WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid tea rose

  1. Professional and consumer insecticides for management of adult Japanese beetle on hybrid tea rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Krischik, Vera A

    2007-06-01

    In many states, Japanese beetle, Popilliajaponica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae), is no longer quarantined, and management is left to professional applicators and consumers. Adult management in hybrid tea rose, Rosa L., was compared among biorational insecticides, novel imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip), and conventional insecticides. Efficacy of biorational insecticides used by consumers varied widely and may not offer predictable management: mortality was 3.0% with Garlic Barrier, 5.0% with Monterey Neem Oil, 15.1% with Pygenic (1.4% pyrethrins), and 27.3% with Orange Guard (D-limonene). Only JB Killer (0.02% pyrethrins plus 0.2% piperonyl butoxide) had mortality of 90.9%, probably due to piperonyl butoxide. Professional biorationals did not show significant mortality: 7.7% with Azatin XL (azadirachtin) and 3.7% Conserve (spinosad). In contrast, conventional insecticides demonstrated significant mortality; 88.4% with Decathlon 20 WP (cyfluthrin) and 83.3% with Discus SC (imidacloprid plus cyfluthrin). New imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip) worked as well as standard drench and granular methods, but they showed 9.1-42.7% mortality. However, beetles were incapacitated as demonstrated by inability to walk (82-106-s flip time) compared with controls (30-s flip time). No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatments. However, some imidacloprid treatments produced growth enhancement: higher leaf chlorophyll (1X, 3X granular, and one tablet), and larger leaf area and higher nitrogen (3X granular, drench). The highest (active ingredient) imidacloprid was in 3X granular treatment, which in an unplanned infestation, showed highest numbers of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Effects of imidacloprid on leaf quality and mite outbreaks deserves research.

  2. 3种不同花色大花月季的组织培养研究%Study on Tissue Culture of 3 Kinds of Hybrid Tea Roses with Different Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞燕芳; 管帮富; 彭火辉; 彭华; 彭玉辅; 陈华玲; 毛平生

    2013-01-01

    以火热巧克力(红色)、琥珀皇后(黄色)和蓝月(蓝紫色)茎段为材料进行组织培养,研究不同花色品种对月季组培的影响。结果表明:3个品种月季在腋芽萌动、增殖、生根及移栽后幼苗生长等方面均有不同。在相同的培养条件下,火热巧克力萌芽快、出芽率高、增殖系数高、生根容易、移栽易成活;琥珀皇后次之;蓝月萌芽迟,生长缓慢,增殖需要较高浓度的6-BA。%Using the stem segments of three kinds of hybrid tea roses with different colors as explants , we studied the effects of different flower colors on rose tissue culture.The results were acquired as follows:under the same culture conditions , the germina-tion rate, propagation coefficient , rooting rate and transplanting survival rate of Hot chocolate (orange-red blend) were the high-est, followed by Amer queen (yellow).Blue moon (mauve) germinated late, grew slowly, and higher concentration of 6 -BA (more than 2.0 mg/L) was needed for its multiplication culture .

  3. Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil

    OpenAIRE

    YAPAR, EVREN ALGIN; İNAL, ÖZGE; Erdal, M. Sedef

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of skin aging and its treatment is an emerging field for development of new formulations in cosmetics. Accordingly, plant extracts with antioxidant properties are beneficial cosmetic ingredients for this purpose. This study was aimed at developing a stable and easily manufactured emulgel including green tea extract and rose oil that is effective on the barrier function and hydration of skin. An emulgel formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil was designed as a...

  4. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  5. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep İlbay; Selin Şahin; Ş. İsmail Kirbaşlar

    2013-01-01

    Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea sampl...

  6. Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapar, Evren Algin; Ynal, Ozge; Erdal, M Sedef

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of skin aging and its treatment is an emerging field for development of new formulations in cosmetics. Accordingly, plant extracts with antioxidant properties are beneficial cosmetic ingredients for this purpose. This study was aimed at developing a stable and easily manufactured emulgel including green tea extract and rose oil that is effective on the barrier function and hydration of the skin. An emulgel formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil was designed as a result of pre-formulation studies. Physicochemical characterization, in vitro stability studies, in vivo water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss studies were carried out afterwards. In vivo studies on ten female subjects were evaluated by using non-invasive skin bioengineering techniques. Finally, a cosmetically acceptable, stable and effective emulgel formulation for skin barrier function with good hydrating properties was obtained for skin hydration, protection and anti-aging purposes.

  7. Pollen Morphology and Viability Relates to Seed Production in Hybrid Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of hybrid tea roses is often reduced due to their interspesific origin but also to intensive inbreeding. New genotypes used as pollen donors represent an economic risk for a breeding program, as their influence on seed production is unknown. In this study 9 garden rose genotypes were selected from a company database as high fertile or low fertile male parents, according to the number of seeds per hybridization. Pollen morphology and in vitro germination of the selected genotypes were characterized. Pollen was either small (mean diameter = 30 urn, shrunken, and irregular (abnormal, or large (mean diameter = 30 urn, elliptical and crossed by furrows (normal. High correlations were found between the number of seeds produced per hybridization and the pollen diameter (r = 0.94 or the percentage of normal pollen (r = 0.96. In order to evaluate the predictive power of the models, we conducted regression analyses and performed a validation experiment on genotypes not present in the database and without background information on fertility. Pollen diameter and percentage of normal pollen were characterized and fitted in the regression models for seed set predictions. Validation with an independent dataset gave a good prediction for 83.3% of the data. This indicates that using either the mean pollen diameter or the percentage of normal pollen resulted in effective fertility prediction. Moreover cluster analysis of the data classified all the cultivars into various groups with varying fertility. This tool could enhance the genetic variability in crossings between hybrid tea roses, thus creating possibilities for less economically risky exploitation of new tetraploid genotypes as male parents.

  8. Factors affecting the germination of hybrid rose achenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The smooth germination of mature Hybrid rose achenes is hampered by (i) hardseededness (HS), (ii) primary dormancy (PD) and (iii) germination polymorphism (GP). HS is owing to the hard pericarp. PD is, in principle, a natural phenomenon that protects the seeds from precocious germination. For ger

  9. Factors affecting the germination of hybrid rose achenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The smooth germination of mature Hybrid rose achenes is hampered by (i) hardseededness (HS), (ii) primary dormancy (PD) and (iii) germination polymorphism (GP). HS is owing to the hard pericarp. PD is, in principle, a natural phenomenon that protects the seeds from precocious germination. For ger

  10. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep İlbay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L. tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g of dried matter (DM. The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM, followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM.

  11. The mode of inheritance in tetraploid cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Gitonga, V.W.; Yan, Z.; Dolstra, O.; Linden, van der C.G.; Schoot, van der J.; Uenk-Stunnenberg, G.E.; Verlinden, K.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Krens, F.A.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Tetraploid hybrid tea roses (Rosa hybrida) represent most of the commercial cultivars of cut roses and form the basis for breeding programmes. Due to intensive interspecific hybridizations, modern cut roses are complex tetraploids for which the mode of inheritance is not exactly known. The segregati

  12. The mode of inheritance in tetraploid cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Gitonga, V.W.; Yan, Z.; Dolstra, O.; Linden, van der C.G.; Schoot, van der J.; Uenk-Stunnenberg, G.E.; Verlinden, K.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Krens, F.A.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Tetraploid hybrid tea roses (Rosa hybrida) represent most of the commercial cultivars of cut roses and form the basis for breeding programmes. Due to intensive interspecific hybridizations, modern cut roses are complex tetraploids for which the mode of inheritance is not exactly known. The segregati

  13. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE BEVERAGE OF ROSE AND BLACK TEA%玫瑰红茶复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞芸; 贾媛

    2011-01-01

    The composite beverage of rose and black tea was processed with rose, black tea and sugar as the main materials. The optimum extraction formula of rose was: adding 0.4% rose powder and extracting at 80 ℃ for 15 minutes. The optimum extraction formula of black tea was: adding 0.4% black tea powder and extracting at 60 ℃ for 20 minutes. The optimum formula of the composite beverage was: adding 2.0% sugar in the mixed solution( the extracting solution of rose: black tea = 2:3 ) . The product had rose flavor and black tea aromas which soluble solid level was 4%.%以玫瑰、红茶、白砂糖为主要原料,研制玫瑰红茶复合饮料.通过试验分别确定了玫瑰、红茶的最佳浸提工艺及复合饮料的最佳配方.结果表明,玫瑰的最佳浸提工艺为:玫瑰粉加量0.4%,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间15min;红茶的最佳浸提工艺为:红茶粉加量0.4%,浸提温度60℃,浸提时间20min.玫瑰红茶复合饮料的最佳配方为:玫瑰与红茶提取液体积比2∶3,白砂糖2.0%.该产品可溶性固形物含量为4%,具有玫瑰花的清香和红茶浓郁的香味,酸甜可口,色泽鲜亮.

  15. Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hili Pauline; Thring Tamsyn SA; Naughton Declan P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous reports have identified therapeutic roles for plants and their extracts and constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacies of three plant extracts for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methods Aqueous extracts and formulations of white tea, witch hazel and rose were subjected to assays to measure anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, trolox equivalent and catalase activities. Skin fibroblast ...

  16. Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hili Pauline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous reports have identified therapeutic roles for plants and their extracts and constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacies of three plant extracts for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methods Aqueous extracts and formulations of white tea, witch hazel and rose were subjected to assays to measure anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, trolox equivalent and catalase activities. Skin fibroblast cells were employed to determine the effect of each extract/formulation on IL-8 release induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Microscopic examination along with Neutral Red viability testing was employed to ascertain the effects of hydrogen peroxide directly on cell viability. Results Considerable anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and antioxidant activities were measured for all extracts apart from the witch hazel distillate which showed no activity in the collagenase assay or in the trolox equivalence assay. All of the extracts and products tested elicited a significant decrease in the amount of IL-8 produced by fibroblast cells compared to the control (p Conclusions These data show that the extracts and products tested have a protective effect on fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage. This approach provides a potential method to evaluate the claims made for plant extracts and the products in which these extracts are found.

  17. The mode of inheritance in tetraploid cut roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning-Boucoiran, C F S; Gitonga, V W; Yan, Z; Dolstra, O; van der Linden, C G; van der Schoot, J; Uenk, G E; Verlinden, K; Smulders, M J M; Krens, F A; Maliepaard, C

    2012-08-01

    Tetraploid hybrid tea roses (Rosa hybrida) represent most of the commercial cultivars of cut roses and form the basis for breeding programmes. Due to intensive interspecific hybridizations, modern cut roses are complex tetraploids for which the mode of inheritance is not exactly known. The segregation patterns of molecular markers in a tetraploid mapping population of 184 genotypes, an F(1) progeny from a cross of two heterozygous parents, were investigated for disomic and tetrasomic inheritance. The possible occurrence of double reduction was studied as well. We can exclude disomic inheritance, but while our observations are more in line with a tetrasomic inheritance, we cannot exclude that there is a mixture of both inheritance modes. Two novel parental tetraploid linkage maps were constructed using markers known from literature, combined with newly generated markers. Comparison with the integrated consensus diploid map (ICM) of Spiller et al. (Theor Appl Genet 122:489-500, 2010) allowed assigning numbers to each of the linkage groups of both maps and including small linkage groups. So far, the possibility of using marker-assisted selection in breeding of tetraploid cut roses and of other species with a tetrasomic or partly tetrasomic inheritance, is still limited due to the difficulties in establishing marker-trait associations. We used these tetraploid linkage maps to determine associations between markers, two morphological traits and powdery mildew resistance. The knowledge on inheritance and marker-trait associations in tetraploid cut roses will be of direct use to cut rose breeding.

  18. Frequency and amplitude characteristics of a high-repetition-rate hybrid TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachambre, J.L.; Lavigne, P.; Verreault, M.; Otis, G.

    1978-02-01

    The envelope and frequency characteristics of the output pulse of a high-repetition-rate hybrid TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser are presented. Both the intrapulse and interpulse laser frequency stability are experimentally determined at repetition rates up to 300 Hz. The recovery of the CW laser signal following the generation of the TEA laser pulse is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Short term reproducibilities of + or - 2 MHz are observed at a pulse repetition rate of 300 Hz with initial chirp rates of about 1.5 MHz/microsec. Improvements and limits on power and repetition rate are discussed.

  19. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  20. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  1. Rose Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dropsy or edema), gout, back and leg pain (sciatica), diabetes, high cholesterol, weight loss, high blood pressure, ... Painful menstruation. Some evidence suggests that applying an aromatherapy formula containing lavender, clary sage, and rose hip ...

  2. Ships & Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    International trade involves crossing several organizational boundaries. This revelatory case study follows fresh cut roses’ journey from the growers in Kenya to the retail distribution in Holland and shows relatively high barriers related to the associated activities, information and documents...... be useful for the actors’ collaboration in the trade lane of the roses. We discuss some of the benefits of our proposed approach (e.g. lower transaction cost and real time information) but also raise some concerns (e.g. about trust and governance) which calls for further research....

  3. Green-tea modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for efficient poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylenesulfonate)/n-silicon hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Ishwor; Tang, Zeguo; Liu, Qiming; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2013-02-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/n-Si hybrid solar cells were studied with and without embedding green-tea modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at interface. Devices fabricated with embedding green-tea modified MWCNTs show much better performance than that of a device without MWCNTs with short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor, and power conversion efficiency (η) as 30.31 mA/cm2, 0.54 V, 0.66, and 10.93%, respectively. Here, we believe that green-tea disperse MWCNTs bundles to individual and its incorporation improved built-in potential (Vb) of the device for better hole transport, easy exciton splitting, and suppression of charge recombination, thereby improving photovoltaic response.

  4. A Trail of Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    as a trail of roses through Danish 1960s art. The trail leads from Nielsen’s reading of Stein’s rose to the Danish composer Henning Christiansen, who put the sentence to music in his orchestral work A Rose for Miss Stein (1965). The chain of roses was continued by the painter and performance artist John...

  5. Preparation of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer with double-templates for rapid simultaneous purification of theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiyang; Li, Guizhen; Row, Kyung Ho; Zhu, Tao

    2016-05-15

    A novel double-templates technique was adopted for solid-phase extraction packing agent, and the obtained hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with double-templates (theophylline and chlorogenic acid) were characterized by fourier transform infrared and field emission scanning electron microscope. The molecular recognition ability and binding capability for theophylline and chlorogenic acid of polymers was evaluated by static absorption and dynamic adsorption curves. A rapid and accurate approach was established for simultaneous purification of theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea by coupling hybrid molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography. With optimization of SPE procedure, a reliable analytical method was developed for highly recognition towards theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea with satisfactory extraction recoveries (theophylline: 96.7% and chlorogenic acid: 95.8%). The limit of detection and limit of quantity of the method were 0.01 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL for theophylline, 0.05 μg/mL and 0.17 μg/mL for chlorogenic acid, respectively. The recoveries of proposed method at three spiked levels analysis were 98.7-100.8% and 98.3-100.2%, respectively, with the relative standard deviation less than 1.9%. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with double-templates showed good performance for two kinds of targets, and the proposed approach with high affinity of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers might offer a novel method for the purification of complex samples.

  6. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics...

  7. 南昌地区引种大花及藤本月季品种的评估鉴定%Evaluation and Identification of Introduced Cultivars of Grandiflora and Climbing Hybrid Roses in Nanchang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管帮富; 彭华; 彭火辉; 陈华玲; 彭玉辅; 章海宾

    2013-01-01

    Grey correlation analysis and fuzzy comprehensive judgment methods were used to comprehensively evaluate the in -troduced 46 cultivars of grandiflora roses and the introduced 8 cultivars of climbing hybrid roses .The main results were obtained as follows:among grandiflora roses cultivars,‘Pink Fan’,‘Hi-ohgi’, ‘Carola’, ‘Rouge Meilland’ and ‘Tchaikovsky’ had the best comprehensive performance, followed by ‘Yalike Red’,‘Golden Scepter’, ‘Kantuer Poker’, ‘Lvyun’, ‘Mount Shasta’,‘Shroveport’,‘Black Tea’,‘Oregold’,‘Hohoemi’ and‘Carte Dor’, while ‘Fenbeidahong’,‘Saiun’ and‘Lovely red’ were the poorest;among climbing hybrid roses cultivars , the comprehensive characters of ‘Angela ’ and ‘Hongqiang ’ performed best , those of ‘Parkdirektor Riggers’,‘Huanglong’,‘Red Eden’,‘Reading Desk’ and‘Lanyueliang’ did well, while those of ‘Spec-tra’ were the worst.The results of comprehensive evaluation by these two methods were basically identical and coincided with the actual performance of these cultivars .Our research results could provide theoretical foundation for the reasonable utilization of intro -duced cultivar resources of grandiflora roses and climbing hybrid roses .%应用灰色关联度分析和模糊综合评判法对引进的46种大花月季和8种藤本月季品种进行了综合分析评估,结果表明:大花月季品种中粉扇、绯扇、卡罗拉、梅郎口红、柴可夫斯基综合表现最好,其次为亚历克红、金凤凰、卡托尔纸牌、绿云、白雪山、月季中心、红茶、俄州黄金、微笑和卡特道尔,综合表现最差的则为粉背大红、彩云和可爱的红;而藤本月季品种中安吉拉和红墙综合表现最好,御用马车和黄龙表现其次,光谱则综合表现最差;两种综合评估方法的分析结果基本一致,且与品种栽培的实际观察表现相一致,为引种的大花及藤

  8. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural industr

  9. Bayesian Rose Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Charles; Heller, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical structure is ubiquitous in data across many domains. There are many hier- archical clustering methods, frequently used by domain experts, which strive to discover this structure. However, most of these meth- ods limit discoverable hierarchies to those with binary branching structure. This lim- itation, while computationally convenient, is often undesirable. In this paper we ex- plore a Bayesian hierarchical clustering algo- rithm that can produce trees with arbitrary branching structure at each node, known as rose trees. We interpret these trees as mixtures over partitions of a data set, and use a computationally efficient, greedy ag- glomerative algorithm to find the rose trees which have high marginal likelihood given the data. Lastly, we perform experiments which demonstrate that rose trees are better models of data than the typical binary trees returned by other hierarchical clustering algorithms.

  10. Tea Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2013-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle and intangible cultural heritage Every spring, Chinese indulge in drinking copious amounts of fresh green tea picked and processed in the country's southern mountain areas. In particular, several days before and after the Tomb Sweeping Day (April 4), tea trees blessed with

  11. Two unnamed Turkish roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zielinski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Rosa ‘Professor Turhan Baytop’ and Rosa ‘Asuman’, two different morphotypes of the fragrant double whiteflowered cultivar of Rosa beggeriana, are formally named and described. They stem from old roses once cultivated in gardens of Central and East Anatolia and now gradually disappearing when...

  12. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  13. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  14. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study: e67110

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric D Knowles; Brian S Lowery; Elizabeth P Shulman; Rebecca L Schaumberg

    2013-01-01

      The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics...

  15. A Trail of Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    and reality as as well as about what is endlessly the same and endlessly different. And thus the text is seen to voice an entire ontology which, in its utter simplicity, exemplifies the poetical power and philosophical depth of Gertrude Stein’s writing. From this point Gertrude Stein’s influence is visible...... Davidsen who devoted an entire year to roses. While the conceptual artist Stig Brøgger used his reading of Stein’s How To Write to work out textual fields, films and film scripts. Ecchoes of Stein’s writing can also be heard in recent Danish poetry such as Pia Juul’s Radioteateret (2010)....

  16. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  17. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  18. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  19. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  20. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  1. 2012 Rose Site 14P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 14P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 25, 2002. With a start point...

  2. 2004 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  3. 2002 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  4. 2012 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  5. 2004 Rose Site 30P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 30P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  6. Rose Atoll Coral Monitoring Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative report summarizes the results of coral monitoring at 11 georeferenced sites at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, undertaken by Dr. James Maragos, USFWS Coral...

  7. 2006 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  8. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  9. 2002 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  10. 2006 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  11. 2004 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  12. 2012 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  13. 2012 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  14. 2012 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  15. 2004 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  16. 2006 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  17. 2005 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  18. 2012 Rose Site 23P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 23P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 10, 2004. With a start point...

  19. 2004 Rose Site 28P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 28P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  20. 2012 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  1. 2004 Rose Site 23P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 23P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 10, 2004. With a start point...

  2. 2012 Rose Site 28P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 28P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  3. 2012 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  4. 2004 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  5. 1999 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  6. 2004 Rose Site 4P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 4P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 9, 2004. With a start point...

