust hoods based on velocity contours neglects the existence of events that would inevitably influence the exhaust hood performance. For example, the turbulent structures created by the presence of crossdrafts, room air turbulence, and flow separation around objects within the vicinity of the hood are all but ignored when one solely relies on the velocity-contour technique. This review study presents methods that can be utilized to account for and evaluate the influences of these events. It is concluded that CFD is the most valuable tool for modeling the flow for ventilation systems. In addition, a paradigm is identified and suggested for future research in this area.

  16. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.


    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  17. Effect of probiotic preparation for chemical composition of meat cocks different combinations of hybrid chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík


    Full Text Available In the experiment were verified the application of probiotic preparation through a water supply for feeding of cock’s hybrids Ross 308, Hubbard JV and Cobb 500 in the chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the carcass. Probiotic was based on the strain Lactobacillus fermentum with containing of 1.109 cfu.g−1 and potentially components of maltodextrin and oligofructose in 1% concentration. Length of feeding period was 42 days. Cocks were fed an ad libitum with the same starter mixture HYD-01 to 21th day and from 22nd to 42nd day of feeding with mixture HYD-02 in powdery form. The average of protein content of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (23.93 g.100 g−1, lower in Cobb 500 hybrid (23.90 g.100 g−1 and lowest in Ross 308 hybrid (23.73 g.100 g−1, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. Effect of probiotics had increased the protein content (P ≥ 0.05 in breast muscle of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 cocks and at the Hubbard JV only lower doses application during the feeding. The average of fat content in 100 g of breast muscle was lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (1.09 g, higher in Hubbard JV hybrid (1.28 g and highest in Ross 308 hybrid (1.35 g. Effect of probiotic to reduce fat content in breast muscle of cocks was at Ross 308 hybrid (1.33 and 1.23 g.100 g−1, Cobb 500 hybrid (0.98 and 1.02 g.100 g−1 and in second experimental group at Hubbard JV hybrid (1.03 g.100 g−1 statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05 in compared with control group, but significantly (P ≤ 0.05 between hybrids Cobb 500 and Hubbard JV in the first test groups. The average of energy value in 100 g of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (449.24 kJ, lower in Ross 308 hybrid (448.40 kJ and lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (441.45 kJ, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. The average of protein content of the femur was highest in Ross 308 hybrid (18.56 g.100

  18. Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation (United States)


    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster...macroparticle growth and distribution and statistical noise are key challenges for particle kinetic models such as particle-in-cell ( PIC ). For hybrid fluid... PIC models such as those commonly used in Hall-effect thruster (HET) simulation, the statistical noise adds an additional challenge due to the

  19. On the effect of electron temperature fluctuations on turbulent heat transport in the edge plasma of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudoin, C.; Tamain, P.; Ciraolo, G.; Futtersack, R.; Gallo, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Nace, N.; Norscini, C. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France)


    In this paper we study the impact of electron temperature fluctuations in a two-dimensional turbulent model. This modification adds a second linear instability, known as sheath-driven conducting-wall instability, with respect to the previous isothermal model only driven by the interchange instability. Non-linear simulations, backed up by the linear analysis, show that the additional mechanism can change drastically the dynamics of turbulence (scales, density-potential correlation, and statistical momentum). Moreover, its importance relatively to the interchange instability should be more significant in the private flux region than in the main scrape of layer. Its effect on heat transport is also investigated for different regimes of parameters, results show that both instabilities are at play in the heat transport. Finally, the sheath negative resistance instability could be responsible for the existence of corrugated heat flux profiles in the scrape-off layer leading to a multiple decay length. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade (United States)

    Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.


    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  1. Effects of expansion ratio on the calculation of parallel-walled backward-facing step flows - Comparison of four models of turbulence (United States)

    Sindir, M. M.


    This paper presents a numerical study of the effects of expansion ratio on two-dimensional separating and reattaching flows in plane backward-facing step geometries with parallel walls. Closure of the Reynolds equations was achieved by four different turbulence models: k-epsilon, 'modified' k-epsilon, algebraic stress, and 'modified' algebraic stress models. The k-epsilon model relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean rate of strain through the definition of an isotropic turbulent viscosity. The more advanced algebraic stress model calculates the stresses from implicit algebraic relationships containing the stresses themselves, the mean rate of strain, and the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. 'Modified' versions of the models employ a new dissipation rate equation whose production term was made more sensitive to streamwise curvature effects. A new nonequilibrium wall function treatment proposed by Chieng and Launder (1980) was also incorporated into each model.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Montgomery, David C.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  3. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.


    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  4. Effect of increasingly metallized hybrid reinforcement on the wear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Strength and ductility of pure magnesium have experienced simultaneous improvement due to the pres- ence of nanosize hybrid (yttria and copper) reinforcement. Increasing the vol% (i.e., 0.3–1.0) of ductile metallic copper particles in reinforcement has further enhanced the strength of magnesium. Wear behaviour ...

  5. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo. (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S


    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  6. Effects of particle-fluid density ratio on the interactions between the turbulent channel flow and finite-size particles (United States)

    Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Zhaowu; Shao, Xueming; Wang, Lian-Ping


    A parallel direct-forcing fictitious domain method is employed to perform fully resolved numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow laden with finite-size particles. The effects of the particle-fluid density ratio on the turbulence modulation in the channel flow are investigated at the friction Reynolds number of 180, the particle volume fraction of 0.84 % , and the particle-fluid density ratio ranging from 1 to 104.2. The results show that the variation of the flow drag with the particle-fluid density ratio is not monotonic, with a larger flow drag for the density ratio of 10.42, compared to those of unity and 104.2. A significant drag reduction by the particles is observed for large particle-fluid density ratios during the transient stage, but not at the statistically stationary stage. The intensity of particle velocity fluctuations generally decreases with increasing particle inertia, except that the particle streamwise root-mean-square velocity and streamwise-transverse velocity correlation in the near-wall region are largest at the density ratio of the order of 10. The averaged momentum equations are derived with the spatial averaging theorem and are used to analyze the mechanisms for the effects of the particles on the flow drag. The results indicate that the drag-reduction effect due to the decrease in the fluid Reynolds shear stress is counteracted by the drag-enhancement effect due to the increase in the total particle stress or the interphase drag force for the large particle-inertia case. The sum of the total Reynolds stress and particle inner stress contributions to the flow drag is largest at the density ratio of the order of 10, which is the reason for the largest flow drag at this density ratio. The interphase drag force obtained from the averaged momentum equation (the balance theory) is significantly smaller than (but agrees qualitatively with) that from the empirical drag formula based on the phase-averaged slip velocity for large density

  7. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli


    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  8. New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport (United States)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka


    Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated.

  9. Turbulence and surface heat transfer near the stagnation point of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow (United States)

    Wang, C. R.


    A turbulent boundary layer flow analysis of the momentum and thermal flow fields near the forward stagnation point due to a circular cylinder in turbulent cross flow is presented. Turbulence modeling length scale, anisotropic turbulence initial profiles and boundary conditions were identified as functions of the cross flow turbulence intensity and the boundary layer flow far field velocity. These parameters were used in a numerical computational procedure to calculate the mean velocity, mean temperature, and turbulence double correlation profiles within the flow field. The effects of the cross flow turbulence on the stagnation region momentum and thermal flow fields were investigated. This analysis predicted the existing measurements of the stagnation region mean velocity and surface heat transfer rate with cross flow Reynolds number and turbulence intensity less than 250,000 and 0.05, respectively.

  10. CFD Simulation of Effect of Interphase Forces and Turbulence Models on Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows in Non-Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Cells (United States)

    Zhan, Shuiqing; Yang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhentao; Zhao, Ruijie; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Junfeng


    Numerical simulations of gas-liquid two-phase flows in aluminum electrolysis cells using the Euler-Euler approach were presented. The attempt was made to assess the performance and applicability of different interphase forces (drag, lift, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion forces) and turbulence models (standard k- ɛ, renormalization group k- ɛ, standard k- ω, shear stress transport k- ω, and Reynolds stress models). Moreover, three different bubble-induced turbulence models have been also analyzed. The simulated electrolyte velocity profiles were discussed by comparing with each other and against published experimental data. Based on the results of the validation of different interphase forces and turbulence models, a set consisting of the dispersed standard k- ɛ model, Grace drag coefficient model, Simonin turbulent dispersion force model, and Sato et al.'s bubble-induced effective viscosity model was found to provide the best agreement with the experimental data. The prediction results showed that the contributions of the lift force and the wall lubrication force can be neglected for the present bubbly flows.

  11. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats


    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  12. Effects of aerodynamic particle interaction in turbulent non-dilute particle-laden flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Fuchs, Laszlo


    Aerodynamic four-way coupling models are necessary to handle two-phase flows with a dispersed phase in regimes in which the particles are neither dilute enough to neglect particle interaction nor dense enough to bring the mixture to equilibrium. We include an aerodynamic particle interaction model...... is applied to simulate monodisperse, rigid, and spherical particles injected into crossflow as an idealization of a spray jet in crossflow. A domain decomposition technique reduces the computational cost of the aerodynamic particle interaction model. It is shown that the average drag on such particles...... decreases by more than 40% in the dense particle region in the near-field of the jet due to the introduction of aerodynamic four-way coupling. The jet of monodisperse particles therefore penetrates further into the crossflow in this case. The strength of the counterrotating vortex pair (CVP) and turbulence...

  13. Isotope effect on blob-statistics in gyrofluid simulations of scrape-off layer turbulence (United States)

    Meyer, O. H. H.; Kendl, A.


    In this contribution we apply a recently established stochastic model for scrape-off layer fluctuations to long time series obtained from gyrofluid simulations of fusion edge plasma turbulence. Characteristic parameters are estimated for different fusion relevant isotopic compositions (protium, deuterium, tritium and singly charged helium) by means of conditional averaging. It is shown that large amplitude fluctuations associated with radially propagating filaments in the scrape-off layer feature double-exponential wave-forms. We find increased pulse duration and longer waiting times between peaks for heavier ions, while the amplitudes are similar. The associated radial blob velocity is shown to be reduced for heavier ions. A parabolic relation between skewness and kurtosis of density fluctuations seems to be present. Improved particle confinement in terms of reduced mean value close to the outermost radial boundary and blob characteristics for heavier plasmas is presented.

