WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid system installed

  1. Experimental hybrid system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico; Sistema hibrido experimental instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Gonzalez, Raul; Mejia, Fortino; Lagunas, Javier; Huacuz, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of one experimental hybrid system (solar and wind) installed by the Electrical Research Institute, in collaboration with the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo are presented. The hybrid system has an installed wind capacity of 2.5 kW and photovoltaic capacity of 1.8 kW. The nominal operation voltage of the system 12 Vcd. The technical characteristics of all components of the hybrid system and of the data acquisition system are described in this work. The objective of this hybrid system installation is to carry out experimental tests on different configurations schemes, electrical dispatching and energy generation. Finally, the activities to be carried out in the future and the importance of this project are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan las principales caracteristicas del sistema hibrido experimental solar-eolico (con un motogenerador de gasolina, como sistema de respaldo), instalado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en conjunto con la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (UAEH), en las instalaciones de la preparatoria No.4 de esta universidad. En terminos generales este sistema hibrido tiene una capacidad instalada de 2.5 KW eolicos y 1.0 KW fotovoltaicos. El voltaje nominal de operacion del sistema es de 12 Vcd. Los detalles de la configuracion y caracteristicas del sistema y sus componentes se describen en este trabajo. Tambien se mencionan las caracteristicas y configuracion del sistema de adquisicion de datos. Se presentan las variables que son registradas en el sistema de adquisicion de datos y que son utilizadas para llevar a cabo la evaluacion del sistema. El sistema hibrido fue concebido como una estacion de pruebas experimental donde se podran probar diferentes configuraciones operativas y esquemas de despacho y generacion de energia. Por ultimo se hace mencion de los trabajos a desarrollar en el futuro haciendose notar la trascendencia de este proyecto en el

  2. Field Test and Performance Verification: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Installed in a School - Final Report: Phase 4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-12-21

    This report summarizes the results of a field verification pilot site investigation that involved the installation of a hybrid integrated active desiccant/vapor-compression rooftop heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit at an elementary school in the Atlanta Georgia area. For years, the school had experienced serious humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) problems that had resulted in occupant complaints and microbial (mold) remediation. The outdoor air louvers of the original HVAC units had been closed in an attempt to improve humidity control within the space. The existing vapor compression variable air volume system was replaced by the integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) system that was described in detail in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report published in 2004 (Fischer and Sand 2004). The IADR system and all space conditions have been monitored remotely for more than a year. The hybrid system was able to maintain both the space temperature and humidity as desired while delivering the outdoor air ventilation rate required by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 62. The performance level of the IADR unit and the overall system energy efficiency was measured and found to be very high. A comprehensive IAQ investigation was completed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute before and after the system retrofit. Before-and-after data resulting from this investigation confirmed a significant improvement in IAQ, humidity control, and occupant comfort. These observations were reported by building occupants and are echoed in a letter to ORNL from the school district energy manager. The IADR system was easily retrofitted in place of the original rooftop system using a custom curb adapter. All work was completed in-house by the school's maintenance staff over one weekend. A subsequent cost analysis completed for the school district by the design engineer of record concluded that the IADR

  3. Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System for Water Savings in an Energy-Efficient HPC Data Center: Modeling and Installation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Thomas; Liu, Zan; Sickinger, David; Regimbal, Kevin; Martinez, David

    2017-02-01

    The Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System (TCHS) integrates the control of a dry heat rejection device, the thermosyphon cooler (TSC), with an open cooling tower. A combination of equipment and controls, this new heat rejection system embraces the 'smart use of water,' using evaporative cooling when it is most advantageous and then saving water and modulating toward increased dry sensible cooling as system operations and ambient weather conditions permit. Innovative fan control strategies ensure the most economical balance between water savings and parasitic fan energy. The unique low-pressure-drop design of the TSC allows water to be cooled directly by the TSC evaporator without risk of bursting tubes in subfreezing ambient conditions. Johnson Controls partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories to deploy the TSC as a test bed at NREL's high-performance computing (HPC) data center in the first half of 2016. Located in NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), this HPC data center has achieved an annualized average power usage effectiveness rating of 1.06 or better since 2012. Warm-water liquid cooling is used to capture heat generated by computer systems direct to water; that waste heat is either reused as the primary heat source in the ESIF building or rejected using evaporative cooling. This data center is the single largest source of water and power demand on the NREL campus, using about 7,600 m3 (2.0 million gal) of water during the past year with an hourly average IT load of nearly 1 MW (3.4 million Btu/h) -- so dramatically reducing water use while continuing efficient data center operations is of significant interest. Because Sandia's climate is similar to NREL's, this new heat rejection system being deployed at NREL has gained interest at Sandia. Sandia's data centers utilize an hourly average of 8.5 MW (29 million Btu/h) and are also one of the largest consumers of

  4. Sprinkler System Installer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a sprinkler system installer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as pipefitter--fire protection mechanic specialty; sprinkler and fire protection installer; sprinkler and fire protection systems installer; and sprinkler fitter. A guide to analysis discusses…

  5. Planning and installing photovoltaic systems a guide for installers, architects and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie (DGS)

    2013-01-01

    New third edition of the bestselling manual from the German Solar Energy Society (DGS), showing you the essential steps to plan and install a solar photovoltaic system. With a global focus, it has been updated to include sections on new technology and concepts, new legislation and the current PV market.Updates cover:new developments in inverter and module technologymarket situation worldwide and outlookintegration to the grid (voltage stabilization, frequency, remote control)new legal requirements for installation and planningoperational costs for dismantling and recyclingfeed-in managementnew requirements for fire protectionnew requirements in Europe for electric waste (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE) and the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS).Also providing information on current developments in system design, economic analysis, operation and maintenance of PV systems, as well as new software tools, hybrid and tracking systems.An essential manual for installers, e...

  6. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  7. Installation Package -SIMS Prototype System 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This package consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. International Business Machines, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32036, developed this system consisting of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system. This system is installed at Home Builders Association in Huntsville, Alabama (OTS-04).

  8. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  9. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under academicdirect.ro domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation usin...

  10. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  11. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  12. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under academicdirect.ro domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation using a existent network topology and a internet connection.Second issue is the optimization procedure of operating system, server services installation, and configuration. Discussed problems are kernel and services configuration, system and services optimization.The third issue is about client-server applications. Using operating system utilities calls we present an original application, which allows displaying the system information in a friendly web interface. An original program designed for molecular structure analysis was adapted for systems performance comparisons and it serves for a discussion of Pentium, Pentium II and Pentium III processors computation speed.The last issue of the paper discusses the installation and configuration aspects of dial-in service on a UNIX-based operating system. The discussion includes serial ports, ppp and pppd services configuration, ppp and tun devices using.

  13. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S.; Adragna, M.; Coyle, S.; Foley, C.; Hawryn, S.; Martin, A.; McConnell, J. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  14. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  15. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  16. Effect of Engine Installation on Jet Noise using a Hybrid LES/RANS Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Installation effects arising from propulsion airframe interaction are known to produce substantial variations in the in-situ jet noise. A hybrid LES/RANS...

  17. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  18. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  19. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  20. Planning and installing micro-hydro systems a guide for designers, installers and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An essential addition to the Earthscan Planning & Installing series, Planning and Installing Micro-Hydro Systems provides vital diagrams, pictures and tables detailing the planning and installing of a micro-hydro system, including information on the maintenance and economics once an installation is running. The book covers subjects such as measuring head and flow, ecological impacts, scheme layouts, practical advice, calculations and turbine choice. Archimedes screws are also covered in detail, as well as the main conventional choices relevant to small sites.Micro-hydro refers to hydropower sy

  1. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cove, Columbia, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Information is presented concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water. Included are such items as principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system. Also included are trouble-shooting charts and maintenance schedules.

  2. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  3. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  4. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  5. Design and installation package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains the design and installation procedure for the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's solar hot water system. Included are the system performance specifications, system design drawings, hazard analysis and other information necessary to evaluate the design and instal the system.

  6. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  7. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    defined and programmed strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  8. AUTONOMOUS WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS AND SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kvitko A. V.; Semenov Y. A.; Otmakhov G. S.

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the main advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources. It is shown, that in general, the use of renewable energy in the world has acquired real momentum and stable growth trend. An interesting fact is that the greatest application was currently the most mutable and unstable form of energy - wind. The total global installed capacity of large wind turbines, according to various estimates, is approximately 20 GW. This is because the specific investment in wind power...

  9. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  10. Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Ebert, Sheila M; Malik, Laura A; Green, Paul A; Reed, Matthew P

    2014-03-01

    This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each subject was asked to perform four child restraint installations in the right-rear passenger seat of a 2006 Pontiac G6 sedan using a crash dummy as a child surrogate. Each subject installed two CRS forward-facing (FF), one with LATCH and one with the vehicle seatbelt, and two CRS rear-facing (RF), one with LATCH and one with the seatbelt. After each installation, the experimenter evaluated 42 factors for each installation, such as choice of belt routing path, tightness of installation, and harness snugness. Analyses used linear mixed models to identify CRS installation outcomes associated with CRS features. LATCH connector type, LATCH strap adjustor type, and the presence of belt lockoffs were associated with the tightness of the CRS installation. The type of harness shoulder height adjuster was associated with the rate of achieving a snug harness. Correct tether use was associated with the tether storage method. In general, subject assessments of the ease-of-use of CRS features were not highly correlated with the quality of their installation, suggesting a need for feedback with incorrect installations. The data from this study provide quantitative assessments of some CRS features that were associated with reductions in CRS installation errors. These results provide child restraint designers with design guidelines for developing easier-to-use products. Research on providing effective feedback during the child restraint installation process is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  12. Siren system installed to alert campus community to emergency events

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech is installing a system of warning sirens to alert the campus community to emergency events. The first test of the siren system is scheduled to occur on Wednesday, April 19, at 12:10 p.m.

  13. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  15. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  16. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  17. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  18. Solar heating system installed at Lynchburg, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    A detailed design report for a retrofitted solar heating and cooling system for a 1780 square foot office building is presented. The system is composed of a 400 square foot flat plate collector, a 2,000 gallon storage tank, a gas auxiliary boiler, a duct distribution system utilizing a hot water duct coil and water-to-air heat pump, and a hot water preheater. The control system, data acquisition system, technical data, and maintenance procedure are discussed. Detailed specifications, circuits, and drawings for the components are included. (WHK)

  19. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems.......A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous...

  20. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky (final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-07

    A contract was awarded in June 1976 for the installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system at 2400 Watteroon Trail, Louisville, Kentucky. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to the existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq ft office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offered a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site. The two systems are described in detail and information on the data acquisition system is included.

  1. Meeting the challenges of installing a mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Celeste

    1994-01-01

    The challenges of integrating a mobile robotic system into an application environment are many. Most problems inherent to installing the mobile robotic system fall into one of three categories: (1) the physical environment - location(s) where, and conditions under which, the mobile robotic system will work; (2) the technological environment - external equipment with which the mobile robotic system will interact; and (3) the human environment - personnel who will operate and interact with the mobile robotic system. The successful integration of a mobile robotic system into these three types of application environment requires more than a good pair of pliers. The tools for this job include: careful planning, accurate measurement data (as-built drawings), complete technical data of systems to be interfaced, sufficient time and attention of key personnel for training on how to operate and program the robot, on-site access during installation, and a thorough understanding and appreciation - by all concerned - of the mobile robotic system's role in the security mission at the site, as well as the machine's capabilities and limitations. Patience, luck, and a sense of humor are also useful tools to keep handy during a mobile robotic system installation. This paper will discuss some specific examples of problems in each of three categories, and explore approaches to solving these problems. The discussion will draw from the author's experience with on-site installations of mobile robotic systems in various applications. Most of the information discussed in this paper has come directly from knowledge learned during installations of Cybermotion's SR2 security robots. A large part of the discussion will apply to any vehicle with a drive system, collision avoidance, and navigation sensors, which is, of course, what makes a vehicle autonomous. And it is with these sensors and a drive system that the installer must become familiar in order to foresee potential trouble areas in the

  2. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  3. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  4. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  5. Economic and financial analysis of hybrid solar-wind power generation system installed in a isolated community in Jalapao-Tocantins, Brazil; Analise economica-financeira do sistema de geracao de energia eletrica hibrido solar-eolico instalado em uma comunidade isolada no Jalapao-TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.F.; Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: zukowski@uft.edu.br, olavo@ulbra-to.br, silvestre@ulbra-to.br

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar wind system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao - TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the communities workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  6. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  7. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    matrices are constructed based on the convex combinations of the generalized gramians. However this framework is less conservative than the first one, it does not guarantee the stability for all switching signals. The stability preservation is studied for this reduction technique. The third framework......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  8. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  9. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    As initially suggested by E. Sontag, it is possible to approximate an arbitrary nonlinear system by a set of piecewise linear systems. In this work we concentrate on how to control a system given by a set of piecewise linear systems defined on simplices. By using the results of L. Habets and J. v...

  10. Power supply regulation systems installed in the Fermilab accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, S.; Wolff, D.; Pfeffer, H.

    1991-11-01

    A variety of current and voltage regulation systems have been installed in the Fermilab large magnet system. The four major systems employ different methods to achieve the desired degree of regulation. The methods include computer control and feedback, adaptive learning, precision (10ppm) current monitoring, and the use of feed-forward signals. This paper will explain each method used and present the measured regulation of the above systems. Also an overview of planned upgrades and improvements will be presented.

  11. City of Penticton to install adaptive streetlight system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The City of Penticton in British Columbia will be among the first to install an adaptive street lighting system that will help the municipality reduce its environmental impact, enhance street lighting and reduce maintenance costs. Municipalities in Canada typically spend nearly one third of their energy budget on street lighting. Intelligent streetlight management systems can reduce that amount by up to 50 per cent while promoting a more sustainable community by reducing power consumption and greenhouse gas emission. The city-owned and operated electric utility in Penticton will install the Lumen IQ{sup TM} Streetlight Optimization System. Lamp controllers using wireless technology will be installed into the lamp heads to monitor and control individual streetlights via the Internet. A station communication hub centrally controls all of the lights, which can be turned on or off, or dimmed when needed to reduce light pollution and minimize energy wastage. This also extends the service life of the bulb by 20 per cent. The new lighting system will initially be implemented as a pilot project but could result in tens of thousands of dollars in savings to the city. The city is eligible for a rebate incentive under the FortisBC Power Sense Program. The payback period is estimated to be 4 or 5 years. Cities in British Columbia which have already installed the new street lighting system have netted energy savings of 40 per cent without any detectable changes in lighting quality.

  12. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. PV Systems Installed in Marine Vessels: Technologies and Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kobougias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerations are held about the specificationin whichthe PV plants have to fulfill so that they can be installed on marine vessels. Initially, a brief description of the typical electrical grid of ships is presented, distinguishing the main parts, reporting the typical electrical magnitudes, and choosing the most preferable installation areas. The technical specifications,in whichthe PV plants have to be compatible with, are fully described. They are determined by the special marine environmental conditions, taking into consideration parameters like wind, humidity, shading, corrosion, and limited installation area. The work is carried out with the presentation of the most popular trends in the field of solar cell types and PV system technologies and their ability to keep up with the aforementioned specifications.

  14. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Installation Guide for FEMIS Version 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Robert A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Carter, Richard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Downing, Timothy R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dunkle, Julie R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Homer, Brian J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Daniel M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Ranata L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Sharon M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Loveall, Robert M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ramos Jr., Juan (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wood, Blanche M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool. The FEMIS Installation Guide provides instructions for installing and configuring the FEMIS software package.

  15. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  17. Safe Neighborhood Computation for Hybrid System Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the design and implementation of engineering systems, performing model-based analysis can disclose potential safety issues at an early stage. The analysis of hybrid system models is in general difficult due to the intrinsic complexity of hybrid dynamics. In this paper, a simulation-based approach to formal verification of hybrid systems is presented.

  18. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians...

  19. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  20. General fuel cell hybrid synergies and hybrid system testing status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Wolfgang; Nehter, Pedro; Williams, Mark C.; Tucker, David; Gemmen, Randy

    FCT hybrid power systems offer the highest efficiency and the cleanest emissions of all fossil fuelled power. The engineering for the highest possible efficiency at lowest cost and weight depends on general system architecture issues and the performance of the components. Presented in this paper are system studies which provide direction for the most efficient path toward achieving the most beneficial result for this technology. Ultimately, fuel cell-turbine (FCT) hybrid systems applicable to integrated gasification combined cycle power systems will form the basis for reaching the goals for advanced coal-based power generation. The FCT hybrid power island will also be important for the FutureGen plant and will provide new options for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as well as power and hydrogen generation. The system studies presented in this paper provide insight to current technology 'benchmarks' versus expected benefits from hybrid applications. Discussion is also presented on the effects of different balance of plant arrangements and approaches. Finally, we discuss the status of US DOE is sponsored projects that are looking to help understand the unique requirements for these systems. One of these projects, Hyper, will provide information on FCT dynamics and will help identify technical needs and opportunities for cycle advancement. The methods studied show promise for effective control of a hybrid system without the direct intervention of isolation valves or check valves in the main pressure loop of the system, which introduce substantial pressure losses, allowing for realization of the full potential efficiency of the hybrid system.