  7. 1999 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  8. 1999 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  9. 2004 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  10. 2012 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  11. 2002 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  12. 2002 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  13. 2006 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  14. 2006 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  15. 2006 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  16. 2004 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  17. 2005 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  18. 2006 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  19. 2004 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  20. 2004 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  1. 1999 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  2. 2004 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  3. 2005 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  4. 1999 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  5. 2004 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  6. 2012 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  7. 1999 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  8. 2012 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  9. 2012 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  10. 2004 Rose Site 14P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 14P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 25, 2002. With a start point...

  11. 1999 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  12. 2005 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  13. 2012 Rose Site 4P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 4P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 9, 2004. With a start point...

  14. 2012 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  15. 2004 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  16. Tea boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  17. Processing procedures of brick tea and their influence on fluorine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C; Yan, Z; Jianwei, L

    2001-09-01

    China is the only country that produces brick tea, and more than 90% of the brick tea is consumed in the western minority nationality regions of China. The high fluorine content of brick tea is possibly associated with the special processing procedures, but no investigation has been conducted in this field. To explore the characteristic features of brick tea manufacturing and the alterations in fluorine content during the processing procedures, we performed a field survey involving two brick tea factories and the nearby tea plantations. For the fluorine contents of the initial, intermediate and final processing products, altogether eight types of specimens were collected and determined by using the ion-selective electrode standard curve technique. It was found that the raw material tea leaf for brick tea processing was old, coarse and not the tender delicate tea leaf used for ordinary green or black tea processing. For the fluorine content of the raw material tea leaf, the intermediate and the final products showed that the fresh raw leaf contained a fluorine content as high as 489.31-512.68 mg/kg. During one fermentation-like processing procedure, the fluorine content rose by 4.67% and 1.88% in the specimens from the two factories, respectively, which revealed no statistical significance (P>0.5). These results suggest that the high fluorine content in brick tea might be due to the high content in the raw material and not related with the processing procedures.

  18. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  19. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  20. The mycoflora of tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Halweg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger was most often isolated from 3 various black lea species dust obtained from packer factory. 10 species of black tea packaged in Poland and 28 various species of black tea and one species of green tea packed abroad. Other fungi were seen lees frequently. It seems that A. niger spores alone or with tea dust may induce various respiratory disorders in tea packers. Serum antibodies to antigens of A. niger and tea extracts imply that both may be important etiological factors.

  1. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  2. Genetic Phenotype of Catechins in Tea Plants Hybrid F1 Generation%茶树杂交F1代儿茶素类的遗传表型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂良剑; 郑金贵; 林金科; 杨志坚; 林用松; 黄则栋; 赵文净; 孙平; 严婷婷

    2012-01-01

    以高EGCG茶树新品系为主要杂交亲本,分析其杂交F1代儿茶素类的遗传表型.结果表明:杂交F1代的EGC、EC、EGCG、ECG、酯型儿茶素类、简单儿茶素类、TC(儿茶素总量)、酯型儿茶素类/TC、简单儿茶素类/TC、EGCG/咖啡碱、EGCG/TC、儿茶素(类)品质指数等指标,不同株系差异很大;不同杂交组合存在显著差异,Kruskal Wallis检验和稳健检验均达显著性水平;不同杂交组合的分离存在极显著性差异,方差齐性检验表明达到极显著性水平.不同杂交组合F1代TC的分布因亲本的遗传力而定;不同杂交组合F1代高EGCG单株、高酯型儿茶素类单株和高儿茶素(类)品质指数单株的分布也因亲本的遗传力而定.%The hybrid F1 generation of the new tea plants with high EGCG content were used in this experimentation to study the genetic phenotype of catechins. The results showed that (a) the contents of EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG, ester-catechins, simple catechins and TC (total catechins), the ratios of ester-catechins/TC, simple catechins/TC, EGCG/caffeine and EGCG/TC, as well as the catechin quality index of the tea plants differed significantly among different varieties; (b) the differences among the hybrid combinations reached a significant level according to Kruskal Wallis and the robust tests; and (c) the different hybrid combinations separated very significantly from one another based on the homogeneity of variance test. The TC distribution in the F1 generation of the hybrid combinations was determined by the genetic heritability. The distribution of individual plants with high EGCG, high ester-catechins and high quality catechins index was also determined by the heritability of their parents' genetic.

  3. Analysis of rose crop production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.T.N.; Koning, de J.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Measured and simulated dry-matter production of two rose crops different in cultivar and growing conditions were compared. Differences in dry-matter production between the two crops could be explained to a large extend by differences in harvest index, leaf area index, supplementary lighting and

  4. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  5. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  6. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  7. An Invitation to Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEA-drinking is very popular in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, especially in the provincial capital Chengdu. Some people estimate that the number of tea houses in Chengdu is greater than that of restaurants in Beijing. I, too, have developed the habit of having a cup of tea in the morning. On holidays, when I am free in the morning, I get up early to rush to a tea house,

  8. Drifting Fragrant Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORIGINATING in China, tea drinking as well as tea culture has a long standing history of three to four thousand years. The formal tea ceremony had been in gradual decline since the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties but gradually began to re-develop in the 1980s owing to the demands of people from all walks of life. The prosperity of the local tea culture is witnessed by the

  9. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  10. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  11. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  12. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  13. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  14. Investigation of isomeric flavanol structures in black tea thearubigins using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole/ion mobility/time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Grun, Christian; Koek, Jean H; Assaf, Khaleel I; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-11-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) when coupled to ion mobility (IMS)/orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry is a suitable technique for analyzing complex mixtures such as the black tea thearubigins. With the aid of this advanced instrumental analysis, we were able to separate and identify different isomeric components in the complex mixture which could previously not be differentiated by a conventional high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, the difference between isomeric structures theasinensins, proanthocyanidins B-type and rutin (quercetin-3O-rutinoside) were studied, and these are present abundantly in many botanical sources. The differentiation between these structures was accomplished according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from the traditional investigations in mass spectrometry, where calculation of theoretical collisional cross sections allowed assignment of the individual isomeric structures. The present work demonstrates UPLC-IMS-MS as an efficient technology for isolating and separating isobaric and isomeric structures existing in complex mixtures discriminating between them according to their characteristic fragment ions and mobility drift times. Therefore, a rational assignment of isomeric structures in many phenolic secondary metabolites based on the ion mobility data might be useful in mass spectrometry-based structure analysis in the future.

  15. Network topology of the desert rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Mongstad Hope

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert roses are gypsum crystals that consist of intersecting disks. We determine their geometrical structure using computer assisted tomography. By mapping the geometrical structure onto a graph, the topology of the desert rose is analyzed and compared to a model based on diffusion limited aggregation. By comparing the topology, we find that the model gets a number of the features of the real desert rose right, whereas others do not fit so well.

  16. Tea Culture in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGLinghui; PUNCOGZholma

    2004-01-01

    The air in Tibet does not contain sufficient oxygen, and people living in that part of the world love food that is "dry", such as meat ancl roasted qingke barley flour called zanba. This kind of life calls for tea. And Tibetans have been drinking tea for eons.

  17. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before ro

  18. Rose's Life Lessons: Signed and Spoken

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the experiences of his wife, Cheryl, and his 5-year-old daughter, Rose, when they visited their local high school's child development class. Cheryl and Rose met with over a 100 teenagers teenagers in eight different classes to talk about their family, raising a child with Down syndrome, and their experiences with…

  19. All the Tea in China...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    TEA, coffee and cocoa com-prise three major beveragesin the world.Altogether 56countries grow tea and about 2 bil-lion people drink it.Although differ-ent countries have cultivated differ-ent tea cultures,including Japan’s teaceremony,Russia’s milk tea art andBritain’s afternoon tea service,theyare all closely linked to China’s longhistory and culture.

  20. Genetic variation, heritability and genotype by environment interaction of morphological traits in a tetraploid rose population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitonga, V.W.; Koning, C.F.S.; Verlinden, K.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Krens, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Global trade has ensured that the ornamental horticulture continues to grow worldwide, with rose hybrids being the most economically important genus (Rosa x hybrida). Due to changes in global trade and an increase in energy costs the ornamental industry has seen a shift in the production

  1. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Rose Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ling; ZHOU Ding; LI Xiang-zhong; YUE Ping-tao

    2003-01-01

    An innovative photoelectrode, TiO2/Ti mesh electrode, was prepared by galvanostaticanodisation. The morphology and the crystalline texture of the TiO2 film on mesh electrode were examined by scanning electronic microscopy and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The examination results indicated that the structure and properties of the film depended on anodisation rate, and the anatase was the dominant component under the controlled experimental conditions. Degradation of Rose Bengal(RB) in photocatalytic(PC) and photoelectrocatalytic(PEC) reaction was investigated, the results demonstrated that electric biasing could improve the efficiency of photocatalytic reaction. The measurement results of TOC in photoelectrocatalytic degradation showed that the mineralisation of RB was complete relatively. The comparison between the degradation efficiency of RB in PEC process and that in aqueous TiO2 dispersion was conducted. The results showed that the apparent first-order rate constant of RB degradation in PEC process was larger than that in aqueous dispersion with 0.1%-0.3% TiO2 powder, but was smaller than that in aqueous dispersion with 1.0% TiO2.

  2. Eating and Savoring Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1996-01-01

    TEA originated in China and spread to the rest of the world long ago. It is more than a popular beverage—it is a delicacy which can be both eaten and drunk, and around which many customs and rituals have been formed. Historical records show that tea leaves were first eaten, starting from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.). They were not steeped as a beverage until the early Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-23 A.D.). More formal tea-drinking rituals

  3. Impact of light irradiation on black tea quality during withering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zeyi; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Yuqiong; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Huacai; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-04-01

    Black tea manufacture usually involves the processes of withering, cutting, fermentation and drying. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of the relationship between the quality and withering with different light sources (ultraviolet, yellow, blue, purple, orange, red, cyan, green and white) an quality attribute of tea. The results indicated that the yellow, orange and red light withering significantly improved the aroma and taste, imparting the tea a sweet flavor and a fresh and mellow taste. Tea treated with yellow light was scored highest the sensory scores and showed the highest content in catechins, theaflavins, amino acids and aroma components, followed by the orange and red light treatments. The black tea withered with ultraviolet light showed a strong astringency, probably resulting from low contents of theaflavins, amino acids and soluble sugar. The green light irradiation remarkably damaged the aroma and taste of the tea, leading to a strong greenish flavor and an astringent taste, probably owing to the lowest contents of chemical compositions. No significant cumulative effect was found in the hybrid light withering treatments. Therefore, monochromatic yellow, orange and red lights were suggested for withering the black tea to improve its overall quality.

  4. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea tea green tea tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively.

  6. A teahouse in a tea garden

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese place tea at the centre of their social and ceremonial life. In this beautiful tea garden in Kyoto, the tea mistress makes tea and offers it to Alan Macfarlane, who talks a little about its role in history.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  8. Tea Party Engineer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Matthews

    2013-01-01

      [...]Massie, a Tea Party enthusiast and fan of both Ron and Rand Paul, has already made his presence felt on the House floor, bucking GOP leaders by voting against John Boehner's re-election as speaker...

  9. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  10. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  11. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  12. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  13. Rose Atoll - Eradication of Invasive Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are at least 9 species of ants introduced to Rose Atoll, including species that tend to scale insects that are devastating the Pisonia grandis trees on the 15...

  14. Uudised : Guns N' Roses Soomes. Valmis ulmeraadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika hard-rock-bändi Guns N' Roses kontserdist 5. juulil Hartwall Areenal Soomes. Kord kuus on Ulmeplaatide kodulehekülel www. ulmeplaadid.ee võimalus kuulata ulmeraadiot, kus esitusel eesti kergemuusika

  15. Uudised : Guns N' Roses Soomes. Valmis ulmeraadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika hard-rock-bändi Guns N' Roses kontserdist 5. juulil Hartwall Areenal Soomes. Kord kuus on Ulmeplaatide kodulehekülel www. ulmeplaadid.ee võimalus kuulata ulmeraadiot, kus esitusel eesti kergemuusika

  16. Rose Atoll 1993 Shipwreck Restoration Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summarizes efforts undertaken to remove grounded shipwreck at Rose Atoll and monitor impacts to community composition between 1993 and 2012.

  17. Tea, obesity, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Hsi; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Lee, Meng-Jung; Chen, Chia-Lin

    2006-02-01

    Tea has been found to possess widespread biological functions based on a variety of laboratory data. The effects of tea on obesity and diabetes have received increasing attention. This paper reviews the evidence for the connections among tea catechins, and obesity and diabetes. Tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), appear to have antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. While few epidemiological and clinical studies show the health benefits of EGCG on obesity and diabetes, the mechanisms of its actions are emerging based on the various laboratory data. These mechanisms may be related to certain pathways, such as through the modulations of energy balance, endocrine systems, food intake, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the redox status, and activities of different types of cells (i. e., fat, liver, muscle, and beta-pancreatic cells). Because the EGCG receptor, the so-called 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR), has been discovered with colocalization of other types of LR and cytoskeleton in both cancer cells and normal cells, this may explain that EGCG possesses numerous actions. The mechanistic results of this review may possibly be utilized in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases using tea- and EGCG-based folk medicines.

  18. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  19. Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2009-02-01

    One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.

  20. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  1. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  2. White Rose sustains east coast development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.

    2004-11-01

    The White Rose Oil Project, located in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin 350 km east of St. John's, is reported to continue paying benefits for the oil and gas industry in eastern Canada. The operator, Husky Energy, is said to be on target and expects first oil from the project in late 2005 or early 2006. Peak production for the White Rose Field is projected at 100,000 bbl/d. The project has a total capital cost of $2.35 billion. The first phase of the project, comprised of four wells, including an oil producer, was completed in July. The estimated productive capacity of this well is between 25,000 and 35,000 bbl/d. Other major milestones achieved at the White Rose project include movement of the topside modules onto the Sea Rose floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel, consisting of 17 lifts during the seven-week program. Individual lifts up to 1,250 tons were carried by the Lampson 2600 Trans-lift crane at the Cow Head Fabrication Facility in Marystown. Towing of the riser buoy from Bay Bulls to the White Rose Field has also been accomplished, and Husky Energy has commenced a program to evaluate the viability of producing and transporting natural gas from the White Rose Field. Several dozen expressions of interest have been received from contractors and engineering firms to assess the key technical, economic and regulatory issues critical to a safe and reliable natural gas development on the Grand Banks. Reserves and resources in the Newfoundland and Labrador offshore region have been estimated by the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board at approximately 2.1 billion barrels of oil and 9.6 trillion cubic feet of gas. The White Rose Field alone is estimated to have natural gas reserves of 2.7 trillion cubic feet. Husky expects the White Rose project to bring in 5.8 million person hours of direct employment in Newfoundland and Labrador and in excess of 1.3 million person hours of direct employment elsewhere in Canada. Approximately 375 long

  3. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  4. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  5. Evaluation of nutritional conditions of rose flower in rose farms of northern Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mirzashahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available North Khuzestan, with 245 ha under rose flower cultivation, produces 36% of out-season, cut-flower roses of Iran. In order to evaluate the nutritional status of rose farms and their problems, 34 rose flower greenhouses were inspected and samples of irrigation water, soil, leaf and flower were taken. Chemical characteristics of irrigation water, physico-chemical characteristics of soils, leaf mineral concentrations and qualitative indices of flowers were determined. Based on these qualitative indices, the sampled rose farms were divided into two groups: rose farms with high quality and low quality flowers. Leaf mineral concentrations and qualitative indices of flowers of both groups were compared based on t test. The results showed that the irrigation water was in class C2S1, which has no salinity and sodium problems. Average electrical conductivity and pH of the soils under rose cultivation was 1.16 dS/m and 7.7, respectively. Improper application of phosphorous fertilizers by farmers has resulted to an increase in available phosphorus content of soils up to 28.2 mg/kg. While, lack of potassium fertilizers and continuous cultivation has resulted in reduction of available potassium in studied soils to 120 mg/kg, and this problem has lowered the qualitative indices of rose flowers in the region. Average concentration of available micronutrients (including Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu was 7.9, 4.5, 1.5 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively, which all were at optimum level, except Mn, for rose flower production. The results revealed that there was a significant increase (P<0.01 in potassium concentration of leaf, fresh weight of flower, length and diameter of flower in high-quality flower farms as compared to low-quality flower farms. Concentrations of other leaf nutrients were not significantly different in the two groups.

  6. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Cd,Pd Contaminated Soil by Enzymes and Tea Saponin Hybrid Liquid%酶与茶皂素组合液对重金属Cd和Pb复合污染土壤的生态修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林维晟; 施小聪; 廖素兰; 许海皇

    2016-01-01

    [目的]评价α‐淀粉酶与茶皂素对污染土壤中的Cd ,Pb洗脱效果,为重金属污染土壤的修复提供更准确的科学依据。[方法]以重金属Cd ,Pb污染的耕作层土壤为研究对象,利用α‐淀粉酶和茶皂素复合淋洗对Cd ,Pb污染土壤进行生态修复,并测定土壤淋洗前后Cd ,Pb形态的变化。[结果]在反应时间12 h ,pH 4.0,反应温度30℃,茶皂素溶液和酶溶液配比4∶1条件下,Cd ,Pb去除率分别为88.87%,43.97%。通过对修复前后重金属的形态分析,发现酸提取态、可还原物态的重金属较容易去除,淋洗后土壤中Cd和Pb均达到土壤环境质量Ⅱ级标准。[结论]α‐淀粉酶和茶皂素组合对土壤中Cd ,Pb有明显的去除效果,起到协同、增强作用。表明α‐淀粉酶和茶皂素组合在生态修复重金属污染的土壤方面具有一定的应用前景。%Objective] T he objective of this study is to evaluate the elution effect of α‐amylase and tea saponin hybrid liquid on heavy metals such as Cd ,Pd in soil ,in order to provide a more accurate scientific basis for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil .[Methods] Cd ,Pd contaminated topsoil were selected as the study object ,enzymes and tea saponin hybrid liquid was used to remediate the heavy metal contaminated soil . The changes of Cd ,Pb before and after leaching were investigated .[Results] The removal efficiency of Cd and Pd were 88 .87% and 43 .97% ,respectively .When the reaction time was 12 hours ,pH value was 4 .0 , the reaction temperature was 30 ℃ and the ratio of tea saponin solution and enzymes solution was 4∶1 .The analysis of heavy metals before and after leaching showed that acid extractable and reducible metals were eas‐ier to remove .The content of Cd and Pd in soil after leaching reached up to the grade Ⅱ standard of soil envi‐ronmental quality .[Conclusion] There is a synergistic enhancement effect between tea

  7. Quantification of Allele Dosage in tetraploid Roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukosavljev, M.; Guardo, Di M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Many important crops (wheat, potato, strawberry, rose, etc.) are polyploid. This complicates genetic analyses, as the same locus can be present on multiple homologous or homoeologous chromosomes. SSR markers are suitable for mapping in segregating populations of polyploids as they are multi-allelic,

  8. The Rose Report [Continued]: "The Invisible Worm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    While Colin Richards' article is a trenchant analysis of the big themes and missed opportunities of the Rose Report, this response examines some of the small print. It concludes that the document is disfigured by many minor blemishes, and is also fatally flawed by a crude misapprehension of the nature of progress and the purpose of education.

  9. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  10. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  11. 链格孢菌毒素能诱导中国月季产生抗蚜活性的细交链孢菌酮酸%Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum):effect of tenuazonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-zhong YANG; Bin YANG; Bei-bei LI; Chun XIAO

    2015-01-01

      结论:(1)链格孢菌粗毒素和对照品 TeA均能使中国月季植株产生对月季长管蚜的系统诱导抗性,显著降低月季长管蚜对中国月季的危害;(2)链格孢菌粗毒素中的主要抗蚜活性成分是 TeA, TeA有望成为中国月季上具有抗蚜活性的先导化合物;(3)粗毒素和对照品 TeA对蚜虫和植物均无伤害作用,但能激活植物对虫害的诱导抗性(ISR)和系统获得性抗性(SAR),可直接证实二者间存在着寄主植物介导的间接的病虫互作关系。%Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demon-strated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60%15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component

  12. On The Style Translation of Eileen Chang’S Red Rose, White Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-juan

    2013-01-01

    Reproducing the style of the original text plays an important role in bringing out the esthetic value in the target text. Inspired by Liu Miqing’s papers on style translation, the paper analyzes the translation of Red Rose, White Rose, Eileen Chang’s el-oquent and evocative novella to assess whether or not style is reproduced accurately and properly in Kingsbury ’s translation.