  14. Three-dimensional simulation strategy to determine the effects of turbulent mixing on inertial-confinement-fusion capsule performance. (United States)

    Haines, Brian M; Grinstein, Fernando F; Fincke, James R


    In this paper, we present and justify an effective strategy for performing three-dimensional (3D) inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsule simulations. We have evaluated a frequently used strategy in which two-dimensional (2D) simulations are rotated to 3D once sufficient relevant 2D flow physics has been captured and fine resolution requirements can be restricted to relatively small regions. This addresses situations typical of ICF capsules which are otherwise prohibitively intensive computationally. We tested this approach for our previously reported fully 3D simulations of laser-driven reshock experiments where we can use the available 3D data as reference. Our studies indicate that simulations that begin as purely 2D lead to significant underprediction of mixing and turbulent kinetic energy production at later time when compared to the fully 3D simulations. If, however, additional suitable nonuniform perturbations are applied at the time of rotation to 3D, we show that one can obtain good agreement with the purely 3D simulation data, as measured by vorticity distributions as well as integrated mixing and turbulent kinetic energy measurements. Next, we present results of simulations of a simple OMEGA-type ICF capsule using the developed strategy. These simulations are in good agreement with available experimental data and suggest that the dominant mechanism for yield degradation in ICF implosions is hydrodynamic instability growth seeded by long-wavelength surface defects. This effect is compounded by drive asymmetries and amplified by repeated shock interactions with an increasingly distorted shell, which results in further yield reduction. Our simulations are performed with and without drive asymmetries in order to compare the importance of these effects to those of surface defects; our simulations indicate that long-wavelength surface defects degrade yield by approximately 60% and short-wavelength drive asymmetry degrades yield by a further 30%.

  15. Cemented, cementless, and hybrid prostheses for total hip replacement: cost effectiveness analysis. (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Grieve, Richard; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Gregg, Paul; Black, Nick; van der Meulen, Jan H


    To compare the cost effectiveness of the three most commonly chosen types of prosthesis for total hip replacement. Lifetime cost effectiveness model with parameters estimated from individual patient data obtained from three large national databases. English National Health Service. Adults aged 55 to 84 undergoing primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis. Total hip replacement using either cemented, cementless, or hybrid prostheses. Cost (£), quality of life (EQ-5D-3L, where 0 represents death and 1 perfect health), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost effectiveness ratios, and the probability that each prosthesis type is the most cost effective at alternative thresholds of willingness to pay for a QALY gain. Lifetime costs were generally lowest with cemented prostheses, and postoperative quality of life and lifetime QALYs were highest with hybrid prostheses. For example, in women aged 70 mean costs were £6900 ($11 000; €8200) for cemented prostheses, £7800 for cementless prostheses, and £7500 for hybrid prostheses; mean postoperative EQ-5D scores were 0.78, 0.80, and 0.81, and the corresponding lifetime QALYs were 9.0, 9.2, and 9.3 years. The incremental cost per QALY for hybrid compared with cemented prostheses was £2500. If the threshold willingness to pay for a QALY gain exceeded £10 000, the probability that hybrid prostheses were most cost effective was about 70%. Hybrid prostheses have the highest probability of being the most cost effective in all subgroups, except in women aged 80, where cemented prostheses were most cost effective. Cemented prostheses were the least costly type for total hip replacement, but for most patient groups hybrid prostheses were the most cost effective. Cementless prostheses did not provide sufficient improvement in health outcomes to justify their additional costs.

  16. Magnetoconductance of a hybrid quantum ring: Effects of antidot potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nammee Kim


    Full Text Available The electronic structures and two-terminal magnetoconductance of a hybrid quantum ring are studied. The backscattering due to energy-resonance is considered in the conductance calculation. The hybrid magnetic-electric quantum ring is fabricated by applying an antidot electrostatic potential in the middle of a magnetic quantum dot. Electrons are both magnetically and electrically confined in the plane. The antidot potential repelling electrons from the center of the dot plays a critical role in the energy spectra and magnetoconductance. The angular momentum transition in the energy dispersion and the magnetoconductance behavior are investigated in consideration of the antidot potential variation. Results are shown using a comparison of the results of the conventional magnetic quantum dot.

  17. Maternal effect and speciation: maternal effect contributes to the evolution of hybrid inviability between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana. (United States)

    Eizadshenass, Sogol; Singh, Rama S


    Haldane's rule has been the basis of speciation research during the last 30 years. Most studies have focused on the nature of incompatibilities in the hybrid male, but not much attention has been given to the genetic basis of fertility and inviability in hybrid females. Hybridizations between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana produce fertile females and sterile males. Here, we re-examined the level of fertility in reciprocal F1 females of these two species and looked for the presence of maternal effects. Our results show that the reciprocal F1 females of D. simulans and D. mauritiana hybridizations are fully fertile and in fact show a significant level of heterosis in the rate of oviposition but display reduced egg hatching in one direction. Reduced egg hatching was observed in the progenies of F1 hybrid females with D. mauritiana as mother, the same cross that showed a stronger negative effect on F1 male fertility. A review of the literature on the hybridizations in Lepidoptera also showed a maternal effect on inviability when reciprocal crosses produced asymmetric results. Our findings point to the importance of maternal effects in the evolution of embryo inviability and thus enhancing the process of speciation through the evolution of hybrid inviability.

  18. Temperature effects on parasite prevalence in a natural hybrid complex


    Schoebel, Corine N.; Tellenbach, Christoph; Spaak, Piet; Wolinska, Justyna


    Both host susceptibility and parasite infectivity commonly have a genetic basis, and can therefore be shaped by coevolution. However, these traits are often sensitive to environmental variation, resulting in genotype-by-environment interactions. We tested the influence of temperature on host–parasite genetic specificity in the Daphnia longispina hybrid complex, exposed to the protozoan parasite Caullerya mesnili. Infection rates were higher at low temperature. Furthermore, significant differe...

  19. Effect of grain port length-diameter ratio on combustion performance in hybrid rocket motors (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Zhang, Yuanjun; Tian, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Yu, Nanjia


    The objectives of this study are to develop a more accurate regression rate considering the oxidizer mass flow and the fuel grain geometry configuration with numerical and experimental investigations in polyethylene (PE)/90% hydrogen peroxide (HP) hybrid rocket. Firstly, a 2-D axisymmetric CFD model with turbulence, chemistry reaction, solid-gas coupling is built to investigate the combustion chamber internal flow structure. Then a more accurate regression formula is proposed and the combustion efficiency changing with the length-diameter ratio is studied. A series experiments are conducted in various oxidizer mass flow to analyze combustion performance including the regression rate and combustion efficiency. The regression rates are measured by the fuel mass reducing and diameter changing. A new regression rate formula considering the fuel grain configuration is proposed in this paper. The combustion efficiency increases with the length-diameter ratio changing. To improve the performance of a hybrid rocket motor, the port length-diameter ratio is suggested 10-12 in the paper.

  20. Numerical Study of the Effects of Thermal Barrier Coating and Turbulence Intensity on Cooling Performances of a Nozzle Guide Vane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Prapamonthon


    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical investigation of the combined effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC with mainstream turbulence intensity (Tu on a modified vane of the real film-cooled nozzle guide vane (NGV reported by Timko (NASA CR-168289. Using a 3D conjugate heat transfer (CHT analysis, the NGVs with and without TBC are simulated at three Tus (Tu = 3.3%, 10% and 20%. The overall cooling effectiveness, TBC effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate the following three interesting phenomena: (1 TBC on the pressure side (PS is more effective than that on the suction side (SS due to a fewer number of film holes on the SS; (2 for all three Tus, the variation trends of the overall cooling effectiveness are similar, and TBC plays the positive and negative roles in heat flux at the same time, and significantly increases the overall cooling effectiveness in regions cooled ineffectively by cooling air; (3 when Tu increases, the TBC effect is more significant, for example, at the highest Tu (Tu = 20% the overall cooling effectiveness can increase as much as 24% in the film cooling ineffective regions, but near the trailing edge (TE and the exits and downstream of film holes on the SS, this phenomenon is slight.

  1. Turbulent reconnection and its implications. (United States)

    Lazarian, A; Eyink, G; Vishniac, E; Kowal, G


    Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700-718 (doi:10.1086/307233)) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate

  2. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology (United States)

    Herring, J. R.


    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  3. Effect of elevated temperatures on flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites (United States)

    Ramli, W. M. A. W.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Rahman, M. N.; Azduwin, Y. K.


    The effects of elevated temperatures on the flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Hybrid composites laminates were fabricated using untreated, 5%, or 10% alkali-treated Napier fibres with woven E-glass fibres and epoxy resin. The composites were manufactured using a vacuum infusion process; the volume fraction of the Napier, glass fibres and epoxy resin were 24%, 6% and 70% respectively. When tested at room temperature (RT), the maximum flexural strength was recorded for the hybrid composites with the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres. When the test temperature greater than 60°C, the matrix cracking and delamination were occurred due to the temperature that approached the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, which resulted in a reduction of the flexural strength. The fracture surface morphologies indicated that the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres improved the fibre-matrix interfacial bonding of the hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites.

  4. Ocean Turbulence V: Mesoscale Modeling in Level Coordinates. The Effect of Random Nature of Density (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.


    The main result of this paper is the derivation of a new expression for the tracer subgrid term in level coordinates S(l) to be employed in O-GCM. The novel feature is the proper account of the random nature of the density field which strongly affects the transformation from isopycnal to level coordinates of the variables of interest, velocity and tracer fields, their correlation functions and ultimately the subgrid terms. In deriving our result we made use of measured properties of vertical ocean turbulence. The major new results are: 1) the new subgrid expression is different from that of the heuristic GM model, 2) u++(tracer)=1/2u+(thickness), where u++ and u+ are the tracer and thickness bolus velocities. In previous models, u++ = u+, 2) the subgrid for a tracer tau is not the same as that for the density rho even when one accounts for the obvious absence of a diffusion term in the latter. The difference stems from a new treatment of the stochastic nature of the density, 3) the mesoscale diffusivity enters both locally and non-locally, as the integral over all z's from the bottom of the ocean to the level z.

  5. Effect of Immersed Wall-Bounded Cylinders on Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure (United States)

    Zheng, Shaokai; Longmire, Ellen; Hallberg, Michael; Ryan, Mitchell


    Single spanwise arrays of wall-mounted cylinders with H/ δ <= 0.2, where H is the cylinder height and δ is the boundary layer thickness, were used to modify turbulent boundary layers (Reτ=2500) in an attempt to affect the organization of the coherent structures in the logarithmic and outer regions. Flow downstream of several array spacings was investigated and compared against an unperturbed case. Instantaneous and averaged velocity fields in streamwise-spanwise planes were obtained by stereo PIV. The PIV cameras and laser sheet optics could be traversed at the local mean flow speed in order to track the evolution of larger structures in the flow. The results are analyzed to determine the streamwise evolution of dominant spanwise modes. Different array spacings are shown to either inhibit or reinforce the organization of vortex packet structures over streamwise distances up to 8 δ. The flying stereo PIV measurements suggest also that dominant structures upstream of the arrays can strongly affect the organization and location of structures downstream. supported by NSF CBET-0933341.

  6. Stereopsis cueing effects on hover-in-turbulence performance in a simulated rotorcraft (United States)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.


    The efficacy of stereopsis cueing in pictorial displays was assessed in a real-time piloted simulation experiment of a rotorcraft precision hover-in-turbulence task. Seven pilots endeavored to maintain a hover by visually aligning a set of inner and outer wickets (major elements of a real-world pictorial display, thus attaining the desired hover position, in a full factorial experimental design. The display conditions examined included the presence or absence of a velocity display element (a velocity head-up display) as well as the stereopsis cueing conditions, which included non-stereo (binoptic or monoscopic - no depth cues other than those provided by a perspective, real-world display), stereo 3-D, and hyper stereo (telestereoscopic). Subjective and objective results indicated that the depth cues provided by the stereo displays enhanced the situational awareness of the pilot and enabled improved hover performance to be achieved. The velocity display element also improved the hover performance, with the best hover performance being achieved with the combined use of stereo and the velocity display element. Pilot control input data revealed that less control action was required to attain the improved hover performance with the stereo displays.