  1. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  2. Lifecycle performance. Special issue on management and maintenance, hybrid ventilation concepts, installation-low buildings; Lifecycle performance. Themanummer over beheer en onderhoud, hybride ventilatieconcepten, installatie-arme gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierauf, I. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.; Leijten, J.L. [Sectie Climate Design and Sustainability, Afdeling Architectural Engineering and Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Juricic, S. [Ecole National des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, Lyon (France); Jacobs, P. [Afdeling Energy and Comfort Systems, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, H. [LBP Sight, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Van Loon, P.P.M. [Stichting Scholen van Morgen, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoek, H.C.; Van Eeden, H.; Nibbelink, J. [Collectief C-on, Haarlem (Netherlands); Veerman, J.; Maassen, W.H. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Derksen, A.H.P. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Morren, K. [Universiteit Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    In 9 articles various aspects regarding the title topic are discussed: energy efficiency and user comfort, ventilation in new houses with balanced ventilation, the revised assessment for ventilation performance, air quality in school buildings, buildings with only a few installations, hybrid ventilation, the management and maintenance process, and future performance requirements [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. het titelonderwerp: energie-efficientie en gebruikerscomfort, ventilatie in nieuwbouwwoningen met balansventilatie, de herziene beoordelingsrichtlijn ventilatie prestatie, luchtkwaliteit in schoolgebouwen, installatie-arme gebouwen, hybride ventilatie, het beheer- en onderhoudsproces, en de toekomstige prestatie-eisen.

  3. Development and installation of Picostrain sensors in structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Joseph C.; Latta, Bernard M.; Ross, Jimmy D.

    2004-07-01

    The concept of the Picostrain sensor technology is based on a standard, commercially available, electrical cable assembly embedded in pavement or structural members. The concept has been developed through the 1990s and patented by the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in 2003. The objective of this new technology is to build an inexpensive, easily installed and maintained sensor system for the purposes of vehicle classification (VC), vehicle identification (VI), weigh-in-motion (WIM), and vehicle tracking (VT) applications along with real-time monitoring and evaluation of structural performance under static and dynamic traffic loading. It is intended, in the future, that these sensors will be further developed to replace curently utilized expensive embedded pavement and structural sensors for ultimate improvement of transportation decision-making and planning. This will also help to document the movement of people and goods along with the evironmental, social, economic and financial parameters with an emphasis on tracking movements in social life for security based upon the use of this durable and reliable transducers. Approximately, 400 sensors have been installed on and in the reinforced concrete structural members of the West Park Center River Crossing Bridge (Bridge) and the Micron Engineering Center (MEC) building (Building) at Boise State University (BSU) in Boise, Idaho, USA, since 1998. These sensors were installed: in bridge pile caps, piers, girders and decks; bridge abutment embankments; building footings, columns, beams, floor slabs; and, have been linked to instrument cabinets on site. These sensors installed structures may now be called "smart" structures since they contain a resident sensing system capable of maintaining a constant watch over the integrity of the structure. These sensing systems will be able to evaluate the applied loads, as well as the static and dynamic response of the structure. This paper introduces and describes the new

  4. IMIS: Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report describes a feasibility study on the Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore wind turbines. The aspects covered are (1) Background and why the study is required; (2) Aims and objectives of the project; (3) Summary of methods adopted; (4) Design criteria according to the area for deployment; (5) Conclusions and recommendations. The ultimate goal will be to install and secure the wind turbine in position using an integrated approach to avoid using lifting vessels. To date, an initial feasibility study has been carried out where four different concepts were considered. The next phase of the project will be to address a number of possible risks and constraints before the chosen concept can be demonstrated to be viable. The work is being carried out by Setech Ltd, Armstrong Technology Associates Ltd and Smith Rea Energy Ltd for the DTI.

  5. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  6. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  7. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  8. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  9. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  10. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  11. Emergent hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, E; Boccaletti, Stefano; Dana, S K

    2015-02-01

    We evidence an interesting kind of hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems where complete synchronization is restricted to only a subset of variables of two systems while other subset of variables may be in a phase synchronized state or desynchronized. Such hybrid synchronization is a generic emergent feature of coupled systems when a controller based coupling, designed by the Lyapunov function stability, is first engineered to induce complete synchronization in the identical case, and then a large parameter mismatch is introduced. We distinguish between two different hybrid synchronization regimes that emerge with parameter perturbation. The first, called hard hybrid synchronization, occurs when the coupled systems display global phase synchronization, while the second, called soft hybrid synchronization, corresponds to a situation where, instead, the global synchronization feature no longer exists. We verify the existence of both classes of hybrid synchronization in numerical examples of the Rössler system, a Lorenz-like system, and also in electronic experiment.

  12. Wiring systems and fault finding for installation electricians

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with an area of practice that many students and non-electricians find particularly challenging. It explains how to interpret circuit diagrams, wiring systems, and outlines the principles of testing before explaining how to apply this knowledge to fault finding in electrical circuits. A handy pocket guide for anybody that needs to be able to trace faults in circuits, whether in domestic, commercial or industrial settings, this book will be extremely useful to electricians, plumbers, heating engineers and intruder alarm installers.

  13. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  14. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  15. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  16. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  17. Optimal parameters for electric-power installation components of Hybrid car

    OpenAIRE

    Bashinov, A.; Panikarsky, A.; Boshenov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A conception for low-cost reconstruction of cars using hybrid drive was developed. Integrations of internal-combustion engine with electric motor fed from lead-acid storage battery and supercapacitor is the aim of the reconstruction. Such a way for modernization allows fast provide the output of hybrid cars in Ukraine in the framework of the program of energy storage technologies.

  18. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...

  19. Generating series for bilinear hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Petreczky (Mihaly); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we introduce the novel concept of a hybrid generating series and show that continuous state and output trajectories of bilinear hybrid systems can be described in terms of these series. The results represent an extension of the Fliess-series expansion for bilinear systems

  20. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA).

  1. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we

  2. Solar, Install, Mount, Production, Labor, Equipment Balance of Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Al-Haddad, Tristan [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Valdes, Francisco [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caravati, Kevin [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodman, Joseph [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The GTRI led project team in partnership with the DOE, universities, and numerous industry leaders, have advanced the mission of the DOE EERE, the Solar Energy Technologies Program, and the SunShot Initiative by accelerating the research, development, and demonstration of solar PV technologies that provide Extreme Balance of Systems Cost Reductions (BOS-X). The research produced 132 design concepts, resulting in 19 invention disclosures, five patent applications, four 90% pre-commercial designs, and three licensed technologies. Technology practice rights were obtained by an industry partner, and a new solar commercial start-up company was launched in Atlanta as a result of this project. Innovations in residential, commercial, and utility scale balance of systems technologies were realized through an unprecedented multi-disciplinary university/industry partnership with over 50 students and 24 faculty members that produced 18 technical publications, a PhD thesis, and two commercially deployed operating prototypes. The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the multidisciplinary systems based approach executed by the project team was realized through 1) a comprehensive evaluation of industry, regulatory, and public stakeholder requirements; 2) numerous industry/student/faculty engagements in design studios, technical conferences, and at solar PV installation sites; 3) time and motion studies with domain experts that provided technical data and costs for each phase and component of the solar PV installation processes; 4) extensive wind tunnel and systems engineering modeling; and 5) design, construction, and demonstration of the selected technologies in the field at high profile sites in Atlanta. The SIMPLE BOS project has benefitted the public in the following ways: • Workforce development: The launch of a start-up company to commercialize the DOE funded SIMPLE BoS designs has directly created 9 new jobs in the State of Georgia. As of November 2014, the

  3. Rydberg Atom Quantum Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Kumar, Santosh; Bigelow, Nicholas P.; Shaffer, James P.

    2017-04-01

    We report on our recent experimental and theoretical work with Rydberg atom-cavity and Rydberg atom-surface hybrid quantum systems. In the atom-cavity system, Rb contained in a dipole trap is transported into a high-finesse optical cavity using a focus-tunable lens. Cavity assisted Rydberg EIT is observed in the cavity transmission and used to characterize the electric fields in the cavity. The electric fields are attributed to surface adsorbates adhering to the cavity mirrors. We also investigate the coupling of a Rydberg atom ensemble to surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) propagating on piezoelectric superlattices made from thin film ferroelectric materials. Strong coupling between the atomic and surface excitations can be achieved, due to the large Rydberg transition dipole moments and the local field enhancement of the SPhP modes. The system has many advantages for information transport since the atoms need only be placed at distances on the order of mms from the surface and the SPhPs do not couple to free space electro-magnetic fields. Experimental progress will be discussed, including the fabrication of submicron-period periodically poled Lithium Niobate using the direct e-beam writing technique. This work is supported by AFOSR.

  4. Installation of solar PV systems in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, M.P.T.P. [Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    1995-10-01

    The tropical country of Sri Lanka has hydroelectric power plants sufficient to provide electricity to only 40% of its 25,000 villages. The electric power needs of the average Sri Lankan rural communities are basic: three or four lights to illuminate their house and a power supply for their televisions. Solar radiation is abundant throughout the year. To take advantage of this resource, the Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services launched a Solar PV pilot demonstration project in the rural areas not served by the electric grid. The systems were being installed on an individual residence basis and funded by loans. Social and cultural problems which have arisen during the course of the project have slowed its implementation. This study identifies the problems and makes recommendations to resolve the current problems and avoid new ones.

  5. Leader completes installation of process water evaporation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-11-01

    The installation of a patent-pending evaporation system at a facility in northeast British Columbia was discussed. The system captures excess waste exhaust heat from natural gas-fired compressor engines and is used to evaporate process water. The disposal of process water is a major cost in the production of natural gas and is usually hauled and disposed at water disposal wells located off-site. The cost to truck and dispose of the water at the facility was estimated at between $30 to $40 per cubic metre. The evaporation system can evaporate 4 to 8 cubic metres of process water every 24 hours and has an estimated useful life of 20 years. The evaporator relies on heat that would otherwise be expelled directly into the atmosphere, and the systems are expected to provide substantial savings. A wide-ranging manufacturing and marketing strategy was expected to commence by the end of 2005. With rising energy prices, operators of facilities are seeking more efficient ways of managing energy needs. The system was created by Leader Energy Services Ltd., a company that provides essential field services for oil and gas well stimulation in Alberta.

  6. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...

  7. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  8. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  9. Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment that synergistically combines a forward osmosis system with a membrane distillation technology and is powered by waste heat.

  10. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, CT. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut. The information consists of description of system and components, operation and maintenance manual, as-built drawings and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The solar facility has 2,561 sq. ft. of liquid flat plate collectors and a 6000 gallon, stone lined, well-insulated storage tank. Freeze protection is provided by a 50 percent glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. From the storage tank, solar heated water is fed into the building's distributed heat pump loop via a modulating three-way valve. If the storage tank temperature drops below 80/sup 0/F, the building loop may be supplied from the existing electrical hot water boilers. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size, 25,000 sq. ft. of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system makes available for other users up to 150 KVA of existing electrical generating capacity.

  11. Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) field test installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.L.; Waymire, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuess, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The MIMS program is funded by the Department of Energy under the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The program objective is to develop cost effective, modular, multi-sensor monitoring systems. Both in-plant and ground based sensors are envisioned. It is also desirable to develop sensors/systems that can be fielded/deployed in a rapid fashion. A MIMS architecture was selected to allow modular integration of sensors and systems and is based on LonWorks technology, commercially developed by Echelon Corporation. The first MIMS fieldable hardware was demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field test, known within the DOE as the Item Tracking and Transparency (IT&I) demonstration, involved the collaboration and cooperation of five DOE laboratories (Sandia (SNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Pacific Northwest (PNL), Los Alamos (LANL), and Oak Ridge (ORNL)). The IT&T demonstration involved the monitoring of special nuclear material as it was transported around the facility utilizing sensors from the participating labs. The scenario was programmed to ignore normal activity in the facility until entry into the room where the material was stored. A second demonstration, which involved three separate scenarios, was conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The participants included representatives from SNL, LLNL, PNL, and INEL. DOE has selected INEL as the long term testbed for MIMS developed sensors, systems, and scenarios. This paper will describe the installation, intended purpose, and results of the field demonstrations at LLNL and INEL under the MIMS program.

  12. Hybrid drive systems. Meeting; Hybridantriebe. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The whole range of hybrid drive systems has been covered with contributions from the USA, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands and Germany. The VDI report 1459 contains the talks of this conference focusing on the following subjects: hybrid systems; simulation and practical results; components of the autarkic hybrid, dynamics, control and measuring technology of the autarkic hybrid; concepts and partial systems; overall system of the autarkic hybrid. The contributions have been made by the automobile industry and scientific universities. The company Toyota reports on experience with the hybrid drive system in the first series vehicle world-wide. Results of research projects as well as experience with customer related series solutions are presented. The VDI report addresses researchers and engineers in the fields of automobile and supporting industry as well as other branches that deal with the use of hybrid drive technologies. (orig.) [German] Mit Beitraegen aus den USA, Japan, Schweden, Schweiz, Niederlande und Deutschland wurde die ganze Bandbreite der Hybridantriebe angesprochen. Dazu enthaelt der VDI-Bericht 1459 die Vortraege dieser Veranstaltung mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: Hybridsysteme; Simulation und Praxisergebnisse; Komponenten des Autarken Hybrid; Dynamik, Regelung und Messtechnik des Autarken Hybrid; Konzepte und Teilsysteme; Gesamtsystem des Autarken Hybrid. Die Beitraege kamen aus der Automobilindustrie und den wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen. Unter anderem berichtet die Firma Toyota ueber die Erfahrungen mit dem Hybridantrieb in dem weltweit ersten Serienfahrzeug. Es werden sowohl die Ergebnisse der Forschungsprojekte als auch Erfahrungen mit kundennahen Serienloesungen praesentiert. Der VDI-Bericht wendet sich an Forscher und Entwickler der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie sowie anderer Branchen, die sich mit dem Einsatz von Hybrid-Antriebstechnologien befassen. (orig.)

  13. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  14. CPV hybrid system in ISFOC building, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Pablo; Alamillo, César; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Óscar; Martínez, María; Rubio, Francisca; Cadavid, Andros; Navarro, José; Hillenbrand, Sascha; Ballesteros-Sánchez, Isabel; Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2012-10-01

    PV Off-Grid systems have demonstrated to be a good solution for the electrification of remote areas [1]. A hybrid system is one kind of these systems. The principal characteristic is that it uses PV as the main generator and has a backup power supply, like a diesel generator, for instance, that is used when the CPV generation is not enough to meet demand. To study the use of CPV in these systems, ISFOC has installed a demonstration hybrid system at its headquarters. This hybrid system uses CPV technology as main generator and the utility grid as the backup generator. A group of batteries have been mounted as well to store the remaining energy from the CPV generator when nedeed. The energy flows are managed by a SMA system based on Sunny Island inverters and a Multicluster-Box (figure 1). The Load is the air-conditioning system of the building, as it has a consumption profile higher than the CPV generator and can be controlled by software [2]. The first results of this system, as well as the first chances of improvement, as the need of a bigger CPV generator and a better management of the energy stored in the batteries, are presented in this paper.

  15. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  16. In Pipe Robot with Hybrid Locomotion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miclauş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper covers aspects concerning in pipe robots and their components, such as hybrid locomotion systems and the adapting mechanisms used. The second part describes the inspection robot that was developed, which combines tracked and wheeled locomotion (hybrid locomotion. The end of the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed robot.

  17. Complex Dynamical Behavior in Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-29

    C24. L. Marconi, A.R. Teel, ``A note about hybrid linear regulation,’’ 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp.1540-1545, Dec. 2010. C25 ...followed that with new results that combine singular perturbation and averaging results for hybrid systems [J3, C7, C10, C11, C25 , BC1]. All of the new

  18. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  19. CCS on Offshore Oil and Gas Installation - Design of Post Combustion Capture System and Steam Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars O.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Chikukwa, Actor; Mejdell, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Most of the released CO2 on offshore oil and gas installation originates from the gas turbines that power the installations. For certain offshore installations, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) could be an alternative to decrease the CO2 emissions. When opting for a chemical absorption CO2 capture system, a heat source for the stripper reboiler is needed. Since most offshore installations are powered by simple cycle GTs, there is typically no steam available that could be used for stripper reboi...

  20. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point......-wise discretisation. Moreover, being based on arbitrary abstractions computed by tools for the analysis of non-probabilistic hybrid systems, improvements in effectivity of such tools directly carry over to improvements in effectivity of the technique we describe. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach...

  1. Installation and operation of a large scale RAPS system in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    In 1997, International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc. (ILZRO), Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Peru signed a Memorandum of Understanding to facilitate the installation of hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) systems in the Amazon region of Peru. Many remote villages in this vast region have either no or limited electricity supplied by diesel generators running a few hours per day. Subsequently, ILZRO sponsored the engineering design of the hybrid RAPS system and SEIA supported a socio-economic study to determine the sustainability of such systems and the locations for pilot installations. In mid-1998, the Peruvian government approved the design of the system. ILZRO then began efforts to obtain governmental and inter-governmental funding to supplement its own funds to underwrite the cost of manufacture and installation of the systems in two villages in the Amazon region. Additional major funding has been received from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) administered by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). Funds have also been received from the US Department of Energy, the International Greenhouse Partnership (Australia) and the Peruvian government. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kW h per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA GEL batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an ac/dc inverter. The batteries and electrical components are housed in modified shipping containers. The modules can be installed with a new generator or retrofitted to an existing generator. The charging and discharging regime of the batteries has been recommended by a study carried out by CSIRO, which has simulated the RAPS operation. The system will employ a partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) regime in order to optimize the life of the

  2. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  3. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  4. Design and Installation of Nearshore Ocean Cable Protection Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if nec.) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Design. Cable installation retrieval & repair...Cable protection 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary & identify by block number) The U.S. Navy currentlyhas a requirment to install and...2-26 Data Requirements .. ....... ....... .. 2-26 Reporting .. .. ........ ....... .... 2-26 2.4.2 Logistcs

  5. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  6. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  7. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  8. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  9. Robotic digital subtraction angiography systems within the hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Irie, Koreaki; Saguchi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Ebara, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Isoshima, Akira; Arakawa, Hideki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hiroki; Joki, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Masataka; Tani, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Satoshi; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-05-01

    Fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within the operating room (OR) environment has emerged as a new trend in the fields of neurosurgery and vascular surgery. To describe initial clinical experience with a robotic DSA system in the hybrid OR. A newly designed robotic DSA system (Artis zeego; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) was installed in the hybrid OR. The system consists of a multiaxis robotic C arm and surgical OR table. In addition to conventional neuroendovascular procedures, the system was used as an intraoperative imaging tool for various neurosurgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and spine instrumentation. Five hundred one neurosurgical procedures were successfully conducted in the hybrid OR with the robotic DSA. During surgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and arteriovenous fistula treatment, intraoperative 2-/3-dimensional angiography and C-arm-based computed tomographic images (DynaCT) were easily performed without moving the OR table. Newly developed virtual navigation software (syngo iGuide; Siemens AG) can be used in frameless navigation and in access to deep-seated intracranial lesions or needle placement. This newly developed robotic DSA system provides safe and precise treatment in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

  10. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  11. System design package for solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This package contains information used to evaluate the design of Solaron's solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling and back-up heating (when solar energy is not available). Included in the package are such items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A Solaron solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  12. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  13. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a... crew to increase thrust or power. I25.2Definitions. (a) Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust...