  13. Impacts of flushing and fermentation times on the quality of black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari Hojjat Reza; Asil Hassanpour Moazzam; Rabiei Babak; Dadashpour Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Flushing and fermentation times are the two main parameters determining the quality of black tea. In this research, the effects of different flushing and fermentation times were studied on the quality of black tea in two clones, 100 and natural Chinese hybrid. Analysis of variance showed there were the significant differences between the clone types, flushing and fermentation times for theaflavin, thearubigin, total color, brightness, tannin and caffeine. C...

  14. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  15. Tea Time In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon Taylor

    2012-01-01

    There's a saying in China:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou.Having visited this city in east central China,I'm willing to vouch for this ancient adage,one that suggests heaven's beauty has somehow trickled down to Earth.But I would suggest a slight amendment:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou and people,and people,and people.The lakes,hills and pagodas make Hangzhou China's most visited tourist destination-around 20 million foreign and domestic tourists visit each year.Hangzhou is known for tea,some of the best and most expensive in China.The hills and valleys to the west of Hangzhou that I saw were littered with villages and tea plantations.That's where I needed to be.

  16. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  17. Effects of Cistus-tea on bacterial colonization and enzyme activities of the in situ pellicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Christian; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Hannig, Matthias

    2008-07-01

    Polyphenols are expected to have antibacterial properties. Cistus is a tea rich in polyphenols. The aim of the present in situ study was to investigate the effect of Cistus-tea on the pellicle and on the initial oral biofilm. For in situ pellicle formation and initial biofilm formation, bovine enamel slabs were fixed on maxillary splints and carried by four subjects at buccal sites for up to 2 h. Bacteria present in 120-min pellicles were determined with DAPI-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization with and without a 10 min rinse with Cistus-tea performed 1 min after incorporation of the slabs. In addition, amylase, lysozyme, glucosyltransferase and peroxidase activities immobilised in the pellicle layer were measured before and after rinsing for 10 min with Cistus-tea. The amount of bacteria detected in the 120-min biofilm was reduced significantly, if a 10 min rinse with Cistus-tea was performed one min after insertion of the enamel slabs. DAPI-staining yielded 13.2+/-3.5 for controls and 6.5+/-1.1 x 10(4) bacteria/cm(2), if a rinse with Cistus-tea was applied. Lysozyme, amylase and glucosyltransferase activities immobilised in the pellicle were not affected following a rinse with Cistus-tea. However, peroxidase activity was reduced significantly. Cistus-tea may be used to reduce the initial bacterial adhesion in the oral cavity.

  18. Rose-K contact lens for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report clinical experience and the comparative value of axial and instantaneous topography data in fitting Rose-K design contact lenses in moderate and severe keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight eyes (of 23 patients with keratoconus were fitted with Rose-K design contact lenses and followed up for at least six months or more. Visual acuity with habitual vision correction available was measured. Axial and instantaneous topography maps for each eye were recorded. Contact lens wear comfort was graded on a ten point rating scale every three months. Results: Fourteen (100% moderate keratoconus eyes (average Sim K 48.61 ± 1.24D and 23 of 24 (96% of severe keratoconus eyes (average Sim K 60.88 ± 5.31D were successfully fitted with the Rose-K lenses. Final fit contact lenses in severe keratoconus had statistically significant steeper base curves compared to average axial corneal curvature than in moderate keratoconus eyes. Average simulated corneal curvature on axial maps predicted final fit contact lens base curves significantly better than on instantaneous maps. Thirty-three of the 37 eyes fitted with contact lenses maintained wear comfort over average follow up period of 13 ± 3.5 months. Conclusions: Rose-K design rigid contact lenses are successful in visually rehabilitating 100% of moderate and 96% of severe keratoconus eyes. Most patients (90% maintained contact lens wear comfort. Corneal curvature on axial maps is a better predictive of base curve of final fit contact lens.

  19. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  20. Multiplication of Patio roses by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysko Iryna Leonidivna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment involved plants of 10 Patio rose cultivars of the National Dendrological Park "Sofiyivka" collection. The methods of propagation by cuttings worked out by Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy were assumed as a basis. Callogenesis and regenerative capacity were estimated in accordance with Z.J. Ivanova scale (1982. The fact is ascertained that the success of rooting substantially depends on particularities of certain Patio rose cultivar. It is advisable to use cuttings from basal and medial parts of stems, with remaining leaves, taken within the last ten-day period of May – the first ten-day period of June. The pretreatment with rhizogenic medium "Kornevin" (reactant — indolebutyric acid is the most effective for rooting cuttings. The optimal for rooting is the two-layered substrate: the lower layer is a multicomponent soil compound of peat, perlite, sod soil and humus in ratio 1:1:1:1; the upper layer consists of sand. Seedlings of Patio roses cultivated in open ground during vegetation period form stems 1.8 times more vigorously than ones grown on the same place where they were rooted. The optimal period to transfer into bed is May. It is reasonable to use top removal in order to form vigorous stem system.

  1. Engineering of the rose flavonoid biosynthetic pathway successfully generated blue-hued flowers accumulating delphinidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Fukui, Yuko; Brugliera, Filippa; Holton, Timothy A; Karan, Mirko; Nakamura, Noriko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Togami, Junichi; Pigeaire, Alix; Tao, Guo-Qing; Nehra, Narender S; Lu, Chin-Yi; Dyson, Barry K; Tsuda, Shinzo; Ashikari, Toshihiko; Kusumi, Takaaki; Mason, John G; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2007-11-01

    Flower color is mainly determined by anthocyanins. Rosa hybrida lacks violet to blue flower varieties due to the absence of delphinidin-based anthocyanins, usually the major constituents of violet and blue flowers, because roses do not possess flavonoid 3',5'-hydoxylase (F3'5'H), a key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Other factors such as the presence of co-pigments and the vacuolar pH also affect flower color. We analyzed the flavonoid composition of hundreds of rose cultivars and measured the pH of their petal juice in order to select hosts of genetic transformation that would be suitable for the exclusive accumulation of delphinidin and the resulting color change toward blue. Expression of the viola F3'5'H gene in some of the selected cultivars resulted in the accumulation of a high percentage of delphinidin (up to 95%) and a novel bluish flower color. For more exclusive and dominant accumulation of delphinidin irrespective of the hosts, we down-regulated the endogenous dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene and overexpressed the Irisxhollandica DFR gene in addition to the viola F3'5'H gene in a rose cultivar. The resultant roses exclusively accumulated delphinidin in the petals, and the flowers had blue hues not achieved by hybridization breeding. Moreover, the ability for exclusive accumulation of delphinidin was inherited by the next generations.

  2. Obituary: William K. Rose (1935-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2011-12-01

    Stellar astrophysicist William Kenneth Rose died near his home in Potomac, Maryland, on September 30, 2010, after an extended illness. Rose was the son of pharmacist Kenneth William Rose and Shirley Near Rose and was born in Ossining, New York, on August 10, 1935. He received an AB from Columbia College in 1957 and a PhD in physics from Columbia University in 1963, with a thesis on "measurements of linear polarization in discrete radio sources using a 9.4 cm maser," under the direction of Charles H. Townes. Rose played a major role in designing and constructing the maser and used it at a radio telescope at Maryland Point that belonged to the Naval Research Lab. He observed Jupiter and Saturn and a number of extra-solar-system sources, and also diffuse centimeter emission (see appendix). The thesis was not published in an archival journal, but can be found under Library of Congress code QB 475.R67. While in graduate School, Bill married Sheila Tuchman, whose primary scientific interests were biological. None of their three children chose to be scientists, but two are CPAs. Bill moved successfully through the academic hurdles) from a research position at Princeton (1963-67), where a collaboration with Nick Woolf and Martin Schwarzchild on the infrared spectra of giant stars became one of his most-cited papers, to assistant and associate professorships at MIT (1967-71), and then associate and full professorships at the University of Maryland (1971 to retirement in 2005). His most innovative work was probably that on nova explosions arising from degenerate ignition of hydrogen accreted on white dwarfs in close binary systems, published in 1968. The same idea occurred to others at about the same time, and Bill did not, perhaps, get quite his fair share of the credit. I first met Sheila and Bill in summer 1969 at the Stony Brook summer school on stellar evolution (not published until 1972). He lectured on the nature of nova explosions and on nuclear burning in thin

  3. Survey and Analysis on Undergraduate Tea Consumption and Attitude towards Tea Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua; LI; Xiaohui; LU; Mengyao; JIANG; Wanfang; SHAO; Jianyun; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sample survey of undergraduates from Tsinghua University, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yunnan University and Yunnan Agricultural University, this paper analyzes their tea consumption and attitude towards tea consumption. Results show that more than 50% undergraduates like drinking tea, especially green tea. They would like to accept lower price tea, prefer quality to brand, and have higher degree of approval of new methods of tea drinking and tea products. However, most undergraduates lack relevant knowledge about identifying tea quality. Finally, it presents recommendations for expanding tea consumption market among undergraduates.

  4. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  5. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  6. Green tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Daniel, Kenyon G; Kuhn, Deborah J; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhigang; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-09-01

    The cancer-preventive effects of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies in the recent decade. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols affect several signal transduction pathways, including growth factor-mediated, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea lowers the risk of cancer. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment by green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Phase I and II clinical trials were carried out recently to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in patients with cancer. At this time, more mechanistic research, animal studies, and clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of green tea in cancer prevention.

  7. THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kranthi Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is composed of many compounds. These components have various Effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea .apart from that green tea having various useful properties which are helpful for human body .The present Communication Describes about the about the “THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA by using U.V Spectrophotometer and TLC Procedure for the estimation of caffeine content in commercial available tea samples and Comparative data of caffeine content along with analysis of different brands of tea samples by Comparing with the green tea powder. The present methods shows a detailed description about the Difference between commercial brands of tea powders and Green tea. A possible explanation to Account for the variability in Green Tea and analysis of different samples is offered.

  8. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractionsinhibit migration of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ean-Jeong Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects.In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF, a non-phenolic fraction (NPF, which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL, and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer.Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples towards human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro. The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy.PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 µg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC50 on AML12: 0.024 µg/mL, IC50 on HepG2: 2.103 µg/mL. We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of

  9. [Studies on tea and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi

    2011-11-01

    Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective

  10. Characteristics of virus and virus-like rose degeneration and dieback diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek S. Szyndel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented review of rose diseases, associated with the plant degeneration symptoms, includes rose streak, rose colour break, rose rosette or rose witches' broom, rose dieback, rose wilt, rose stunt, rose leaf curl, rose spring dwarf, rose little leaf, rose "frisure", rose bud proliferation and rose flower proliferation. Most of these disorders are characterized by stunting or dwarfing of plants accompanied by a partial wilt and dieback of shoots. Proliferation and epinasty often occurred. Apart from detected viruses (TSV. SLRSV parts of degeneration syndrome have been transmitted by grafting other have failed to achieve any transmission of the causal agent. It seems likely that rose degeneration disorders in spite of symptom similarities are due to a complex of interacting factors including probably viruses.

  11. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  12. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  13. Using Rose and Compass for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2009-07-09

    Many recent non-proliferation software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project. ROSE is an LLNL-developed robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. It continues to be extended to support the automated analysis of binaries (x86, ARM, and PowerPC). We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for non-proliferation projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  14. Erythrocyte antioxidant protection of rose hips (Rosa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, C.; Ekholm, A.; Coleman, M. D.; Renvert, S; Rumpunen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C18 column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comp...

  15. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  16. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  17. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumpt......In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea...... consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected...... at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were...

  18. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption.

  19. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  20. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  1. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-02

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  2. The Symbolic significance of the Rose in "A Rose for Emily"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peishaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The short story"A Rose for Emily" draws a vivid picture of the southern descendents. It attracts readers' attention successfully and makes us immersed in the whole story. And the ingenious usage of symbolism is a distinctive feature, which makes the story filled with profound implications. This paper intends to make a brief analysis the symbolic significance of th erose in the short story.

  3. Wild roses and hawthorns of urban area: a case study of Piła in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtys-Lelek Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the distribution of wild roses and hawthorns in the town of Piła (NW Poland. The main purpose of the study was to provide a full list of wild Crataegus and Rosa taxa growing in the researched area. Field studies (2014-2015 and formerly published data made it possible to recognize 19 taxa, among them 14 native taxa (including two rose nothospecies, 4 anthropophytes and 1 hybrid. Eleven new taxa were found in the explored area during the studies. These were: Crataegus rhipidophylla, C. × macrocarpa, C. × subsphaericea, C. × media ‘Rubra Plena’, Rosa majalis, R. villosa, R. rubiginosa, R. × subcollina, R. glauca, R. rugosa, R. multiflora and interspecific hybrid Rosa canina × R. rubiginosa.

  4. Genetic diversity and differentiation in roses: A gardenrose perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukosavljev, M.; Zhang, J.; Esselink, G.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Cox, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Arens, P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    tFor the first time genetic diversity among modern garden rose cultivars has been evaluated using a setof 24 microsatellite markers covering most chromosomes. A total of 518 different alleles were obtainedin the set of 138 rose cultivars and this led to the conclusion that in terms of genetic

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahle, A.H.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-togate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, a

  6. Genetic diversity and genetic similarities between Iranian rose species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samiei, L.; Naderi, R.; Khalighi, A.; Shahnejat-Bushehri, A.A.; Mozaffarian, V.; Esselink, G.D.; Kazempour Osaloo, S.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wild rose species were collected from different regions of Iran for a rose breeding programme. They included accessions from Rosa persica, R. foetida, R. pimpinellifolia, R. hemisphaerica, R. canina, R. iberica, R. damascena, R. beggeriana, and R. orientalis. Ten microsatellite (simple sequence

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahle, A.H.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-togate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to,

  8. On the Economic Benefits of Cut Roses Planting in Sanya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong; LIN; Guanming; CHEN; Huiqiu; XU; Liping; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to promote the off-season cut roses industry in Hainan Province to the whole island and even whole China. Based on the production data in latest three years,the theory of time value was introduced to analyze the economic benefits of cut roses planting in South Hainan. According to the research findings,the cut roses create a NPV of $22 000 /667m2 with a net NPV rate of 34. 24%,an internal rate of return of 76. 36%,and a dynamic payback of 1. 05,bringing the farmers a revenue of $7 200 /667m2 per capita per year. Since the largescale planting of cut roses needs a high investment,it is suggested that the government should increase its support for the cut rose industry.

  9. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  10. Tea - a Chineseway of life and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Tea, along with porcelain and silk, has long been one of China’s most significant exports.ln the 6th century, a Buddhist monk introduced tea to Japan and a Portuguese missionary to Europe in the 16th century. In this way, tea became an international beverage. From ancient times to today, tea has been a necessity of the ordinary life of anyone Chinese.

  11. Green Tea and Its Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Jason

    1999-01-01

    Green tea contains antioxidants which have been implicated to contribute to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This may be explained in part by the green tea's antioxidant properties. Green tea is a rich source of flavonoids with high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. This includes the ability of green tea to lower the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In vivo lipid oxidation as measure by plasma lipid peroxides and LDL oxidizability are significantly...

  12. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  13. Influence of Tea Catechins on Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    Tea catechins reduce serum cholesterol concentration and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in experimental animals and humans. These effects are mainly ascribed to gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). During heat treatment for pasteurization, tea catechins are epimerized to so-called heat-treated tea catechins such as (-)-catechin gallate (CG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). We showed that both tea catechins and ...

  14. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  15. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  16. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  17. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  18. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  19. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of c

  20. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, K; Kovacheva, N; Vosman, B; Zhang, L; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I

    2005-08-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultivation is based on a very narrow genepool and that oil rose collections contain many genetically identical accessions. The study of long-term vegetative propagation of the Damask roses also reveals high somatic stability for the microsatellite loci analyzed.

  1. Green tea and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  2. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  3. Pharmacokinetic and Chemoprevention Studies on Tea in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Hakim, Iman A

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. P...

  4. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  5. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rusanov, K.; Kovacheva, N.; Vosman, B.J.; Zhang, L.; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A.; Atanassov, I.

    2005-01-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultiv...

  6. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  7. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  8. Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Györgyi; Molnár, Péter; Radó-Turcsi, Erika; Deli, József; Kawase, Masami; Satoh, Kazue; Tanaka, Toru; Tani, Satoru; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Gyémánt, Nóra; Molnár, József

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare carotenoid extracts of Rose hips (Rosa canina L.) with regard to their phytochemical profiles and their in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), cytotoxic, multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal and radical scavenging activity. Carotenoid composition was investigated in the different fractionation of rose hips, using extraction methods. Six main carotenoids - epimers of neochrome, lutein, zeaxanthin, rubixanthin, lycopene, β,β-carotene - were identified from Rose hips by their chromatographic behavior and UV-visible spectra, which is in accordance with other studies on carotenoids in this plant material. The active principles in the carotenoid extract might differ, depending upon the extraction procedures.

  9. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-12-29

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  10. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  11. Some Biogeochemical Characteristics of Tea Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOJU; HUXUEFENG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the element abundance,material cycling,element budment budgent in tea soils were disucssed base on investigations of six tea plantations and the adjacent wast lnads in the Three Gorges region .The plantations have different soil-forming Parent materials,but similar landfomrs,and the same tea variety and colse ages.The rsults showed that tea growing could incereased the contents of organic matter,total and available N,P,Al and Mn;the elements enriched by tea trees were in the follwoing descending sequence: P>Ca>K>Mn>Mg>Zn>Al>Fe;elements returned throuhg litter of tea were in the sequence of Ca>Mn>P>Zn>Mg>K>Al>Fe;in the nutrient budget of the soil-tea system ,P and K were in deficit, whereas Al,Fe and Mn in surplus.

  12. Bathymetric Contours for Prairie Rose Lake, Shelby County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Prairie Rose Lake in Shelby Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of...

  13. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  14. Rose solutions with three petals for planar 4-body problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For planar Newtonian 4-body problems with equal masses, we use variational methods to prove the existence of a non-collision periodic choreography solution such that all bodies move on a rose-type curve with three petals.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence dating at Rose Cottage Cave

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates are compared with stratigraphically associated C-14 dates from Rose Cottage Cave. The OSL dates overlap the accepted C-14 chronology except for one sample that overestimates the expected age...

  16. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rose Atoll NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  17. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambulwa, Moses C; Meegahakumbura, Muditha K; Kamunya, Samson; Muchugi, Alice; Möller, Michael; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian-Chu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Africa is one of the key centers of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing, and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships, and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries of Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (H S) estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, respectively, as well as an admixed "mosaic" group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with a high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centers corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA), and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK). Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centers, TRFCA, and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents

  18. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  19. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  20. ANALYSIS ZHANG AILING’S NOVEL (RED ROSE AND WHITE ROSE IMAGE OF THE CHARACTERS AND STORY PLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Yetty

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhang Ailing is a heterogeneous novel writer in China literature’s history. Almost of her life,she already wrote so many literature’s works. One of her famous novel is (Red Rose and White Rose.The story is describe the image of main figure’s character and his emotional. Writer wants use thecharacterization, complexity of personality and story plot these three aspect to analysis the novel’sfigure looks, figure character and the story. This novel story is a complication relationship betweenthe man and two women, red roses as her lover and white rose as her wife. About a man that in hisstandard life and emotional condition occur some contradiction. Writer use reference material andtheory of novel writing to analysis Zhang Ailing (Red Rose and White Rose‘s novel. The result of thisanalisys are the most important part in novel’s story is not only about the story plot but also thedescribtion of figure looks and characterization. Zhang Ailing in (Red rose and white rosedescbribtion is very spesific, the story become so interesting because of the Complementary of thefigure looks, figure characterization and story plot, embraced each other, fully reflects the fictionalreality of compromise and frustration.

  1. Green tea, black tea and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Can-Lan; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C

    2006-01-01

    .... This meta-analysis included 13 papers which examined populations in eight countries and provided data on consumption of either green tea or black tea, or both in relation to breast cancer risk...

  2. Study on the Characteristics of Competition in Sichuan Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxian; YANG; Xiumin; WU; Junzan; WU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is huge potential in the domestic sales and export of tea in China. However, the tea leaf products are less competitive in the international market because of the lack of brand. Sichuan Province as a province with large amount of tea leaves, characteristics of tea leaf industry in Sichuan Province were analyzed from three aspects, namely fundamental industrial characteristics, the competition strategy of a company and main competition measures. The tea industry in Sichuan Province was featured by its large amount of companies and low industrial concentration. The competition among tea companies often uses the strategy of different brands and low cost. The major way to compete was to build tea brand and to publicize the tea culture. Organic green tea was the main issue. Electronic business platform was applied. Study on the competition characteristics of tea industry in Sichuan can improve the regional competitiveness of tea industry and can make contribution to the entire tea industry in China.

  3. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  4. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail; Uthumporn Utra @ Sapina Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT), oolong tea (OT), green tea (GT), spent black tea (SBT), spent oolong tea (SOT) and spent green tea (SGT). Theextraction experi...