  7. A RANS simulation toward the effect of turbulence and cavitation on spray propagation and combustion characteristics (United States)

    Taghavifar, Hadi; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad; Taghavifar, Hamid


    A multidimensional computational fluid dynamic code was developed and integrated with probability density function combustion model to give the detailed account of multiphase fluid flow. The vapor phase within injector domain is treated with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes technique. A new parameter is proposed which is an index of plane-cut spray propagation and takes into account two parameters of spray penetration length and cone angle at the same time. It was found that spray propagation factor (SPI) tends to increase at lower r/ d ratios, although the spray penetration tends to decrease. The results of SPI obtained by empirical correlation of Hay and Jones were compared with the simulation computation as a function of respective r/ d ratio. Based on the results of this study, the spray distribution on plane area has proportional correlation with heat release amount, NO x emission mass fraction, and soot concentration reduction. Higher cavitation is attributed to the sharp edge of nozzle entrance, yielding better liquid jet disintegration and smaller spray droplet that reduces soot mass fraction of late combustion process. In order to have better insight of cavitation phenomenon, turbulence magnitude in nozzle and combustion chamber was acquired and depicted along with spray velocity.

  8. Turbulent multiphase flows (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.


    Measurements and predictions of the structure of several multiphase flows are considered. The properties of dense sprays near the exits of pressure-atomizing injectors and of noncombusting and combusting dilute dispersed flows in round-jet configurations are addressed. It is found that the properties of dense sprays exhibit structure and mixing properties similar to variable-density single-phase flows at high Reynolds numbers within the atomization regime. The degree of development and turbulence levels at the injector exit have a surprisingly large effect on the structure and mixing properties of pressure-atomized sprays, particularly when the phase densities are large. Contemporary stochastic analysis of dilute multiphase flows provides encouraging predictions of turbulent dispersion for a wide variety of jetlike flows, particle-laden jets in gases and liquids, noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets, and nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays.

  9. Hybrid Harmony Search Algorithm and Interior Point Method for Economic Dispatch with Valve-Point Effect (United States)

    Sivasubramani, S.; Ahmad, Md. Samar


    This paper proposes a new hybrid algorithm combining harmony search (HS) algorithm and interior point method (IPM) for economic dispatch (ED) problem with valve-point effect. ED problem with valve-point effect is modeled as a non-linear, constrained and non-convex optimization problem having several local minima. IPM is a best non-linear optimization method for convex optimization problems. Since ED problem with valve-point effect has multiple local minima, IPM results in a local optimum solution. In order to avoid IPM getting trapped in a local optimum, a new evolutionary algorithm HS, which is good in global exploration, has been combined. In the hybrid method, HS is used for global search and IPM for local search. The hybrid method has been tested on three different test systems to prove its effectiveness. Finally, the simulation results are also compared with other methods reported in the literature.

  10. Drag Reduction for Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows Using an Oscillating Wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogard, David


    This research program used experimental measurements and computational simulations to study the drag reduction, and the resulting effects on turbulence structure, for a turbulent wall flow subjected...

  11. Effects of glass fiber layering on the flexural strength of microfill and hybrid composites. (United States)

    Eronat, Nesrin; Candan, Umit; Türkün, Murat


    In stress-bearing cavities, low fracture resistance adversely affects the longevity of the dental resin composite restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of glass fiber layering on the flexural strength of microfill and hybrid composites. Flexural test specimens (N = 75) were prepared according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 specifications (25 x 2 x 2 mm) by using a standard metallic mold. Materials used and groups were as follows (N = 15): group 1: hybrid composite (Clearfil APX, Kuraray Co.Ltd, Osaka, Japan); group 2: microfill composite (Clearfil ST, Kuraray Co.Ltd.); group 3: hybrid + microfill composite; group 4: woven glass fiber (EverstickNet, StickTech Ltd, Turku, Finland) + hybrid composite; group 5: woven glass fiber + microfill composite. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 7 days. Afterward, they were loaded to fracture (1 mm/min) by using a universal testing machine (AG-50 kNG Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan). Flexural strengths were expressed as maximum flexural load per cross-sectional area of the specimen. The results were statistically analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p 0.01). Glass fiber layering of microfill and hybrid composites presented higher flexural strength, and veneering of hybrid composite with microfill composite increased the resistance of the restoration.

  12. Sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence


    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Shigeru; 山下, 博; 大林, 茂


    The effect of the homogeneous atmospheric turbulence on the sonic boom propagation has been investigated. The turbulence field is represented by a finite sum of discrete Fourier modes based on the von Karman and Pao energy spectrum. The sonic boom signature is calculated by the modified Waveform Parameter Method, considering the turbulent velocities. The results show that in 59 % of the cases, the intensity of the sonic boom had decreased, and in other 41 % of the cases had increased the soni...

  13. The effect of pneumatophore density on turbulence: A field study in a Sonneratia-dominated mangrove forest, Vietnam (United States)

    Norris, Benjamin K.; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin R.; Henderson, Stephen M.


    This paper examines the role of mangrove pneumatophore roots as a spatial control over the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate within a natural mangrove forest. Measurements of turbulence at millimeter scales were compared with vegetation geometries reconstructed using a novel photogrammetric technique. These small-scale relationships were then averaged to show larger-scale patterns in turbulence across the mudflat and mangrove fringe-forest transition. Although turbulence estimates varied with across-shore position, TKE dissipation was always elevated in the fringe relative to mudflat and forest interior sample sites. The largest dissipation rates (4.5 × 10-3 W kg-1) were measured as breaking waves propagated over canopies in very shallow water. Dissipation was reduced, but often remained intense (10-5-10-4 W kg-1) under non-breaking waves at the fringe, likely indicating turbulent generation in pneumatophore wakes. Pneumatophore density was positively correlated with the spatial distribution of TKE dissipation. Turbulence was also correlated positively with wave height and negatively with water depth. Fringe sediments were more sandy and less muddy than sediments onshore and offshore, suggesting that the intense turbulence may lead to winnowing of fine-grained sediments at the fringe.

  14. Manipulating the anisotropy of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Kelken; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    Most turbulence theories apply only to the ideal state of statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Almost all natural flows, including laboratory flows, are neither. In order to know the extent of the validity of the theories, we need to understand the influence of deviations from this ideal state. In this paper, we describe an experiment in which we not only generate isotropic turbulence, but also turbulence whose level of anisotropy can be varied systematically, while maintaining a certain degree of homogeneity. As a first step toward understanding the effect of anisotropy on turbulence, we report on the isotropy of the velocity structure functions for scales smaller than a characteristic length scale describing the large-scale motions of the flow. Our apparatus was nearly spherical, was filled with air, and generated axisymmetric turbulence. We set the ratio of axial to radial velocity fluctuation amplitudes to various values between 0.6 and 2.3. We then measured two-point velocity structure fun...

  15. Effect of Interfacial Turbulence and Accommodation Coefficient on CFD Predictions of Pressurization and Pressure Control in Cryogenic Storage Tank (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya


    Laminar models agree closely with the pressure evolution and vapor phase temperature stratification but under-predict liquid temperatures. Turbulent SST k-w and k-e models under-predict the pressurization rate and extent of stratification in the vapor but represent liquid temperature distributions fairly well. These conclusions seem to equally apply to large cryogenic tank simulations as well as small scale simulant fluid pressurization cases. Appropriate turbulent models that represent both interfacial and bulk vapor phase turbulence with greater fidelity are needed. Application of LES models to the tank pressurization problem can serve as a starting point.

  16. Dynamics of quantum turbulence of different spectra (United States)

    Walmsley, Paul; Zmeev, Dmitry; Pakpour, Fatemeh; Golov, Andrei


    Turbulence in a superfluid in the zero-temperature limit consists of a dynamic tangle of quantized vortex filaments. Different types of turbulence are possible depending on the level of correlations in the orientation of vortex lines. We provide an overview of turbulence in superfluid 4He with a particular focus on recent experiments probing the decay of turbulence in the zero-temperature regime below 0.5 K. We describe extensive measurements of the vortex line density during the free decay of different types of turbulence: ultraquantum and quasiclassical turbulence in both stationary and rotating containers. The observed decays and the effective dissipation as a function of temperature are compared with theoretical models and numerical simulations. PMID:24704876

  17. Superconductor-semiconductor interaction effects in mesoscopic hybrid structures (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Thornton, T. J.; Huber, R.; Cohen, L. F.; Yuen, W. T.; Stradling, R. A.


    We have studied transport in mesoscopic superconductor-semiconductor hybrid structures consisting of two-dimensional arrays of micrometer-sized niobium dots deposited on high-mobility InAs:GaSb quantum wells. The grating arrays were designed to have a dot size and spacing of 3, 1.5, and 1 μm, so as to be smaller than the electron mean free path of ~5 μm. At low temperatures all the structures show clear evidence of Andreev reflection while the two smaller period samples also exhibit a proximity-induced superconducting phase. We present measurements of the differential resistance at different temperatures and magnetic fields. For fields greater than 0.3 T, different features are observed in the differential resistance which we attribute to nonuniform flux penetration around the superconducting dots.

  18. Study of optimum methods of optical communication. [accounting for the effects of the turbulent atmosphere and quantum mechanics (United States)

    Harger, R. O.


    Abstracts are reported relating to the techniques used in the research concerning optical transmission of information. Communication through the turbulent atmosphere, quantum mechanics, and quantum communication theory are discussed along with the results.

  19. The mechanical design of hybrid graphene/boron nitride nanotransistors: Geometry and interface effects (United States)

    Einalipour Eshkalak, Kasra; Sadeghzadeh, Sadegh; Jalaly, Maisam


    From electronic point of view, graphene resembles a metal or semi-metal and boron nitride is a dielectric material (band gap = 5.9 eV). Hybridization of these two materials opens band gap of the graphene which has expansive applications in field-effect graphene transistors. In this paper, the effect of the interface structure on the mechanical properties of a hybrid graphene/boron nitride was studied. Young's modulus, fracture strain and tensile strength of the models were simulated. Three likely types (hexagonal, octagonal and decagonal) were found for the interface of hybrid sheet after relaxation. Although Csbnd B bonds at the interface were indicated to result in more promising electrical properties, nitrogen atoms are better choice for bonding to carbon for mechanical applications.