  14. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  15. Estimating Availability for Systems with Redundancy, Spares and Installation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    equations for general resupply distribution and are [7] k X.ik i-i Pk = Pi-l Pi~j c+s k XPo =i i-i k=o i=l Pi X= (X) [c-max (o,i-s)] i 8. General...installation LDT - mean logistic down time (time to get a component) MTBF - mean time between failure r - l/MTTI f - l/MTBF Case 1: Installation time...DRCPS-P, ATTN: Ms. Lamb 1 DRCMM-RS 1 DRCMM-MS 1 DRCRE I DRCQA I Commandant, US Army Logistics Mgt Center, Ft. Lee, VA 23801 1 Office, Asst Sec’y of

  16. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available . The slope surface generally face south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere. Sometimes panels are installed on adjustable tracking devices. Solar angle calculations are also needed in those cases. The site longitude is used....................................................................................................... 18 2.6 Solar Resource Characterization ......................................................................... 20 2.7 Energy dispatch strategy ..................................................................................... 23 2.8 System...

  18. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this feature can be used for achieving fast communication. It is obvious that the complete ... hances security in communication and chaotic encryptation schemes. It is believed that the chaotic systems with ... For the hybrid synchronization, we define the state errors between the response system that is to be controlled and the ...

  19. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  20. Design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing costs and pollutant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Rivas-Ascaso, David M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we expound, for the first time, the application of the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm to the Multi-Objective design of isolated hybrid systems. The design is posed as an optimisation problem whose solution allows obtaining the configuration of the system as well as the control strategy that simultaneously minimises both the total cost through the useful life of the installation and the pollutant emissions. As an example, we have designed a PV-wind-diesel system for two different load profiles, obtaining a set of possible solutions from which the designer can choose those which he prefers considering the costs and pollutant emissions of each one of them. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the design method used. (author)

  1. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  2. Installation and preliminary evaluation of six photovoltaic stand-alone area lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Troy; McNutt, Peter

    1994-06-01

    Six commercially available, stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) area lighting systems were installed at NREL for independent evaluation. This paper describes the systems, the testing that is being conducted, the experiences of installing the systems, and preliminary data. Forthcoming reports will cover the systems' performance in depth at the completion of the test period. Preliminary results indicate that all but one system achieved lamp operation from dusk to dawn during the month of September, 1993.

  3. Analysis of a New Dissipation System for a Solar Cooling Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monné Bailo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a solar absorption cooling installation located at the University of Zaragoza (Spain. The installation is based on the performance of an absorption chiller. The solar cooling system consists of 37,5 m2 of flat plate collector, a 4.5 kW, single-effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, and a dry cooling tower. The installation provides cooling to a gymnasium belonging to the sports center of the university. To carry out the installation analysis, the system was continuously monitored. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, several studies have been performed in order to analyze the full system operation. The measured data showed the strong influence of the cooling water temperature and the generator driving temperature on the COP. Due to the experimental evidence of the influence of the cooling water temperature, a new heat rejection system based on a geothermal heat sink has been installed and studied.

  4. Controlled unknown quantum operations on hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Luo, Ming-Xing

    2016-12-01

    Any unknown unitary operations conditioned on a control system can be deterministically performed if ancillary subspaces are available for the target systems [Zhou X Q, et al. 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 413]. In this paper, we show that previous optical schemes may be extended to general hybrid systems if unknown operations are provided by optical instruments. Moreover, a probabilistic scheme is proposed when the unknown operation may be performed on the subspaces of ancillary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, the unknown operations conditioned on the multi-control system may be reduced to the case with a control system using additional linear circuit complexity. The new schemes may be more flexible for different systems or hybrid systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303039 and 61201253), Chunying Fellowship, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2682014CX095).

  5. Analysis of a Hybrid Solar-Assisted Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Marrasso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solar-assisted trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is composed of a 20 m2 solar field of evacuated tube collectors, a natural gas fired micro combined heat and power system delivering 12.5 kW of thermal power, an absorption heat pump (AHP with a nominal cooling power of 17.6 kW, two storage tanks (hot and cold and an electric auxiliary heater (AH. The plant satisfies the energy demand of an office building located in Naples (Southern Italy. The electric energy of the cogenerator is used to meet the load and auxiliaries electric demand; the interactions with the grid are considered in cases of excess or over requests. This hybrid solution is interesting for buildings located in cities or historical centers with limited usable roof surface to install a conventional solar heating and cooling (SHC system able to achieve high solar fraction (SF. The results of dynamic simulation show that a tilt angle of 30° maximizes the SF of the system on annual basis achieving about 53.5%. The influence on the performance of proposed system of the hot water storage tank (HST characteristics (volume, insulation is also studied. It is highlighted that the SF improves when better insulated and bigger HSTs are considered. A maximum SF of about 58.2% is obtained with a 2000 L storage, whereas the lower thermal losses take place with a better insulated 1000 L tank.

  6. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  7. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  8. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  9. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. The ATLAS Software Installation System v2: a highly available system to install and validate Grid and Cloud sites via Panda

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salvo, A.; Kataoka, M.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Smirnov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Installation System v2 is the evolution of the original system, used since 2003. The original tool has been completely re-designed in terms of database backend and components, adding support for submission to multiple backends, including the original Workload Management Service (WMS) and the new PanDA modules. The database engine has been changed from plain MySQL to Galera/Percona and the table structure has been optimized to allow a full High-Availability (HA) solution over Wide Area Network. The servlets, running on each frontend, have been also decoupled from local settings, to allow an easy scalability of the system, including the possibility of an HA system with multiple sites. The clients can also be run in multiple copies and in different geographical locations, and take care of sending the installation and validation jobs to the target Grid or Cloud sites. Moreover, the Installation Database is used as source of parameters by the automatic agents running in CVMFS, in order to install the software and distribute it to the sites. The system is in production for ATLAS since 2013, having as main sites in HA the INFN Roma Tier 2 and the CERN Agile Infrastructure. The Light Job Submission Framework for Installation (LJSFi) v2 engine is directly interfacing with PanDA for the Job Management, the Atlas Grid Information System (AGIS) for the site parameter configurations, and CVMFS for both core components and the installation of the software itself. LJSFi2 is also able to use other plugins, and is essentially Virtual Organization (VO) agnostic, so can be directly used and extended to cope with the requirements of any Grid or Cloud enabled VO. In this work we will present the architecture, performance, status and possible evolutions to the system for the LHC Run2 and beyond.

  11. Analysis of energy decentralized generation viability through a Diesel-photovoltaic hybrid system; Analise de viabilidade de geracao descentralizada de energia atraves de um sistema hibrido diesel-fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Raphael Lopes; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com, e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the installation viability of Diesel-photovoltaic hybrid system connected to the network for supplying of part of electric power demand of a residence. The different configurations were analysed using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER). The program allows the evaluation of performance and to compare the installation, operation and maintenance costs of isolated systems with the network extension of various configuration of decentralized hybrid generation system.

  12. A brief description of Polanco`s hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Ventura [Instituto de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995, a hybrid system wind - PV is in service in Polanco, Uruguay. A brief description of this system and the criteria employed in its design are outlined. The experience obtained during two years operation are described from the points of view of the equipment reliability and of the electrical service provided. Future prospects of this kind of installations in Uruguay as part of the rural electrification policy are presented. [Espanol] Desde 1995 esta en servicio en Polanco, Uruguay un sistema hibrido viento-fotovoltaico. Aqui se describe brevemente este sistema y el criterio empleado en su diseno. Se describe la experiencia obtenida durante dos anos de operacion desde el punto de vista de confiabilidad de los equipos y del servicio electrico proporcionado. Se presentan prospectos futuros de esta clase de instalaciones en Uruguay, como parte de la politica de electrificacion rural.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  14. HYBRID COOLING SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. A hybrid cooling System was constructed and tested for glass-ware and plastic-ware production. The unit utilizes water-in-air stream to cool molds in glass and plastic forming processes. The rate of heat transfer between the mold surface and the two component two-phase stream was.

  15. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  16. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  17. Hybrid vehicles system studies and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schmal, Dick [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Inst. (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In the design of hybrid vehicles, several factors must be taken into account. Amongst others, accurate analysis of the proposed driving cycle and the state of charge of the battery systems can allow for full optimisation of the proposed design, which can be fully validated by effective simulation programs. (Author)

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coy, R. G.; Braden, R. P.

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System installed at Columbus Technical Institute, Columbus, Ohio was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system, hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building. Extracts from the site files specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  20. A new fire alarm system for electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietersen, A H

    1978-01-01

    Fires in electrical installations are considered to develop in four phases - initiation, smouldering, flame formation and heat development. Cables are among the more sensitive components, with working temperatures around 50 degrees C and fire detection at 70 degrees C. Conventional alarms include smoke detectors. The new technique described uses microcapsules containing powder forming a gas of the Freon type after diffusion. A typical microcapsule loses 4% per year and has a natural life of 10 years. Fabrication methods are described. Detection is by gas concentration, with a sensitivity of 1 to 10 ppm, or by acoustic methods with microphones to pick up the sound of fractures. Pressure/temperature characteristics of various types of Freon mixtures commercially available are given in graphical form.

  1. The ATLAS Software Installation System v2: a highly available system to install and validate Grid and Cloud sites via Panda

    CERN Document Server

    De Salvo, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Sanchez, Arturo; Smirnov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Installation System v2 is the evolution of the original system, used since 2003. The original tool has been completely re-designed in terms of database backend and components, adding support for submission to multiple backends, including the original WMS and the new Panda modules. The database engine has been changed from plain MySQL to Galera/Percona and the table structure has been optimized to allow a full High-Availability (HA) solution over WAN. The servlets, running on each frontend, have been also decoupled from local settings, to allow an easy scalability of the system, including the possibility of an HA system with multiple sites. The clients can also be run in multiple copies and in different geographical locations, and take care of sending the installation and validation jobs to the target Grid or Cloud sites. Moreover, the Installation DB is used as source of parameters by the automatic agents running in CVMFS, in order to install the software and distribute it to the sites. The system i...

  2. Hybrid quantum systems with trapped charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J.

    2017-02-01

    Trapped charged particles have been at the forefront of quantum information processing (QIP) for a few decades now, with deterministic two-qubit logic gates reaching record fidelities of 99.9 % and single-qubit operations of much higher fidelity. In a hybrid system involving trapped charges, quantum degrees of freedom of macroscopic objects such as bulk acoustic resonators, superconducting circuits, or nanomechanical membranes, couple to the trapped charges and ideally inherit the coherent properties of the charges. The hybrid system therefore implements a "quantum transducer," where the quantum reality (i.e., superpositions and entanglement) of small objects is extended to include the larger object. Although a hybrid quantum system with trapped charges could be valuable both for fundamental research and for QIP applications, no such system exists today. Here we study theoretically the possibilities of coupling the quantum-mechanical motion of a trapped charged particle (e.g., an ion or electron) to the quantum degrees of freedom of superconducting devices, nanomechanical resonators, and quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators. For each case, we estimate the coupling rate between the charged particle and its macroscopic counterpart and compare it to the decoherence rate, i.e., the rate at which quantum superposition decays. A hybrid system can only be considered quantum if the coupling rate significantly exceeds all decoherence rates. Our approach is to examine specific examples by using parameters that are experimentally attainable in the foreseeable future. We conclude that hybrid quantum systems involving a single atomic ion are unfavorable compared with the use of a single electron because the coupling rates between the ion and its counterpart are slower than the expected decoherence rates. A system based on trapped electrons, on the other hand, might have coupling rates that significantly exceed decoherence rates. Moreover, it might have appealing properties such

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  4. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  5. Hybrid Intelligent Systems in Manufacturing Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gelgele, Hirpa Lemu

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of the work reported in this thesis has been to study and develop methodologies that can improve the communication gap between design and manufacturing systems. The emphasis has been on searching for the possible means of modeling and optimizing processes in an integrated design and manufacturing system environment using the combined capabilities (hybrids) of computational intelligence tools particularly that of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. Within...

  6. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...

  7. Installation of a Wastewater SCADA Monitoring System at Fort Bragg, NC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullaney, Joe

    2004-01-01

    .... The Wastewater SCADA Monitoring System was installed to monitor 26 remote sites. A detailed radio study of the area verified the feasibility of using radio equipment to transfer data from these sites...

  8. Fuzzy logic and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.H.; Dunn, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    The real world is complex, complexity in the world generally arises from uncertainty in the form of ambiguity. Electric power systems are large, complex, geographically widely distributed systems and influenced by unexpected events. These facts make it difficult to effectively deal with many power system problems through strict mathematical approaches. Therefore, intelligent techniques such as expert systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic have emerged in recent years in power systems as a complement to mathematical approaches and have proved to be effective when properly coupled. As the real world power system problems may neither fit the assumptions of a single technique nor be effectively solved by the strengths and capabilities of a single technique, it is now becoming apparent that the integration of various intelligent techniques is a very important way forward in the next generation of intelligent systems. Traditional logic uses variables that have precise values, called ``crisp`` values. Fuzzy logic, on the other hand, attempts to model the impreciseness of human reasoning by representing uncertainty for the variables that are used by assignment of a ``set`` of values to the variable. Each value has a ``degree of membership`` of the set which represents the probability of the variable having that value. A ``membership function`` identifies the degree of membership over the range of possible values, known as the ``universe of discourse``. This function can be defined to represent an adjective, known as a ``linguistic value`` or ``fuzzy set``, which describes the set of values. It is this ability to handle common linguistic terminology that allows fuzzy logic to model qualitative reasoning and to be used in knowledge representation. (Author)

  9. A novel hybrid seed system for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gils, Mario; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Werner, Stefan; Grützner, Ramona; Giritch, Anatoli; Engler, Carola; Schachschneider, Ralf; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2008-04-01

    A two-component hybrid seed system has been developed that is broadly applicable and provides for effective generation and maintenance of the male-sterile parent, hybrid seed production and full restoration of fertility in the hybrid seed. The technology is based on the functional interaction of two loci that are inserted in the same position on two homologous chromosomes, and thus are 'linked in repulsion', and that jointly code for male sterility and herbicide resistance, both traits being expressed in heterozygous plants only. The localization to the same locus on a chromosome is achieved by the genetic transformation of plants with a construct containing both genetic elements (loci), and subsequent derivatization from the primary pro-locus of the two precursor lines using site-specific deletions. The functional interaction of the two loci is achieved through intein-based trans-splicing of two pairs of complementary protein fragments that provide for male sterility and herbicide resistance. Unlike the hybrid seed systems that are currently in use, the technology relies on the genetic modification of just one parent, and is therefore much simpler to develop and use. Arabidopsis has been used for the proof of principle presented here, but the essential elements of the technology are generic and have been shown to work in many crop species.

  10. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  11. Caregivers’ Use of Child Passenger Safety Resources and Quality of Future Child Restraint System Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Mirman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child Restraint System (CRS misuse is common. We characterized caregivers’ use of child passenger safety informational and instructional resources and determined whether there were differences in the quality of CRS installations associated with prior exposure to specific resources as evaluated in a standardized CRS installation environment. Methods: Caregivers completed self-report surveys and installed a forward-facing CRS in a controlled environment. Installations were evaluated for security (tightness and accuracy (no errors by a child passenger safety technician (CPST. Results: CRS manuals were the most common way caregivers learned to install a CRS. Primary care providers (PCPs were the most frequently endorsed source of CRS safety information. There was no strong pattern of associations between prior exposure to resources and installation quality (security or accuracy, although some evidence supports protective effects of learning from CPSTs; 13% (19 out of 151 installations were secure and 57% (86 out of 151 installations were accurate. Conclusions: A focus on developing effective and lasting behavioral interventions is needed.

  12. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  13. Deductive Systems and the Decidability Problem for Hybrid Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Zawidzki, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The book stands at the intersection of two topics: the decidability and computational complexity of hybrid logics, and the deductive systems designed for them. Hybrid logics are divided into two groups: standard hybrid logics involving nominals as expressions of a separate sort, and non-standard hybrid logics, which do not involve nominals but whose expressive power matches the expressive power of binder-free standard hybrid logics. The original results of the book are split into two part...

  14. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  15. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Succeeding in the grafting of a cogeneration system to an old space heating installation; Reussir la greffe d'une cogeneration sur une installation ancienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, C.