  5. Taxonomic revision of roses (Rosa L. of selected areas in buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary research carried out in 2011 in the area of two Protected Sites – CHA Jakub, CHA Kopec and Nature Reserve PR Mackov bok in the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park. Six native species and one native hybrid of roses were found there (1 from the Pimpinellifoliae section and 6 from the Caninae section and their 13 varieties. The most numerous among them are Rosa canina var. dumalis Baker and R. × subcanina (H. Christ R. Keller. Such great diversity of species and varieties insuch a small area (only 20.2 ha proves considerable floristic richness, and occurrence of habitats preferred by roses.

  6. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncontrolled process. With the objective to make tea oxidation a more controlled process, the aim of this thesis was to understand the enzymatic oxidation reactions occurring during tea oxidation, and t...

  7. Formace hnutí Tea Party

    OpenAIRE

    Bicková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Tea Party affects American politics since 2009 when she began under the name of former revolutionary movement to fight government interventions with massive demonstrations. There was often incorrect expectation concerning Tea Party's potential in the first years of her activity. Tea Party supporters cannot be easily characterized, since a very differentiated group of Americans identifies itself with the movement, they come from a broad scale of social groups from Religious Right to libertaria...

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-02

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants.

  9. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  10. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  11. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  12. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  13. Phytoplasma detection in rose shoots propagated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kamińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of PCR examination indicated that during two years of tissue culture at standard conditions, on the medium with BAP 1 mg l-1 and continuous temperature of 20oC, phytoplasma could be detected in diseased plants of rose cv Sacha and Jazz. In the second year of micropropagation phytoplasma detection rate in tissues of infected roses increased and was relatively higher than in the first one. To test whether phytoplasmas are sensitive to temperature and light intensity, phytoplasma-affected micropropagated rose plants were grown on medium with BAP 1.0 or 0.5 mg l-1 and at the temperature of 4, 15, 20 or 25oC in darkness or in the light. PCR analysis indicated that phytoplasma detection was not effected by these conditions during 4 weeks of culturing. However, phytoplasma was not detectable in rose plants after 8 weeks culturing on the same medium without transplanting. Micropropagated rose shoots maintained on medium with Gentamycin or Baytril at the concentration of 25.0 or 50.0 mg l-1 had reduced growth and were chlorotic. However, no direct effect of applied antibiotics on phytoplasma detection was evidenced.

  14. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  15. ROSES, a robot operating system expert scheduler: Methodological framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbert, E.C.; Barhen, J.; Chen, P.C.

    1990-08-01

    The optimal scheduling of tasks among which complex interrelationships (such as precedence constraints) may exist is essential for driving the new generation of concurrent supercomputers to their utmost performance. To address this need, the project ROSES (Robot Operating System Expert Scheduler) has been initiated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research. The project, its method for optimizing schedules, and its implementing computer code are each called ROSES. The problem of finding optimum schedules is explosive in complexity (i.e., NP-complete). By combining heuristic techniques, graph-theoretic algorithms, and sophisticated data structures, ROSES achieves near-optimal solutions in a highly efficient manner both with respect to computer time and memory-space. In this report, the description of the methodology is followed by an overview of the ROSES computer code, including detailed outlines of selected algorithms. In addition, this report describes an application of ROSES to schedule inverse dynamics computations for a robot manipulator. 45 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusanov, K.; Kovacheva, N.; Vosman, B.J.; Zhang, L.; Rajapakse, S.; Atanassov, A.; Atanassov, I.

    2005-01-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran

  17. Rose hip (Rosa canina L: A functional food perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip (Rosa canina L. is the pseudo-fruit of the rose plant, which is widely known as a valuable source of polyphenols and vitamin C. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiobesogenic activities. The health benefits of Rose hip (RH have been attributed to its wide range of bioactive compounds including the anti-inflammatory galactolipid: (2S-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-D galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO, vitamin C, phenolics, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. As cyclooxygenase inhibitors, RH compounds may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional, medical, and physiological properties of RH.

  18. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  19. Fruit quality of dog rose seedlings (Rosa canina L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran ŠINDRAK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A dog rose (Rosa canina L is one of the most widespread wild species of the genus Rosa in our country, and fairly represented in the natural, rural and even urban areas. Although in the world a dog roses are studied, cultivated and refined, in Croatia its cultivation almost does not exists. In nature you can see major differences between plants, especially considering the size of the fruit, often in very small habitats. The study was conducted at 8 rose dog bushes at about 1 ha of abandoned experimental field 'Jazbina' in Zagreb. From each plant, 120 fruits were randomly collected at a technological maturity. The average fresh fruit weight ranged from 1.88 to 2.96 g, the average fresh flesh portion from 65.4 to 74.7 % and the average dry flesh matter content (after drying at 105 °C, in relation to the fresh fruit weight, from 22.9 to 28.6 %. The length, width, thickness, and shape of the fruits were significantly different (P≤0.05. Since plants were grown in uniform climatic and edaphic conditions, it can be concluded that a relatively large phenotypic, and probably the genotypic variability of dog rose plants exists in such a small location. With the reasonable assumption that the Croatian territory has a lot of similar dog rose habitats, the results of this study indicate a rich genetic potential of dog rose, which could be used for initial selection of plants with superior characteristics intended to be introduced in cultivation.

  20. [Spontaneous mutation variation (quantitative manifestation) of some traits of the garden rose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykov, K I

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative variability of four traits (anthocyan coloration, flower aroma, double-flowering capacity, and a flower size) in spontaneous gemmacous mutants (sports) of garden rose may be not accidental but preferably orientated to the increase or decrease in the trait manifestation in the case of transaggressive inheritance by initial hybrid forms of the increased or decreased level of these traits in parents. Revealing this regularity enabled us to evolve a hypothesis explaining the decrease or increase in trait quantitative manifestation in sports by inactivation or elimination resulting from mutations in dominant alleles of the polymer genes responsible either for increasing or decreasing in phenotypic expression. Thus, if the parents of an initial form are known, it is possible to forecast in what way the quantitative characters in somatic mutants of the initial form will change, accidentally or getting preferably higher or lower.

  1. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  2. Green tea and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  3. The Chinese Puzzle of Low Profit Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2004-01-01

    There are too many tea varieties, factories, and styles of packaging and too few registered trademarks and known domestic and international brands. No brand name means no market, let alone reputation or consumer loyalty. Beneath the superficially prosperous Chinese tea industry there lurks a nagging insecurity over its dearth of brand names.

  4. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  5. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; You, Ming

    2006-02-01

    Tea is the second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Both green and black teas have been studied for their health benefits for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is 20 times that of persons who have never smoked. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive effects of tea produce inconsistent results, which could in part be attributed to the lack of a universal standard for tea preparations. However, most animal studies indicate that tea has strong chemopreventive effects against lung tumorigenesis. The reported mechanisms for chemopreventive activity of green tea are antioxidation, induction of phase II enzymes, inhibition of TNFalpha expression and release, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by green tea are probably the two most significant factors. Future studies are needed to determine how green tea affects the genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during the mouse lung carcinogenesis process.

  6. ANALYSIS ZHANG AILING’S NOVEL (RED ROSE AND WHITE ROSE) IMAGE OF THE CHARACTERS AND STORY PLOT

    OpenAIRE

    Yetty Yetty; Rosemary Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Zhang Ailing is a heterogeneous novel writer in China literature’s history. Almost of her life,she already wrote so many literature’s works. One of her famous novel is (Red Rose and White Rose).The story is describe the image of main figure’s character and his emotional. Writer wants use thecharacterization, complexity of personality and story plot these three aspect to analysis the novel’sfigure looks, figure character and the story. This novel story is a complication relationship betweenthe...

  7. Health potential for functional green teas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  8. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-yu; Lu, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Tea and tea constituents have been shown by different investigators to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in different animal model systems. This includes lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosodiethylamine, benzo[a]pyrene, N-nitrosomethylurea, or cisplatin. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis has also been demonstrated in C3H mice treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. In most of these experiments, reduction in tumor number and tumor size has been observed in the tea-treated group, and in some experiments, decreased tumor incidence has also been observed. The green tea constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the black tea constituent, theaflavins, have also been shown to be effective. Black tea preparations have been shown to reduce the incidence and number of spontaneously generated lung adenocarcinomas and rhabdomyosarcoma in A/J mice, as well as inhibit the progression of lung adenoma to adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms for the inhibitory action have not been well elucidated. It may be related to the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities of tea constituents that have been demonstrated in some experiments. These activities may be a result of the inhibition of key protein kinases involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Tea catechins, such as EGCG, have been suggested to be the effective components. However, a study suggests that caffeine is the key effective constituent for the inhibitory activity of lung tumorigenesis in Fisher 344 rats by black tea. In many of the experiments, tea consumption resulted in the reduction of body fat and body weight; these factors may also contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis.

  9. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  10. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  11. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same ... teas (black tea and green tea) and the best result was achieved .... It helps to reduce the number of dimensions without much loss of information. The PCA ... values of the weights (Figure 3).

  12. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  13. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumpt

  14. Erythrocyte Antioxidant Protection of Rose Hips (Rosa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Widén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C18 column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4±4.0% (mean ± standard deviation, was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9±1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8±8.2% and 5.0±3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  15. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the…

  16. Growth and flower development in roses as affected by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of

  17. Blue light effects on rose photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, F; Girault, T; Douillet, O; Guillemain, G; Sintes, G; Laffaire, M; Ben Ahmed, H; Smiti, S; Huché-Thélier, L; Leduc, N

    2013-01-01

    Through its impact on photosynthesis and morphogenesis, light is the environmental factor that most affects plant architecture. Using light rather than chemicals to manage plant architecture could reduce the impact on the environment. However, the understanding of how light modulates plant architecture is still poor and further research is needed. To address this question, we examined the development of two rose cultivars, Rosa hybrida'Radrazz' and Rosa chinensis'Old Blush', cultivated under two light qualities. Plants were grown from one-node cuttings for 6 weeks under white or blue light at equal photosynthetic efficiencies. While plant development was totally inhibited in darkness, blue light could sustain full development from bud burst until flowering. Blue light reduced the net CO(2) assimilation rate of fully expanded leaves in both cultivars, despite increasing stomatal conductance and intercellular CO(2) concentrations. In 'Radrazz', the reduction in CO(2) assimilation under blue light was related to a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, while in both cultivars, the chl a/b ratio increased. Surprisingly, blue light could induce the same organogenetic activity of the shoot apical meristem, growth of the metamers and flower development as white light. The normal development of rose plants under blue light reveals the strong adaptive properties of rose plants to their light environment. It also indicates that photomorphogenetic processes can all be triggered by blue wavelengths and that despite a lower assimilation rate, blue light can provide sufficient energy via photosynthesis to sustain normal growth and development in roses.

  18. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the feminine…

  19. Scion - rootstock relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  20. Vascular occlusion in stems of cut rose flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of cut rose flowers, a major horticultural crop in the Netherlands, is often unsatisfactory. During vase-life premature signs of water stress occur, such as slow growth of the bud which often results in poor flower opening, wilting of both the flowers and the leaves, and bending

  1. Recent results from the RD48 (ROSE) Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A

    2000-01-01

    The current status of the research carried out by the RD-48 (ROSE) Collaboration is presented. Results of macroscopic and microscopic experimental studies are described as well as the progress in modeling. Detectors with improved radiation hardness were achieved by oxygen enrichment of silicon. The oxygen concentration required to obtain the improvement is ~10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/. (10 refs).

  2. Relationship between cavitation and water uptake in rose stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Suiro, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitation in rose stems (Rosa hybrida L.) was assessed in both intact plants and excised flowers, by measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions at the stem surface and determination of the air-conductivity of 2.5-cm segments that were attached at one end to air at low pressure (0.01 MPa). On

  3. William Faulkner's Symbolism in A Rose For Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏英姿

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses William Faulkner's writing style in his short story A Rose for Emily,especially his use of sym-bolism helps readers to stimulate the imagination.Through the analysis of his use ofsymbolism,this article wants to deepen our undemanding of the characters in this story.

  4. Simulation of harvest operations in a static rose cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't A.; Bontsema, J.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, S.

    2014-01-01

    Labour is the most dominant cost factor in Dutch cut-rose production. To improve crop production systems and labour management, a generic process modelling approach was developed enabling the impact of different scenarios on labour productivity to be assessed. The crop production system with crop ha

  5. An Undeveloped Identity: Emily in"A Rose for Emily"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩玉

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches"A Rose for Emily"fromthe psychoanalytic perspective and tries to explore the proper andintelligible psychological motives for Emily's abnormal behavior.Emily,instead of being a morbid character either provoking pityor disgust in readers,is in essence a woman who suffers from anundeveloped identity,torturing insecurity and loneliness for allher life.

  6. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the…

  7. Isolation, molecular characterisation and mapping of four rose MLO orthologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgard eKaufmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is a major disease of economic importance in cut and pot roses. As an alternative to conventional resistance breeding strategies utilising single-dominant genes or QTLs, mildew resistance locus o (MLO-based resistance might offer some advantages. In dicots such as Arabidopsis, pea and tomato, loss-of-function mutations in MLO genes confer high levels of broad-spectrum resistance. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of four MLO homologues from a large rose EST collection isolated from leaves. These genes are phylogenetically closely related to other dicot MLO genes that are involved in plant powdery mildew interactions. Therefore, they are candidates for MLO genes involved in rose powdery mildew interactions. Two of the four isolated genes contain all of the sequence signatures considered to be diagnostic for MLO genes. We mapped all four genes to three linkage groups and conducted the first analysis of alternative alleles. This information is discussed in regards to a reverse genetics approach aimed at the selection of rose plants that are homozygous for loss of function in one or more MLO genes.

  8. Isolation, Molecular Characterization, and Mapping of Four Rose MLO Orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Helgard; Qiu, Xianqin; Wehmeyer, Juliane; Debener, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major disease of economic importance in cut and pot roses. As an alternative to conventional resistance breeding strategies utilizing single-dominant genes or QTLs, mildew resistance locus o (MLO)-based resistance might offer some advantages. In dicots such as Arabidopsis, pea, and tomato, loss-of-function mutations in MLO genes confer high levels of broad-spectrum resistance. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of four MLO homologs from a large rose EST collection isolated from leaves. These genes are phylogenetically closely related to other dicot MLO genes that are involved in plant powdery mildew interactions. Therefore, they are candidates for MLO genes involved in rose powdery mildew interactions. Two of the four isolated genes contain all of the sequence signatures considered to be diagnostic for MLO genes. We mapped all four genes to three linkage groups and conducted the first analysis of alternative alleles. This information is discussed in regards to a reverse genetics approach aimed at the selection of rose plants that are homozygous for loss-of-function in one or more MLO genes.

  9. No Spray Roses for the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A no spray rose trial has been conducted at the West Tennessee Research and Education Center in Jackson, TN, since 2006. In 2007, sites were added at the Plateau Research and Education Center in Crossville, TN, and the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. A total of 1...

  10. Scion-rootstocks relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  11. Sexual preferences linked to rose taxonomy and cytology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nybom, H.; Werlemark, G.; Esselink, G.D.; Vosman, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Rosa is usually subdivided into four subgenera, the largest of these is subgenus Rosa with 10 sections. Most of the genetically analysed rose species appear to be sexual and diploid (2n = 14) or tetraploid (2n = 28) although there are a few triploid (2n = 21), hexaploid (2n = 42) and octap

  12. Relationship between cavitation and water uptake in rose stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Suiro, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitation in rose stems (Rosa hybrida L.) was assessed in both intact plants and excised flowers, by measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions at the stem surface and determination of the air-conductivity of 2.5-cm segments that were attached at one end to air at low pressure (0.01 MPa). On sunn

  13. Tips From Former Smokers – Rose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    Rose developed lung cancer from smoking cigarettes and needed surgery. She talks about the difficulties she faced recovering from surgery.  Created: 7/7/2014 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  14. LOCATION OF IN TURKEY ECONOMIC OF OIL ROSE PRODUCTION IN ISPARTA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdoğan, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, which has an important place in the world and Turkey economically oil rose "Rosa damascena Miller" macro and micro-economic point of view the importance of farming in the Isparta region are discussed. Perfumery, essential oil of roses in the world oil industry is important to the size of the role. The production konkret and rose oil from oil rose as well as by products for the production of rose water required in this study emphasizes the importance of making a rose o...

  15. PEMUNGUTAN MINYAK ATSIRI MAWAR (Rose Oil DENGAN METODE MASERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Minyak mawar merupakan salah satu produk minyak bunga yang memungkinkan diproduksi di Indonesia dengan kualitas ekspor. Manfaat dari minyak mawar adalah untuk parfum, kosmestik, dan obat-obatan. Minyak mawar dapat diproduksi dengan menggunakan metode diantaranya maserasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui rendemen minyak atsiri mawar merah (Rosa damascena dan komponen minyak atsiri yang terambil dengan etanol dan n-heksana. Bahan baku yang digunakan berupa mahkota bunga mawar sebanyak 50 gram yang dipotong kecil-kecil, kemudian direndam dalam pelarut dengan perbandingan 1:3. Pelarut yang digunakan yaitu etanol dan n-heksana. Proses maserasi dilakukan dengan pengadukan selama 1 menit secara manual pada suhu ruang dan didiamkan selama 12 jam di tempat tertutup dan gelap (tanpa terkena cahaya. Hasil maserasi berupa ekstrak mawar dipisahkan dengan cara penyaringan dan pemerasan bunga. Filtrat yang mengandung minyak bunga mawar dievaporasi dengan  rotary vacuum evaporator. Maserasi menggunakan etanol pada suhu 60ºC selama 20 menit, sedangkan maserasi menggunakan n-heksana pada suhu 55 ºC selama 10 menit. Minyak atsiri hasil maserasi bunga mawar merah dilakukan uji GC-MS. Komponen utama minyak atsiri dari bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol dan pelarut n-heksana secara berurutan adalah phenyl ethyl alcohol (2,73% dan (31,69%. Rendemen hasil maserasi minyak bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol adalah 8,76%, sedangkan pelarut n-heksana menghasilkan 0,34 %. Rose oil is one of the flower oil products which is potentially produced in Indonesia with export quality. The uses of rose oils are for perfume, cosmestics, and medicine. Rose oil can be produced using methods such as maceration. The purpose of this reasearch was to determine the yield of essential oil of red roses (Rosa damascena and the essential oil components taken using ethanol and n-hexane. The raw material used was 50 grams of red roses which subsequently soaked into solvent with

  16. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  17. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  18. A Society of Patriotic Ladies: the Edenton Tea Party

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a relatively little-known revolutionary event in British colonial America known as the Edenton tea party that took place on 25 October in Edenton, North Carolina ten months after its more famous namesake, the Boston Tea Party. Like the Boston tea party the Edenton tea party was an explicitly political event aimed at a new tax on tea imposed by the East India Company. However, unlike the Boston tea party the Edenton tea party solely involved women, the key participants bein...

  19. Ploidy Analysis of Chinese Old Roses and Their Progenies%中国古老月季及其后代的倍性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莲花; 小笠原利恵; 马策; 庄得凤; 浅野阳一; 福井博一

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the ploidy of Chinese old roses and their progenies.[Method] The ploidy level of 38 roses was examined by the flow cytometry.[Result] The four Chinese old roses that influenced breeding of modern roses were diploid.Since the progenies of these Chinese old roses crossed with the tetraploid European old roses were almost tetraploid,it is probable that the progenies were arisen by the unreduced gametes of the Chinese old roses.Other Chinese old roses analysed were triploid,it was presumed that triploids and diploids were intermingled in China of the 1700s and the plant hunters preferred the more fertile Chinese old roses to be introduced to Europe.Sixteen hybrids of Chinese old rose originated in China consisted of six diploids,five triploids and five tetraploids.[Conclusion] Although these diploid Chinese roses might be the progeny brought by crossing among only Chinese old roses,it was considered that triploids and tetrapioids have been arisen by crossing between European old roses and Chineseold rose.%[目的]对中国古老月季及其后代进行倍性鉴定.[方法]利用细胞流式分析仪对38个月季品种进行了倍性鉴定.[结果]对现代月季的育成起决定性作用的4种中国古老月季是二倍体.这4种古老月季和四倍体欧洲古老月季的杂交后代几乎都是四倍体,表明后代的基因可能来自中国古老月季不减数配子.试验用的其余中国古老月季是3倍体.由此可推测十八世纪中国古老月季有2倍体和3倍体,但只有可育的2倍体月季传到了欧洲.来自中国的中国古老月季的16个杂交后代品种中,6个为2倍体,5个为三倍体,其余5个是四倍体.[结论]2倍体的中国月季可能来自中国古老月季间杂交,而3倍体和4倍体可以认为是中国古老月季和欧洲古老月季的杂交后代.