  20. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens in crop hybrid breeding in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)


    Crop heterosis utilization was one of the greatest achievements in the agriculture production in the 20th century. It is proved that every breakthrough in crop hybrid breeding was predicated on the discovery or successful development of new heterosis germplasm. In recent years, in order to open up the scope and ways of using crop heterosis, it has been paid much close attention to apply mutation techniques to hybrid breeding. Useful tool materials like male sterile mutant lines, fertile restoration mutants in many crops have been obtained by effective use of physical/chemical mutagens. Brief introduction is made in this paper on the newest research improvement concerning the effective use of the techniques of mutation induction in China to create special useful genes, enrich the diversity of germplasm and promote the rapid development of crop hybrid breeding. (author)

  1. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.


    increases with increase in distance away from tailpipe. Also indicating the cooling and dilution of the exhaust begins at close vicinity to the tailpipe. The rate of cooling and dilution are greatest in early stages of the dilution process for the areas with high turbulence intensity (TI), where strong mixing phenomena occurs, leading to the formation of a predominant nucleation mode. On the other hand, the core of the plume observes a slower cooling and dilution rate. This difference is reflected in the PM formation and evolution of these two distinct regions, as shown by the particle size distributions and number concentrations. Continuous mixing will tend to mellow those differences, but its ;final; result is related to the dilution history.

  2. Effectiveness evaluation of double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rao, Qiaomeng


    In order to solve the problem of high speed, large capacity and limited spectrum resources of satellite communication network, a double-layered satellite network with global seamless coverage based on laser and microwave hybrid links is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the characteristics of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links, an effectiveness evaluation index system for the network is established. And then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which combines the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links. Furthermore, the evaluation result of the proposed hybrid link network is obtained by simulation. The effectiveness evaluation process of the proposed double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links can help to optimize the design of hybrid link double-layered satellite network and improve the operating efficiency of the satellite system.

  3. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome. (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A


    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. Copyright © 2014 Cuykendall et al.

  4. The Role of Kinetic Instabilities in the Collisionless Turbulent Dynamo (United States)

    St-Onge, D. A.; Kunz, M. W.


    Conservation of the first adiabatic invariant μ in a magnetized, collisionless plasma precludes turbulent amplification of the magnetic field. This is because any increase in magnetic-field strength would adiabatically increase the perpendicular pressure, whose growth is stringently limited by the finite free energy in the system. A mechanism is then needed to break μ conservation in order to enable the amplification of a weak, primordial seed magnetic field to dynamically important strengths. Conveniently, amplification of the magnetic field in a high-beta plasma leads to pressure anisotropies large enough to trigger kinetic instabilities at ion-Larmor scales (e.g., firehose, mirror). These instabilities saturate by causing anomalous scattering of particles, breaking μ conservation. This interplay between magnetic-field growth and kinetic instabilities adds a new layer of complexity to the more conventional (and much better understood) magnetohydrodynamic turbulent dynamo. Using self-consistent hybrid-kinetic, particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the impact of these kinetic instabilities on the turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma, with a particular focus on how kinetic effects enable the amplification of magnetic fields and modify their structure. This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  6. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  7. Hybrid RANS-LES using high order numerical methods (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Knaus, Robert; Sprague, Michael


    Understanding the impact of wind turbine wake dynamics on downstream turbines is particularly important for the design of efficient wind farms. Due to their tractable computational cost, hybrid RANS/LES models are an attractive framework for simulating separation flows such as the wake dynamics behind a wind turbine. High-order numerical methods can be computationally efficient and provide increased accuracy in simulating complex flows. In the context of LES, high-order numerical methods have shown some success in predictions of turbulent flows. However, the specifics of hybrid RANS-LES models, including the transition region between both modeling frameworks, pose unique challenges for high-order numerical methods. In this work, we study the effect of increasing the order of accuracy of the numerical scheme in simulations of canonical turbulent flows using RANS, LES, and hybrid RANS-LES models. We describe the interactions between filtering, model transition, and order of accuracy and their effect on turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy spectra, boundary layer evolution, and dissipation rate. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Exascale Computing Project, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  8. Kolmogorov Spectrum of Quantum Turbulence


    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Tsubota, Makoto


    There is a growing interest in the relation between classical turbulence and quantum turbulence. Classical turbulence arises from complicated dynamics of eddies in a classical fluid. In contrast, quantum turbulence consists of a tangle of stable topological defects called quantized vortices, and thus quantum turbulence provides a simpler prototype of turbulence than classical turbulence. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and statistics of quantized vortices in quantum turbulence by n...

  9. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

  10. Effects of plant size, temperature, and light intensity on flowering of Phalaenopsis hybrids in Mediterranean greenhouses. (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania


    Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids "Sogo Yukidian," "Chain Xen Diamond," and "Pinlong"); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid "Premium"); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid "Premium"). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In "Premium," the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime.

  11. Band hybridization effect in InAs/GaSb based quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.F. [West AnHui University, LuAn 237012 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Gong, Y.P.; Long, M.S. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, C.H., E-mail: [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Liu, L.W., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)


    We develop a simple way to investigate the band hybridization effect in the present of the many-body interactions in an InAs/GaSb based quantum wells with different widths. The exchange self-energy and energy gap are obtained analytically at the long wave limit. An electron-like and a hole-like dispersion relations were obtained and a minigap about several meV is observed at the intercross of the electron and hole dispersion relations. Our theoretical results show that the widths of the quantum well have crucial role on the band hybridization in such a system.

  12. Effects of Hybrid Type, Stage of Maturity, and Fermentation Length on Whole Plant Corn Silage Quality


    BAL, Mehmet Ali


    Two corn hybrids (conventional: CON; silage: SIL) were harvested at early dent (ED), 1/2 milkline (1/2 ML), and black layer (BL) stages of maturity for testing the effects of hybrid, stage of maturity, and length of fermentation on corn silage quality. Tested parameters were pH, DM, CP, and ruminal in situ DM disappearance (ISDMD), respectively. Longer fermentation length caused lower silage pH at 8 (3.97) and 16 (3.93) weeks. While CP content tended to increase with longer fermentation lengt...

  13. Turbulent flow computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard


    ... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...

  14. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker


    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  15. An accelerated hybrid TLM-IE method for the investigation of shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fichtner


    Full Text Available A hybrid numerical technique combining time-domain integral equations (TD-IE with the transmission line matrix (TLM method is presented for the efficient modeling of transient wave phenomena. This hybrid method allows the full-wave modeling of circuits in the time-domain as well as the electromagnetic coupling of remote TLM subdomains using integral equations (IE. By using the integral equations the space between the TLM subdomains is not discretized and consequently doesn't contribute to the computational effort. The cost for the evaluation of the time-domain integral equations (TD-IE is further reduced using a suitable plane-wave representation of the source terms. The hybrid TD-IE/TLM method is applied in the computation of the shielding effectiveness (SE of metallic enclosures.

  16. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  17. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction.

  18. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System. (United States)

    He, Yong; Zhu, Ka-Di


    In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction.

  19. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System (United States)

    He, Yong; Zhu, Ka-Di


    In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction. PMID:28632165

  20. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S


    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...

  1. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.


    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  2. Effects of humic substances on fluorometric DNA quantification and DNA hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachoon, DS; Otero, E; Hodson, RE


    DNA extracts from sediment and water samples are often contaminated with coextracted humic-like impurities, Estuarine humic substances and vascular plant extract were used to evaluate the effect of the presence of such impurities on DNA hybridization and quantification. The presence of humic

  3. Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 1. Effects of hybrid composition of ... The replacements of glass fibres with LCP fibres improved abrasive wear resistance of composite. The composite ... Incorporation of LCP fibre improved wear resistance of glass fibre reinforced LLDPE. Worn surfaces were ...

  4. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  5. Effective pathfinding for four-wheeled robot based on combining Theta* and hybrid A* algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Геннадійович Михалько


    Full Text Available Effective pathfinding algorithm based on Theta* and Hybrid A* algorithms was developed for four-wheeled robot. Pseudocode for algorithm was showed and explained. Algorithm and simulator for four-wheeled robot were implemented using Java programming language. Algorithm was tested on U-obstacles, complex maps and for parking problem

  6. Collisional effect on lower hybrid waves instability in a dusty plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of particle collisions on lower hybrid modes in a dusty plasma is studied. The dispersion relation derived from fluid theory is numerically solved for plasma parameters relevant to determine the modification in wave propagation due to collisions. This study is relevant to the earth's lower atmosphere, in particular, the ...

  7. A detailed look at turbulence intensity (United States)

    The effect of turbulence intensity on energy capture by small wind turbines has been a point of debate in the last few years. Claims of 25% de-rating of the power curve for turbines installed at sites with high turbulence are not uncommon. Over the years, many attempts have been made to model the ef...

  8. Electron beam relaxation in turbulent plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karfidov, D.M.; Lukina, N.A. [General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The electron beam interaction with collisionless plasma was studied experimentally. The beam relaxation length is shown to be determined by strong Langmuir turbulence development. Effective collision frequency of turbulence is determined; final cavity size determined from plasma electrical field strength measurements is estimated to be about 30 Debay lengths. (author)

  9. Effect of riblet shape on turbulent drag reduction; Ranryu masatsu teiko gensho ni oyobosu riblet keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S.; Takiguchi, K. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Yoneyama, T. [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper presents an effect of riblet shape on turbulent drag reduction. The experiment was carried out in an N. P. L. blow-down-type wind tunnel with a working section of 500 mm x 500 mm x 2,000 mm. In order to investigate the details of drag reduction for riblet shape, rib models of scaling up riblets were used in this experiment. The parameters were 5 kinds for the rib model and 7 kinds for the riblet model. The time-mean velocity and skin friction were measured by the Pitot and static pressure tubes and Preston tube respectively. The Reynolds stress was obtained using the data processing system connected to a hot wire anemometer. Consequently it was found that (1) the Reynolds stress and skin friction become smallest near the surface for the rib with the section of an equilateral triangle, and (2) the drag reduction attains maximum for the riblet of V groove with nearly equilateral triangular section. (author)

  10. Effect of Twisted-Tape Turbulators and Nanofluid on Heat Transfer in a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Maddah


    Full Text Available Heat transfer and overall heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger fitted with twisted-tape elements and titanium dioxide nanofluid were studied experimentally. The inner and outer diameters of the inner tube were 8 and 16 mm, respectively, and cold and hot water were used as working fluids in shell side and tube side. The twisted tapes were made from aluminum sheet with tape thickness (d of 1 mm, width (W of 5 mm, and length of 120 cm. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 30 nm and a volume concentration of 0.01% (v/v were prepared. The effects of temperature, mass flow rate, and concentration of nanoparticles on the overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer changes in the turbulent flow regime Re≥2300, and counter current flow were investigated. When using twisted tape and nanofluid, heat transfer coefficient was about 10 to 25 percent higher than when they were not used. It was also observed that the heat transfer coefficient increases with operating temperature and mass flow rate. The experimental results also showed that 0.01% TiO2/water nanofluid with twisted tape has slightly higher friction factor and pressure drop when compared to 0.01% TiO2/water nanofluid without twisted tape. The empirical correlations proposed for friction factor are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Effects of the location of a biased limiter on turbulent transport in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma (United States)

    Alipour, Ramin; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Elahi, Ahmad Salar; Meshkani, Sakineh


    Plasma confinement plays an important role in fusion study. Applying an external voltage using limiter biasing system is proved to be an efficient approach for plasma confinement. In this study, the position of the limiter biasing system was changed to investigate the effect of applying external voltages at different places to the plasma. The external voltages of ±200 V were applied at the different positions of edge, 5 mm and 10 mm inside the plasma. Then, the main plasma parameters were measured. The results show that the poloidal turbulent transport and radial electric field increased about 25-35% and 35-45%, respectively (specially when the limiter biasing system was placed 5 mm inside the plasma). Also, the Reynolds stress is experienced its maximum reduction about 5-10% when the limiter biasing system was at 5 mm inside the plasma and the voltage of +200 V was applied to the plasma. When the limiter biasing system move 10 mm inside the plasma, the main plasma parameters experienced more instabilities and fluctuations than other positions.