    2003-05-01

    Substantial energy savings can be made in the tertiary sector thanks to the implementation of cogeneration systems. The 'grafting' of a cogeneration system to an existing space heating installation requires to take some precautions which are explained in this technical article using a real example. In particular, it shows why, despite some visible improvements, some installations can suffer from a lack of performance. (J.S.)

  17. Universal System for Creation and Installation Linux Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny, Chernov

    2010-01-01

    This paper discuss about the problem with distribution of software for Linux operation system. The problem is that Linux systems are different: different package formats, different names of packages for one program. It leads to creation of several packages for every Linux system for only one program you want to distribute. For resolving the problem mathematical model was developed. Based on the model database with information about dependences and packages of some Linux systems and web servic...

  18. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  19. Acceptance Testing of a Satellite SCADA Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, Alex; Acosta, R.; Durand, S.; Emrich, Carol; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Savannah State University (SSU) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) have been participating in the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program for the last five years. This program was designed by NASA to help maintain U.S. leadership in commercial space communications by funding high-risk research, and to flight-test next-generation digital satellite components. Launched in 1993, ACTS is an U.S. government funded technology test-bed that incorporates high power Ka-band transponders, small spot beams, and on-board digital storage and switching technology. Associated with the spacecraft, is a prototype satellite control center that supports various application experiments. The SSU/FSEC application experiment is to developing a Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid Power system complete with satellite Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). The hybrid system was design to demonstrate the feasibility of using SCADA to maintain and operate remote village power systems. This configuration would enable experts at a central location to provide technical assistance to local technicians while they acquire a measure of proficiency with the hybrid system operation and maintenance. Upon full mastery of the technology, similar SCADA arrangement are planned to remotely monitor and control constellation of hybrid systems scattered overlarge rural areas. Two Orion Energy APEX-1000 hybrid systems were delivered in 1998, one was installed at SSU in eastern Georgia and the other was installed at FSEC in Central Florida. The project was designed to: (1) evaluate the performance of ACTS in a SCADA arrangement, (2) monitor the health and performance of all major hybrid subsystems, (3) investigate load control and battery charging strategies to maximize battery capacity and lifetime, and (4) develop satellite communication protocol. Preliminary results indicate that the hybrid design is suitable for satellite Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. A

  20. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  1. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for US Army Garrison, Japan - Honshu Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kora, Angela R.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-03-09

    This report documents an assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Installation Management Command (IMCOM) Pacific Region Office (PARO). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at five U.S. Army Garrison-Japan (USAG-J) installations in the Honshu area, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

  2. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  3. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  4. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  5. Compact Hybrid Laser Rod and Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, George E. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid fiber rod includes a fiber core and inner and outer cladding layers. The core is doped with an active element. The inner cladding layer surrounds the core, and has a refractive index substantially equal to that of the core. The outer cladding layer surrounds the inner cladding layer, and has a refractive index less than that of the core and inner cladding layer. The core length is about 30 to 2000 times the core diameter. A hybrid fiber rod laser system includes an oscillator laser, modulating device, the rod, and pump laser diode(s) energizing the rod from opposite ends. The rod acts as a waveguide for pump radiation but allows for free-space propagation of laser radiation. The rod may be used in a laser resonator. The core length is less than about twice the Rayleigh range. Degradation from single-mode to multi-mode beam propagation is thus avoided.

  6. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  7. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators, treaters, compressors...

  8. Installing a HDPE vertical containment and collection system in one pass utilizing a deep trencher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchino, W.M. [Groundwater Control Inc., Jacksonville, FL (United States); Burson, B. [Groundwater Control, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A unique method has been developed to install high density polyethylene (HDPE) vertical containment panels and a horizontal collection system for the containment and collection of contaminated groundwater. Unlike other means of creating this type of system, this barrier wall and collection system is installed in one step and in one narrow trench, utilizing a one-pass deep trencher. Originally HDPE vertical barriers were installed using conventional slurry trenching techniques. Use of this method raised questions of trench stability and disposal costs for the trench spoils. In addition, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells were required. In response to these concerns, a trenchless vibratory installation method was developed. Although this method addressed the concerns of trench stability and disposal costs, it raised a whole new set of concerns dealing with drivable soil conditions, buried debris and obstructions. Again, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells had to be installed. The latest development, the one-pass, deep trencher, has eliminated or significantly reduced the previously discussed construction concerns. The trencher methods reduce the amount of spoils generated because a trench width of 61 cm (24 inches) is constantly maintained by the machine. Additionally, soil classification and density are not as critical as with a vibratory installation. This is due to the trencher`s ability to trench in all but the hardest of materials (blow counts exceeding 35 blows/ft). Finally, the cost to add a collection system adjacent to the cutoff wall is substantially reduced and is limited only to the cost of the additional hydraulic fill and 4 inches HDPE collection piping. The trench itself is already constructed with the installation of the wall.

  9. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  10. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. 14 CFR 23.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions must be improbable. (3) Warning information must be provided to alert the crew to unsafe system... associated monitoring and warning means must be designed to minimize crew errors that could create additional... crew warning cues, corrective action required, and the crew's capability of determining faults. (c...

  13. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  14. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar-Hydrogen Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinsheng; Guan, Xuehua

    The system of solar thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid generation for hydrogen production is designed in this paper. The mathematical model of the hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is carried out. And the logic control system is designed. The current of the various sub-systems and the energy of the hydrogen storage tank are simulated and analyzed, this paper proves the solar hybrid system can be reliable and effective.

  15. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  16. An automatic system for controlling the quality of straws installed in the ATLAS TRT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Golunov, A O; Gousakov, Yu V; Kekelidze, G D; Livinski, V V; Mouraviev, S V; Parzycki, S S; Peshekhonov, V D; Price, M J; Savenkov, A A

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an automatic system to control the quality of straws installed in the wheels of the end-cap Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment. The system tests both the straightness and the electrical insulation of the straws during installation. The testing time per straw is 9s; consequently it takes about 2h to measure one layer of straws. The off-line analysis takes 20s per straw. With this system defects can be immediately detected and corrected. This clearly influences the future performance of the detector.

  17. Research on installation quality inspection system of high voltage customer metering device based on image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bei; Yang, Fu-li; Tao, Xue-dan; Chang, Shi-liang; Wu, Kang

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of the scale of the power grid, the site construction and the operations environment is more widespread and more complex. The installation work of the high-voltage customer metering device is heavy, which is not standardized. In addition, managers supervise the site construction progress only through the person in charge of each work phrase. It is inefficient and difficult to control the multi-team and multi-unit cross work. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a scientific system to detect the quality of installation and management practices to standardize installation work of the metering device. Based on the research of image recognition and target detection system, this paper presents a high-voltage customer metering device installation quality inspection system based on digital image processing, image feature extraction and SVM classification decision. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is feasible. And it can be used to accurately extract the metering components in the image, which can be also accurately and quickly classified. Our method is of great significance for the implementation and monitoring of the power system in installation and specification

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Comments On Clock Models In Hybrid Automata And Hybrid Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oltean, Virginia Ecaterina; Carstoiu, Dorin

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid systems have received a lot of attention in the past decade and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish mathematical framework that is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. This contribution is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid control systems with continuous-discrete interface and the importance of clock models is emphasized. Simple and relevant examples, some taken from the literature, accompany the presentation.

  20. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  1. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  2. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  3. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction...

  4. Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and Hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Linares, A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Granadilla de Abona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The EURO-SOLAR Programme is providing 600 isolated and rural communities in the 8 lesser developed countries in Latin America, with an electricity production facility based on both PV or Hybrid (PV and Wind) RE technologies. These installations are meant to provide this energy for community uses, rather than home and private usage, with these uses (computing, telecommunications, lighting, water purification, etc.) aimed to increase the degree of development within the communities. Two different companies were awarded the installation of these systems, after an international tender procedure, where ITER played a technical advisor role for the EC's DG EuropeAid. In the present phase of the project, where the systems are being installed, ITER has designed a provisional acceptance procedure (PA), in which both remote and in-situ verifications are carried out. This procedure has been developed in conjunction with a web application in order to ensure both transparency and traceability either of all actions and all actors involved in the process (Companies, ITER, Technical Assistance, EC, Communities). This application is also meant to act as a central repository where all the technical and administrative information of each one of the 600 systems could be found. This paper describes in detail this procedure, how it has been designed and what are the outcomes of all the processes aimed to guarantee the technical quality and the sustainability of the systems. (orig.)

  5. The Hybrid Media System : Politics and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Baviera Puig, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Reseña: El libro The Hybrid Media System ha sido recientemente galardonado con el 2016 International Journal of Press/Politics Book Award. Entre los motivos que justificaron la decisión del jurado, se señaló lo siguiente: ?Más y más investigadores insisten en que la investigación en comunicación política necesita innovación teórica para comprender adecuadamente un entorno cambiante de medios. Son pocos los que han intentado tales innovaciones. Andrew Chadwick es uno de ellos.? Esta apreciació...

  6. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  8. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  9. Statement of Work Electrical Energy Storage System Installation at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Sandia is seeking to procure a 1 MWh energy storage system. It will be installed at the existing Energy Storage Test Pad, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This energy storage system will be a daily operational system, but will also be used as a tool in our Research and development work. The system will be part of a showcase of Sandia distributed energy technologies viewed by many distinguished delegates.

  10. Flow Simulation of Modified Duct System Wind Turbines Installed on Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, N.; Mohd, S.; Zulkafli, M. F.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Shamsudin, S. S.; Muhammad, W. N. A. Wan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of airflow with a flow guide installed and output power generated by wind turbine system being installed on a pickup truck. The wind turbine models were modelled by using SolidWorks 2015 software. In order to investigate the characteristic of air flow inside the wind turbine system, a computer simulation (by using ANSYS Fluent software) is used. There were few models being designed and simulated, one without the rotor installed and another two with rotor installed in the wind turbine system. Three velocities being used for the simulation which are 16.7 m/s (60 km/h), 25 m/s (90 km/h) and 33.33 m/s (120 km/h). The study proved that the flow guide did give an impact to the output power produced by the wind turbine system. The predicted result from this study is the velocity of the air inside the ducting system of the present model is better that reference model. Besides, the flow guide implemented in the ducting system gives a big impact on the characteristics of the air flow.

  11. Effectiveness of Physical Barriers Installation for Prevention of Incidents in Mexico City’s Subway System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo de Jesús Portillo-Villasana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, suicides inside the installations of subway platforms are considered a public health problem in Mexico City. One solution to prevent them is the installation of physical barriers, but their high cost is unattractive for governmental authorities. Traditional approaches of research on the effectiveness of physical barriers for preventing suicides have been limited to analyzing statistically the effects of installing platform screen doors and blue lights on subway platforms. Although considerable progress has been made in this field, many important issues remain unexplored. This study investigates the effectiveness of physical barriers installation for prevention of incidents in Mexico City subway system by means of an agent-based simulation model. Firstly, the design of physical barriers for prevention of incidents in Mexico City subway system is described. Secondly, a conceptual model of the Zócalo station subway platform is presented. Thirdly, an agent-based simulation model of Zócalo station subway platform is implemented using AnyLogic™ software considering normal operations of the subway station. This study shows that physical barriers installation on the Zócalo subway platform can effectively prevent 76% of passenger’s suicides.

  12. Installing Omeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reeve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Omeka.net is a useful service for Omeka beginners, but there are a few reasons why you might want to install your own copy of Omeka. Reasons include: * Upgrades. By installing Omeka yourself, you can use the latest versions of Omeka as soon as they’re released, without having to wait for Omeka.net to upgrade their system. * Plugins and themes. You can install any plugin or theme you want, without being restricted to those provided by Omeka.net. * Customizations. You can buy a custom domain name, and customize your code to achieve your desired functionality. * Control. You have control over your own backups, and you can update the server yourself so that its security is always up-to-date. * Price. There are many low-cost Virtual Private Servers (VPSs now, some of which cost only $5 per month. * Storage. Many shared hosting providers now offer unlimited storage. This is useful if you have a large media library. In this tutorial, we’ll be entering a few commands on the command line. This tutorial assumes no prior knowledge of the command line, but if you want a concise primer, consult the Programming Historian introduction to BASH. There are other ways of installing Omeka, of course, some using exclusively GUI tools. Some hosting providers even offer “one-click installs” via their control panels. Many of those methods, however, will install older versions of Omeka which are then harder to upgrade and maintain. The method outlined below may not be the easiest way to install Omeka, but it will give you some good practice with using the command line, which is a skill that will be useful if you want to manually upgrade your install, or manually install other web frameworks. (For example, this installation method is very similar to WordPress’s “Five-Minute Install”. There are four steps to this process, and it should take about an hour.

  13. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  14. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    .e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems......Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, the physical process evolves continuously with respect to time, and the discrete controller monitors and controls the physical process in a correct way such that the whole system satisfies the given safety requirements. The safety of hybrid systems depends heavily on the control from the controllers. However...

  15. Installation and operation of the flue gas desulphurisation system for Maritsa East 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Takumi; Ohtsubo, Kiyohito; Inoue, Hiroo [IHI Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Environmental Preservation Engineering Group

    2011-07-01

    At the Maritsa East 2 power station which is the largest capacity coal-fired power plant in Bulgaria, the flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system for unit 1 to unit 4 has been installed and commissioned between 2009 and 2010. The contract for the FGD installation has been awarded on full turn-key basis between Maritsa East 2 TPP EAD and MITSUI and CO, LTD in October 2004. The SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 94%. The key data of the FGD plant will be presented in the paper. (orig.)

  16. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  17. Evaluation of a reverberation enhancement system installed in a small multi purpose hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1997-01-01

    After design and installation of a reverberation enhancement system in new 400 seat multi purpose hall in Vejle, Denmark. room acoustic measurements and listening tests were performed in order to reveal the objective and subjective performance and limits of such a powerful tool for altering ''roo...

  18. 40 CFR 264.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure controls (if applicable) are adequately designed and that the tank system has sufficient... moisture content; (B) Soil pH; (C) Soil sulfides level; (D) Soil resistivity; (E) Structure to soil... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design and installation of new tank...

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  20. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  1. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Company, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  2. System installation package for the new Hampshire Vocational Technical College, Manchester, N. H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Contemporary Systems, Incorporated of Jaffrey, New Hampshire, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32243 has taken its Series V Solar Heating System and developed it to a degree acceptable by local codes and regulatory agencies. The system is composed of the Series V warm air collector, the LCU-110 logic control unit and the USU-A universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and provides a dual function in the structure. This document describes the above system which has been installed in the residential solar laboratory located at the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College in Manchester, N.H. In addition, it provides general guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications, as well as instructions on operation and maintenance.

  3. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  4. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid 95: Software for the design of hybrid systems, Potrerillo of Santa Teresa; Hybrid 95: Software de diseno de sistemas hibridos, Potrerillo de Santa Teresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casaravilla, G.; Chaer, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the software Hybrid 95 and how it is used for the design of hybrid systems. As an application example some of the design stages are looked over (determination of the wind resource, simulations for sizing generation/storage and topology) of the Potrerillo installation. Taking into account the site clear ecological connotations, during the design consideration is made of the visual impact that represents the possible wind-generator, therefore several locations and wind-generator heights are studied, even arriving to the wind-generation elimination. [Espanol] Este trabajo describe el software Hybrid 95 y como se utiliza a los efectos del diseno de sistemas hibridos. Como ejemplo de aplicacion se recorren algunas de las etapas del diseno (determinacion del recurso eolico, simulaciones para el dimensionado de generacion/acumulacion y topologia) de la instalacion de Potrerillo. Teniendo en cuenta las claras connotaciones ecologistas del lugar, durante el diseno se tiene presente el impacto visual que representa el eventual aerogenerador por lo que se estudian diversas ubicaciones y alturas de aerogenerador, llegandose incluso a estudiar la eliminacion de la generacion eolica.

  6. On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.

  7. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    OpenAIRE

    Bandoc Georgeta; Florescu Ana-Maria Smaranda; Degeratu Mircea; Pravalie Remus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid...

  8. Analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid foil tunnel heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, Sławomir; Pedryc, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    The paper analyzes the efficiency of the hybrid system used to heat the foil tunnel. The tested system was built on the basis of heat gain in a cascade manner. The first step is to heat the water in the storage tank using the solar collectors. The second stage is the use of a heat pump (HP) in order to heat the diaphragm exchangers. The lower HP heat source is a cascade first stage buffer. In the storage tank, diaphragm exchangers used for solar collectors and heat pumps are installed. The research was carried out at a research station located in the University of Agriculture in Cracow. The aim was to perform an analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid system for the heating of a foil tunnel in the months from May to September. The efficiency of the entire hybrid system was calculated as the relation of the effect obtained in reference to the electrical power used to drive the heat pump components (compressor drive, circulation pump), circulation pumps and fans installed in the diaphragm heaters. The resulting effect was the amount of heat supplied to the interior of the object as a result of the internal air being forced through the diaphragm exchangers.

  9. Analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid foil tunnel heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpaska Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the efficiency of the hybrid system used to heat the foil tunnel. The tested system was built on the basis of heat gain in a cascade manner. The first step is to heat the water in the storage tank using the solar collectors. The second stage is the use of a heat pump (HP in order to heat the diaphragm exchangers. The lower HP heat source is a cascade first stage buffer. In the storage tank, diaphragm exchangers used for solar collectors and heat pumps are installed. The research was carried out at a research station located in the University of Agriculture in Cracow. The aim was to perform an analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid system for the heating of a foil tunnel in the months from May to September. The efficiency of the entire hybrid system was calculated as the relation of the effect obtained in reference to the electrical power used to drive the heat pump components (compressor drive, circulation pump, circulation pumps and fans installed in the diaphragm heaters. The resulting effect was the amount of heat supplied to the interior of the object as a result of the internal air being forced through the diaphragm exchangers.