  20. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  1. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  2. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C Reygaert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols found in green tea: (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities.

  3. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  4. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  5. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-09

    Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  6. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  7. [Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes.

  8. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianming Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study

  9. Data-Collection Points Along Transects and Around Perimeter at Prairie Rose Lake, Shelby County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point coverage of bathymetry data for Prairie Rose Lake in Shelby Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Prairie Rose Lake in 2004.

  10. [Studies of aroma components on essential oil of Chinese kushui rose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-ping; Zhao, Guo-hong; Liu, Hong-wei; Ding, Lan; Chen, Li-ren

    2002-11-01

    The main chemical components of the rich peculiar aroma in the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose (R. Setate x R. Rugosa) is reported. The differences in chemical components between Chinese Kushui rose oil and Bulgaria rose oil are compared. By OV1701 capillary column, more than 130 compounds were separated from the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose. Using GC/MS and GC/IR techniques and some reference standards as the control, 101 compounds were tentatively identified from the separated compounds. This study shows that there are different aromas in rose essential oils. The oil of Chinese Kushui rose would be an important type of rose oil in the world due to its special rose aroma.

  11. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  12. Cancer prevention by tocopherols and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-06-28

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that - and -tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas -tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated.

  13. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  14. Nanoparticle de-acidification of the Mary Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor J. Schofield

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of waterlogged archaeological wooden finds, such as Henry VIII's flagship the Mary Rose1–3, is complicated by the biological, chemical, and mechanical changes induced from prolonged exposure to a marine environment. Of particular concern are sulfur species that form acidic compounds that attack wood4. Here we show that different sulfur compounds do not form acids at the same rate or pathway and propose a preservation strategy of applying SrCO3 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles not only neutralize problematic sulfuric acid, but also reduced sulfur compounds, such as sulfur and pyrite, which pose a long term threat. This is the first treatment that eliminates acidification at the root. Although this strategy was devised for the Mary Rose, it could be employed to preserve any archaeological organic artifact rich in problematic sulfur, from sunken ships5,6 and silk tapestries7 to ancient texts8 and parchments9.

  15. The structural color of red rose petals and their duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Mingzhu; Zheng, Yongmei; Shen, Weizhi; Jiang, Lei

    2010-09-21

    The observation of the surface of a red rose petal indicates that there are micropapillae on the surface and many nanofolders exist on each papilla. Here, much tinier nanorods with periodic pattern on the nanofolders can be seen by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Angle-resolved UV-vis spectral measurement and reflectance UV-vis spectra by immersion red rose petal in solvents with different refractive indices demonstrate that such periodic nanostructures can induce structural color. The combination of structural color, driven by the nanostructures, and chemical color, driven by pigments, provide flowers bright color and special functions for human and animals' visual system. Biomimic polymer films, that fabricated by duplicating the petal's hierarchical micro/nano structures, exhibit only structural color by UV-vis spectra since there is no pigment introduced.

  16. Growth and flower development in roses as affected by light

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of the two lateral shoots emerging from the axillary buds of these leaves was studied over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. In order to discriminate between the effects of irradiance level and light quality...

  17. A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Self in A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓芳

    2014-01-01

    Faulkner’s description of the characters’psychology in A Rose for Emily accords well with Freudian psychoanalytic theory, for there are similar conflicts among the id, the ego and the superego in the plot development. By analyzing several impor-tant characters in the novel through employing Freudian theory of human psyche, this thesis gives the explanation to the causes of the conflict and clash between Emily and the society, and then deeply explores the thematic concerns of the short novel.

  18. Different Understandings and Translations on A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泳娣

    2014-01-01

    People usually have different understandings for the same novel, which is just the irreplaceable charm of literary works. The short novel A Rose for Emily described the tragic and legendary life of Emily, a representative of declining aristocrat culture in southern US. Different viewpoints are shown comparing to the mainstream translations and understandings in China. The paper is about my understandings of the novel, which aims at providing more ways of thinking and creating more imaginary space relating to the novel for readers.

  19. The Use Of Symbolism In A Rose For Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾

    2013-01-01

    William Faulkner is one of the most famous writers in the history of American literature and won the Nobel Prize in 1950. He used history and reality in the southern society as his source of creation.He has been regarded as a representative of American southern literature. In A Rose for Emily the author revealed the conflict between traditional ideas and new concepts, and used a great many symbols to deepen the theme.

  20. The effect of aromatherapy with rose oil on primary dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is the most common gynecologic complaint. This complaint can cause problems such as lower quality of life, and sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy with rose oil massage on primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 75 students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Three dormitories were selected randomly among dormi...

  1. Stylistic Analysis of The Nightingale and the Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹韬

    2003-01-01

    Oscar Wilde accomplished great success in conducting one of his works The Nightingale and the Rose This essay tries to analyze its article success in various stylistic levels, which is supposed to be helpful for teachers to conduct their classroom teaching of the material. Furthermore, this essay is bond to be very useful for those English majors by providing a guideline for their deeper and further appreciation of the article.

  2. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  3. Bioclimatic lessons from James C. Rose's architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissilia, A.M. [Department of Structural Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Kodrou 13, 105 58 Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    This paper attempts to interpret three residences designed by landscape architect James Rose, focusing on their bioclimatic concepts (layout of the buildings: orientation in relation to sun and wind, geometry of the building form; spacing: site planning-landscape; air movement; openings: size, position and orientation, protection; and building envelope: choice of building materials and construction detailing). James Rose (1913-1991) was one of the three pioneer landscape architects who established modern landscape design in the United States. He had the opportunity to design three residences and their landscapes which constitute the clearest expression of his views about environmental design. Residences conceived in Rose's design philosophy result to the creation of an ''environment'' instead of the ordinary approach of architecture plus landscape, exhibiting his contribution to the development of a less aggressive architecture, more attentive and integrated to the environment. This is a rare approach where the design is product of one single mind that of the landscape architect. Several bioclimatic concepts are apparent in the landscape architect's works, showing a deep concern with the integration between construction and environment. The three cases explored are: the landscape architect's environment (1952, 1970), the Zheutlin environment (1956), and the Slutzker environment (1964). (author)

  4. Molecular characterisation of phytoplasmas infecting roses in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Śliwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of shoot dieback and leaf yellowing followed by leaf chlorosis were observed in naturally infected roses 'Frisco' and 'Suela', cultivated in a commercial greenhouse in Poland. The presence of phytoplasma was demonstrated in affected plants by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR with R16Fl/RO and Pl/P7 primer pairs in the first round followed by a second one with R16F2n/R2, fA/rA, Pc399/P1694, R16(IFl/Rl and Pl/fArev primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of PCR products (primed with primers R16F2n/R2 was done using enzymes AluI, MseI, RsaI and HpaII. Restriction profiles obtained with these enzymes were identical to those of reference strain AY1 belonging to aster yellows phytoplasma group, subgroup I-B (16SrI-B. Nested PCR products from roses 'Frisco' and 'Suela' were sequenced. Analysis of sequences confirmed that the phytoplasma infecting those roses could be classified to aster yellows phytoplasma group, subgroup B.

  5. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  6. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  7. of-Kibena -'Tea. Estates~- Njombe, Tanzania" , "

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomena is explained by high levels of Zn in tea leaves which reduces the uptake of Fe ... Na ions in, the- ammonium acetate filtrates .... metal adsorption by permanent charged, ,soil .... be due to heavy phosphate fertilization and 'high.

  8. The evaluation of antimicrobial effects of five different brands of rose water, water extract of Rosa damascene in comparison with rose oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Seddigh Ataee Bojd; Razieh Hanafi Bojd; Malaknaz Ghannadkafi; Mohammad Hasan Hasan Namaei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The use of plant compounds to treat infections is an age-old practice in a large part of the world. Members of Rosacea family have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. The aim of this study is evaluation of antimicrobial effect of five different brands of rose water, water extract of Rosa damascene in comparison with rose oil. Materials and Methods: Five different brands of rose water, water extract of rosa damascene and rose oil were tested for antibact...

  9. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chroni...

  10. Trade Bridge Covered with Chinese Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Guangxi Tea Imp. & Exp. Co. is a subsidiary company of China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Import & Export Corporation. The company has a history of more than 40 years in doing foreign trade business and has established stable and favorable relationship with about 100 companies from more than 30 countries and regions. The main business scope of the company includes: all kinds of tea, native produce products, forest chemical products, esse...

  11. The Effects of IBA and NAA, and Rooting Media on Propagation of Miniature Rose Cuttings (Rosa hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam ranjbar

    2017-02-01

    miniature rose stem cutting, this research was carried out as a factorial on the basis of randomized complete design (RCD with three replications. Plant growth regulators including IBA at concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mgl-1, concentrations of NAA at 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mgl-1 were applied together with two types of rooting media. Media including mixing volume of perlite, tea waste compost and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 2, and perlite, peat and sand in a ratio of 1:2:2 were mixed and applied in this experiment. Using SAS software, data was analyzed based on a generalized linear model (GLM analysis and tested by least significant difference (LSD at (P-value< 0.05. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the highest rooting percentage of cuttings was obtained with 2000 mgl-1 of IBA, while no significant effect of NAA treatment and different rooting media on percentage of rooting was revealed. The two-fold and three-fold interaction of treatments on other measured traits such as primary and secondary root number and root diameter were significant. The two-fold interaction of NAA treatments and rooting media on the trait of primary root number were no significant. The highest root number and root diameter measured in medium containing perlite, tea waste compost and sand in a ratio of 1:2:2 for cutting received combined plant growth regulators. Conclusions: Compost, the final product of organic residues degradation, improves soil physical characteristics such as soil aggregate formation and stability, water penetration, porosity, compressing resistance and nutrients availability. As well, it improves soil biological characteristics and in result, integration of compost with soil can increase growth, yield and quality of crop. There are also some evidences that in contrast of peat, compost contains plant growth regulators improved plant growth and development. Totally, considering our obtained results, in order to accelerate rooting formation in miniature rose

  12. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  13. Genotoxicity studies on green tea catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, R; Ikeda, N; Yuki, K; Morita, O; Saigo, K; Blackstock, C; Nishiyama, N; Kasamatsu, T

    2008-06-01

    The beneficial effects of tea catechins are well documented. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of a green tea catechin preparation using established genotoxicity assays, including a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), a chromosomal aberration assay in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU), a mouse lymphoma L5178Y/tk assay, and a bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay in ICR CD mice and SD rats. No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were observed in the Ames test, but positive responses were observed in two in vitro assays: the chromosomal aberration assay and mouse lymphoma L5178/tk assay. However, the in vivo study demonstrated no significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) in the bone marrow of both ICR CD mice and SD rats administered a high dose of the green tea catechin preparation up to 2000mg/kg. Combined with favorable epidemiological information suggesting a chemopreventive effect of tea catechins on carcinogenesis, we conclude that green tea catechin presents no significant genotoxic concern under the anticipated conditions of use. These results are consistent with other genotoxicity studies of tea catechins, which show minimal, if any, genotoxic potential.

  14. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  15. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-07-28

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed.

  16. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  17. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of rose oil: A comprehensive review of clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Mohebitabar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rose oil is obtained from the petals of difference Rosa species especially Rosa centifolia L. and Rosa damascena Mill. Various pharmacological properties have been attributed to rose oil. The aim of the present study was to review the rose oil therapeutic effects which had been clinically evaluated in trial studies. Materials and Methods: Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched for human studies which have evaluated the therapeutic effects of rose oil and published in English language until August 2015. Results: Thirteen clinical trials (772 participants were included in this review. Rose oil was administered via inhalation or used topically. Most of the studies (five trials evaluated the analgesic effect of rose oil. Five studies evaluated the physiological relaxation effect of rose oil. Anti-depressant, psychological relaxation, improving sexual dysfunction, and anti-anxiety effects were the other clinical properties reported for rose oil. Conclusion: Numerous studies on the pharmacological properties of rose oil have been done in animals, but studies in humans are few.  In this study, it was observed that rose oil had physiological and psychological relaxation, analgesic and anti-anxiety effects. To obtain conclusive results on the efficacy and safety of rose oil, further clinical trials with larger sample size and better designation are required.

  20. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  1. Effect of aggressive beverage on the color stability of different nano-hybrid resin based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Oday Nuaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of different types of nano-hybrid resin based composite restorative materials upon exposure to aggressive staining solutions (coffee and tea over time. The color of all specimens before and after storage in the solutions were measured by a spectrophotometer based on CIE Lab system that is recommended by the American Dental Association and the color differences thereby is calculated. Materials and Methods: The color differences of three nano-hybrid composites after immersion for 30 days in tea and coffee as aggressive beverage solutions. Results: Within the limitations of the study, Venus Diamond was found the most color stable in tea, while Ceram X was shown the most color stable in coffee. There were statistically significant differences between Filtek 350 XT in tea and coffee storage (P 0.005. Conclusion: Staining solutions are significant factors that affect color stability of composite resins.

  2. Swelling kinetics of tea in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhushan S; Farakte, Raosaheb A; Yadav, Geeta U; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the swelling kinetics of individual tea particles as well as bed of tea granules were investigated for different types of teas. The swelling experiments involved image analysis and volume measurements of tea particles. Each individual particle shows different swelling characteristics. Separating funnels and cylindrical columns of varying sizes were used to study the changes in volume of tea bed. Swelling in separating funnel was observed to be more than that in column. The effect of temperature, particle size, bed height and vessel diameter were investigated. The extent as well as the rate of swelling is found to increase with rise in temperature (60 to 80 °C) and reduction in particle size. A decrease in swelling is observed with increase in bed height as well as decrease in vessel diameter and vice a versa. About 70 to 75 % swelling occurs in the first 40 to 45 s. Two empirical models viz. Weibull and Peleg were used to fit the experimental data. The rate parameters obtained for a sample T5 at different temperatures were in the range of 0.012 to 0.016. The volume changes of all the teas were compared with their elution behavior, by measuring the absorbance of a diluted sample of brew at 272 nm. The activation energies for the process of tea swelling calculated for T1 (1.2 mm), T5 (2.2 mm) and T5 (0.72 mm) were 14.156, 8.37 and 13.42 kJ/mol respectively.

  3. Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2009-05-01

    The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.

  4. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  5. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  6. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  7. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  8. Strengthening Software Authentication with the ROSE Software Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2006-06-15

    Many recent nonproliferation and arms control software projects include a software authentication regime. These include U.S. Government-sponsored projects both in the United States and in the Russian Federation (RF). This trend toward requiring software authentication is only accelerating. Demonstrating assurance that software performs as expected without hidden ''backdoors'' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, ''authentication'' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs said purpose correctly and reliably over the planned duration of an agreement. In addition to visual inspections by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs, both to aid visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary and not extensible. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool has to be based on a complete language compiler. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within the Department of Energy (DOE) and targeted at the optimization of scientific applications and user-defined libraries within large-scale applications (typically applications of a million lines of code). ROSE is a robust, source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C and C++ (handling the full C, C99, C++ languages and with current collaborations to support Fortran90). We propose to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements, and apply it to software authentication for nonproliferation and arms control projects.

  9. A Tentative Analysis of A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2012-01-01

      Emily, the heroine in William Faulkner’s short story A Rose for Emily, is a sacrifice to the disintegrating Old South culture. She performs the functions of a symbol of a system and culture and acts as the spiritual pillar supporting the disintegrating Old South. There is a close relationship between Emily’s high social position, her background, her fortune, her personality, inner thoughts and her tragedy. The paper tries to make brief analysis of Emily’s tragic life from aspects of expressive techniques, symbolism, and Emily’s personal characteristics

  10. The Importance of Past in "A Rose for Emily"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺

    2008-01-01

    A master piece in itself, "A Rose for Emily",1ike many other novels and short fictions,is part of Faulkner's most engaging Southern Saga.Through the story of Miss Emily Grierson,the author reveals the conflicts between the decadent Antebellum American south and the incoming modern society.This essay,through application of psycholOgical analysis and technique of close reading,intends to explore the fundamental reason for Emily's life tragedy.The conclusion is that the patriarchal Southern tradition,inherited by figures like Emily's tyrannical father,is the root cause to her lifelong tragedy.

  11. Breakup of Spiral Waves in Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; JIA Ya; TANG Jun; YANG Li-Jian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported.Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gauesian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively.Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave.It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold.

  12. Study on Cell Suspension Culture of Floribunda Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun'ai; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; GONG Shufang; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Friable callus was induced when immature seeds of floribunda rose were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 3.0 mg-L-1.When transfered onto subculture media,fi-iable callus developed into embryogenic callus,which was used to establish cell suspension lines.Cell suspensions had to be subcultured at a interval of 4-5 days at the first several culture cycles.The best subculturing cycle for the stable cell suspensions was 8-10 days.The best inoculum quantity was 1 mL PCV(Packed Cell Volume) per 40 mL culture fluid.

  13. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  14. Role of green tea in reduction of cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis1st Cardiology Department, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Tea is widely consumed worldwide. There is accumulating evidence that tea ­consumption may be associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, an association that could be attributed to its flavonoid content. Green tea, the most common type of tea consumed in Asia, contains a large amount of nonoxidized flavonoids, named c...

  15. Attention to tea industry brand image design and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚亚希

    2015-01-01

    tea, coffee, cola is three main beverages in the world today, with the improvement of people's health care consciousness, the tea with its green and healthy image and health care efficacy is more and more popular with the masses, tea beverage market promising prospects in the future. Tea is the traditional agricultural products in our country, has a long history of planting, processing and export, is also one of the main agricultural products export of our country.

  16. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of o...

  17. Association between green tea consumption and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Liang, Wenbin; Hirayama, Fumi; Binns, Colin W

    2010-07-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage and its health benefits are well known. However, inconsistent results have been reported in observational studies concerning the association between green tea consumption and the lung cancer risk. In this commentary, several methodological issues underlying the measurement of tea exposure are highlighted. The recommendations should be useful for designing and planning prospective cohort studies to ascertain the protective effect of green tea against lung cancer.

  18. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enh...

  19. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastro...

  20. Determination of tea components with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2003-07-16

    Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.

  1. Tea May Benefit Blood Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华剑铭

    2000-01-01

    读到有关饮茶有益健康的消息,我总是充满了自豪感:茶的故乡毕竟在中国。饮茶对人的心脏有益,这已经不是新闻,但是到底如何起到此类保健作用,多年来一直是一个谜。本文揭开了此谜底: Drinking a cup of tea makes blood vessels work better within 2 hours, dilating(扩张)the arteries(动脉)and improving blood flow. 文章令我感动之处在于那些科研人员的敬业精神。比如茶中含有caffeine(咖啡因),饮茶对心脏有利,此“利”是否源于caffeine呢?试验人员为了弄清这 一点,便让另一组受试人员服用等量的caffeine,结果证实:Caffeine had no response on the blood vessel function.】

  2. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by Tea Tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clive; Cleary, Brian J; Gilmer, John F; Walsh, John J

    2004-03-01

    Pediculosis is a widespread condition reported in schoolchildren. Treatment most commonly involves the physical removal of nits using fine-toothcombs and the chemical treatment of adult lice and eggs with topical preparations. The active constituents of these preparations frequently exert their effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Increasing resistance to many preparations has led to the search for more effective treatments. Tea Tree oil, otherwise known as Melaleuca oil, has been added to several preparations as an alternative treatment of head lice infestations. In this study two major constituents of Tea Tree oil, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol, were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at IC50 values (inhibitor concentrations required to give 50% inhibition) of 0.04 and 10.30 mM, respectively. Four samples of Tea Tree oil tested (Tisserand, Body Treats, Main Camp and Irish Health Culture Association Pure Undiluted) showed anticholinesterase activity at IC50 values of 0.05, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.11 microL mL(-1), respectively. The results supported the hypothesis that the insecticidal activity of Tea Tree oil was attributable, in part, to the anticholinesterase activity of Tea Tree oil.

  3. How to Develop the Tea Industry in Leiyang City?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengtao; WANG; Xiaoping; ZENG; Xiaolan; WU; Yubin; LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current development situation of tea industry in Leiyang City,this paper analyzes the existing problems such as small scale of high quality tea plantation,insufficient brand awareness,inadequate funding input,extensive tea plantation management,rising labor costs and outdated mechanical equipment. Finally this paper expounds the development goal and sets forth the corresponding recommendations.