  12. Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Damiano


    We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions – fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.

  13. A biomimetic nano hybrid coating based on the lotus effect and its anti-biofouling behaviors (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Guoqing; Meng, Qinghua; Ding, Chunhua; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Yongzeng


    To develop an environmentally friendly anti-biofouling coating in virtue of bionics, a block copolymer containing fluorine (Coplm_F) of low surface energy was prepared by copolymerization. The Ag-loaded mesoporous silica (Ag@SBA) acting as a controlled-release antifoulant was prepared from the mesoporous silica (SBA-15). The nano hybrid coating (Ag@SBA/Coplm_F) composing of the Coplm_F and Ag@SBA was to biomimetically simulate the lotus microstructure. The concentration of fluorine element on surface was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and found rising to 1.45% after hybridation, which could be explained by the driving effect of SBA-15 via the hydrogen bond. This nanoscale morphology of the hybrid coating was measured and found highly semblable to the microstructure of the lotus surface. The contact angle was determined as 151° which confirmed the superhydrophobicity and lotus effect. The adhesion behaviors of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Diatoms, and Chlorella on the surface of the nano hybrid coating (Ag@SBA/Coplm_F) were studied and good effects of anti-biofouling were observed.

  14. Preliminary investigation of the effect of electric charge on particle-pair relative velocity in isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Hammond, Adam; Dou, Zhongwang; Kailu, Tushar; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui


    In many particle-laden turbulent flows including thunderstorm clouds and aerosol sprays, the particles may be electrically charged. How the Coulomb force between charged particles competes with the turbulence forces on particle motion is not yet fully understood. Mean inward particle pair relative velocity (particle RV), a quantity relevant for particle collision in isotropic turbulence, is expected to be affected by charge. We extend our recent particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) study on particle pair relative velocity in fan-driven isotropic turbulence to particles with charge. To accomplish this, we established a method to independently vary particle charge distributions by balancing particle density and size while keeping constant Reλ and St, developed a unique instrument to measure particle charge using in-line holography, and measured particle RV using PTV at three levels of charge under a single flow condition. We present charged particle RV measurements from the experiments at Reλ = 343, St 1.19, and charge of order 10-15 Coulombs, which show that particle RV increases with magnitude of bipolar charge. This study paves the way for a comprehensive exploration of relative motion of charged particle in isotropic turbulence. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407.

  15. Highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow: direct numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo


    Turbulence is all around us. Even if we are familiar with every day instances of turbulence, like the smoke coming out of a chimney, it remains a not-well-understood phenomenum. As it is impossible to fully simulate turbulence to precisely take into account its effect, models must be used. These

  16. Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars


    The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free ...

  17. Turbulence characteristics of open channel flow over non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of the non-equilibrium mobile dunes on the flow characteristics and turbulence is examined by computing turbulent intensities, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stresses using time averaged and time–space averaged velocity measurements. The magnitudes of transverse velocities are approximately ...

  18. Effect of the mixing fields on the stability and structure of turbulent partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.


    The mixing field is known to be one of the key parameters that affect the stability and structure of partially premixed flames. Data in these flames are now available covering the effects of turbulence, combustion system geometry, level of partially premixing and fuel type. However, quantitative analyses of the flame structure based on the mixing field are not yet available. The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive study of the effects of the mixing fields on the structure and stability of partially premixed methane flames. The mixing field in a concentric flow conical nozzle (CFCN) burner with well-controlled mechanism of the mixing is investigated using Rayleigh scattering technique. The flame stability, structure and flow field of some selected cases are presented using LIF of OH and PIV. The experimental data of the mixing field cover wide ranges of Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and mixing length. The data show that the mixing field is significantly affected by the mixing length and the ratio of the air-to-fuel velocities. The Reynolds number has a minimum effect on the mixing field in high turbulent flow regime and the stability is significantly affected by the turbulence level. The temporal fluctuations of the range of mixture fraction within the mixing field correlate with the flame stability. The highest point of stability occurs at recess distances where fluid mixtures near the jet exit plane are mostly within the flammability limits. This paper provides some correlations between the stability range in mixture fraction space and the turbulence level for different equivalence ratios.

  19. PDF turbulence modeling and DNS (United States)

    Hsu, A. T.


    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.

  20. Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.


    Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.

  1. Turbulent character of wind energy. (United States)

    Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim


    Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov's 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy.

  2. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic


    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  3. Effects of Blade Boundary Layer Transition and Daytime Atmospheric Turbulence on Wind Turbine Performance Analyzed with Blade-Resolved Simulation and Field Data (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak Nath

    , ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (airfoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power is found to respond strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. The experimental data show that internal dynamics of blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the nonsteady external ABL flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade generated turbulence motions. A blade boundary layer resolved CFD study of a GE 1.5MW wind turbine blade is carried out using a hybrid URANS/LES framework to quantify the influence of transition on the blade boundary layer dynamics and subsequent loadings, and also to predict the velocity magnitude data set measured by the trailing edge rakes in the experiment. A URANS based transition model is used as the near-wall model, and its ability to predict nonsteady boundary layer dynamics is assessed for flow over an oscillating airfoil exhibiting varying extents of nonsteady behavior. The CFD study shows that, at rated conditions, the transition and separation locations on the blade surface can be quite dynamic, but the transitional flow has negligible influence on the determination of the separation location and the overall pressure distribution at various blade sections, and subsequently the power output. But this conclusion should be accepted with caution for wind turbines running in off-design conditions (e.g. with significant yaw error, off-design pitch or rapid changes in pitch), where massive separation and dynamic stall may occur. Analysis of the near-blade flow field shows strong three dimensional flow in the inboard regions, which can possibly weaken the chordwise flow in the relatively outboard regions and make them more prone to separation. The trailing edge velocity profiles show qualitative resemblance with some specific cycles observed in the field experiment. The factors leading to the observed differences from the experimental data are also mentioned.

  4. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.


    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  5. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality (United States)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi


    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Roughness Effects on Transition Onset and Turbulent Heating Augmentation on a Hemisphere at Mach 6 and Mach 10 (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.


    An experimental investigation of the effects of distributed surface roughness on boundary-layer transition and turbulent heating has been conducted. Hypersonic wind tunnel testing was performed using hemispherical models with surface roughness patterns simulating those produced by heat shield ablation. Global aeroheating and transition onset data were obtained using phosphor thermography at Mach 6 and Mach 10 over a range of roughness heights and free stream Reynolds numbers sufficient to produce laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. Upstream movement of the transition onset location and increasing heating augmentation over predicted smooth-wall levels were observed with both increasing roughness heights and increasing free stream Reynolds numbers. The experimental heating data are presented herein, as are comparisons to smooth-wall heat transfer distributions from computational flow-field simulations. The transition onset data are also tabulated, and correlations of these data are presented.

  7. Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction (United States)

    Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.


    The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.

  8. Introduction to quantum turbulence (United States)

    Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

  9. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight fan noise in an anechoic chamber (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.


    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis Anechoic Chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results showed about a 5 dB reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  10. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight noise fan in an anechoic chamber (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.


    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis anechoic chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results show about a 5 db reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device, the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  11. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.


    agreement with the reference data. A quantitative comparison between the mean flow field of the DWM model with and without the suggested improvements, to that of the AL model, shows that the root-mean-square difference in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity is reduced on the order of 30% and 40......%, respectively, by including the proposed corrections for a row of eight turbines. Furthermore, it is found that the root-mean-square difference between the AL model and the modified DWM model in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity does not increase over a row of turbines compared with the root-mean-square...... shear on the wake deficit evolution by including a strain-rate contribution in the wake turbulence calculation. The method to account for the increased turbulence at a wake-affected turbine by basing the wake-added turbulence directly on the Reynolds stresses of the oncoming wake. This also allows...

  12. Environmental effects on the hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composites (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-I.


    Fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) have been widely used to replace conventional metals due to the high specific strength, fatigue resistance, and light weight. In the power distribution industry, an advanced composites rod has been developed to replace conventional steel cable as the load-bearing core of overhead conductors. Such conductors, called aluminum conductor composite core (ACCC) significantly increases the transmitting efficiency of existing power grid system without extensive rebuilding expenses, while meeting future demand for electricity. In general, the service life of such overhead conductors is required to be at least 30 years. Therefore, the long-term endurance of the composite core in various environments must be well-understood. Accelerated aging by hygrothermal exposure was conducted to determine the effect of moisture on the glass fiber (GF)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid composites. The influence of water immersion and humid air exposure on mechanical properties is investigated. Results indicated that immersion in water is the most severe environment for such hybrid GF/CF composites, and results in greater saturation and degradation of properties. When immersed directly in water, the hybrid GF/CF composites exhibit a moisture uptake behavior that is more complex than composite materials reinforced with only one type of fiber. The unusual diffusion behavior is attributed to a higher packing density of fibers at the annular GF/CF interface, which acts as a temporary moisture barrier. Moisture uptake leads to the mechanical and thermal degradation of such hybrid GF/CF composites. Findings presented here indicate that the degradation is a function of exposure temperature, time, and moisture uptake level. Results also indicate that such hybrid GF/CF composites recover short beam shear (SBS) strength and glass transition temperature (Tg) values comparable to pre-aged samples after removal of the absorbed moisture. In the hygrothermal environment

  13. Effects of different saliva pH on hybrid composite resin surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirawati Pribadi


    Full Text Available Background: Currently, hybrid composite resin is the mostly used filling material to restore esthetic and function. During function, this material is in contact with various pH from food consumption, which is acidic and alkali which may effect the physical properties of composite resin, including surface roughness. Purpose: The research was conducted to determine the effect of pH in saliva on surface roughness of hybrid composite resin. Methods: This research used artificial saliva and composite resin samples divided into 3 groups based on different pH of immersion (pH 4, pH 7 and pH 10 for 30 days. Results: There were significant differences (p > 0.05 among those three treatment groups of hybrid composites soaked in artificial saliva with different pH for 30 days. And, with LSD test it is also known that there were significant differences between the artificial saliva with pH 4 and pH 7, whereas there was no significant difference between pH 4 and pH 10 and between pH 7 and pH 10. Conclusion: It can concluded that the changes of salivary pH affect the surface roughness of the hybrid composite resin. Acidic pH has increase the surface roughness of hybrid composite resin, whereas alkaline pH has no effects on the surface roughness of hybrid composite resin.Latar belakang: Saat ini tumpatan komposit merupakan bahan tumpatan yang paling sering digunakan untuk memperbaiki estetik dan fungsi. Dalam rongga mulut, bahan ini kontak dengan berbagai macam pH dari konsumsi makanan, baik asam maupun basa yang dapat mempengaruhi perubahan sifat fisik resin komposit, diantaranya yaitu kekasaran permukaan. Tujuan: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui tentang efek pH saliva terhadap kekasaran permukaan tumpatan resin komposit hybrid. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan saliva buatan yang dibagi dalam 3 kelompok sampel yaitu masing-masing dengan perendaman pH yang berbeda (pH 4, pH 7 dan pH 10selama 30 hari. Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (p > 0

  14. Buoyancy-generated variable-density turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, D.L.; Clark, T.T.; Riley, J.J.