  10. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  11. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...... notation for specifying real-time systems. The main contributions are (i) a technique for capturing the reachable states of the continuously changing state variables of the LHA as CLP constraints; (ii) a way of representing events in the LHA as constraints in CLP, along with a product construction...... on the CLP representation including synchronisation on shared events; (iii) a framework in which various kinds of reasoning about an LHA can be flexibly performed by combining standard CLP transformation and analysis techniques.  We give experimental results to support the usefulness of the approach...

  12. Hybrid Quantum Systems with Trapped Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Leibfried, Dietrich; Simmonds, Raymond; Wineland, Dave

    We will review a joint effort by the Ion Storage Group and the Advanced Microwave Photonics Group at NIST (Boulder, CO) to design a hybrid system that interfaces charged particles with macroscopic high-Q resonators. We specifically consider coupling trapped charges to superconducting LC resonators, the mechanical modes of Silicon-Nitride membranes, and piezo-electric materials. We aim to achieve the strong coupling regime, where a single quantum of motion of the trapped charge can be coherently exchanged with harmonic motion of the macroscopic entity (electrical and/or mechanical). These kind of devices could potentially take advantage of both macroscopic control techniques and the long quantum coherence of its trapped charged particles.

  13. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  14. Solar energy system installed at the North Georgia APDC office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed in the newly constructed office building of the North Georgia Area Planning and Development Commission near downtown Dalton, Georgia. This solar heating, cooling and hot water system supplies 65 to 70% of the cooling demand and 90 to 95% of the heating demand. There are 2,001 square feet of effective Revere collector area, and the absorption chiller is in Arkla model 300 and provides 16 tons of cooling.

  15. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Solar Energy System located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas was designed to supply 63% of the total hot water load. The Solar Energy System consists of a 2100 square foot Raypack Liquid Flat Plate Collector Subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10/sup 8/ Btu/y. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  17. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  18. Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems This grant studied DNA nanostructures and their applications in a variety of...Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems Report

  19. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  20. Stability Analysis of Switched-Linear Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Sella (Lorenzo); P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we develop general techniques to study stability of hybrid systems with linear continuous dynamics. These techniques are based on matrix analysis and study of differentiable manifolds. These techniques operate on the space of switching times of the hybrid systems. Some

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  2. Installation of the first Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourai, Ali (American Electric Power Company, Columbus, OH)

    2007-06-01

    AEP studied the direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) and chose to transform its entire utility grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets. To that end, AEP installed the first NAS battery-based, energy storage system in North America. After one year of operation and testing, AEP has concluded that, although the initial costs of DESS are greater than conventional power solutions, the net benefits justify the AEP decision to create a grid of DESS with intelligent monitoring, communications, and control, in order to enable the utility grid of the future. This report details the site selection, construction, benefits and lessons learned of the first installation, at Chemical Station in North Charleston, WV.

  3. Two Refrigeration Systems Installed for the Tokamak at the Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bonneton, M.; Delcayre, F.; Grabié, V.; Praud, A.; Walter, E.

    2006-04-01

    The first helium refrigeration system installed by Air Liquide at the Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad, India, was successfully tested in 2003 and accepted beginning of 2004. It is able to provide an equivalent power of 1350W at 4.5K, including the circulation of supercritical helium, thanks to a cold circulator, and distribution of liquid helium at 4.5K. This installation will be completed with an additional small refrigeration system, composed of Air Liquide standard refrigerator HELIAL 1000, which has been adapted to provide 110W at 3.8K. This second refrigerator will supply two cryopumps with liquid helium, thanks to the thermosiphon effect. To achieve such a low temperature, the liquid helium bath produced by HELIAL 1000 will be pumped below atmospheric pressure, using vacuum pumps and complementary equipment. Both refrigerators will be presented, highlighting the particularities of each system.

  4. Elements de conception d'un systeme geothermique hybride par optimisation financiere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, Benjamin

    The choice of design parameters for a hybrid geothermal system is usually based on current practices or questionable assumptions. In fact, the main purpose of a hybrid geothermal system is to maximize the energy savings associated with heating and cooling requirements while minimizing the costs of operation and installation. This thesis presents a strategy to maximize the net present value of a hybrid geothermal system. This objective is expressed by a series of equations that lead to a global objective function. Iteratively, the algorithm converges to an optimal solution by using an optimization method: the conjugate gradient combined with a combinatorial method. The objective function presented in this paper makes use of a simulation algorithm for predicting the fluid temperature of a hybrid geothermal system on an hourly basis. Thus, the optimization method selects six variables iteratively, continuous and integer type, affecting project costs and energy savings. These variables are the limit temperature at the entry of the heat pump (geothermal side), the number of heat pumps, the number of geothermal wells and the distance in X and Y between the geothermal wells. Generally, these variables have a direct impact on the cost of the installation, on the entering water temperature at the heat pumps, the cost of equipment, the thermal interference between boreholes, the total capacity of geothermal system, on system performance, etc. On the other hand, the arrangement of geothermal wells is variable and is often irregular depending on the number of selected boreholes by the algorithm. Removal or addition of one or more borehole is guided by a predefined order dicted by the designer. This feature of irregular arrangement represents an innovation in the field and is necessary for the operation of this algorithm. Indeed, this ensures continuity between the number of boreholes allowing the use of the conjugate gradient method. The proposed method provides as outputs the

  5. Optimised utilisation of existing incinerators by installation of upstream reactors for treatment of waste with high calorifica value - HYBRID waste treatment plants; Optimierte Nutzung bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen durch Errichtung vorgeschalteter Reaktoren zur Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle - HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Labani, M.

    2000-07-01

    Waste incineration plants are based on the process of thermal waste treatment, i.e. the generation of power from the controlled conversion of organic reactive residue waste. Statutory requirements forced operators to install powerful flue gas cleaning systems into their existing waste incineration plants. This led to a tremendous increase in cost and treatment prices generating pressure to optimize the process. Currently, markets demand additional capacities for the treatment of waste of elevated heating value ({proportional_to}5,0 MWh/Mg). It is possible to treat this type of waste in a conventional waste incineration plant. However, the elevated heating value dictates a reduction in throughput with ever increasing pressure on costs. This is why current concepts consider the treatment of waste of elevated heating value in specific, so called de-centralized plants. These plants are usually of low throughput with accordingly high specific cost of developing the infrastructure. The capacity of existing waste incineration plants has been investigated in order to assess the potential for optimization. Extensive test runs at the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plant (MSW) Darmstadt revealed a capacity gap in the flue gas cleaning system even with the incineration unit running at full capacity. This gap could be filled with an additional incineration plant for waste of elevated heating value, whose capacity is matched accordingly. Such additional incineration plant defines in conjunction with the existing waste incineration plant a so called HYBRID Waste Treatment Plant. It is the aim of this treatise to develop an instrument to support the decision making process related to the planning of such plants. (orig.) [German] Abfallverbrennungsanlagen basieren auf dem Verfahren der thermischen Abfallbehandlung; das ist die Energieerzeugung aus der kontrollierten Umwandlung organischer, reaktionsfaehiger Restabfaelle. Aufgrund gesetzlicher Vorgaben mussten bestehende

  6. A Lower Hybrid Current Drive System for Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bernabei; J.C. Hosea; D. Loesser; J. Rushinski; J.R. Wilson; P. Bonoli; M. Grimes; R. Parker; M. Porkolab; D. Terry; P. Woskov

    2001-05-04

    A Lower Hybrid Current Drive system is being constructed jointly by Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for installation on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, with the primary goal of driving plasma current in the outer region of the plasma. The Lower Hybrid (LH) system consists of 3 MW power at 4.6 GHz with a maximum pulse length of 5 seconds. Twelve klystrons will feed an array of 4-vertical and 24-horizontal waveguides mounted in one equatorial port. The coupler will incorporate some compact characteristics of the multijunction power splitting while retaining full control of the toroidal phase. In addition a dynamic phase control system will allow feedback stabilization of MHD modes. The desire to avoid possible waveguide breakdown and the need for compactness have resulted in some innovative technical solution which will be presented.

  7. Multi-objective design and control of hybrid systems minimizing costs and unmet load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, the application of the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm to the multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems, minimising both the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation and the unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combinations of components for the hybrid system and control strategy. Also, a novel control strategy has been developed and it will be expounded in this article. As an example of application, a PV-wind-diesel system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto set) from which the designer can choose those which he/she prefers considering the costs and unmet load of each. The results obtained demonstrate the practical utility of the design method used. (author)

  8. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  9. INSTALLING AN ERP SYSTEM WITH A METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF GOAL DIRECTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Zafeiropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a generic methodology to support the process of modelling, adaptation and implementation (MAI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS based on the principles of goal directed project management (GDPM. The proposed methodology guides the project manager through specific stages in order to successfully complete the ERPS implementation. The development of the proper MAI methodology is deemed necessary because it will simplify the installation process of ERPS. The goal directed project management method was chosen since it provides a way of focusing all changes towards a predetermined goal. The main stages of the methodology are the promotion and preparation steps, the proposal, the contract, the implementation and the completion. The methodology was applied as a pilot application by a major ERPS development company. Important benefits were the easy and effective guidance for all installation and analysis stages, the faster installation for the ERPS and the control and cost reduction for the installation, in terms of time, manpower, technological equipment and other resources.

  10. INSTALLING AN ERP SYSTEM WITH A METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF GOAL DIRECTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Zafeiropoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a generic methodology to support the process of modelling, adaptation and implementation (MAI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS based on the principles of goal directed project management (GDPM. The proposed methodology guides the project manager through specific stages in order to successfully complete the ERPS implementation. The development of the proper MAI methodology is deemed necessary because it will simplify the installation process of ERPS. The goal directed project management method was chosen since it provides a way of focusing all changes towards a predetermined goal. The main stages of the methodology are the promotion and preparation steps, the proposal, the contract, the implementation and the completion. The methodology was applied as a pilot application by a major ERPS development company. Important benefits were the easy and effective guidance for all installation and analysis stages, the faster installation for the ERPS and the control and cost reduction for the installation, in terms of time, manpower, technological equipment and other resources.

  11. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  12. HYBRID2: A versatile model of the performance of hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. James; Manwell, James

    1995-04-01

    In 1993, the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) made an assessment of the available tools from the United States and Europe for predicting the long-term performance of hybrid power systems. By hybrid power the authors mean combinations of two or more power sources wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), diesel gensets, or other generators into integrated systems for electric power generation in remote locations. Their conclusion was that there was no single, user-friendly tool capable of modeling the full range of hybrid power technologies being considered for the 1990s and beyond. The existing tools were, in particular, lacking flexibility in system configuration and in dispatch of components. As a result, NREL developed a specification for a model, called HYBRID2, for making comparisons of competing technology options on a level playing field. This specification was prepared with a range of potential users in mind including not only the US Department of Energy (DOE) renewable energy programs, but also the US wind industry, technical consultants, international development institutions/banks, and rural electrification programs in developing countries. During 1994, NREL and subcontractor, the University of Massachusetts (UMass), began development of HYBRID2 with funding from the DOE Wind Energy Program. It builds on the wind/diesel model, HYBRID1, developed previously by UMass, and expands that model to accommodate the wider array of technologies used in hybrid power systems. This paper will provide an overview of the model's features, functions, and status.

  13. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  14. Efficient Hybrid Propulsion System Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    GEARBOX Engine Control Module Transmission Control Module Powertrain Control Module Phase 1 – Conventional Powertrain ISAC (Vehicle Model...AVL PUMA Figure 8 - Dynamometer Phase 1 - Conventional Powertrain Phase 2 – Hybrid E-motor Testing (Rear Drive) Battery Simulator ISAC ...Motor Control Module Transmission Control Module Powertrain Control Module Phase 3 – Parallel Hybrid Testing ISAC (Vehicle Model) AVL

  15. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  16. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  17. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  19. Improving Diagnosability of Hybrid Systems through Active Diagnosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault diagnosis is key to ensuring system safety through fault-adaptive control. This task is diffcult in hybrid systems with combined continuous and discrete...

  20. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  1. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  2. Analysis of a hybrid PV/thermal solar-assisted heat pump system for sports center water heating application

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.; Chow, T. T.; Ménézo, C.; Dupeyrat, P.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the...

  3. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  5. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  6. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  7. Practical Implementation of Embedded Controlled Boost Converter for Solar Installation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalirasu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar photovoltaic power has received great attention and experienced impressive progress in the countries all over the world in recent years because of more and more serious energy crisis and environmental pollution. This paper proposes a Embedded controlled boost converter for solar installation system. Boost converter system is simulated using Matlab and it is implemented using embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results of this system are presented and compared. This converter has advantages like improved power factor, fast response and reduced hardware.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  9. Designing, Constructing and Installing a Local Exhaust Ventilation System to Minimize Welders\\' Exposure to Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Welder’s exposure to welding fumes can cause occupational diseases. The current study sought to examine exposure to welding fumes among welders who work in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and design a local exhaust ventilation system to control exposure to welding fumes. Materials & Methods: This applied analytical study was conducted in the summer of 2016 among welders working in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. The study comprised three phases; in the first one, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed at the beginning of the study. After that, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed in the aforementioned repair shop. In the final stage, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed again after installation of the ventilation system. The procedure recommended by NIOSH (method number 7300 was used for individual sampling of welders. Results: Based on the obtained findings, before installing the ventilation system, welding technicians were exposed to 0.3 mg/m3 of copper fumes and 0.04 mg/m3 of chromium fumes. Journeyman welders were also exposed to 2.16 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, while stellar welders were exposed to 6.9 mg/m3 of iron fumes. In the light of these measurements, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed. Subsequently, measurement of exposure to welding fumes showed a significant reduction. That is, welding technicians were exposed to 0.17 mg/m3 and 0.015 mg/m3 of copper and chromium fumes respectively. Additionally, journeyman welders were exposed to 0.86 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, whereas stellar welders were exposed to 4.3 mg/m3 of iron fumes. Conclusions: A comparison of standard limits of exposure to welding fumes and the results obtained from measurements in sampling stations before and after the installation of the local exhaust ventilation system reveals that this controlling measure was very effective in the

  10. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hybrid synchronization; complex network; information source; chaotic system. ... One is how the same network node of the complex network was affected by different information sources. Another is how to achieve hybrid synchronization on the network. In this paper, the theoretical analysis andnumerical ...

  11. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Mitsubishi Motor Corporation, Japan, Technical Review 15, 2003. [40] Hiroaki et al Yoshida...SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS THESIS Matthew D...of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M26 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT

  12. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  13. Optimization and field demonstration of hybrid hydrogen generator/high efficiency furnace system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entchev, E.; Coyle, I.; Szadkowski, F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1M1 (Canada); Manning, M.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Graydon, J.; Kirk, D. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen is seen as an energy carrier of the future and significant research on hydrogen generation, storage and utilization is accomplished around the world. However, an appropriate intermediate step before wide hydrogen introduction will be blending conventional fuels such as natural gas, oil or diesel with hydrogen and follow up combustion through conventional means. Due to changes in the combustion and flame characteristics of the system additional research is needed to access the limits and the impact of the fuel mix on the combustion systems performance. The hybrid system consists of a 5 kW{sub el} electrolyzer and a residential 15 kW{sub th} high efficiency gas fired furnace. The electrolyzer was integrated with the furnace gas supply and setup to replace 5-25% of the furnace natural gas flow with hydrogen. A mean for proper mixing of hydrogen with natural gas was provided and a control system for safe system operation was developed. Prior to the start of the field trial the hybrid system was investigated in laboratory environment. It was subjected to a variety of steady state and cycling conditions and a detailed performance and optimization analysis was performed with a range of hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. The optimized system was then installed at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technologies (CCHT) Experimental research house. The energy performance of the hybrid system was compared to the energy performance of an identical high efficiency furnace in the Control research house next door. (author)

  14. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  15. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  16. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  17. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the future installation of a clothes dryer. 3280.708 Section 3280.708 Housing and Urban... duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. (a) Clothes dryers. (1) All gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and...

  19. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Commissioning of the CMS Cryogenic System After Final Installation in the Underground Cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, T; Perinic, G

    2010-01-01

    After having served for the surface tests of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) magnet, the cold box and ancillaries of the CMS helium refrigerator have been dismantled, moved and re-installed in the USC55 cavern in 2007. The full re-commissioning in the cavern has been followed by several tests of the refrigerator to confirm its nominal performance before it was used for the magnet and detector tests in 2008. During these tests the safety modes of the refrigeration system have been tested and improved. After a nine-year project both, the magnet and the refrigeration system are now ready for the CMS operation.

  1. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  2. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  3. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Durand, Fabien [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Maguire, James [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  4. Results after one year from a Hydrostatic Levelling System installed at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, James; Baker, Keith A.; Hoffman, William J.

    2010-06-01

    A Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) has been installed at Diamond Light Source. 8 sensors have been positioned along a 60 metre portion of the floor of the Storage Ring and the Experimental Hall, stretching out along a typical beamline route from Insertion Device to sample. 7 of the sensors are installed on the thick, reinforced concrete floor of the Experimental Hall which is supported on piles and the last sensor is mounted on the much thinner concrete floor of the peripheral walkway which has no piles. The foundations and floor were designed to achieve settlements measuring 1 micron per 10 metres per hour and 10 microns per 10 metres per day. A larger range was specified of 250 microns per 10 metres per year on the Experimental Hall floor and 100 microns per 10 metres per year in the Storage Ring to account for longer term settlement effects and seasonal variation and the HLS has been installed to try and measure these very small movements. Results after one year of operation are presented.