  4. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields. The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the 20th cent

  5. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields. The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the 20th

  6. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  7. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields. The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the 20th cent

  8. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  9. An Old Town on the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    FOR centuries, Southwest China's Yunnan Province has been known as home of black tea. It was in the Tang Dynasty(618 - 907) that caravans began to transport bricks of tea from Xishuangbanna and Simao to India, passing through Yunnan's Dali and Lijiang and Tibet. The route became known as the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail.

  10. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  11. Origin of the color of Cv. rhapsody in blue rose and some other so-called "blue" roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, Jean-François

    2003-08-13

    Flowers of the rose cultivar Rhapsody in Blue display unusual colors, changing as they age, from a vivid red-purple to a lighter and duller purple, which are based on tonalities corresponding to hue angles between 340 and 320 degrees in the CIELAB scale. Unexpectedly, the chemical basis of these colors is among the simplest, featuring cyanin (cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside), the most frequent anthocyanin in flowers, as the sole pigment and quercetin kaempferol glycosides as copigments at a relatively low copigment/pigment ratio (about 3/1), which usually produces magenta or red shades in roses. This color shift to bluer shades is coupled with the progressive accumulation of cyanin into vacuolar anthocyanic inclusions (AVIs), the occurrence of which increases as the petals grow older. In addition to the normal lambda(max) of cyanin at approximately 545 nm, the transmission spectra of live petals and of epidermal cells exhibit a second lambda(max) in the 620-625 nm range, the relative importance increasing with the presence of AVIs. In petals of fully opened flowers, the only pigmented structures in the vacuoles of epidermal cells are AVIs; their intense and massive absorption in the 520-640 nm area produces a much darker and bluer color than measured for the vacuolar solution present at the very first opening stage. Cyanin is probably "trapped" into AVIs at higher concentrations than would be possible in a vacuolar solution and in quinonoidal form, appearing purple-blue because of additional absorption in the 580-630 nm area. Quite similar pigmentation features were found in very ancient rose cultivars (cv. L'Evêque or Bleu Magenta), also displaying this type of so-called "blue" color.

  12. Consumption of Green Tea, but Not Black Tea or Coffee, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara; Sohshi Yuki; Chiaki Dohmoto; Yoshihisa Ikeda; Miharu Samuraki; Kazuo Iwasa; Masami Yokogawa; Kimiko Asai; Kiyonobu Komai; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Masahito Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with...

  13. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  14. A comparative study between wild ancient tea and tea garden tea%野生古茶树茶与茶园茶的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓华; 董玄; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    The appearance, liquor color, taste and aroma of wild ancient tea and tea garden tea were evaluated and determined by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis method. Both of the appearances were stripy. The color of ,dried wild ancient tea was red-yellow and liquor color is yellow-red, while the dried tea garden tea was green-black and liquor color was green-yellow. The wild ancient tea tasted soft, sweet, and a little bitter, while the tea garden tea was much bitter and slightly sweet at the beginning. The contents of tea polyphenols and flavonoid compounds of both were the same, which were about 28. 9% and 7%. The five kinds of catechins which were determined in wild ancient tea were two times more of that in tea garden tea. The tea garden tea's caffeine content was nearly two times more than wild ancient tea. The content of free amino acids ( Aas) in wild ancient tea was higher, while the tea garden tea had a higher content (4. 60% ) than wild ancient tea (3. 82% ) in soluble sugar. Fifty-eight kinds of aroma compounds were measured in wild ancient tea and 74 kinds of aroma compounds in tea garden tea, and there were 12 common components in both. In all, the wild ancient tea was far superior to the tea garden tea, but the effects of catechins and aroma compounds on the human body needed to be further studied.%采用感官审评和化学分析手段,对野生古茶树茶和茶园茶的外形、颜色、滋味、香气等进行审评、测定和比较.两者都为条索,在颜色方面,野生古茶树茶的干品偏向红黄,汤色黄红,茶园茶的干品呈绿黑,茶汤绿黄色;滋味方面,野生古茶树茶苦涩味较淡,醇和,回甘,茶园茶苦涩味比之更盛,味微短,入口略甜.茶多酚、黄酮类化合物两者基本一样,分别是28.9%左右和7%左右,测定的5种儿茶素,茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的两倍多,咖啡碱茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的约两倍,游离氨基酸野生古茶树茶比茶园茶高,

  15. A Rose for“A Rose for Emily”Interpret the Gothic Story in the Perspective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-jing

    2013-01-01

    The short story“A Rose for Emily”written by William Faulkner belongs to the gothic fiction. Faulkner adopts the gothic writing skills and tells the readers the tragic life of the female protagonist Emily Grierson. In the perspective of feminism, the writer analyzes the short gothic fiction. In the following, this paper states the female’s negative living conditions in the male-dominated society. Even though she tried to change, she finally failed. And the patriarchy is the fundamental reason for her trage⁃dy.

  16. François de Rose (1910 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    One of CERN’s founding fathers has passed away.   François de Rose in the ATLAS cavern during his visit to CERN in 2013. Visionaries have the freedom of mind to shape the future when other people’s horizons are obstructed by the present. François de Rose was a visionary. In the aftermath of the Second World War, when Europe was in ruin, when absolutely everything had to be rebuilt, the diplomat understood the importance of reviving fundamental research and, above all, of cooperation on a continental scale as the driving force of this ambition. In a Europe that was just starting to get back on its feet, it would be no mean feat. Nonetheless, François, alongside the prominent physicists of the time, put his energy into making this vision a reality. They lobbied governments for the creation of a centre that would work towards this goal, winning support, and CERN was established in 1954, an achievement of which François was extremely...

  17. Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose and the process of painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hellen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “One Object” is a British Art Studies series that uses an object from a collection as a starting point for collaborative research. Rebecca Hellen and Elaine Kilmurray have co-authored this essay based on their recent analysis of Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 by John Singer Sargent This “One Object” article on John Singer Sargent’s Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 brings together recent technical examination of the painting with the “patchwork” of moments, ideas, and themes that inform the history of its making. A variety of observations were recorded by artists and writers who were staying in or visiting Broadway in Worcestershire when Sargent was making his “big picture” there over the late summers and early autumns of 1885 and 1886. By connecting the research carried out in the conservation studio with research from the archive, we present new information about Sargent’s working methods. In considering technical information in tandem with Sargent’s preparatory work, this article explores the evolution of one of Sargent’s best-known paintings.

  18. Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

  19. A Study of Aphasia in“A Rose for Emily”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chun-fang; HU Ge

    2016-01-01

    “A Rose for Emily”is a famous short story, whose author is the 1949 Nobel Prize Winner William Faulkner. Influ-enced by his family and southern culture, his works are full of southern sense of humor. He describes many southern sensitive is-sues, such as the relation and the conflicts between the white and the black. Therefore, he depicts a lot of vivid images of south-ern people. Based on the southern society after American Civil War, Faulkner tells a miserable story of Miss Emily. Over these years, many experts and scholars have discussed“A Rose for Emily”from different aspects, such as the Gothic writing style, symbolism, character analysis and feminism, which made readers have a deep understanding on this story. However, related anal-ysis on Emily’s aphasia is rare. Therefore, combined with the theory of feminism and Foucault’s power discourse theory, the causes of Miss Emily’s aphasia and other people’s silence will be discussed. It mainly studies Emily’s aphasia from aspects of patriarchal oppression and southern aristocratic culture, revealing the primary cause of Emily’s tragedy is her loss of power to speak.

  20. Development of blue rose; Aoi bara wa sakuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, K.

    1998-06-01

    Precise crystalline structures of pigments in petals have been elucidated by structural analysis of the blue pigment in Commelinaceae petals using X-ray analysis. It is found that the Mg ion is coordinated with the oxygen atom on the B-nucleus in the base nucleus of delphinidin (belonging to anthocyanidine, a pigment obtained by separating sugar from anthocyanin by hydrolysis) to develop a blue color, and that the complex is a stable supermolecule in which 6 pigment molecules are associated regularly with 6 flavone molecules. The similar mechanisms are responsible for development of blue color for flowers, and widely occurring in nature. Biosynthesis of anthocyanin, beginning with phenylalanine, undergoes virtually common processes; cyclization of the flavonoide skeleton, reduction to the anthocyanidine nucleus, hydroxylation of the B-nucleus in the base nucleus and glycoside formation at the 3-site. It will be possible to shift rose color to blue, if anthocyanin belonging to anthocyanidine could be bio-synthesized by introducing the gene of enzyme for 3`, 5`-hydroxylation on the base nucleus, which the rose lacks. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  2. [Genetic diversity of ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens from Yunnan Province as revealed by AFLP marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng-Zhang; Jiang, Hui-Bing; Huang, Xing-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Min-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within and among the plants of four ancient tea gardens and two tableland tea gardens form Yunnan Province, China by AFLP technique. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the plants from six tea gardens was 92.31%. The genetic diversity within the six gardens demonstrated by Nei cents genetic diversity (He) was estimated to be 0.1366, while Shannon indices (Ho) were 0.2323. The percentage of polymorphic loci of the four ancient tea populations was 45.55% on average, with a range of 36.44% (Mengsong) to 59.11% (Mengla). But the percentages of polymorphic loci of the plants from two tableland gardens were 13.77% (Yunkang 10) and 24.2% (Menghai Daye), respectively. There was a great genetic difference between ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens. The genetic diversity among the plants of the ancient tea garden was higher than those of the sexual tableland tea garden and the clone tableland tea garden based on P valve. The four ancient tea gardens and two tableland gardens could be differentiated with AFLP markers. The results show that AFLP marker is an effective tool in the discrimination of tea germplasm, as well as sundried green tea.

  3. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  4. [Development of new SSR markers from EST of SSH cDNA libraries on rose fragrance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Hao; Xie, Ji-Rong; Li, Shu-Fa; Jian, Hong-Ying; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Tang, Kai-Xue

    2009-09-01

    The new SSR markers of rose related fragrance were developed based on the SSH cDNA libraries of rose floral scent mutant. In this study, 10 EST-SSRs (2.6%) from 391 ESTs in the libraries were identified. Six EST-SSRs primers were designed to sequence flanking SSRs. The primer pairs designed were screened on the wild-type Jinyindao, which has flowers full of pleasant scent, and the mutant-type Wangriqinghuai without perceivable floral scent. Five primer pairs were amplified effectively in Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai, and 3 were polymorphic between Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai. Eighteen rose cultivars including fragrant roses and nonfragrant roses were identified by the five prime pairs. These results proved that EST-SSR markers are effective markers to identify the polymorphism of the rose.

  5. Preliminary Proteomic Analysis of Tobacco Leaves Influenced by Floral Scent from Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yu; Yuan Su; Xiaogan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in plant communication.There are many VOCs such as:aroma alcohols,esters and terpenes in rose floral scent.The tobacco would be influenced by floral scent from rose is unclear.To understand tobacco response induced by rose floral scent,we carried out proteomic analysis of tobacco leaves influenced by floral scent from rose using 2-DE.Protein profiles showed that 470 ±37 protein spots could be detected in sole tobacco and 319 ±18 in tobacco/rose respectively.Among them,26 protein spots showed 2-fold change in protein expression level,6 protein spots were up-regulated and 20 were down-regulated.We hope to acquire more information to interpret proteomic change of tobacco leaves influenced by floral scent from rose after MS identification above differential expression proteins.

  6. Research Progress in Rose Wine Production and Rose Species Selection%玫瑰酒生产及玫瑰花品种选择研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣妹; 韩琳; 葛平珍; 黄平

    2015-01-01

    Rose wine production has a long history and has good market prospects. In this paper, the species, nutritional ingredients, efficacy of edible rose, and the production technology of rose wine were introduced. Besides, the research progress in and the present production situations of rose wine were reviewed in order to select the proper rose species suitable for rose wine production and to further promote the development of rose wine industry. (Trans. by YUE Yang)%玫瑰酒是历史比较悠久的酒类品种,且具有较好的市场销售前景.现对食用玫瑰花品种、营养成分、功效及玫瑰酒生产工艺进行阐述,并对玫瑰花酒的研究进展、生产现状进行探讨,优选出适合玫瑰花酒生产的食用玫瑰花品种,以期推进玫瑰酒产业的发展.

  7. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance against rose aphids and olfactory response of aphids to toxin-induced volatiles of rose plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-zhong YANG; Li LI; Bin YANG

    2012-01-01

    The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation.However,the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated.Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study.At a concentration of 50.0 μg/ml,the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P≥0.079),and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P≤0.001).However,this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 μg/ml (P≥0.096).Therefore,the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids,demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Altemaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects.Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants.The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P≤0.014).This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants.

  8. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  9. [The fate of dioxins during green tea manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, R; Eun, H; Kuwahara, M; Ishii, Y; Kobara, Y; Ueji, M; Nakamura, K; Narita, I

    2001-04-01

    Dioxin concentrations and homologue profiles were examined in plucked new shoots, crude tea and its hot water extracts, soils and atmosphere in tea orchards. The rate of dry provisions in crude tea has increased 4 times as that of the plucked new shoots. However, dioxin concentrations except O8CDD in crude tea have increased only 2 to 3 times as those of the plucked new shoots. O8CDD concentration increased remarkably during processing. Little dioxins were detected in hot water extracts of crude tea leaves.

  10. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  11. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  12. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  13. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  14. 茶水及茶饮料对离体牙釉质再矿化的实验研究%Study on influence of remineralization of enamel in vitro with tea and drinks of tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季东盈

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to make a further study for enamel remineralization of green tea , black tea and the drinks of tea .Methods We made fifty samples with first premolar in vitro ,soaking in green tea ,black tea ,drinks of green tea ,drinks of black tea and artificial saliva that as the control . And we compared the changes among the surface roughness ,the enamel surface morphology and the content of calcium phosphate after seven days with every group before soaking by measuring instru‐ment of surface structure ,scanning electron microscopy and X -ray energy dispersive spectrometer . Results The results showed that the Ra value was obviously lower( P <0 0.1)after soaking in group of green tea;and it rose in the group of black tea( P <0 0.1);there was no significant differences in Ra value among the other groups .The ratio of Ca2+ /P3+ on enamel surface rose after soaking in green tea group by detecting with X -ray spectrometer( P <0 0.1);the ratio of Ca2+ /P3+ decreased after soa‐king the drinks of tea( P <0 0.5) S.canning electron microscopy displayed that the remineralization ar‐ea of enamel was the largest in the group of green tea;while the group of drinks of black tea showed a further demineralization of enamel surface .Conclusion The content of calcium after soaking in green tea increased ,and it had a good effect in mineralization .Meanwhile ,the sediment is difficult to be dis‐solved .%①目的比较绿茶水、红茶水及市售茶饮料对离体牙釉质再矿化的影响,为人们选择健康饮品提供依据。②方法取离体第一前磨牙制作50个脱矿样本,浸泡在绿茶水、红茶水、绿茶饮料、红茶饮料及人工唾液中,通过粗糙度仪、扫描电镜和X射线能谱仪的记录数据比较各组浸泡前和浸泡后第7天表面粗糙度、牙釉质表面形貌及钙(Ca2+)、磷(P3+)含量变化。③结果粗糙度测试结果显示浸泡后绿茶水组粗糙度值明显降低(P<00.1),

  15. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  16. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives.

  17. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  18. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  19. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    as Safe” (GRAS-status). In this PhD project, green tea rich in polyphenol compounds catechins was selected as the natural source of antioxidants. The aim of the project was to investigate green tea as a source of natural antioxidants for use in processed foods. First of all, the antioxidant effects...... of green tea catechins and green tea extract were investigated in terms of scavenging efficiency of the food-derived free radicals. The relevant experimental methods were based on electrochemical detection of oxygen consumption, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, Rancimat test and liposome...... oxidation test. In addition, antioxidant interactions for individual green tea catechins or green tea extract in combination with endogenous antioxidant, α-tocopherol, were studied. The results showed that green tea catechins possess excellent antioxidant activity against the oxidative damage of lipids...

  20. Developing Situation of Tea Harvesting Machines in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years rapid social change and industrial and commercial development in Taiwan has lead to migration of rural labor, population ageing, high wages and labor shortages, which resulted in significant problems for the tea industry. Thus, mechanization in the tea industry emerges as the direction for the future. According to a survey, tea harvesting and tea manufacturing use 87% and 5% of available labor, so the mechanization of tea harvesting is a priority. The application and development of tea harvesting machines worldwide and especially in Taiwan in recent years is investigated in this paper. Recommendations are made for the implementation of tea harvesting machinery in Taiwan in the future. This report may also used as a reference for the use of mechanical harvesting.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Lin, L L; Chung, K T

    1999-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used to test the antimicrobial activity of tea flush extract and extracts of various tea products. Among the six test organisms, P. fluorescens was the most sensitive to the extracts, while B. subtilis was the least sensitive. In general, antimicrobial activity decreased when the extents of tea fermentation increased. The antimicrobial activities of tea flush extract and extracts of tea products with different extents of fermentation varied with test organisms. Tea flush and Green tea, the unfermented tea, exerted the strongest antimicrobial activity followed by the partially fermented tea products such as Longjing, Tieh-Kuan-Ying, Paochung, and Oolong teas. On the other hand, Black tea, the completely fermented tea, showed the least antimicrobial activity. It was also noted that extracts of Oolong tea prepared in summer exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by those prepared in spring, winter and fall.

  2. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops. PMID:26617590

  3. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  4. Kepustakawanan dalam The Name of The Rose karya Umberto Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Laksmi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Name of the Rose, a detective novel, is set by some issues on librarianship during the Middle Age in Europe. By using discourse analysis approach, I try to know how far the concept of the librarianship was understood at that time—in the novel—based on the understanding of some concepts, starting from “library”, “development system”, “collection handling”, which includes “classification”, “censorship system” and “librarians’ professionalism”, until some matters on borrowing and using collection. Besides, this analysis is aimed at identifying cultural values related to the librarianship. The conclusion shows that the librarianship has an important role in providing suspense elements in a detective novel.

  5. An Androgynous Interpretation on A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清莹

    2015-01-01

    Androgyny is also called “hermaphrodite”. In biology, androgyny is the combination of the male and female in physical structures. After introduced into the areas such as philosophy, theology and psychology, the concept of androgyny is widely used. The original biological meaning has been gradualy abandoned, and a series of new conceptions appears. The concept of “androgyny” in Carl G Jung’s concept belongs to the system of mythology and archetype. That is, each individual has some characteristic of the opposite Sex. Virginia Woolf, a wel-known British female writer, is the first to introduce the theory of androgyny to the field of literary criticism. This thesis is an attempt to have a comprehensive, if not exhaustive, review of the theory of androgyny in the short story A Rose for Emily.

  6. Desynchronization of systems of coupled Hindmarsh-Rose oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Vasilkoski, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that neural activity related to synchronous rhythms of large portions of neurons in specific locations of the brain is responsible for the pathology manifested in patients' uncontrolled tremor and other similar diseases. To model such systems Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) oscillators are considered as appropriate as they mimic the qualitative behaviour of neuronal firing. Here we consider a large number of identical HR-oscillators interacting through the mean field created by the corresponding components of all oscillators. Introducing additional coupling by feedback of Pyragas type, proportional to the difference between the current value of the mean-field and its value some time in the past, Rosenblum and Pikovsky (Phys. Rev. E 70, 041904, 2004) demonstrated that the desirable desynchronization could be achieved with appropriate set of parameters for the system. Following our experience with stabilization of unstable steady states in dynamical systems, we show that by introducing a variable delay...

  7. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  8. The Impact of Tea Crop Insurance in the Development of Tea Industry (Case study: Otagvar, Langrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Insurance Fund has covered tea crop since (2003. Due to undisputable effect of tea industry in the livelihood and the economy of Northern cities and people of the region, the Fund’s performance gains its importance. So in this paper, we investigate the impact of tea crop insurance in development of tea industry and factors effective on this impact. Our main question to be answered is that whether, in the present situation, tea crop insurance has been able to wield its role in the development of tea industry. To provide an answer to the question above, we employed variety of qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Quantitative method has been done as survey and our instrument was a questionnaire the questions of which were answered by 200 farmers in Otagvar, Langrood. To achieve a better sample population, we have used the random and cluster methods of sampling. Qualitative method has used the discussion groups with insurance agents in Amlash and Kumleh and interview with experts of Organization for Rural Cooperation and Agricultural Insurance Fund.