    Because of the importance of turbulence mixing in many applications, a number of turbulence mixing models have been proposed for variable- density flows. These engineering models (one- point statistical models) typically include the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent energy dissipation rate (i.e., k - {epsilon} models). The model presented by Besnard, Harlow, Rauenzahn and Zemach (1992) (herein referred to as BHRZ) is a one-point model intended to describe variable-density turbulent flows. Transport equations for the Reynolds stress tensor, R{sub ij}, and the turbulent energy dissipation rate, the density-velocity correlation, a{sub i}, and the density-specific volume correlation, b are derived. This model employs- techniques and concepts from incompressible, constant- density turbulence modeling and incorporates ideas from two-phase flow models. Clark and Spitz (1994) present a two-point model for variable-density turbulence. Their derivation is based on transport equations that, are based 0481 on two-point- generalizations of R{sub ij}, a{sub ij}, and b. These equations are Fourier transformed with respect to the separation distance between the two points. Transport equations are derived for R{sub ij}, a{sub i}, b. As in the one-point model, this model contains many ad-hoc assumptions and unknown model coefficients that must be determined by comparison with experimental and numerical data. However, the two-point formalism requires fewer equilibrium assumptions then does a single-point model. Our primary concern in this paper lies in the nonlinear processes of turbulence and the influence of large density variations (not within the Boussinesq limit) on these processes. To. isolate the effects of variable-density on the turbulence we restrict our flow to be incompressible, statistically homogeneous buoyancy-generated. turbulence. To our knowledge there have not been any simulations reported for this problem.

  15. Cemented, cementless, and hybrid prostheses for total hip replacement: cost effectiveness analysis


    Pennington, Mark; Grieve, Richard; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Gregg, Paul; Black, Nick; van der Meulen, Jan H


    OBJECTIVE To compare the cost effectiveness of the three most commonly chosen types of prosthesis for total hip replacement. DESIGN Lifetime cost effectiveness model with parameters estimated from individual patient data obtained from three large national databases. SETTING English National Health Service. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 55 to 84 undergoing primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis. INTERVENTIONS Total hip replacement using either cemented, cementless, or hybrid prostheses. M...

  16. Observing high-frequency optical turbulence properties by the usage of fiber optical turbulence sensing system (United States)

    Huang, Qi-kai; Mei, Hai-ping; Xiao, Shu-mei; Rao, Rui-zhong


    Effects of light propagation in random atmospheric optical turbulence are critical problems for ground based high resolution optical imaging. To get further knowledge of turbulence intensity or structure properties, the concept of fiber optic sensing system is proposed and realized. Different to fine-wire platinum resistance thermometer or laser scintillometer, the system has the ability to make non-contact measurement of optical turbulence up to the frequency of 500Hz during the air gap of 100mm, and has the dynamic range of 10-18 ~ 10-12 . The optic fiber's merit of corrosion resistance is sufficiently demonstrated by one month field test on the seacoast. Some properties of high frequency turbulence power spectrum that have never been observed before in the range of 10cm are reported. In the end, prospects of optical turbulence research by the usage of fiber optic turbulence sensing system are also discussed.

  17. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee


    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  18. Studies on effects of boundary conditions in confined turbulent flow predictions (United States)

    Nallasamy, M.; Chen, C. P.


    The differences in k epsilon model predictions of plane and axisymmetric expansion flows is investigated. The prediction of the coaxial jet for different velocity ratios of the annular to central jet is presented. The effects of inlet kinetic energy and the energy dissipation rate profiles are investigated for swirling and nonswirling flows. The effects of expansion ration and Reynolds number on the reattachment length are also presented. The results show that the inlet k and epsilon profiles have the most significant effect on the reattachment length and flow redevelopment for the case of coaxial jet of high velocity ratio. A comparison of k epsilon model predictions for the pipe expansion flow by the PHOENICS and TEACH codes reveals some discrepancies in the predicted results. TEACH prediction seems to produce unrealistic kinetic energy profiles in some regions of the flow. PHOENICS code produces a long tail in the recirculation region under certain conditions.

  19. Lagrangian filtered density function for LES-based stochastic modelling of turbulent dispersed flows

    CERN Document Server

    Innocenti, A; Chibbaro, S


    The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study turbulent dispersed flows when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGS) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves for a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided b...

  20. Effect of chemical modification on properties of hybrid fibre biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available The effects of chemical modification of fiber surface in sisal–oil palm reinforced natural rubber green composites have been studied. Composites were prepared using fibers treated with varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution...

  1. Giant acoustoelectric effect in GaAs/LiNbO3 hybrids (United States)

    Rotter, M.; Wixforth, A.; Ruile, W.; Bernklau, D.; Riechert, H.


    The acoustoelectric effect in a hybrid of a strong piezoelectric material and a semiconductor layer containing a two-dimensional electron system is investigated. Caused by the very strong interaction between a surface acoustic wave and the mobile carriers in the semiconductor, the acoustoelectric effect is very large as compared to other materials, which might be interesting for device applications. Moreover, the tunability of the sheet conductivity of the electron system enables us to tune the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect over a wide range. We present experimental results for a GaAs/LiNbO3 layered hybrid system at room temperature and describe our experimental findings quantitatively using a recently developed model calculation.

  2. Turbulence Effects on the High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics of a Vertically Launched Missile (United States)


    Knoche , 1.6., High Incidence Aerody-namics of M~issiles During Launch Phase, NMBB GMNBI-I Report UA-523 80, Januarv 1980. 3. Roane. Donald P., The Effect...Balance. Balance Calibration Laborator\\. NASA-Ames Research Facility, July 1987. 413. Aiello. Gennaro f. and Bateman. Michael C.. .1crod~womic Szabiiic

  3. A model for the turbulent suppression in swirling flows (United States)

    Nikulin, Viktor; Savtchenko, Serguei; Ashgriz, Nasser


    Effect of the swirl on the turbulent flow fluctuations is investigated based on a Lagrangian model of a fluid element. Motion of a fluid element in a mean swirling flow is considered. It is shown that turbulence can be suppressed by swirl and that swirl may result in an anisotropy of turbulent fluctuations. The hydrodynamic causes of such effects are studied. A coefficient of elasticity for a turbulent swirling flows is introduced. The results of the present work can be useful for the analysis of turbulence structure in swirling flows.

  4. An experimental study of reactive turbulent mixing (United States)

    Cooper, L. P.; Marek, C. J.; Strehlow, R. A.


    An experimental study of the turbulent mixing of two coaxial gas streams, which react very rapidly (pseudo-hypergolic chemical kinetics), was performed to investigate the mixing characteristics of turbulent flow fields. The center stream consisted of a CO-N2 mixture and the outer annular stream consisted of air vitiated by H2 combustion. The streams were at equal velocity (50 m/sec) and temperature (1280 K). Turbulence measurements were obtained using hot film anemometry. A sampling probe was used to obtain time averaged gas compositions. Six different turbulence generators were placed in the annular passage to alter the flow field mixing characteristics. The turbulence generators affected the bulk mixing of the streams and the extent of CO conversion to different degrees. The effects can be related to the average eddy size and the bulk mixing. Higher extents of conversion of CO to CO2 were found by increasing the bulk mixing and decreasing the average eddy size.

  5. Simulation of plume rise: Study the effect of stably stratified turbulence layer on the rise of a buoyant plume from a continuous source by observing the plume centroid (United States)

    Bhimireddy, Sudheer Reddy; Bhaganagar, Kiran


    Buoyant plumes are common in atmosphere when there exists a difference in temperature or density between the source and its ambience. In a stratified environment, plume rise happens until the buoyancy variation exists between the plume and ambience. In a calm no wind ambience, this plume rise is purely vertical and the entrainment happens because of the relative motion of the plume with ambience and also ambient turbulence. In this study, a plume centroid is defined as the plume mass center and is calculated from the kinematic equation which relates the rate of change of centroids position to the plume rise velocity. Parameters needed to describe the plume are considered as the plume radius, plumes vertical velocity and local buoyancy of the plume. The plume rise velocity is calculated by the mass, momentum and heat conservation equations in their differential form. Our study focuses on the entrainment velocity, as it depicts the extent of plume growth. This entrainment velocity is made up as sum of fractions of plume's relative velocity and ambient turbulence. From the results, we studied the effect of turbulence on the plume growth by observing the variation in the plume radius at different heights and the centroid height reached before loosing its buoyancy.

  6. PK20, a new opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide that exhibits central and peripheral antinociceptive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda Yuko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical treatment of various types of pain relies upon the use of opioid analgesics. However most of them produce, in addition to the analgesic effect, several side effects such as the development of dependence and addiction as well as sedation, dysphoria, and constipation. One solution to these problems are chimeric compounds in which the opioid pharmacophore is hybridized with another type of compound to incease antinociceptive effects. Neurotensin-induced antinociception is not mediated through the opioid system. Therefore, hybridizing neurotensin with opioid elements may result in a potent synergistic antinociceptor. Results Using the known structure-activity relationships of neurotensin we have synthesized a new chimeric opioid-neurotensin compound PK20 which is characterized by a very strong antinociceptive potency. The observation that the opioid antagonist naltrexone did not completely reverse the antinociceptive effect, indicates the partial involvement of the nonopioid component in PK20 in the produced analgesia. Conclusions The opioid-neurotensin hybrid analogue PK20, in which opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores overlap partially, expresses high antinociceptive tail-flick effects after central as well as peripheral applications.

  7. Effects of Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement on Fire Resistance Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir N.


    Full Text Available Recent researches of fire retardant intumescent coatings reinforced by single Rockwool and single glass wool fibre at various weight percentages and lengths showed some improvements to the mechanical properties of the coatings and the char produced. Therefore, in this research the fibres were combined together in intumescent coating formulation at several weight percentages and fibre lengths to study their effects towards fire resistance performance and char morphology. The hybrid fibre reinforced intumescent coatings were subjected to two types of fire tests; Bunsen burner at 1000°C and the electric furnace at 800°C for 1 hour, respectively. Steel temperature of the coated samples during Bunsen burner test was recorded to determine the fire resistance performance. Thermal stability of the intumescent coatings and chars was determined by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The morphology of the coatings and char was then examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS was conducted to obtain elemental composition of the samples. This research concluded that long-hybrid fibre at 12-mm length and 0.6% fibre-weight produced the top performing hybrid fibre intumescent formulation. The hybrid fibres form survived at elevated temperature, hence helped to provide structure and strengthen the char with the highest fire resistance was recorded at steel temperature of 197°C.