  5. Adaptation of Hybrid FSO/RF Communication System Using Puncturing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum of radio frequency (RF communications is limited and expensive to install new applications. Free space optical (FSO communication is a viable technology which offers enormous bandwidth, license free installation, inexpensive deployment and error prone links. The FSO links degrade significantly due to the varying atmospheric and weather conditions (fog, cloud, snow, haze and combination of these. We propose a hybrid FSO/RF communication system which adapts the varying nature of atmosphere and weather. For the adaption of varying atmosphere and weather scenarios, we develop a novel optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the well-known puncturing technique. We provide an extrinsic information transfer (EXIT chart for the binary and quaternary mapping scheme for the proposed communication system. We simulate the proposed algorithm for the hybrid communication system and analyze the system performance. The proposed algorithm is computationally less expensive and provide better performance gains over varying atmosphere and weather conditions. The algorithm is suitable for fast speed applications.

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  7. Seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of strong earthquake occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, Daniela; Corneliu Rau, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Grigore, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    During the last 70 years, four major earthquakes occurred in the Vrancea seismic area affected Romania territory: 10 November 1940 (Mw = 7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw = 6.9, 80 km depth). Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. So far, the 1977 event had the most catastrophic consequences: about 33,000 residences were totally destroyed or partially deteriorated, 1,571 people dies and another 11,300 were injured. Moreover, 61 natural-gas pipelines were damaged, causing destructive fires. The total losses were estimated at 3 mld. U.S. dollars. Recent studies clearly pointed out that in case of a strong earthquake occurrence in Vrancea region (Ms above 7), the biggest danger regarding the major cities comes from explosions and fires started immediately after the earthquake, and the most important factor of risk are the natural gas distribution networks. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible the efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Presently, in Romania safe and efficient accepted solutions for improving the buildings securing, using antiseismic protection of the dangerous installations as natural-gas pipelines are not available. Therefore, we propose a seismic detection system based on a seismically actuated gas shut-off valve, which is automatically shut down in case of a seismic shock. The device is intended to be installed in the natural-gas supply line outside of buildings, as well at each user (group of users), inside of the buildings. The seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of a strong earthquake occurrence was designed on the basis of 12 criteria enforced by the US regulations for seismic valves, aimed to eliminate the critical situations as fluids and under pressure gases leakage

  8. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  9. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  10. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  12. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Roberti; Juan Marcos Toibero; Carlos Soria; Raquel Frizera Vassallo; Ricardo Carelli

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras) for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimen...

  13. GR-2 Hybrid Knowledge-Based System Using General Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe , Ma.; Harrison, R F; Kennedy, R. Lee.

    1995-01-01

    GR-2 is a hybrid knowledge-based system consisting of a Multilayer Perceptron and a rule based system for hybrid knowledge representations and reasoning.\\ud Knowledge embedded in the trained Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is extracted in the form of general (production) rules-- a natural format of abstract knowledge representation. The rule extraction method integrates Black-box and Open-box techniques on the MLP, obtaining feature salient and statistical properties of the training pattern set.\\...

  14. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  15. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyah, A. [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, F., E-mail: FRahamni@kntu.ac.in [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  16. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  17. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nema, Pragya; Rangnekar, Saroj [Energy Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology , Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India); Nema, R.K. [Electrical Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77 deg.23'and Latitude 23 deg.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  18. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  19. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  20. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  2. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  3. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Columbia Colstor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrench, L.E.; Spanner, G.E.; Klevgard, L.A.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a computer-based refrigeration control system (RCS) installed at Columbia Colstor in 1990 was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Concurrent with installing the RCS, the plant was expanded by adding 13,900 m{sup 2} (150,000 ft{sup 2} of storage space and five freeze tunnels. Because this project involved a significant plant expansion, it was ineligible for participation in Bonneville`s Energy $avings Plan Program (E$P). Therefore, a special contract was negotiated. This contract followed, to the extent possible, the E$P principles, adminstrative procedures, and acquisition payment. The primary objectives of this impact evaluation were to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Colstor as a result of the Bonneville`s acquisition payment and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, billing analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews. Based on this impact evaluation, energy savings from this project are expected to be at least 4,130,700 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr), or 0.47 average megawatts (aMW). Because the refrigeration system at Columbia Colstor provides cooling to both the storage rooms and the freeze tunnels, it i not possible to state savings on a per-ton basis. The project cost $287,528 to install, and Columbia Colstor received payment of $180,375 (1991 dollars) from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 4.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 7.6 mills/kWh in 1993 dollars, not including transmission and distribution effects.

  4. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  5. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K

    2012-12-20

    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  8. A customized resistivity system for monitoring saturation and seepage in earthen levees: installation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arosio Diego

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the assumption that a resistivity meter can effectively monitor water saturation in earth levees and can be used as a warning system when saturation exceeds the expected seasonal maxima. We performed time-lapse ERT measurements to assess the capability of this method to detect areas where seepage is critical. These measurements were also very useful to design a prototype monitoring system with remarkable savings by customizing the specifications according to field observations. The prototype consists of a remotely controlled low-power resistivity meter with a spread of 48 stainless steel 20 × 20 cm plate electrodes buried at half-meter depth. We deployed the newly-designed permanent monitoring system on a critical levee segment. A weather station and an ultrasonic water level sensor were also installed in order to analyse the correlation of resistivity with temperature, rainfalls and water level seasonal variations.

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  10. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  11. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  12. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...... such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles....

  13. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H.E. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While, the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment.

  14. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles.......Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  15. Installation of the CDC 7600 supercomputer system in the computer centre in 1972

    CERN Multimedia

    Nettz, William

    1972-01-01

    The CDC 7600 was installed in 1972 in the newly built computer centre. It was said to be the largest and most powerful computer system in Europe at that time and remained the fastest machine at CERN for 9 years. It was replaced after 12 years. Dr. Julian Blake (CERN), Dr. Tor Bloch (CERN), Erwin Gasser (Control Data Corporation), Jean-Marie LaPorte (Control Data Corporation), Peter McWilliam (Control Data Corporation), Hans Oeshlein (Control Data Corporation), and Peter Warn (Control Data Corporation) were heavily involved in this project and may appear on the pictures. William Nettz (who took the pictures) was in charge of the installation. Excerpt from CERN annual report 1972: 'Data handling and evaluation is becoming an increasingly important part of physics experiments. In order to meet these requirements a new central computer system, CDC 7600/6400, has been acquired and it was brought into more or less regular service during the year. Some initial hardware problems have disappeared but work has still to...

  16. Development and Testing of a Post-Installable Deepwater Monitoring System Using Fiber-Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Calvin H.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Tang, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing deepwater risers and flowlines; and provides a summary of test article fabrication and the subsequent laboratory testing performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC). A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the riser or flowline of interest. This work investigates the sensor coupling for pipelines that are suspended in a water column (from topside platform to seabed) using a fiber-optic sensor clamp and subsea bonding adhesive. The study involved the design, fabrication, and test of several prototype clamps that contained fiber-optic sensors. A mold was produced by NASA using 3-D printing methods that allowed the casting of polyurethane clamp test articles to accommodate 4-inch and 8-inch diameter pipes. The prototype clamps were installed with a subsea adhesive in a "wet" environment and then tested in the NASA Structures Test Laboratory (STL). The tension, compression, and bending test data showed that the prototype sensor clamps achieved good structural coupling, and could provide high quality strain measurement for active monitoring.

  17. Theory of hybrid dynamical systems and its applications to biological and medical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-11-13

    In this introductory article, we survey the contents of this Theme Issue. This Theme Issue deals with a fertile region of hybrid dynamical systems that are characterized by the coexistence of continuous and discrete dynamics. It is now well known that there exist many hybrid dynamical systems with discontinuities such as impact, switching, friction and sliding. The first aim of this Issue is to discuss recent developments in understanding nonlinear dynamics of hybrid dynamical systems in the two main theoretical fields of dynamical systems theory and control systems theory. A combined study of the hybrid systems dynamics in the two theoretical fields might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of hybrid dynamical systems. In addition, mathematical modelling by hybrid dynamical systems is particularly important for understanding the nonlinear dynamics of biological and medical systems as they have many discontinuities such as threshold-triggered firing in neurons, on-off switching of gene expression by a transcription factor, division in cells and certain types of chronotherapy for prostate cancer. Hence, the second aim is to discuss recent applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine. Thus, this Issue is not only general to serve as a survey of recent progress in hybrid systems theory but also specific to introduce interesting and stimulating applications of hybrid systems in biology and medicine. As the introduction to the topics in this Theme Issue, we provide a brief history of nonlinear dynamics and mathematical modelling, different mathematical models of hybrid dynamical systems, the relationship between dynamical systems theory and control systems theory, examples of complex behaviour in a simple neuron model and its variants, applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine as a road map of articles in this Theme Issue and future directions of hybrid systems modelling.

  18. Installing logic-gate responses to a variety of biological substances in supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Tanida, Tatsuya; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Kurotani, Kazuya; Onogi, Shoji; Urayama, Kenji; Hamachi, Itaru

    2014-06-01

    Soft materials that exhibit stimuli-responsive behaviour under aqueous conditions (such as supramolecular hydrogels composed of self-assembled nanofibres) have many potential biological applications. However, designing a macroscopic response to structurally complex biochemical stimuli in these materials still remains a challenge. Here we show that redox-responsive peptide-based hydrogels have the ability to encapsulate enzymes and still retain their activities. Moreover, cooperative coupling of enzymatic reactions with the gel response enables us to construct unique stimuli-responsive soft materials capable of sensing a variety of disease-related biomarkers. The programmable gel-sol response (even to biological samples) is visible to the naked eye. Furthermore, we built Boolean logic gates (OR and AND) into the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid materials, which were able to sense simultaneously plural specific biochemicals and execute a controlled drug release in accordance with the logic operation. The intelligent soft materials that we have developed may prove valuable in future medical diagnostics or treatments.

  19. Generalization of Dielectric-Dependent Hybrid Functionals to Finite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Brawand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.

  20. Impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems stability, dissipativity, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Wassim M; Nersesov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    This book develops a general analysis and synthesis framework for impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. Such a framework is imperative for modern complex engineering systems that involve interacting continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics with multiple modes of operation that place stringent demands on controller design and require implementation of increasing complexity--whether advanced high-performance tactical fighter aircraft and space vehicles, variable-cycle gas turbine engines, or air and ground transportation systems. Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems goes beyond similar

  1. Real-Time Energy Management System for a Hybrid AC/DC Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes real-time Energy Management System (EMS) for a residential hybrid ac/dc microgrid. The residential microgrid is organized in two different distribution systems. A dc distribution bus which interconnect the renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS....../discharge of the ESS, and the energy injection/consumption from the grid. The EMS estimates the RES generation based on the weather forecasting, together with stochastic consumption modelling of the building. The EMS architecture and the residential microgrid have been implemented and tested in a laboratory scale......) and the building’s common facilities; while the apartments are supplied by an ac distribution system connected to the grid. This architecture avoids any modifications in the electrical installation that supplies energy to the apartments. A pure dc voltage supply is not yet a feasible approach for residential...

  2. An integrated management system to improve the performance of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmerhagen, I.A.; Berg, H.P. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A integrated management system encompasses all management and assessment activities. The integration of DM, QM, safety management and occupational health into an integrated management system is shown for structures, systems and components of waste repositories because they have to fulfill reliability requirements derived from comprehensive safety assessments, and these structures, systems and components (such as transport vehicles and stacker trucks for the underground emplacement activities) are especially manufactured for this purpose and are not series products. QM institutes a QM system which ensures that there are clearly defined and auditable procedures. The requirements are written down in specifications or operation manuals and/or maintenance manuals. The QM system provides assurance that the installed structures, systems or components meet and continue to meet the prescribed goals with the help of DM and that safety management and occupational health specified requirements are fulfilled. DM focuses on the use of engineering analyses, assessments and methods to improve the design, specification, construction, dependability and operation of important systems, structures and components. (author)

  3. Intelligent systems installed in building of research centre for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Jozef; Mokry, Marian; Kolkova, Zuzana; Sedivy, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The attractiveness of intelligent buildings is nowadays directly connected with higher level of comfort and also the economic mode of consumption energy for heating, cooling and the total consumption of electricity for electric devices. The technologies of intelligent buildings compared with conventional solutions allow dynamic optimization in real time and make it easy for operational message. The basic division of functionality in horizontal direction is possible divide in to two areas such as Economical sophisticated residential care about the comfort of people in the building and Security features. The paper deals with description of intelligent systems which has a building of Research Centre. The building has installed the latest technology for utilization of renewable energy and also latest systems of controlling and driving all devices which contribute for economy operation by achieving the highest thermal comfort and overall safety.

  4. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...... switching control, distributed dynamic regulation and coordinated switching con-trol are designed fully dependent on the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and the logical relationships be-tween them, and interact with each other by means of the mul-ti-agent system to form hierarchical...

  5. Simulations of hybrid system varying solar radiation and microturbine response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Fernández Ribaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, such as combinations of renewable power sources with intermittent power production and non-renewable power sources, theoretically increase the reliability and thus integration of renewable sources in the electrical system. However, a recent increase in the number of hybrid installations has sparked interest in the effects of their connection to the grid, especially in remote areas. This paper analyses a photovoltaic-gas microturbine hybrid system dimensioned to be installed in La Paz (Mexico.The research presented in this paper studies and quantifies the effects on the total electric power produced, varying both the solar radiation and the gas microturbine response time. The gas microturbine and the photovoltaic panels are modelled using Matlab/Simulink software, obtaining a platform where different tests to simulate real conditions have been executed. They consist of diverse ramps of irradiance that replicate solar radiation variations, and different microturbine response times reproduced by the time constants of a first order transfer function that models the microturbine dynamic response. The results obtained show that when radiation varies quickly it does not produce significant differences in the power guarantee or the microturbine gas consumption, to any microturbine response time. However, these two parameters are highly variable with smooth radiance variations. The maximum total power variation decreases greatly as the radiation variation gets lower. In addition, by decreasing the microturbine response time, it is possible to appreciably increase the power guarantee although the maximum power variation and gas consumption increase. Only in cases of low radiation variation is there no appreciable difference in the maximum power variation obtained by the different turbine response times.

  6. Preliminary measurements on the new TOF system installed at the AMS beamline of INFN-LABEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla, L., E-mail: palla@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, e INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Castelli, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Czelusniak, C. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Giuntini, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Ugo Schiff, Università di Firenze (Italy); Mandò, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze (Italy); Martini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, e INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Mazzinghi, A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze (Italy); Ruberto, C. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Ugo Schiff, Università di Firenze (Italy); Schiavulli, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, e INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy); Sibilia, E. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, e INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A high resolution time of flight (TOF) system has been developed at LABEC, the 3 MV Tandem accelerator laboratory in Florence, in order to improve the sensitivity of AMS measurements on carbon samples with ultra-low concentration and also to measure other isotopes, such as {sup 129}I. The system can be employed to detect and identify residual interfering particles originated from the break-up of molecular isobars. The set-up has been specifically designed for low energy heavy ions: it consists of two identical time pick-off stations, each made up of a thin conductive foil and a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) multiplier. The beamline is also equipped with a silicon detector, installed downstream the stop TOF station. In this paper the design of the new system and the implemented readout electronics are presented. The tests performed on the single time pick-off station are reported: they show that the maximum contribution to the timing resolution given by both the intrinsic MCP resolution and the electronics is ⩽500 ps (FWHM). For these tests, single particle pulsed beams of 2–5 MeV protons and 10 MeV {sup 12}C{sup 3+} ions, to simulate typical AMS conditions, were used. The preliminary TOF and TOF-E (TOF-energy) measurements performed with carbon beams after the installation of the new system on the AMS beam line are also discussed. These measurements were performed using the foil–MCP as the start stage and a silicon detector as the stop stage. The spectra acquired with carbon ions suggest the presence of a small residual background from neighboring masses reaching the end of the beamline with the same energy as the rare isotope.

  7. Design and installation of a Prototype Geohazard Monitoring System near Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, M. H.; Farquhar, T.

    2010-09-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, serves the >700 000 tourists visiting Machu Picchu annually. It has grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Due to the limited low-lying ground, construction is occurring on the unstable valley slopes. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding mountains. The town has grown on a delta formed at the confluence of the Alcamayo, Aguas Calientes and Vilcanota Rivers. Geohazards in and around the town of particular concern are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. A prototype early warning system that could monitor weather, river flow and slope stability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing components to be installed, maintained, salvaged, and repaired by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was evaluated. Most of the technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  8. Design and installation of a Prototype Geohazard Monitoring System near Machu Picchu, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Bulmer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, serves the >700 000 tourists visiting Machu Picchu annually. It has grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Due to the limited low-lying ground, construction is occurring on the unstable valley slopes. Slopes range from <10° on the valley floor to >70° in the surrounding mountains. The town has grown on a delta formed at the confluence of the Alcamayo, Aguas Calientes and Vilcanota Rivers. Geohazards in and around the town of particular concern are 1 large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2 flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3 mudflows and landslides. A prototype early warning system that could monitor weather, river flow and slope stability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing components to be installed, maintained, salvaged, and repaired by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was evaluated. Most of the technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  9. Vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.; Faybishenko, B.; James, A.; Freifeld, B.; Salve, R.