  9. Transcriptome database resource and gene expression atlas for the rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Annick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries roses have been selected based on a number of traits. Little information exists on the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits, mainly because information on expressed genes for this economically important ornamental plant is scarce. Results Here, we used a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies to generate information on Rosa sp. transcripts using RNA from various tissues and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 80714 transcript clusters were identified and 76611 peptides have been predicted among which 20997 have been clustered into 13900 protein families. BLASTp hits in closely related Rosaceae species revealed that about half of the predicted peptides in the strawberry and peach genomes have orthologs in Rosa dataset. Digital expression was obtained using RNA samples from organs at different development stages and under different stress conditions. qPCR validated the digital expression data for a selection of 23 genes with high or low expression levels. Comparative gene expression analyses between the different tissues and organs allowed the identification of clusters that are highly enriched in given tissues or under particular conditions, demonstrating the usefulness of the digital gene expression analysis. A web interface ROSAseq was created that allows data interrogation by BLAST, subsequent analysis of DNA clusters and access to thorough transcript annotation including best BLAST matches on Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica and Arabidopsis. The rose peptides dataset was used to create the ROSAcyc resource pathway database that allows access to the putative genes and enzymatic pathways. Conclusions The study provides useful information on Rosa expressed genes, with thorough annotation and an overview of expression patterns for transcripts with good accuracy.

  10. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  11. Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in many South American countries. The tea is often packaged in individual servings as tea bags which contain approximately 1 g of plant material. The consumption of coca tea leads to ingestion of cocaine and other alkaloids: however, there is little information available regarding the pharmacological or toxicological effects that result from consumption of coca tea. We performed a series of studies with coca tea bags from two South American countries, Peru and Bolivia. The alkaloidal content of the ‘coca leaf’ in coca tea bags was determined by two different extraction methods: Soxhlet extraction with methanol (exhaustive extraction), and mechanical agitation with methanol. Extracts were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Coca tea prepared from Peruvian and Bolivian coca tea bags was also analyzed by SPE-GC/MS assay. In addition, urine specimens were analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of Peruvian coca tea and one cup of Bolivian coca tea on separate occasions. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay (TDxR) and SPE-GC/MS. Analysis of coca tea bags and coca tea indicated that cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and trans-cinnamoylcocaine were present in varying quantities. With exhaustive extraction, an average of 5.11 mg, and 4.86 mg of cocaine per tea bag were found in coca leaf from Peru and Bolivia, respectively. The average amounts of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester in Peruvian coca leaf were 0.11 and 1.15 mg, and in Bolivian coca leaf were 0.12 and 2.93 mg per tea bag, respectively. trans-Cinnamoylcocaine was found in trace amounts in Peruvian tea bags and 0.16 mg/tea bag of Bolivian tea. When tea was prepared, an average of 4.14 mg of cocaine was present in a cup of Peruvian coca tea and 4.29 mg of cocaine was present in Bolivian tea. Following the consumption of a cup of Peruvian tea by one

  12. The Other Boston Tea Party. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo; And Others

    A teachers' guide is presented that accompanies the video production of "The Other Boston Tea Party," a play used to teach about the U.S. Constitution and American legal and political systems. The play combines a comedy of manners with an historical approach to the issues surrounding the Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate over…

  13. Analysis on Cultural Connotation of Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a large number of Chinese borrowed words emerge in English.However, cultural connotation of these Chinese borrowed words may fail to penetrate into the minds of foreign people.This study aims to demonstrate the cultural connotation of tea and hopes to raise readers’ cultural awareness, which is beneficial to cross-cultural communication.

  14. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  15. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  16. Tea Plantations and Socio-Cultural Transformation: The Case of Assam (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kala Magar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tea plantations of Assam, which constitute the country’s 53.97 per cent tea area, 49 per cent tea worker population, and 52.04 per cent tea production, occupy an important place in the economy, culture and polity of the state. The onset of tea plantations during British colonial rule has not only changed the landscape of the upper Brahmaputra valley through green tea bushes being nourished by tea tribes from east-central India, but also evolved a distinct tea culture. Although formation of small tea growers has added a new dimension to the growth of tea industry of Assam in recent times, the culture that emerged due to the long continued interaction of British planters, tea worker tribes and indigenous Assamese is well reflected in the language, way of life, work culture, food habits and many other socio-cultural practices in most of the large tea estates in the state. In fact, the impact of tea culture is so penetrative that it has been able to bring about development in the form of tea festival, tea tourism, tea folk songs and dances, etc. in the state. An attempt is made in this paper to explore the role of tea plantation and the people associated with it to the socio-cultural transformation of Assam based on both secondary data and primary data through field study. The primary data have been collected from selected tea estates, tea garden worker colonies, tea-tribe villages and urban dwellers.

  17. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  18. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  19. Clinical application of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R

    2000-06-01

    Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited

  20. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  1. Research progress in white tea and Anji white tea%白茶与安吉白茶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静; 王远兴; 丁建

    2013-01-01

    在中国六大茶(绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶和黑茶)中,安吉白荼属于绿茶,由于名称与白茶相似,且具有类似的药理功效,常易被混淆本文从白茶和安吉白茶的发展历史、药理学研究和产品开发三个方面对白茶和安吉白荼进行综述,并对两者的发展前景进行展望.%White tea is one of China's six major teas (green tea,black tea,oolong tea,white tea,yellow tea and dark tea);Anji white tea,which has similar name and pharmacological effects with white tea,actually belongs to green tea. In this article,history of white tea and Anji white tea was briefly introduced,pharmacological effects and product development of white tea and Anji white tea were reviewed,and future prospects of research on white tea and Anji white tea were also proposed.

  2. The Effect of Different Tea Varieties on Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.

    2016-12-01

    The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can

  3. Tea, coffee, and milk consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005-07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91-2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk.

  4. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  5. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Malir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B, being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source.

  6. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kaiwen; Zhang, Yuying; Sun, Chanjun; He, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS) regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C), 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N), and 1506 (CNH) cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)algorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291). All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea. PMID:28068348

  7. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favero, B.T.; Benato, E.A.; Dias, G.M.;

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  8. Cut-rose production in response to planting density in two contrasting cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burema, B.S.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Damen, T.; Vos, J.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Growing in lower planting density, rose plants produce more assimilates, which can be used to produce more and/or heavier flowering shoots. The effect of planting density was investigated during a period including the first five flowering flushes of a young crop. In a heated greenhouse two cut-rose

  9. Inheritance and QTL analysis of the determinants of flower color in tetraploid cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitonga, Virginia W.; Stolker, Robert; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F.S.; Aelaei, Mitra; Visser, Richard G.F.; Maliepaard, Chris; Krens, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The success of cut rose cultivars is a direct result of their aesthetic value. The rose industry thrives on novelty, and the production of novel flower color has been extensively studied. The most popular color is red, and it is, therefore, important for breeders to produce a good red cultivar. T

  10. Cut-rose production in response to planting density in two contrasting cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burema, B.S.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Damen, T.; Vos, J.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Growing in lower planting density, rose plants produce more assimilates, which can be used to produce more and/or heavier flowering shoots. The effect of planting density was investigated during a period including the first five flowering flushes of a young crop. In a heated greenhouse two cut-rose

  11. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favero, B. T.; Benato, E. A.; Dias, G. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  12. Allan Bloom, Mike Rose, and Paul Goodman: In Search of a Lost Pedagogical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Discusses and compares two recent books on American higher education: "The Closing of the American Mind" by Allan Bloom, and "Lives on the Boundary" by Mike Rose. Develops a view which synthesizes those of Bloom and Rose. Considers this view as comparable to that of Paul Goodman. (HB)

  13. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  14. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  15. Evaluation of significant pigmets in green teas of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ošťádalová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work monitors flavonoid pigments (theaflavins and thearubigins, and chlorophyll in green teas from different growing regions (India, China, Russia, Vietnam. These pigments affect the quality of the finished tea infusion and their quantity is affected by the way of tea processing (fermentation. 15 samples of green loose teas were selected for the analysis. The content of these pigments was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, the concentration of flavonoid pigments was measured at a wavelength of 665 nm (theaflavins and 825 nm (thearubigins. Concentration of flavonoid pigments was determined using the standard conversion coefficients, which are 38.7 for TRs and 1.4 for TFs. Chlorophyll concentration was measured at 642.5 and 660 nm. Chlorophyll concentration was determined by the conversion using international standard conversion coefficients and calculation of linear regressions. The results were statistically processed and evaluated in the program of UNISTAT version 5.6. The total amount of chlorophyll ranged from 0.20 to 1.33 mg/L of tea. Concentrations of theaflavin ranged from 0.15 to 0.66 g/100 g of tea and TRs from 2.00 to 11.15 g/100 g of tea. The results showed that the amount of theaflavins, thearubigins and chlorophyll in green teas varied (P <0,05, especially in teas from lowlands in Vietnam and Krasnodar (Russia. Statistically demonstrable difference (P <0,05 in the content of pigments was also recorded in a group of Indian teas (from lowlands and, from a group of Chinese teas, a statistical difference (P <0,05 was demonstrated in the content of pigments in the mountain teas. On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the quality of green tea is mainly influenced by the processing method depending on the processing area (the factory, than by their country of origin.

  16. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  17. Pollutant roses for 24 h averaged pollutant concentrations by respectively least squares regression and weighted sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosemans, G.; Kretzschmar, J. [Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (Vito), Mol (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    Pollutant roses are polar diagrams that show how air pollution depends on wind direction. If an ambient air quality monitoring station is markedly influenced by a source of the pollutant measured, the pollutant rose shows a peak towards the local source. When both wind direction data and pollutant concentration are measured as (1/2)-hourly averages, the pollutant rose is mathematically well defined and the computation is simple. When the pollutant data are averages over 24 h, as is the case for heavy metals or dioxin levels or in many cases PM10-levels in ambient air, the pollutant rose is mathematically well defined, but the computational scheme is not obvious. In this paper, two practical methods to maximize the information content of pollutant roses based on 24 h pollutant concentrations are presented. These methods are applied to time series of 24 h SO{sub 2} concentrations, derived from the 1/2-hourly SO{sub 2} concentrations measured in the Antwerp harbour, industrial, urban and rural regions by the Telemetric Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Flemish Environmental Agency (VMM). The pollutant roses computed from the 1/2-hourly SO{sub 2} concentrations constitute reference or control-roses to evaluate the representativeness or truthfulness of pollutant roses obtained by the presented methods. The presented methodology is very useful in model validations that have to be based on measured daily averaged concentrations as only available real ambient levels. While the methods give good pollutant roses in general, this paper especially deals with the case of pollutant roses with 'false' peaks. (orig.)

  18. Disease resistance breeding in rose: current status and potential of biotechnological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debener, Thomas; Byrne, David H

    2014-11-01

    The cultivated rose is a multispecies complex for which a high level of disease protection is needed due to the low tolerance of blemishes in ornamental plants. The most important fungal diseases are black spot, powdery mildew, botrytis and downy mildew. Rose rosette, a lethal viral pathogen, is emerging as a devastating disease in North America. Currently rose breeders use a recurrent phenotypic selection approach and perform selection for disease resistance for most pathogen issues in a 2-3 year field trial. Marker assisted selection could accelerate this breeding process. Thus far markers have been identified for resistance to black spot (Rdrs) and powdery mildew and with the ability of genotyping by sequencing to generate 1000s of markers our ability to identify markers useful in plant improvement should increase exponentially. Transgenic rose lines with various fungal resistance genes inserted have shown limited success and RNAi technology has potential to provide virus resistance. Roses, as do other plants, have sequences homologous to characterized R-genes in their genomes, some which have been related to specific disease resistance. With improving next generation sequencing technology, our ability to do genomic and transcriptomic studies of the resistance related genes in both the rose and the pathogens to reveal novel gene targets to develop resistant roses will accelerate. Finally, the development of designer nucleases opens up a potentially non-GMO approach to directly modify a rose's DNA to create a disease resistant rose. Although there is much potential, at present rose breeders are not using marker assisted breeding primarily because a good suite of marker/trait associations (MTA) that would ensure a path to stable disease resistance is not available. As our genomic analytical tools improve, so will our ability to identify useful genes and linked markers. Once these MTAs are available, it will be the cost savings, both in time and money, that will

  19. analysis of some metals in some brands of tea sold in kano, nigeria 34

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    reasonable amounts. Fortunately, toxic heavy metal (Pb) had the lowest concentration in all the ... mg/dm3 in China sample. Keywords: Essential metals, Trace metals, Tea, Kano ..... in tea, tea liquor, instant coffee and cocoa samples. Pak.

  20. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  1. Study on preparation of β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidong, Liang; Fang, Yu; Zhihong, Tong; Changle, Ren

    2011-11-01

    Microencapsulation of ethanol extract of tea was performed in this study. In order to microencapsulate, β-cyclodextrin was used as wall material. Ethanol extract of tea was used as the core material. Microcapsules in the solid form were obtained by drying the emulsions. RSM showed that optimal processing parameters were as followings: core material/wall material 1/4, β-cyclodextrin content 16%, stirring time 30 min and stirring temperature 200°C. Pharmacological activities of β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract were determined. It was found that β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract could enhance BMD, BMC and bone Ca, Zn and Cu contents. In addition, β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract could still reduce blood Ca contents. These results indicated that β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract was useful for improving bone quality in aged animals.

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA FROM PAF-INDUCED NEUROTOXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Enji; Hah Xuefei; Joseph Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    Objective The protective effect of chinese green tea from PAF-induced neurotoxity was investigated Method LaN1 ( neuroblastoma cell line) was used as neuron. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) -release was an indicator of cell death. Cytoplasmic calcium was measured with Aequouin-loaded method. Results When applied to LaN1 cells, green tea in concentration 2mg/ml or stronger obviously damaged cells. If lower concentration (0. 5mg/ml and l.Omg/ml) of green tea were applied, green tea inhibited the elevation of intracellular calcium and reduced the cytotoxity induced by PAF in neurons. Conclusion PAF plays an important role in brain injury and stroke, the protective effect of green tea could be a basis to explore weather green tea or its derivative may have preventive and therapeutic potential for neuronal injury.

  3. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  4. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  5. Tea and cancer prevention: studies in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fung-Lung; Schwartz, Joel; Herzog, Christopher R; Yang, Yang-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The role of tea in protection against cancer has been supported by ample evidence from studies in cell culture and animal models. However, epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results, some of which associated tea with reduced risk of cancer, whereas others found that tea lacks protective activity against certain human cancers. These results raise questions about the actual role of tea in human cancer that needs to be addressed. This article is intended to provide a better perspective on this controversy by summarizing the laboratory studies in animals and humans with emphasis on animal tumor bioassays on skin, lung, mammary glands and colon, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms affected by tea. Finally, a recent small pilot intervention study with green tea in smokers is presented.

  6. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  7. Commercial teas highlight plant DNA barcode identification successes and obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckle, Mark Y; Gamble, Catherine C; Kirpekar, Rohan; Young, Grace; Ahmed, Selena; Little, Damon P

    2011-01-01

    Appearance does not easily identify the dried plant fragments used to prepare teas to species. Here we test recovery of standard DNA barcodes for land plants from a large array of commercial tea products and analyze their performance in identifying tea constituents using existing databases. Most (90%) of 146 tea products yielded rbcL or matK barcodes using a standard protocol. Matching DNA identifications to listed ingredients was limited by incomplete databases for the two markers, shared or nearly identical barcodes among some species, and lack of standard common names for plant species. About 1/3 of herbal teas generated DNA identifications not found on labels. Broad scale adoption of plant DNA barcoding may require algorithms that place search results in context of standard plant names and character-based keys for distinguishing closely-related species. Demonstrating the importance of accessible plant barcoding, our findings indicate unlisted ingredients are common in herbal teas.

  8. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  9. Famille Rose Porcelain and Nontoxic Famille-Rose Pigments%粉彩瓷与无毒粉彩颜料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春娥; 陈云霞; 卢希龙

    2011-01-01

    Famille-rose porcelain, one of the famous traditional ceramic genres from Jingdezhen, was introduced briefly in this study. The results and status quo of famille-rose ceramic research in the fields of decorative art, archaeometry and lead reduction were overviewed. New ideas for developing nontoxic famille-rose pigments were put forward, which was necessary for the continuation and furtherance of the famille-rose ceramic heritage. Our group's work on the preparation of nontoxic low-temperature fluxes, lead-free and arsenic-free glassy white, famille-rose colorants with stable color generation by various wet-chemical methods, and new nontoxic famille-rose pigments was described. Finally, the application trends of nontoxic famille-rose pigments were predicted.%对景德镇传统名瓷-粉彩瓷和传统粉彩颜料做了简单介绍,概述了传统粉彩颜料在降铅达标方面的研究成果与现状,提出了要传承、发展粉彩瓷必须使传统粉彩颜料无毒化的新理念.文中主要从无公害低温熔剂的研制、无毒新型玻璃白的研制、采用多种湿化学法制备呈色稳定的粉彩色剂、无毒粉彩颜料的制备等方面叙述了本课题组的研究,并对无毒粉彩颜料的应用前景进行了展望.

  10. Cannabis tea revisited: a systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Bastola, Krishna; Rashidi, Hassan; Bender, Johan; Verpoorte, Rob

    2007-08-15

    Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants, and a large variety of biological activities have been described. The main constituents, the cannabinoids, are thought to be most important for these activities. Although smoking of cannabis is by far the most common way of consumption, a significant part of medicinal users consume it in the form of a tea. However, not much is known about the composition of cannabis tea, or the effect of different parameters during preparation, handling or storage. In this study we used the high-grade cannabis available in Dutch pharmacies to study the cannabinoid composition of tea under standardized and quantitative conditions. Experimental conditions were systematically varied in order to mimic the possible variations made by medicinal users. During analysis there was a specific focus on the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol and its acidic precursor, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Also the role of non-psychoactive cannabinoids as components of cannabis tea are discussed. The results obtained in this study provide a clear quantitative insight in the phytochemistry of cannabis tea preparation and can contribute to a better appreciation of this mode of cannabis administration.

  11. The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Strock, Pierre; Sauli, Fabio; Charpak, Georges

    1987-03-01

    The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + 6% TEA gas mixtures are measured by using a single wire proportional counter as the emission source. Asymmetric emission bands are observed in the range of 270 to 350 nm, which can be attributed to the radiative deexcitation of excited TEA molecules. For the practical application of optical readout of avalanche chambers, the Ar + 2.0% TEA + 20% isobutane gas mixture is also examined, and nearly the same emission band is observed.

  12. Reengineering Model of Supply Chain of Tea Industry in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Yunnan University of finance and Trade recording to t he statistics of chain's output of tea, Yunnan province has entered the ranks of the larger ones of the production in China. Yunnan's tea industry has the natur al resources and the economic effects envied, on the orther hand, Yunnan's tea m arket has gradually become less and the economic effects have been poor. Through our comprehensive investigation and study, we consider that because the supply chain has seriously been disjointed among production...

  13. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition12345

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone vo...

  14. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  15. Promotion of sink activity of developing rose shoots by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Y; Halevy, A H

    1980-11-01

    Holding young rose shoots (Rosa hybrida cv. Marimba) in darkness while the rest of the plant was in light reduced the amount of (14)C assimilates recovered from the darkened shoot by half. Relative specific activity of the shoot tip grown in light was 13.5 times greater than that of the darkened one. The flower bud at the shoot tip degenerated in darkness and died. Shoots 2 to 3 centimeters long, after flower initiation, were most sensitive to the dark treatment. The degeneration is a gradual and reversible process in the first 8 days of darkness, followed by irreversible damage and atrophy. Darkening enhanced the ability of the young leaves to compete for the available assimilates over that of the darkened shoot tip. The enhancement of the mobilizing ability of the shoot tip by light is independent of photosynthesis since spraying with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or holding shoots in a CO(2)-free atmosphere did not diminish the promoting effect of light on flower bud development or assimilate import. The possibility that light exerts its effect by photoproduction of ATP was also excluded inasmuch as no differences were found in ATP levels of shoot tips held in darkness and those held in light.

  16. Assessment of Rose Bengal test in diagnosing Egyptian human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fekhfakh, Effat Abdel-Monaem; Hassanain, Nawal Abdel-Hafiz; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Hariri, Hazem

    2011-08-01

    A total of 30 patients suffering from brucellosis were suspected based on history taking, clinical manifestations and positive serum tube agglutination test (at titer > or = 1/160). The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count) and liver function tests, serodiagnosis of Brucella (serum tube agglutination test (STAT) as well as Rose Bengal test (RBT) and PCR. The study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR for human brucellosis, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the cost and the time consuming of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR. There was a significant difference between diagnosis by RBT and both STAT > or = 1/640, & STAT > or = 1/1280. Also, there was a significant difference between PCR and both STAT > or = 1/640, and STAT > or = 1/1280. No significant difference was detected between RBT in diagnosing acute and chronic infection. STAT > or = 1/320 proved to be better than STAT at other titers and RBT in diagnosis of brucellosis. RBT proved to be suitable as screening test regarding time (faster) and cost. But, STAT > or = 1/320 from a practical and economic point of views proved to be the best one in diagnosing human brucellosis.