  8. Effect of Hybrid Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid H. Hussein, Saeed K. Rejeb Hayder T. Abd


    Full Text Available In this study, high strength concrete of 75 MPa compressive strength was investigated. The experimental program was designed to study the effect of fibers and hybrid fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers on the fresh (workability and wet density and hardened properties (compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and dry density of high strength concrete. Results show that decreases in slump flow of all concrete mixtures containing steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers compared with control mix (0% fiber. Hybrid high strength concrete with steel and polypropylene fibers showed superior compressive, splitting, flexural strengths over the others concrete without or with single fibers content. The test results indicate that the maximum increase in compressive and flexural strengths are obtains with the hybridization ratio (70%steel + 30% polypropylene and were equal to 14.54% and 23.34% respectively, compared with the control mix. While, the maximum increase in splitting tensile strength with (100% steel fiber + 0 polypropylene is 21.19%. 

  9. Effective coupled optoelectrical design method for fully infiltrated semiconductor nanowires based hybrid solar cells. (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Xiaohong; Wang, Kai; Li, Xianqiang


    We present a novel coupled design method that both optimizes light absorption and predicts electrical performance of fully infiltrated inorganic semiconductor nanowires (NWs) based hybrid solar cells (HSC). This method provides a thorough insight of hybrid photovoltaic process as a function of geometrical parameters of NWs. An active layer consisting of GaAs NWs as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as donor were used as a design example. Absorption spectra features were studied by the evolution of the leaky modes and Fabry-Perot resonance with wavelength focusing firstly on the GaAs/air layer before extending to GaAs/P3HT hybrid active layer. The highest absorption efficiency reached 39% for the hybrid active layer of 2 μm thickness under AM 1.5G illumination. Combined with the optical absorption analysis, our method further codesigns the energy harvesting to predict electrical performance of HSC considering exciton dissociation efficiencies within both inorganic NWs and a polymeric shell of 20 nm thickness. The validity of the simulation model was also proved by the well agreement of the simulation results with the published experimental work indicating an effective guidance for future high performance HSC design.

  10. Effects of pretreatment on the denaturation and fragmentation of genomic DNA for DNA hybridization. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Son, Ahjeong


    DNA hybridization is an important step for a number of bioassays such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays, as well as the NanoGene assay. Denaturation and fragmentation of genomic DNA are two critical pretreatments for DNA hybridization. However, no thorough and systematic characterization on denaturation and fragmentation has been carried out for the NanoGene assay so far. In this study, we investigated the denaturation and fragmentation of the bacterial gDNA with physical treatments (i.e., heating and sonication) and chemical treatments (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide). First of all, a simple approach for indicating the denaturation fraction was developed based on the absorbance difference (i.e., hyperchromic effect) between the double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA fragments. Then the denaturation capabilities of the treatments to the gDNA were elucidated, followed by the examination of the possible renaturation over time. The fragmentation of the gDNA by each treatment was also investigated. Based on denaturation efficiency, minimum renaturation tendency, and fragmentation, the sonication method was found to be the best among the six methods. We further demonstrated that the sonication method produced the best result among the treatments examined for the DNA hybridization in the NanoGene assay.

  11. Effect of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites (United States)

    Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Firdaus, A. Z. Ahmad; Azduwin, K.


    The effects of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites and its morphology of fractured surfaces are discussed. Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites were fabricated by using vacuum infusion method by arranging Napier fibres in between sheets of woven glass fibres. Napier and glass fibres were laminated with estimated volume ratios were 24 and 6 vol. %, respectively. The epoxy resin was used as matrix estimated to 70 vol. %. Specimens were tested to failure under tension at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (Instron) with a load cell 100 kN at four different temperatures of RT, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The morphology of fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows reduction in tensile strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in the temperature activates the process of diffusion, and generates critical stresses which cause the damage at first-ply or at the centre of the hybrid plate, as a result lower the tensile strength. The observation of FESEM images indicates that the fracture mode is of evolution of localized damage, from fibre/matrix debonding, matric cracking, delamination and fibre breakage.

  12. Current driven by electromagnetic ETG turbulence (United States)

    He, Wen; Wang, Lu; Peng, Shuitao


    Recently, there has been intensive investigation of turbulence induced spontaneous rotation in tokamak. Naturally, current driven by turbulence has also been considered such as the electron temperature gradient (ETG) instability with a fluid mode. The electrostatic gyrokinetic simulation shows that the ETG turbulence driven current density corresponds to 20% of the local bootstrap current density. In this paper, the quasilinear version of the current evolution equation in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) ETG turbulence is presented using EM gyrokinetic equation. There are two types of current driving mechanisms. The first type is the divergence of stress, while the second type is called turbulent acceleration source. Finally, we compare the turbulent driven current to the background bootstrap current. The results demonstrate that the EM effect is important for the turbulent driven current. And the source term contributes a little to the total current. The modification of the current due to EM ETG turbulence is not dramatic in today's tokamak. However, it may play a significant role in future device.

  13. Turbulent wedge spreading dynamics and control strategies (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Goldstein, David; Brown, Garry


    Turbulent wedges are encountered in some routes to transition in wall bounded flows, particularly those involving surface roughness. They are characterized by strongly turbulent regions that are formed downstream of large disturbances, and spread into the non-turbulent flow. Altering the wedge spreading mechanism is a possible drag reduction strategy. Following recent studies of Goldstein, Chu and Brown (Flow Turbul. Combust. 98(1), 2017) and Kuester and White (Exp. Fluids 57(4), 2016), we explore the relation between the base flow vorticity field and turbulent wedge spreading using immersed boundary direct numerical simulations. The lateral spreading rate of the wedges are similar for high Reynolds number boundary layers and Couette flow, but differences emerge in wall normal propagation of turbulence. We also attempt to utilize the surface texture based strategy suggested by Strand and Goldstein (J. Fluid Mech. 668, 2011) to reduce the spreading of isolated turbulent spots, for turbulent wedge control. The effects of height, spacing and orientation of fins on the dynamics of wedge evolution are studied. The results are interpreted from a vorticity dynamics point of view. Supported by AFOSR # FA9550-15-1-0345.

  14. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science


    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  15. Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozioł Adam


    Full Text Available Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel. Experimental research was undertaken to investigate the changes in spatial turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies (macroeddies in a rectangular channel and the influence of the hydraulic jump on vertical, lateral and streamwise distributions of relative turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies. The results of three tests for different discharges are presented. An intensive turbulent mixing that arises as a result of a hydraulic jump has a significant effect on instantaneous velocity, turbulent intensities and sizes of eddies, as well as their vertical and longitudinal distributions. In the analysed case the most noticeable changes appeared up to 0.5 m downstream the hydraulic jump. In the vertical dimension such an effect was especially seen near the surface. The smallest streamwise sizes of macroeddies were present near the surface, maximum at the depth of z/h = 0.6 and from that point sizes were decreasing towards the bottom. The intensive turbulent mixing within the hydraulic jump generates macroeddies of small sizes.

  16. Turbulent Taylor-Couette flow over riblets: drag reduction and the effect of bulk fluid rotation (United States)

    Greidanus, A. J.; Delfos, R.; Tokgoz, S.; Westerweel, J.


    A Taylor-Couette facility was used to measure the drag reduction of a riblet surface on the inner cylinder. The drag on the surfaces of the inner and outer cylinders is determined from the measured torque when the cylinders are in exact counter-rotation. The three velocity components in the instantaneous flow field were obtained by tomographic PIV and indicate that the friction coefficients are strongly influenced by the flow regimes and structures. The riblet surface changes the friction at the inner-cylinder wall, which generates an average bulk fluid rotation. A simple model is proposed to distinguish drag changes due to the rotation effect and the riblet effect, as a function of the measured drag change and shear Reynolds number . An uncorrected maximum drag reduction of 5.3 % was found at that corresponds to riblet spacing Reynolds number . For these conditions, the model predicts an azimuthal bulk velocity shift of 1.4 %, which is confirmed by PIV measurements. This shift indicates a drag change due to a rotation effect of -1.9 %, resulting in a net maximum drag reduction of 3.4 %. The results correspond well with earlier reported results and demonstrate that the Taylor-Couette facility is a suitable and accurate measurement tool to characterize the drag performance of surfaces.

  17. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Vainio, Rami [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)


    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit.

  19. The MEXICO rotor aerodynamic loads prediction : ZigZag tape effects and laminar-turbulent transition modeling in CFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; van Zuijlen, A.H.; van Bussel, G.J.W.


    This paper aims to provide an explanation for the overprediction of aerodynamic loads by CFD compared to experiments for the MEXICO wind turbine rotor and improve the CFD prediction by considering laminar-turbulent transition modeling. Large deviations between CFD results and experimental

  20. Investigation on Effect of Gravity Level on Bubble Distribution and Liquid Turbulence Modification for Horizontal Channel Bubbly Flow (United States)

    Pang, M. J.; Wei, J. J.; Yu, B.


    Bubbly flows in the horizontal channel or pipe are often seen in industrial engineering fields, so it is very necessary to fully understand hydrodynamics of horizontal bubbly flows so as to improve industrial efficiency and to design an efficient bubbly system. In this paper, in order to fully understand mechanisms of phase distribution and liquid-phase turbulence modulation in the horizontal channel bubbly flow, the influence of gravity level on both of them were investigated in detail with the developed Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling method. For the present investigation, the buoyance on bubbles in both sides of the channel always points to the corresponding wall in order to study the liquid-phase turbulence modulation by bubbles under the symmetric physical condition. The present investigation shows that the gravity level has the important influence on the wall-normal distribution of bubbles and the liquid-phase turbulence modulation; the higher the gravity level is, the more bubbles can overcome the wall-normal resistance to accumulate near the wall, and the more obvious the liquid-phase turbulence modulation is. It is also discovered that interphase forces on the bubbles are various along the wall-normal direction, which leads to the fact that the bubble located in different wall-normal places has a different wall-normal velocity.

  1. Resilience in moving water: Effects of turbulence on the predatory impact of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Costello, John H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.


    reduce M. leidyi feeding rates on copepods and Artemia nauplii by>50%. However, detailed feeding data from the field, collected during highly variable surface conditions, showed that wind-driven turbulence did not affect the feeding rates or prey selection of M. leidyi. Additional laboratory experiments...

  2. A comprehensive model to determine the effects of temperature and species fluctuations on reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Chinitz, W.


    A computationally-viable model describing the interaction between fluid-mechanical turbulence and finite-rate combustion reactions, principally in high-speed flows was developed. Chemical kinetic mechanisms, complete and global, were developed describing the finite rate reaction of fuels of interest to NASA. These fuels included principally hydrogen and silane, although a limited amount of work involved hydrocarbon fuels as well.

  3. Modelling the effects of heat loss and fuel/air mixing on turbulent combustion in gas turbine combustion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gövert, S.