    1996-10-31

    Two vadose zone monitoring systems (VZMS) have been installed at Site S-7, in Investigation Cluster 34 (IC 34), in Operable Unit A (OU A) of McClellan AFB. The two boreholes, VZMS-A and VZMS-B were instrumented at depths ranging from approximately 6 ft to 113 ft. Instruments were installed in clusters using a custom-made stainless steel cage with a spring-loaded mechanism allowing instruments to be in contact with the well bore wall once in place. Each cluster contains a tensiometer, suction lysimeter, soil gas probe and thermistor for measuring hydraulic potential, liquid- and gas-phase pressure, temperature of the formation and for collecting samples for chemical analyses in both the liquid and gas phases. Neutron probe logging is performed in two separate, smaller borings, VZMS-NP-1 and VZMS-NP-2, to obtain soil moisture content data. Preliminary details of soil gas analyses, laboratory field testing of soil samples, particle size analyses and neutron probe data are presented.

  10. LED system performance in a trial installation - one year later: Yuma border patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high temperature and high solar radiation environment, providing an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study thermal effects on outdoor light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires outside of the testing laboratory. Six LED luminaires were installed on three poles on the U.S.- Mexico border in February 2014 as part of a trial installation, which was detailed in a prior GATEWAY report.1 The initial trial installation was intended as a short - term test of six luminaires installed on three poles before proceeding with the complete installation of over 400 luminaires. Unexpected delays in the full installation have prevented the detailed evaluations initially planned, but the six installed LED luminaires continue to be monitored, and over the past year illuminance measurements were recorded initially in February 2014 and again in September 2014 at about 2500 hours of operation and in March 2015 at about 5000 hours of operation.

  11. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A.

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  13. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  14. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  15. RADIATION PROTECTION SYSTEM INSTALLATION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM/LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR PROJECT (APT/LEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. WILMARTH; M. SMITH; T. TOMEI

    1999-07-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, tamper-resistant hardware. The installation was accomplished using modular components.

  16. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Roberti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimental results with real mobile robots are included to validate the proposed vision system.

  17. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Roberti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimental results with real mobile robots are included to validate the proposed vision system.

  18. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  19. Design of novel hybrid control solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jiang; Wu, Zhu; Yun, Hu Yu; Xuan, Tu Yun; Yu, Wu Jun

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a hybrid control solar tracking system consisted of sunlight gathering platform, mechanical structure and MCU controller system which is mainly based on time and light dependent resistors module. An adaptive calibration and operating algorithm are proposed to solve accumulated error for inaccuracy sun position model and servo system error of single axis solar tracking system, which can make the focused sunlight matching the solar evacuated tube well. The proposed system and algorithm effectively will improve the utilization of solar energy.

  20. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and Tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has a CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise. From

  1. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Day's Lodge I-85 and Shallowford Road, NE Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant and was designed to provide for 81% of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drains whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric domestic hot water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting. Operation of this system was begun in August, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($18,042 of $36,084 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  2. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  3. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  4. Stability analysis and controller synthesis for hybrid dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemels, W P M H; De Schutter, B; Lunze, J; Lazar, M

    2010-11-13

    Wherever continuous and discrete dynamics interact, hybrid systems arise. This is especially the case in many technological systems in which logic decision-making and embedded control actions are combined with continuous physical processes. Also for many mechanical, biological, electrical and economical systems the use of hybrid models is essential to adequately describe their behaviour. To capture the evolution of these systems, mathematical models are needed that combine in one way or another the dynamics of the continuous parts of the system with the dynamics of the logic and discrete parts. These mathematical models come in all kinds of variations, but basically consist of some form of differential or difference equations on the one hand and automata or other discrete-event models on the other hand. The collection of analysis and synthesis techniques based on these models forms the research area of hybrid systems theory, which plays an important role in the multi-disciplinary design of many technological systems that surround us. This paper presents an overview from the perspective of the control community on modelling, analysis and control design for hybrid dynamical systems and surveys the major research lines in this appealing and lively research area.

  5. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  6. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  7. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  8. Installation and impact of sound field systems on hearing and hearing impaired children and their teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie; Rigby, Kate; Shield, Bridget; Carey, Anne

    2005-04-01

    An evaluation of the installation and use of sound field systems in ten schools in England has been carried out. The evaluation included noise surveys of classrooms, questionnaire surveys of pupils and teachers and experimental testing of children with and without the use of SFS. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of SFS on teaching and learning in elementary school classrooms, in particular, to ascertain whether the SFS differentially benefited children with hearing impairments. Barriers to teachers use of SFS were found in terms of equipment placement and maintenance, appropriate training, and teacher's knowledge. Nonetheless positive reports are recorded from both teachers and pupils. Teachers' and pupils' perceptions are compared with objective data evaluating change in performance when SFS are used for language and cognitive tasks. Data from children with hearing impairments and additional learning needs are analyzed for comparative purposes. The results are discussed in terms of effective practice for the use of SFS with elementary school pupils.

  9. Systems engineering aspects to installation of the phased multi-year LANSCE-refurbishment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erickson, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Larry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is a phased, multiyear project. The project is scheduled to start refurbishment in the 2nd quarter of fiscal year 2011. Closeout will occur during the 4th quarter of FY2016. During the LANSCE-R project, installation of project components must be scheduled during six annual 6-month maintenance-outages and not conflict with annual LANSCE operational commitments to its user facilities. The project and operations schedules must be synchronized carefully. Therefore, the scheduled maintenance outages, functional testing (with beam off, by primarily project personnel) and commissioning (with beam on, by primarily Accelerator Operation Technology (AOT) personnel) must be managed to accommodate operation. Active and effective coordination and communication between the project and AOT personnel must be encouraged to identify, as early as possible, any operational issues. This paper will report on the systems engineering approach to the integration and control of engineering activities.

  10. On the optimal control of mechanical systems - hybrid control strategies and hybrid dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Flaßkamp, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    In den Ingenieur- und Naturwissenschaften treten häufig Optimalsteuerungsprobleme für mechanische Systeme auf, beispielsweise in der Robotik, der Biomechanik, in Fahrzeugsystemen oder im Design von Weltraummissionen. Das jeweilige Ziel ist es, das dynamische Verhalten des Systems mittels seiner Steuerungseingänge so zu beeinflussen, dass eine Aufgabe optimal erfüllt wird. In komplexen technischen Systemen führt eine adäquate Modellierung zu hybriden dynamischen Systemen. Hybride Steuerungsstr...

  11. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  12. Installation and pre-commissioning of the cryogenic system of JT-60SA tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Goncalves, R.; Lamaison, V.; Natsume, K.; Kizu, K.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Cardella, A.; Portone, A.; Verrecchia, M.; Wanner, M.; Beauvisage, J.; Bertholat, F.; Gaillard, G.; Heloin, V.; Langevin, B.; Legrand, J.; Maire, S.; Perrier, J. M.; Pudys, V.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic system for the superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is currently being commissioned in Naka, Japan and shall be ready for operation in summer 2016. This contribution is part of the Broader Approach agreement between Japan and Europe. With an equivalent refrigeration capacity of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K the cryogenic system will supply cryo-pump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and their structures at 4.4 K, high temperature superconducting current leads at 50 K and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The system has been specifically designed to handle large pulse loads at 4.4 K during plasma operation. The mechanical and electrical assembly of the cryogenic system has been achieved within six months by October 2015. The main contractor Air Liquide Advanced Technology (AL-aT) have supplied eight parallel working screw compressors with a common oil removal and dryer system, a Refrigeration Cold Box and an Auxiliary Cold box with cold rotating machines. F4E has provided six GHe storage vessels and QST has provided the complete infrastructure and the facilities for the utilities. The paper gives an overview of the main design features, the infrastructure and the status of installation and pre-commissioning.

  13. Solar Trigeneration: a Transitory Simulation of HVAC Systems Using Different Typologies of Hybrid Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Amo Sancho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The high energy demand on buildings requires efficient installations and the integration of renewable energy to achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption using traditional energy sources. Usually, solar energy generation and heating loads have different profiles along a day and their maximums take place at different moments. In addition, in months in which solar production is higher, the heating demands are the minimum (hot water is consumed only domestically in summer. Cooling machines (absorption and adsorption allow using thermal energy to chill a fluid. This heat flow rate could be recovered from solar collectors or any other heat source. The aim of this study is to integrate different typologies of solar hybrid (photovoltaic and thermal collectors with cooling machines getting solar trigeneration and concluding the optimal combination for building applications. The heat recovered from the photovoltaic module is used to provide energy to these cooling machines getting a double effect: to get a better efficiency on PV modules and to cool the building. In this document the authors analyse these installations, their operating conditions, dimensions and parameters, in order to get the optimal installation in three different European cities. This work suggests that in a family house in Madrid, the optimal combination is to use CPVT with azimuthally tracking and absorption machine. In this case, the solar trigeneration system using 55 m2 of collector area saves the cooling loads and 79% of the heating load in the house round the year.

  14. Effectiveness of Physical Barriers Installation for Prevention of Incidents in Mexico City’s Subway System

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo de Jesús Portillo-Villasana; Aida Huerta-Barrientos; Yazmin Dillarza Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, suicides inside the installations of subway platforms are considered a public health problem in Mexico City. One solution to prevent them is the installation of physical barriers, but their high cost is unattractive for governmental authorities. Traditional approaches of research on the effectiveness of physical barriers for preventing suicides have been limited to analyzing statistically the effects of installing platform screen doors and blue lights on subway platforms. Although c...

  15. Hybrid Atom Electrostatic System for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Françoise; Lebat, Vincent; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The subject of this poster comes within the framework of new concepts identification and development for future satellite gravity missions, in continuation of previously launched space missions CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and ongoing and prospective studies like NGGM, GRACE 2 or E-GRASP. We were here more focused on the inertial sensors that complete the payload of such satellites. The clearly identified instruments for space accelerometry are based on the electrostatic technology developed for many years by ONERA and that offer a high level of performance and a high degree of maturity for space applications. On the other hand, a new generation of sensors based on cold atom interferometry (AI) is emerging and seems very promising in this context. These atomic instruments have already demonstrated on ground impressive results, especially with the development of state-of-the-art gravimeters, and should reach their full potential only in space, where the microgravity environment allows long interaction times. Each of these two types of instruments presents their own advantages which are, for the electrostatic sensors (ES), their demonstrated short term sensitivity and their high TRL, and for AI, amongst others, the absolute nature of the measurement and therefore no need for calibration processes. These two technologies seem in some aspects very complementary and a hybrid sensor bringing together all their assets could be the opportunity to take a big step in this context of gravity space missions. We present here the first experimental association on ground of an electrostatic accelerometer and an atomic accelerometer and underline the interest of calibrating the ES instrument with the AI. Some technical methods using the ES proof-mass as the Raman Mirror seem very promising to remove rotation effects of the satellite on the AI signal. We propose a roadmap to explore further in details and more rigorously this attractive hybridization scheme in order to assess its potential

  16. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  17. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  18. Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

  19. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  20. A customized resistivity system for monitoring saturation and seepage in earthen levees: installation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Munda, Stefano; Tresoldi, Greta; Papini, Monica; Longoni, Laura; Zanzi, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    This work is based on the assumption that a resistivity meter can effectively monitor water saturation in earth levees and can be used as a warning system when saturation exceeds the expected seasonal maxima. We performed time-lapse ERT measurements to assess the capability of this method to detect areas where seepage is critical. These measurements were also very useful to design a prototype monitoring system with remarkable savings by customizing the specifications according to field observations. The prototype consists of a remotely controlled low-power resistivity meter with a spread of 48 stainless steel 20 × 20 cm plate electrodes buried at half-meter depth. We deployed the newly-designed permanent monitoring system on a critical levee segment. A weather station and an ultrasonic water level sensor were also installed in order to analyse the correlation of resistivity with temperature, rainfalls and water level seasonal variations. The preliminary analysis of the monitoring data shows that the resistivity maps follow a very reasonable trend related with the saturation/drying cycle of the levee caused by the seasonal variations of the water level in the irrigation channel. Sharp water level changes cause delayed and smooth resistivity variations. Rainfalls and, to a lesser extent, temperature seem to have an influence on the collected data but effects are apparently negligible beyond 1 m depth. The system is currently operating and results are continuously monitored.

  1. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects’ forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA and baseline (BL tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  2. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  3. Applied estimation for hybrid dynamical systems using perceptional information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Aaron M.

    This dissertation uses the motivating example of robotic tracking of mobile deep ocean animals to present innovations in robotic perception and estimation for hybrid dynamical systems. An approach to estimation for hybrid systems is presented that utilizes uncertain perceptional information about the system's mode to improve tracking of its mode and continuous states. This results in significant improvements in situations where previously reported methods of estimation for hybrid systems perform poorly due to poor distinguishability of the modes. The specific application that motivates this research is an automatic underwater robotic observation system that follows and films individual deep ocean animals. A first version of such a system has been developed jointly by the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). This robotic observation system is successfully fielded on MBARI's ROVs, but agile specimens often evade the system. When a human ROV pilot performs this task, one advantage that he has over the robotic observation system in these situations is the ability to use visual perceptional information about the target, immediately recognizing any changes in the specimen's behavior mode. With the approach of the human pilot in mind, a new version of the robotic observation system is proposed which is extended to (a) derive perceptional information (visual cues) about the behavior mode of the tracked specimen, and (b) merge this dissimilar, discrete and uncertain information with more traditional continuous noisy sensor data by extending existing algorithms for hybrid estimation. These performance enhancements are enabled by integrating techniques in hybrid estimation, computer vision and machine learning. First, real-time computer vision and classification algorithms extract a visual observation of the target's behavior mode. Existing hybrid estimation algorithms are extended to admit this uncertain but discrete

  4. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  5. The Analysis of Solar - Fuel Cell Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchar, Justin

    As the demand for renewable and alternative energy continues to increase with both large industrial companies and average homeowners, there continues to be a challenge of efficient energy storage. Several main alternative energy producers such as wind turbines, hydroelectric dams, and solar photovoltaic arrays have become more commonly used over the past decade for generating energy. One of the most common issues with these alternative energy producers is the intermittent production and supply of energy due to fluctuations in weather conditions, peak loads, and instantaneous power draw. To counteract these issues, storage units such as battery banks and proton exchange membrane fuel cells are introduced to provide electricity for the unmet energy demands. In this study, a solar photovoltaic array and fuel cell hybrid system has been set up to provide the energy needs for an average Arizona residential household. A bench test setup has revealed that a solar photovoltaic array and the fuel cell hybrid system can produce enough energy to power an Arizona household that on average consumes 37.7 kWh/d. Additionally, a Mathworks MATLAB/Simulink model of the hybrid system has been created to simulate specific scenarios which provide insight into the system's reaction to various conditions such as varying solar irradiance and temperature variables and poor weather conditions. Finally, the economic impact of the hybrid system was simulated using HOMER Legacy to analyze the cost effectiveness of a 25-year project.

  6. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  7. Focus on hybrid magnetic/superconducting systems Focus on hybrid magnetic/superconducting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Lance; Moshchalkov, Victor; Li, Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Like antagonistic cousins from a common heritage, the competition between superconductivity and magnetism for correlated electron states, and coexistence in some rare cases, produces a rich variety of physical behavior, useful materials, and technologically important properties. Many pages of Superconductor Science and Technology are devoted to cuprates, pnictides, and other compounds where the mechanism of superconductivity itself is intertwined with magnetism. This focus issue explores another area, in which superconductivity and magnetism are combined as a hybrid system to create new properties not possible with either system alone, or to improve upon the properties of either system in dramatic ways. In recent years, great progress has been made in this exciting, relatively new field, followed by many workshops and special sessions in major international conferences. A concise and up-to-date focus issue of Superconductor Science and Technology is timely to summarize the latest developments. We, the Guest Editors, would like to thank those colleagues who contributed their most recent and interesting findings to this focus issue: Silhanek and co-workers reported both theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of vortex chains for different arrangements of magnetic moments. Their approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism now replaces the previously proposed empirical models to explain the most relevant properties of the dynamics of these S/F hybrid systems. Hikino and co-workers presented a new route to observe the spin-wave excitation by the Josephson effect, through a theoretical investigation of the resistively shunted junction model, extended by considering the gauge invariance including magnetization. When the magnetization is driven by the microwave adjusted to the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, the dc supercurrent is induced in the junction, and the current-voltage curve shows step structures as a function of applied voltage

  8. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  10. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  11. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  13. Viewpoint Development of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Bujorianu, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the explosive spreading of networked and highly distributed systems, mastering system complexity becomes a critical issue. Two development and verification paradigms have become more popular: viewpoints and randomisation. The viewpoints offer large freedom and introduce concurrency

  14. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility. (MOW)

  15. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  16. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller to unknown control targets is also tested. Further, a comparison with another type of controller, a lookahead controller, is conducted, with advantages and disadvantages of each discussed. The comparison sheds light on which type of controller representation is a better choice to use in various stages of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research.

  17. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  18. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  19. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hybrid synchronization; complex network; information source; chaotic system. PACS Nos 05.45.−a; 05.45.Gg; 05.45.Xt. 1. Introduction. In the past several decades, synchronization has attracted increasing attention in the field of complex network. The chaotic synchronization on a complex network has been inves-.

  20. Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that

  1. Toward a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Blom, H.A.P.; Lygeros, J.

    In this chapter we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that

  2. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  3. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Dynamic load management and optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplani, E.; Ntafogiannis, P.; Pappas, K.; Diamantopoulos, N.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation algorithms for the sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/Wind systems are a powerful tool in evaluating the optimum configuration that would cover the energy demand with a predefined reliability level at the lowest cost. Several parameters such as the interval of the simulation (day, day-night, hourly) and the consumption profile may significantly affect the optimum configuration. This paper examines the effect of these parameters within an optimum sizing simulation algorithm developed. The effect of these parameters was particularly evident at low battery capacities, which involve optimum configurations resulting in minimum cost. Furthermore, shift-able loads in the hourly-based weekly profile assumed in this study were identified, and a dynamic load management functionality was developed. In this approach, loads that could be shifted through time were dynamically allocated during periods of excess energy production by the hybrid PV/Wind system. The results showed an increase in system reliability from 95% to 97% when load shifting was introduced. Finally, sizing the system for only the static (non-shift-able loads) proved to withstand the addition of the extra shift-able loads while retaining the 95% reliability level when the load management functionality was introduced. Thus, a smaller installation with lower cost is achieved.