  17. Memory-enhancing activity of Rose alba in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikwade Nilofar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of AD. Memantine is the first novel class of AD medications acting on the glutaminergic system and produces symptomatic improvement in learning. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam, and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are being used to improve memory, mood, and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Rose alba (RA on learning and memory in mice. Male Swiss albino mice (3 months old weighing around 25 g were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. RA (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. was administered for eight successive days to the mice. Piracetam (200 mg/kg i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. RA improved learning and memory of mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. RA significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of calyces of RA might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  18. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  19. Losio Antioksidan Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Britton and Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Angelina Sinaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hylocereus polyrhizus Britton and Rose (Red dragon fruit has been shown to have antioxidant activity which contains vitamin C, polyphenol, and flavonoid. This research was aimed to investigate antioxidant effectivity from H. polyrhizus in form of lotion. Lotion were made with 5 concentrations from H. polyrhizus methanol extract which were 0.04; 0.08; 0.16; 0.32 and 0.64%. The antioxidant activity of lotion was measured using DPPH method. The research showed that H. polyrhizus methanol extract had antioxidant activity with inhibition concentration were 19.99±0.33; 25.01±0.08; 39.14±0.04; 66.69±0.12 and 83.37±0.05. The result showed significant differences on antioxidant activity. The physical stability observation of five formula with cycling test method showed unstability because of discolouration (oxidation. As well as the methods of mechanical test showed unstability of lotion because saponification process.

  20. Rose Ausländer: "Mátria Palavra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Aron

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Aufsatz verfolgt das Ziel, die (hierzulande weitgehend unbekannte, weil unübersetzte deutsch-jüdische Dichterin Rose Ausländer (1901-1988 dem literaturinteressierten Publikum Brasiliens vorzustellen. Ausgehend von der Übersetzung von zwölf paradigmatischen Gedichten werden die entscheidenden Lebensstatione und Schaffensphasen der Dichterin, die wie Paul Celan im vielsprachigen Czernowitz der österreichisch-ungarischen Donaumonarchie aufwuchs, charakterisiert: Ihre tiefe Verbundenheit mit ihrer galizischen Heimat, ihr früher, vom Tod des Vaters und darauf folgender bitterer Armut erzwungener Versuch, in New York Fuß zu fassen; Rückkehr und Verfolgung in der NS-Zeit; ihre Reisejahre durch Europa auf der Suche nach neuen Wurzeln und schließlich - gezeichnet von Krankheit - ihre letzte Station im jüdischen Altenheim in Düsseldorf. Als zentrale Themen ihres vielfältigen Werks, das in Deutschland in acht Bänden zur Verfügung steht, dürfen gelten: Heimatverlust und -erinnerung, der Holocaust, das Leben in einer geistigen Heimat, dem "Mutterland Sprache".

  1. In vitro propagation of Hylocereus monacanthus (Lem. Britton and Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Belem Montiel-Frausto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of tissue culture contributes to the rapid and massive propagation of economically important species and serves as a basic platform for production strategies. The objective of this work was to establish the in vitro propagation of Hylocereus monacanthus (Lem. Britton and Rose. The seeds were in vitro germinated and then the apical segments containing the apex and areoles were taken and placed in culture medium MS with BAP (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 and IAA (0.5 mg l-1 separately and combined for the multiplication phase. For rooting an MS culture medium with different  concentrations of inorganic salts (50, 75 and 100% and IBA (0.1 mg l-1 was used. In vitro plants obtained were planted in greenhouse for their acclimatization. The percentage of seeds germination was 70% with 6% of microbial contamination. With 1 mg l-1 BAP, the best results were obtained for the in vitro multiplication of H. monacanthus. In all treatments 100% of rooted shoots were obtained and only a significant difference was observed for root length with the addition of 0.1 mg l-1 IBA. The average survival of plants transferred to substrate was 97.1%. The results of this work offer an alternative of propagation for H. monacanthus, which will contribute to the establishment of commercial plantations and other studies at the laboratory level.   Keywords: pitahaya, shoot tip, cacti

  2. Estratégias da medicina preventiva de Geoffrey Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma das atividades dos profissionais de saúde na prática dos serviços de atenção primária envolve a prevenção de doenças e a promoção da saúde. Essas atividades têm sido fortalecidas atualmente por meio de ações programáticas de saúde e manejo das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Esse contexto reforça a importância de se entenderem as bases da prevenção, discutidas no livro Estratégias da Medicina Preventiva de Geoffrey Rose.1 Rose classifica a prevenção de doenças em duas abordagens: a estratégia de alto risco (EAR e a estratégia de amplitude populacional (EAP. A primeira refere-se ao processo de separação entre os indivíduos de alto risco e os demais. A segunda visa abranger a população como um todo. A estratégia de alto risco parte de uma lógica binária de processo decisório que na medicina é denominada diagnose, ou seja, a pessoa tem ou não a condição a ser investigada. Em caso positivo, alguma intervenção lhe é oferecida; em caso negativo, ‘deixa-se a pessoa em paz’. A EAR é muito atrativa e, tradicionalmente, mais lógica e adequada: primeiro, porque faz sentido tanto aos profissionais como aos pacientes, visto que ambos entendem mais facilmente o porquê da intervenção; segundo, por ser custo-efetiva, pois os recursos são direcionados àqueles que mais precisam; finalmente, porque se encaixa mais no cotidiano dos serviços, que geralmente operam na lógica do modelo individual do cuidado às doenças.Existem, no entanto, algumas desvantagens desse tipo de intervenção: (1 tende-se a medicalizar a prevenção; (2 há que se manter o programa indefinidamente, pois não se intervém no problema de base; e (3 é difícil para aquele que recebe a intervenção quantificar seu real benefício, visto que se opera no campo da probabilidade (NNT: número necessário para tratar durante certo tempo para que uma pessoa se beneficie. Qual pessoa irá se beneficiar? Não sabemos. Porém, o

  3. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  4. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented interest in the antioxidant activity of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is due to the apparent health benefits of tea drinking and the experimental results with the polyphenols. The results suggest that the galloylated catechins show stronger antioxidant effect than that of nongalloylated catechins and the double bond in C ring also plays an important role in this effect. There are synergic effects between different catechins and the antioxidant effectof (+)-epimers is stronger than that of (-)-epimers. The active site to scavenge free radicals mainly locates in p-hydroxyl of phenol in gallic acid and hydroxyl of phenol in the pyrane also shows activity. The large π bond in chromane and benzene ring of catechin is the structure base for their antioxidant effects. The prevent effect of GTP against diseases and their redox regulation in cell signal pathway are very important to be studied in the future.

  5. Tea consumption and risk of head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the association between tea consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC in Taiwan, where tea is a major agricultural product and a popular beverage. METHODS: Interviews regarding tea consumption (frequency, duration, and types were conducted with 396 HNC cases and 413 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of HNC risk associated with tea drinking, adjusted for sex, age, education, cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: A reduced HNC risk associated with tea drinking (OR for every cup per day = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94 was observed. The association was especially significant for pharyngeal cancer (OR for every cup per day = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.66. A significant inverse association between HNC and tea consumption was observed particularly for green tea. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that tea drinking may reduce the risk of HNC. The anticancer property of tea, if proven, may offer a natural chemopreventive measure to reduce the occurrence of HNC.

  6. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  7. Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices TEA HI Threat Headset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Helmet TEA HI Threat w/ Ops-Core & Oakley 3.0 TEA HI Threat w/ Ops-Core & Oakley 2.0 TEA HI Threat w/ Ops-Core & ARC IP IL (d B) Average Impulsive...4 1.5 1.5 TEA HI Threat 10.2 4.6 4.4 Figure 23. Average response time (seconds) 3.7 Speech Intelligibility The AFRL VOice Communication...designed to evaluate voice communication effectiveness in operationally- realistic acoustic environments. The facility consisted of a programmable, high

  8. Survey on Fertility of Tea Garden Soil in Meizhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping; PENG; Jichuan; HUANG; Junhong; YU; Zhidui; PENG; Zhijun; LIN; Linxiang; YANG; Xuena; WU

    2013-01-01

    Survey on fertility of tea garden soil in Meizhou region indicates that tea garden soil has strong acidity; organic matter content remains at medium level; there is a severe lack of available content of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P) and potassium(K); available calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) content is also insufficient; available sulfur(S) is abundant. In the management of tea cultivation,it is recommended to supplement organic fertilizer,balance the application of NPK fertilizer,and adequately alleviate shortage of Ca and Mg element,to guarantee high and stable yield of tea.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of green tea catechins: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2012-08-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the cardiovascular beneficial effects of green tea. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that consumption of green tea is inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Catechins, the major flavonoid constituents of green tea, exert cardioprotective effects through diverse mechanisms that include reversal of endothelial dysfunctions, decreasing inflammatory biomarkers, and providing antioxidant, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects. Moreover, dietary consumption of green tea catechins has beneficial effects on blood pressure and lipid parameters. This review will focus on discussing the latest research on the cardioprotective effects of green tea catechins and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Several recent patents pertinent to green tea and cardiovascular health will also be discussed. It is noteworthy that clinical studies involving green tea are fraught with multiple complexity and confounding factors. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of the effects of green tea catechins in well-controlled human trials will be required for better understanding of the effects of green tea in cardiovascular health.

  10. Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) evidence of osteo-protective impacts of green tea on bone mass and microarchitecture in various bone loss models in which induced by aging, sex hormone deficiency, and chronic inflammation, (iii) discussion of impacts of green tea on bone mass in two obesity models, (iv) observation of short-term green tea supplementation given to postmenopausal women with low bone mass, (v) possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, and (vi) a summary and future research direction of green tea and bone health.

  11. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  12. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  13. Assessment of culturable tea rhizobacteria isolated from tea estates of Assam, India for growth promotion in commercial tea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintu eDutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP screening for indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. 50 isolates showed all the PGP traits and 5 isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Psedumonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19 and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3 fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1 fold, root length by 2.2 fold and shoot length by 1.6 fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (p<0.05 in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  14. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the potential of these

  15. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  16. Esophageal thermal injury by hot adlay tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-03-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement.

  17. Tea and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman Evans Ii, Martin; Starley, Brad; Galagan, Jack Carl; Yabes, Joseph Michael; Evans, Sara; Salama, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Studies have shown effects of diet on gut microbiota. We aimed to identify foods associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI were identified by electronic medical records. Colitis symptoms and positive Clostridium difficile assay were confirmed. Health-care onset-health-care facility associated CDI was excluded. Food surveys were mailed to 411 patients. Survey responses served as the primary outcome measure. Spearman's rank correlation identified risk factors for CDI recurrence. Results. Surveys were returned by 68 patients. Nineteen patients experienced CDI recurrence. Compared to patients without CDI recurrence, patients with CDI recurrence had more antibiotics prescribed preceding their infection (p = 0.003). Greater numbers of the latter also listed tea (p = 0.002), coffee (p = 0.013), and eggs (p = 0.013), on their 24-hour food recall. Logistic regression identified tea as the only food risk factor for CDI recurrence (adjusted OR: 5.71; 95% CI: 1.26-25.89). Conclusion. The present results indicate a possible association between tea and CDI recurrence. Additional studies are needed to characterize and confirm this association.

  18. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  19. Fluoride concentrations in three types of commercially packed tea drinks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hsiao, Pao-Kuei; Chiang, Kuang-Mao

    2003-01-01

    Tea is a popular drink around the world. It is also one of the major sources of fluoride intake. The objectives of this study were to assess fluoride concentrations in popular non-, semi-, and full-fermented tea drinks sold on the Taiwan market. Concentration differences among three types of commercially available tea drinks (tea leaf, tea bag, and packaged tea beverage) were explored. Several influential factors in intake concentrations were evaluated. The acute threshold intake (ATI) and allowable daily intake (ADI) of those tea drinks were also estimated. For each commercial type, samples from the most popular tea in one particular fermentation degree (non, semi, and full) were randomly purchased and analyzed for fluoride concentrations. Fluoride levels in different rounds of tea, in different containers, and with different ratios of water and tea leaf were also assessed. In total, 132 tea samples were analyzed. The mean fluoride concentrations in leaf tea without the first round, leaf tea with the first round, bagged tea, and packaged tea were 7.04, 7.79, 5.37, and 25.7 mg/l, respectively. Most of the intake concentrations in those samples exceeded 4 mg/l F, the lower bound of fluoride levels reported in the literatures to be associated with a lower IQ in children and a higher risk of bone fracture. Fluoride concentrations in packaged tea were the highest among the three types of commercially available tea. For studied leaf and bagged tea, almost a constant amount of fluoride was infused from the same amount of tea leaf regardless of the water volume. Besides this, making tea with glass or pottery tea makers would not affect fluoride intake concentrations. Acute intoxication is unlikely to occur. However, tea lovers in high fluoride content areas shall consider limit their consumption of tea drinks to avoid potential chronic effects.

  20. [Effects of different tillage methods on tea garden soil physical characteristics and tea yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-jian; Wang, Ye-jun; Zhang, Yong-li; Ding, Yong; Luo, Yi; Song, Li; Liao, Wan-you

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three tillage methods, i.e., no tillage, rotary tillage, deep tillage, on tea garden soil compaction, soil moisture, soil bulk density, yield component factors and tea yield were studied through field experiments in Langxi Country of Anhui Province. The results indicated that the effects of three tillage methods on soil bulk density and soil compaction were in order of deep tillage>rotary tillage>no tillage. Deep tillage and rotary tillage could effectively break the argillic horizon layer and decrease the soil compaction. Compared with no tillage, soil compaction and soil bulk density (0-30 cm) under deep tillage decreased 16.4% and 13.4%-27.5%, respectively. Deep tillage could significantly increase soil water storage space and enhance the water holding capacity of the soil. Compared with no tillage, the soil moisture of 15-30 cm soil layer was increased by 7.7% under deep tillage. The different tillage methods had little effect on soil porosity. Rotary tillage and deep tillage could increase soil specific surface area and the ratios of soil gas and soil liquid. The diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of tea both exhibited double-peak pattern. There was a significant midday depression caused principally by stomatal factors. Under deep tillage, the tea leaf transpiration rate decreased, shoot density increased, 100-bud dry mass and water use efficiency increased significantly, and the tea yield increased by 17.6% and 6.8% compared with no tillage and rotary tillage, respectively. Deep tillage was the most appropriate tillage practice in tea garden of east Anhui Province.

  1. Cloning of beta-primeverosidase from tea leaves, a key enzyme in tea aroma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-12-01

    A beta-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The beta-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The beta-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The beta-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to beta-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the beta-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze beta-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the beta-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the beta-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the beta-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside by the beta-primeverosidase was followed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the beta-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the beta-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed.

  2. Isolation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids as COX-1 and -2 inhibitors in rose hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna; Petersen, K N; Thomasen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Rose hip has previously shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and organic solvent extracts of rose hip have showed inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. A petroleum ether extract of rose hip was fractioned by VLC on silica; on a C-18 column and by HPLC. Each step was COX-1/...

  3. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  4. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  5. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  6. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (Pantioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus.

  7. Structure and function of the universal stress protein TeaD and its role in regulating the ectoine transporter TeaABC of Halomonas elongata DSM 2581(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Kuhlmann, Sonja I; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Grammann, Katrin; Ziegler, Christine M

    2010-03-16

    The halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata takes up the compatible solute ectoine via the osmoregulated TRAP transporter TeaABC. A fourth orf (teaD) is located adjacent to the teaABC locus that encodes a putative universal stress protein (USP). By RT-PCR experiments we proved a cotranscription of teaD along with teaABC. Deletion of teaD resulted in an enhanced uptake for ectoine by the transporter TeaABC and hence a negative activity regulation of TeaABC by TeaD. A transcriptional regulation via DNA binding could be excluded. ATP binding to native TeaD was shown by HPLC, and the crystal structure of TeaD was solved in complex with ATP to a resolution of 1.9 A by molecular replacement. TeaD forms a dimer-dimer complex with one ATP molecule bound to each monomer, which has a Rossmann-like alpha/beta overall fold. Our results reveal an ATP-dependent oligomerization of TeaD, which might have a functional role in the regulatory mechanism of TeaD. USP-encoding orfs, which are located adjacent to genes encoding for TeaABC homologues, could be identified in several other organisms, and their physiological role in balancing the internal cellular ectoine pool is discussed.

  8. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  9. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  10. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  11. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  12. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  13. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  14. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  15. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  16. Final Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, including Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll NWR consists of removing the metal debris remaining from the grounding of a Taiwanese fishing vessel in 1993, and monitoring the...

  17. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola...

  18. C-CAP Territory of American Samoa (Rose Atoll) 2006-2009 Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 2006 and 2009 classifications of Territory of American Samoa (Rose Atoll) and can be used to analyze change. This data set utilized 1 full...

  19. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  20. Turtle Observations from Rose Atoll 18 October to 28 November, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nightly surveys of Rose Island were conducted to monitor turtle activity from 18 October to 28 November, 1990. Two turtles were tagged and one tag recovery was...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  2. 77 FR 61426 - Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and...

  3. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Martha Rose Construction, Inc., Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Martha Rose Construction, an energy-efficient home builder in marine climate using the German Passiv Haus design, improved insulation, and solar photovoltaics.

  4. The rose petal effect and the role of advancing water contact angles for drop confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Nikolaj Kofoed; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the role of advancing water contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibited strong pinning effects as known in nature from rose petals. Textured surfaces were engineered in silicon by lithographical techniques. The textures were comprised of hexagonal microstructures...

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  6. Historical Summary of Sea Turtle Observations at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 1839-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compilation of 40 recorded observations of sea turtles at Rose Atoll between 1839 and 1991, with each observation consisting of the source, date, and brief notes.

  7. EDTA-assisted synthesis of rose-like ZnO architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fang, Yaoguo [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Peng, Liwei; Wu, Minghong [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pan, Dengyu

    2010-10-15

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were prepared by a low-temperature solution route with assistance of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na). The morphology of ZnO nanostructures was found to change from nanowire arrays to rose- and tower-like architectures with increasing the molar ratio of EDTA-2Na/Zn{sup 2+}. Also, the shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures with time was observed from flat nanosheets to wrinkled nanosheets and to rose-like nanostructures. EDTA-2Na as a strong complexing agent was found to play a key role in the shape evolution. Photoluminescence spectra show that the rose-like ZnO architectures have more defects than the nanowire arrays. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Paramaters at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 1 or 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at Rose Atoll in...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rose, American Samoa, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 12 sites around Rose in the...

  11. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzbauer, H.

    2010-01-01

    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the

  12. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  13. Selected parameters of quality and safety of herbal tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal presence and possible microbiological contamination in herbal teas. Evaluation of selected tea products was performed from Nitra locality during years 2009 - 2013. Microscopic filamentous fungi detection, bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were compared to requirements given in the Codex Alimentarius of Slovakia. The highest permissible limit for microscopic filamentous fungi was not exceeded (in 32 observed herbal tea samples. For incidence of Escherichia coli, 93 samples were investigated and for Salmonella spp., 91 herbal tea samples. No sample showed the presence of Salmonella spp., and at E. coli maximum permitted presence was detected below limit. Among chemical parameters, cadmium, lead and mercury content were monitored. The highest amount of lead and mercury was found in year 2012. In 2009, the highest cadmium content was found. The average content of lead in all 100 inspected herbal tea samples was 0.784 mg.kg-1 so all the samples met requirements defined in the legislation. The mean content of mercury (98 investigated herbal tea samples was 0.0161 mg.kg-1 so all samples met the requirements as well. Average cadmium content was 0.1702 mg.kg-1 while the highest permitted limit for cadmium is 1.0 mg.kg-1. All herbal tea samples were in accordance with the legislation except one (white willow bark tea with a very high content of cadmium (4.36 mg.kg-1.

  14. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  15. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea.

  16. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: Associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Chen Tseng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1% students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001, coffee drinking (p < 0.001, alcohol drinking (p < 0.001, minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009, poorer sleepers (p = 0.037, higher body mass index (p = 0.004, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001. Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption.

  17. Tea and coronary heart disease : protection through estrogenlike activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Launer, L.J.; Lamberts, S.J.; Pols, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Tea drinking appears to be protective against coronary heart disease in a number of epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that tea flavonols with antioxidative activity, including quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin,1 could account for the favorable effect on cardiovascular health. In the ol

  18. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  19. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnat, A; Carnat, A P; Fraisse, D; Ricoux, L; Lamaison, J L

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the main aromatic and polyphenolic constituents of infusion from Chamaemelum nobile flowers was examined. The camomile tea contained a large amount of polyphenolic compounds (340 mg/l), the most important being chamaemeloside (155 mg/l). Only traces of essential oil were recovered in tea (7 mg/l).

  20. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.