    The present study is concerned with the development and validation of a simulation framework for the accurate prediction of turbulent reacting flows at reduced computational costs. Therefore, a combustion model based on the tabulation of laminar premixed flamelets is employed. By compilation of

  4. The effects of non-uniform magnetic field strength on test particle transport in drift wave turbulence (United States)

    Dendy, Richard; Dewhurst, Joseph; Hnat, Bogdan


    Our model of drift turbulence is a modified form of the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, extended to include magnetic field inhomogeneity in the radial direction, thus incorporating interchange modes. Direct numerical simulation of this system yields local time series for: the turbulent E x B radial density flux γ, whose probability density function (PDF) is analyzed in terms of skewness and kurtosis; and the relative phase and amplitude of fluctuations in density n, electrostatic potential φ and radial velocity v. We investigate how changes in the magnitude C of the magnetic field inhomogeneity affect the relative phases of n, φ and v and in consequence the skewness of the PDF of γ. This is a consequence of the shift from drift to drift-interchange turbulence. The challenge is then to identify a Fickian expression linking γ to the radial diffusivity that embodies C as a parameter, while noting the conservation of potential vorticity. This is achieved, assisted and confirmed by statistical analysis of the transport of ensembles of test particles in stationary turbulence and by measurements of the decay of correlation in potential vorticity.

  5. Effects of fuel Lewis number on localised forced ignition of turbulent homogeneous mixtures: A numerical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipal Patel


    Full Text Available The influences of fuel Lewis number LeF (ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 on localised forced ignition and early stages of combustion of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures have been analysed using simple chemistry three-dimensional compressible direct numerical simulations for different values of root-mean-square velocity fluctuation and the energy deposition characteristics (i.e. characteristic width and the duration of energy deposition by the ignitor. The localised forced ignition is modelled using a source term in the energy transport equation, which deposits energy in a Gaussian manner from the centre of the ignitor over a stipulated period of time. The fuel Lewis number LeF has been found to have significant influences on the extent of burning of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures. It has been shown that the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration over which the ignition energy is deposited have significant influences on the success of ignition and subsequent flame propagation. An increase in the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration of energy deposition for a given amount of ignition energy have been found to have detrimental effects on the ignition event, which may ultimately lead to misfire. For a given value of u' (LeF, the rate of heat transfer from the hot gas kernel increases with increasing LeF (u', which in turn leads to a reduction in the extent of overall burning for both stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures but the detrimental effects of high values of u' on localised forced ignition are particularly prevalent for fuel-lean mixtures. Detailed physical explanations have been provided for the observed LeF,u' and energy deposition characteristics effects.

  6. Effects of laminar separation bubbles and turbulent separation on airfoil stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, P. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States); Coiro, D.P. [Universita di Napoli (Italy)


    An existing two-dimensional, interactive, stall prediction program is extended by improving its laminar separation bubble model. The program now accounts correctly for the effects of the bubble on airfoil performance characteristics when it forms at the mid-chord and on the leading edge. Furthermore, the model can now predict bubble bursting on very sharp leading edges at high angles of attack. The details of the model are discussed in depth. Comparisons of the predicted stall and post-stall pressure distributions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements for several different airfoils at different Reynolds numbers.

  7. Analysis of actuator delay and its effect on uncertainty quantification for real-time hybrid simulation (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Xu, Weijie; Guo, Tong; Chen, Kai


    Uncertainties in structure properties can result in different responses in hybrid simulations. Quantification of the effect of these uncertainties would enable researchers to estimate the variances of structural responses observed from experiments. This poses challenges for real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) due to the existence of actuator delay. Polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) projects the model outputs on a basis of orthogonal stochastic polynomials to account for influences of model uncertainties. In this paper, PCE is utilized to evaluate effect of actuator delay on the maximum displacement from real-time hybrid simulation of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure when accounting for uncertainties in structural properties. The PCE is first applied for RTHS without delay to determine the order of PCE, the number of sample points as well as the method for coefficients calculation. The PCE is then applied to RTHS with actuator delay. The mean, variance and Sobol indices are compared and discussed to evaluate the effects of actuator delay on uncertainty quantification for RTHS. Results show that the mean and the variance of the maximum displacement increase linearly and exponentially with respect to actuator delay, respectively. Sensitivity analysis through Sobol indices also indicates the influence of the single random variable decreases while the coupling effect increases with the increase of actuator delay.

  8. Effect of Polymer Type and Mixing of Polymers on Drag Reduction in Turbulent Pipe Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hadi Hussein


    Full Text Available The paper reports on studies on effect of the type of polymer on drag reduction. The study conducted through circular pipe using Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC, Xanthan gum (XG and their mixing in equal ratios as additives in pipe of diameter 0.0381m. The study covered range of parameters like concentration, mean velocity and angle of inclination of pipe. The maximum drag reduction observed was about 58%, 46% and 46% for the three polymers respectively. It is found that the drag reduction for the mixture is close to the drag reduction for XG polymer. The SPSS program has been used for correlate the data that have been obtained. The drag reduction percentage is correlated in terms of Reynolds number Re, additive concentration C (ppm and angle of inclination of pipe (deg, and the relations obtained is mentioned.

  9. Effectiveness of pollutants removal in hybrid constructed wetlands – different configurations case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewska Magdalena


    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in interest in hybrid constructed wetland systems (HCWs has been observed. The aim of the paper is to compare different HCW configurations in terms of mass removal rates and efficiency of pollutants removal. Analysed data have been collected at multistage constructed wetlands in Poland, which are composed by at least two beds: horizontal subsurface flow (SSHF and vertical subsurface flow (SSVF. The evaluation was focused on hybrid constructed wetlands performance with HF+VF vs. VF+HF configuration, where influent wastewater of the same composition was treated. In analysed HCWs, the effective removal of organic matter from 75.2 to 91.6% COD was confirmed. Efficiency of total nitrogen removal varied from 47.3 to 91.7%. The most effective removal of TN (8.3 g m−2 d−1 occurred in the system with VF+VF+HF configuration.

  10. Polymer/TiO₂ hybrid vesicles for excellent UV screening and effective encapsulation of antioxidant agents. (United States)

    Du, Jianzhong; Sun, Hui


    Presented in this paper is a hybrid polymer/titanium dioxide (TiO2) vesicle that has excellent UV-screening efficacy and strong capacity to encapsulate antioxidant agents. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PDMAEMA-b-PS) triblock terpolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and then self-assembled into vesicles. Those vesicles showed excellent UV-screening property due to the scattering by vesicles and the absorption by PS vesicle membrane. The selective deposition of solvophobic tetrabutyl titanate in the PDMAEMA shell and the PS membrane of the vesicles led to the formation of polymer/TiO2 hybrid vesicles, resulting in an enhanced UV-screening property by further reflecting and scattering UV radiation. The vesicles can effectively encapsulate antioxidant agents such as ferulic acid (up to 57%), showing a rapid antioxidant capability (within 1 min) and a long-lasting antioxidant effect.

  11. Spectral approach to finite Reynolds number effects on Kolmogorov's 4/5 law in isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Tchoufag, J.; Sagaut, P.; Cambon, C.


    The Kolmogorov's 4/5 law is often considered as the sole exact relationship of inertial range statistics. Its asymptotic character, however, has been evidenced, investigating the finite Reynolds number (FRN) effect for the third-order structure function S3(r) (e.g., for longitudinal velocity increments with r separation length) using variants of the Kármán-Howarth equation in physical space. Similar semi-empirical fits were proposed for the maximum of the normalized structure function, C3 = -maxrS3(r)/(ɛr), expressing C3 - 4/5 as a power law of the Taylor-based Reynolds number. One of the most complete studies in this domain is by Antonia and Burratini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. Considering that these studies are based on a model for the unsteady second-order structure function S2(r,t), with no explicit model for the third-order structure function itself, we propose to revisit the FRN effect by a spectral approach, in the line of Qian [Phys. Rev. E 55, 337 (1997), Phys. Rev. E 60, 3409 (1999)]. The spectral transfer term T(k,t), from which S3(r,t) is derived by an exact quadrature, is directly calculated by solving the Lin equation for the energy spectrum E(k,t), closed by a standard triadic (or three-point) theory, here Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian. We show that the best spectral approach to the FRN effect is found by separately investigating the negative (largest scales) and positive (smaller scales) bumps of the transfer term, and not only by looking at the maximum of the spectral flux or maxk ∫k∞T(p ,t)dp→ɛ. In the forced case, previous results are well reproduced, with Reynolds numbers as high as Reλ = 5 000 to nearly recover the 4/5 value. In the free decay case, the general trend is recovered as well, with an even higher value of Reλ = 50 000, but the EDQNM plots are systematically below those in Antonia and Burattini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. This is explained by the sensitivity to initial data for E(k) in solving the Lin

  12. The effect of roughness of blunted nose of cone on the development of disturbances and laminar-turbulent transition in a hypersonic boundary layer (United States)

    Gromyko, Yu.; Bountin, D.; Polivanov, P.; Sidorenko, A.; Maslov, A.


    The paper presents data on the effect of a distributed roughness of the blunted nose of the cone on the position of the laminar-turbulent transition. The studies were carried out at Mach number 5.95. It is found that the position of the roughness plays an important role in the transition process, it is obtained that the roughness has the greatest effect on the transition when applied to an angle Θ ≈ 90 °. It was found that the presence of a roughness on the nose of the model, even at subcritical Reynolds numbers, affects the pulsation processes in the boundary layer.

  13. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites


    S. P. Jani; Senthil Kumar, A.; A. Adamkhan; Nithin; Rajakumar


    This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate,...

  14. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...... performance. In particular, mixing CeO2 with carbon represents the best strategy to increase the cell power output....

  15. Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Hybrid DE-SQP for Generating Units with Valve-Point Effects


    A. M. Elaiw; Xia, X; A.M.Shehata


    This paper presents hybrid differential evolution (DE) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) for solving the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem for generating units with valve-point effects. DE is used as a global optimizer and SQP is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution at the final. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated with five-and ten-unit test systems. Results obtained by DE-SQP method are compared with other techniques in the literature.

  16. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices

  17. Effect of ECH on Turbulent Fluctuations During ITER Baseline Discharges on DIII D (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Davis, E. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Burrell, K. H.; DIII-D Team


    Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak simulating the ITER Baseline Scenario show that torque-free and spatially localized Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH), compared to neutral beam heating, modifies flow shear and density fluctuations, resulting in a slightly worse confinement degradation than that given by the IPB98(y,2) scaling. After turning off ECH, the Phase Contrast Imaging diagnostic measures, on confinement time scales, a decrease in the intensity of fluctuations at frequencies lower than 200 kHz, consistent with the mean flow shear exceeding the maximum linear growth rate of ITG modes. In contrast, at higher frequencies the intensity of fluctuations increases promptly, due to ETG modes enhanced by the prompt increase of the electron temperature inverse scale length in the outer third of the minor radius. The latter effect is seen in preliminary non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations to generate a larger transient heat flux and an inward particle pinch. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  19. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David


    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  20. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kupka, Friedrich


    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...