  5. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  6. Towards a Real-Time Embedded System for Water Monitoring Installed in a Robotic Sailboat

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Andouglas Goncalves; de Lima Sa, Sarah Thomaz; dos Santos, Davi Henrique; de Negreiros, Álvaro Pinto Ferrnandes; de Souza Silva, João Moreno Vilas Boas; Álvarez Jácobo, Justo Emílio; Garcia Gonçalves, Luiz Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Problems related to quality (and quantity) of water in natural resources or in artificial reservoirs are frequently arising and are at the center of attention of authorities and governments around the world. Many times the monitoring is not performed in an efficient time frame and a precise manner, whereas the adoption of fast and punctual solutions would undoubtedly improve the water quality and consequently enhance the life of people. To minimize or diminish such kinds of problems, we propose an architecture for sensors installed in a robotic platform, an autonomous sail boat, able to acquire raw data relative to water quality, to process and make them available to people that might be interested in such information. The main contributions are the sensors architecture itself, which uses low cost sensors, with practical experimentation done with a prototype. Results show data collected for points in lakes and rivers in the northeast of Brazil. This embedded system is fixed in the sailboat robot with the intention to facilitate the study of water quality for long endurance missions. This robot can help monitoring water bodies in a more consistent manner. Nonetheless the system can also be used with fixed vases or buoys in strategic points. PMID:27509506

  7. Towards a Real-Time Embedded System for Water Monitoring Installed in a Robotic Sailboat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andouglas Goncalves da Silva Junior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to quality (and quantity of water in natural resources or in artificial reservoirs are frequently arising and are at the center of attention of authorities and governments around the world. Many times the monitoring is not performed in an efficient time frame and a precise manner, whereas the adoption of fast and punctual solutions would undoubtedly improve the water quality and consequently enhance the life of people. To minimize or diminish such kinds of problems, we propose an architecture for sensors installed in a robotic platform, an autonomous sail boat, able to acquire raw data relative to water quality, to process and make them available to people that might be interested in such information. The main contributions are the sensors architecture itself, which uses low cost sensors, with practical experimentation done with a prototype. Results show data collected for points in lakes and rivers in the northeast of Brazil. This embedded system is fixed in the sailboat robot with the intention to facilitate the study of water quality for long endurance missions. This robot can help monitoring water bodies in a more consistent manner. Nonetheless the system can also be used with fixed vases or buoys in strategic points.

  8. Using information management systems to support waste minimization at US Army installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R.S.; Butner, R.S.; Callaway, J.W.; Levine, L.O.

    1990-04-01

    The Army's to reduce hazardous waste generation emphasize reduction at the source. Waste minimization and environmental regulatory compliance are also being integrated into strategies and activities aimed at modernization of industrial operations. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition (ASARDA) is conducting a Hazardous Waste Intervention study to understand and evaluate the existing operations and to assess waste minimization opportunities. The overall ASARDA study consists of several teams working on various aspects of hazardous waste intervention at Army installations. The first team is investigating methods of minimizing hazardous waste by modifying the acquisition cycle. This effort is aimed at reducing the generation of hazardous waste by reducing the number and the quantities of hazardous materials that are specified in program and product development. A second team is investigating the technological aspects of waste minimization. Finally, a third team is investigating opportunities for waste minimization by better managing the life-cycle of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The third team is involved in several tasks, including evaluating the feasibility of using Information Management Systems (IMS) to support waste minimization. This paper summarizes the primary conclusions and recommendations from the information management system evaluation portion of PNL's work.

  9. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  10. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  11. HYBRID SHEARWALL SYSTEM — SHEAR STRENGTH AT THE INTERFACE CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wirth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a series of alternating, displacement-controlled load tests on ten one-third scale models, to study the behaviour of the interface of a hybrid shear wall system, it was proved that the concept of hybrid construction in earthquake prone regions is feasible. The hybrid shear-wall system consists of typical reinforced concrete shear walls with composite edge members or flanges. Ten different anchorage bar arrangements were developed and tested to evaluate the column-shearwall interface behaviour under cyclic shear forces acting along the interface between column and wall panel. Finite element models of the test specimens were developed that were capable of capturing the integrated concrete and reinforcing steel behaviour in the wall panels. Special models were  developed to capture the interface behaviour between the edge columns and the shear wall. A comparison between the experimental results and the numerical results shows excellent agreement, and clearly supports the validity of the model developed for predicting the non-linear response of the hybrid wall system under various load conditions.

  12. Control of Rate-Bounded Hybrid Systems with Liveness Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Michael; Lin, Feng; Meyer, George

    1998-01-01

    In the present paper we examine the control problem for a class of composite hybrid machines (CHMs) that consist of concurrent operation (employing synchronous composition) of elementary hybrid machines (EHMs), that allows both signal sharing and event synchronization. A controller can then be coupled with the plant by means of synchronous composition. We confine our attention to controllers that interact with the system only through event synchronization. We present an initial investigation of synthesis of liveness controllers for hybrid machines. To this end we define open hybrid machines as systems that can interact with the environment through event synchronization and can be therefor be "driven" to their marked configuration by user (controller). Liveness specifications must be associated with timing constraints. We may require that for a specified time limit, every run reach a marked configuration within that time limit. Alternatively, a more relaxed specification may be that, for some (unspecified) global time bound, every run of the system reach a marked configuration within that time bound. Finally, the least restrictive liveness requirement is that every run reach a marked configuration within a finite time limit (but we do not insist on the existence of a global time bound for all runs).

  13. Designing Networked Adaptive Interactive Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to coordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. In these systems humans and intelligent machines will, in close interaction, be able to reach their goals under

  14. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  15. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  16. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  17. H∞ Controller Design for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for the H∞ synthesis problems of asynchronous hybrid systems with input-output delays are proposed. The continuous-time lifting approach of sampled-data systems is extended to a hybrid system with multiple delays, and some feasible formulas to calculate the operators of the equivalent discrete-time (DT system are given. Different from the existing methods derived from symplectic pair theory or by state augmentation, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to solve the synthesis problem is explicitly constructed. The delay-dependent stability conditions we obtained can be described in terms of nonstrict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which are much more convenient to be solved by LMI tools.

  18. Evaluation of Supercapacitors Effects on Hybrid Energy Systems for Automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungoci, Carmen; Helerea, Elena

    This work aims at evaluating the effects of the supercapacitors presence in hybrid energy systems used in automotive. The design and the electrical schema of a hybrid energy system that contains batteries and supercapacitors and propel a synchronous motor are purposed. The motor operating regime is described, detailing the drive evolution of the cycle speed imposed. In these conditions, to model the systems behavior, simulations developed in Matlab/Simulink environment are carried out. Two energies management strategies for the ensemble energy system-motor are implemented. Simulations are done and the energy management is discussed, making the comparative analyses. Applying a current control strategy on the supercapacitors, under two working conditions, functional diagrams are showed and compared. The results obtained highlight the advantages of the supercapacitors.

  19. The Analysis of A Hybrid Cooling System - Phase 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuan-Hsiung

    During the first phase of study, the mathematical modelling and the performance of the hybrid cooling system using solid desiccants were analyzed numerically. During this phase of study, the experimental investigation was conducted which yielded successful results with 5 % deviation as compared with the operational data of available commerical dehumidifiers. Furthmore, a prototype hybrid cooling system was actually constructed in the Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Lab of National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU), which generated good correlations with 7% deviation only, as compared with the analytical results. In other words, the good correlations obtained among the math modeling, the commercial unit operational data, and the NSYSU prototype system warrant the potential applications of this system for many industrial dehumidification and drying processes.

  20. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  1. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system via satellite link technology for remote and isolated photovoltaic - diesel hybrid power system in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prastawa, A.; Akhmad, K.; Safari, S.A. [Renewable Energy Technology Assessment Div., Center for Energy Conversion and Conservation Technology, Indonesian Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, the indonesian Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), has successfully installed 14 units of photovoltaic - diesel hybrid power plants located in 6 and 8 remote locations in Central Celebes Province, and South Eastern Celebes Province respectively. The hybrid system is designed for an automatic operation, yet a continue data monitoring is required to ensure a proper and successful operation. The data of diesel operation hour, inverter operation status, and energy produced by solar photovoltaic, battery status, and delivered to consumer are to be obtained for further assessment of optimizing the system operation. However due to the remoteness of location, it would not be practicable to obtain such data continuously. Therefore in this concern a remote data communication technique has to be considered to overcome the distance. This paper discusses the utilization of satellite data communication link to achieve the remote data communication objective. This paper also describes the measurement of essential system parameter, as well as the remote data communication configuration and interfacing equipment. The remote communication involves the SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) operation via a service of a commercial satellite communication provider, which provides daily data of hybrid system performance. The data is collected at local data logger, and remotely downloaded from Jakarta. As a final remarks, in this paper revealed that the application of remote SCADA for remote photovoltaic - diesel hybrid system provide a major benefit in a continuous monitoring system, responsive system troubleshooting and more importantly cost effective operation and supervisory system. (orig.)

  2. Modelling Supervisory Controller for Hybrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Alexandre De Lemos; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1999-01-01

    The modular concept described in this paper attempts to design standard supervisory controllers for different applications. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is gener...... and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals.......The modular concept described in this paper attempts to design standard supervisory controllers for different applications. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic...

  3. Abstraction and Counterexample-Guided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Edmund; Fehnker, Ansgar; Han, Zhi; Krogh, Bruce; Ouaknine, Joel; Stursberg, Olaf; Theobald, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid dynamic systems include both continuous and discrete state variables. Properties of hybrid systems, which have an infinite state space, can often be verified using ordinary model checking together with a finite-state abstraction...

  4. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  5. TU-G-201-03: Imaging Systems in Radiotherapy: Buying, Installing, and Using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This session will update therapeutic physicists on technological advancements and radiation oncology features of commercial CT, MRI, and PET/CT imaging systems. Also described are physicists’ roles in every stage of equipment selection, purchasing, and operation, including defining specifications, evaluating vendors, making recommendations, and optimal and safe use of imaging equipment in radiation oncology environment. The first presentation defines important terminology of CT and PET/CT followed by a review of latest innovations, such as metal artifact reduction, statistical iterative reconstruction, radiation dose management, tissue classification by dual energy CT and spectral CT, improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity in PET, and potentials of PET/MR. We will also discuss important technical specifications and items in CT and PET/CT purchasing quotes and their impacts. The second presentation will focus on key components in the request for proposal for a MRI simulator and how to evaluate vendor proposals. MRI safety issues in radiation Oncology, including MRI scanner Zones (4-zone design), will be discussed. Basic MR terminologies, important functionalities, and advanced features, which are relevant to radiation therapy, will be discussed. In the third presentation, justification of imaging systems for radiation oncology, considerations in room design and construction in a RO department, shared use with diagnostic radiology, staffing needs and training, clinical/research use cases and implementation, will be discussed. The emphasis will be on understanding and bridging the differences between diagnostic and radiation oncology installations, building consensus amongst stakeholders for purchase and use, and integrating imaging technologies into the radiation oncology environment. Learning Objectives: Learn the latest innovations of major imaging systems relevant to radiation therapy Be able to describe important technical specifications of CT, MRI

  6. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... trajectory of the book is directed by a movement aimed at addressing a series of basic questions that get at the heart of what installation art is and how it is defined: How does installation structure time, space and representation? How does it address and engage its viewers? And how does it draw...

  7. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  8. Modeling a PV-FC-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javadpoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical grid expansion onto remote areas is often not cost-effective and/or technologically feasible. Thus, isolated electrical systems are preferred in such cases. This paper focuses on a hybrid photovoltaic (PV-hydrogen/fuel cell (FC system which basic components include a PV, a FC, alkaline water electrolysis and a hydrogen gas tank. To increase the response rate, supercapacitors or small batteries are usually employed in such systems. This study focuses on the dynamics of the system. In the suggested structure, the PV is used as the main source of power. The FC is connected to the load in parallel with the PV by a transducer in order to inject the differential power while reducing power generation in relation to power consumption. An electrolyzer is used to convert the surplus power to hydrogen. This study studies a conventional hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell system to evaluate different loading behaviors. Software modeling is done for the suggested hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  9. Radiation protection system installation for the accelerator production of tritium/low energy demonstration accelerator project (APT/LEDA)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmarth, J E; Tomei, T L

    2000-01-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los-Alamos Neutron- Science-Center-(LANSCE)-designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, ta...

  10. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Shanna; Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C G; Djordjevic, Milena; Cerovic, Radosav; Houston, Libby; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2013-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are key processes in plant evolution and are responsible for ongoing genetic diversification in the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). The Avon Gorge, Bristol, UK, is a world 'hotspot' for Sorbus diversity and home to diploid sexual species and polyploid apomictic species. This research investigated how mating system variation, hybridization and polyploidy interact to generate this biological diversity. Mating systems of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Sorbus taxa were analysed using pollen tube growth and seed set assays from controlled pollinations, and parent-offspring genotyping of progeny from open and manual pollinations. Diploid Sorbus are outcrossing and self-incompatible (SI). Triploid taxa are pseudogamous apomicts and genetically invariable, but because they also display self-incompatibility, apomictic seed set requires pollen from other Sorbus taxa - a phenomenon which offers direct opportunities for hybridization. In contrast tetraploid taxa are pseudogamous but self-compatible, so do not have the same obligate requirement for intertaxon pollination. The mating inter-relationships among Avon Gorge Sorbus taxa are complex and are the driving force for hybridization and ongoing genetic diversification. In particular, the presence of self-incompatibility in triploid pseudogamous apomicts imposes a requirement for interspecific cross-pollination, thereby facilitating continuing diversification and evolution through rare sexual hybridization events. This is the first report of naturally occurring pseudogamous apomictic SI plant populations, and we suggest that interspecific pollination, in combination with a relaxed endosperm balance requirement, is the most likely route to the persistence of these populations. We propose that Avon Gorge Sorbus represents a model system for studying the establishment and persistence of SI apomicts in natural populations.

  11. Experiences from the Roadrunner petascale hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sancho Pitarch, Jose C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barker, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peraza, Josh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flexible microprocessors (AMD Opterons) with high-performing accelerators (IBM PowerXCell 8i) resulted in the extremely powerful Roadrunner system. Many challenges in both hardware and software were overcome to achieve its goals. In this talk we detail some of the experiences in achieving performance on the Roadrunner system. In particular we examine several implementations of the kernel application, Sweep3D, using a work-queue approach, a more portable Thread-building-blocks approach, and an MPI on the accelerator approach.

  12. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  13. Chip-scale hybrid optical sensing systems using digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Yeon; Borah, Deva K

    2009-01-05

    We propose a novel hybrid optical sensing system for standalone, chip-scale sensing applications. The hybrid optical sensing system detects any spectral shift of the microresonator sensor output by estimating the effective refractive index using maximum likelihood estimation. The performance evaluation of the proposed hybrid sensing system in the Gaussian-noise dominant environment shows excellent estimation accuracy. This innovative approach allows fully functional integrated hybrid sensing systems, offering great potential in various chip-scale sensing applications.

  14. Integration of renewable energy systems to residential installations; Integracao de sistemas de energia renovavel a instalacoes residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marujo, Raquel; Simoes, Teresa; Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    The micro generation residential systems which produce energy from renewable sources need specific legislation and tools to identify the potentials and the feasibility to implant technological solutions adapted to urban environment. Examples of implementation of wind, photovoltaic and hybrid systems in a building are analyzed, with debates about energy and economic aspects.

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  16. Recent advances on hybrid approaches for designing intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Pedrycz, Witold; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains pape...

  17. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  18. HYBRID COOLING SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... phase alone. The enhanced cooling rate yielded speed increase in production by about 65%. The system also reduced the level of noise due to air blast at the press by limiting the use of compressed air. This cooling unit could also be used in iron and steel industries. NOTATION m liquid-to-air mass flow ...

  19. A Review of Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setare Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of research activities and different types of studies in brain-computer interface (BCI systems show potential in this young research area. Research teams have studied features of different data acquisition techniques, brain activity patterns, feature extraction techniques, methods of classifications, and many other aspects of a BCI system. However, conventional BCIs have not become totally applicable, due to the lack of high accuracy, reliability, low information transfer rate, and user acceptability. A new approach to create a more reliable BCI that takes advantage of each system is to combine two or more BCI systems with different brain activity patterns or different input signal sources. This type of BCI, called hybrid BCI, may reduce disadvantages of each conventional BCI system. In addition, hybrid BCIs may create more applications and possibly increase the accuracy and the information transfer rate. However, the type of BCIs and their combinations should be considered carefully. In this paper, after introducing several types of BCIs and their combinations, we review and discuss hybrid BCIs, different possibilities to combine them, and their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Hybrid system calibration for multidimensional magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gladiss, A.; Graeser, M.; Szwargulski, P.; Knopp, T.; Buzug, T. M.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging visualizes the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Because of its key features of excellent sensitivity, high temporal and spatial resolution and biocompatibility of the tracer material it can be used in multiple medical imaging applications. The common reconstruction technique for Lissajous-type trajectories uses a system matrix that has to be previously acquired in a time-consuming calibration scan, leading to long downtimes of the scanning device. In this work, the system matrix is determined by a hybrid approach. Using the hybrid system matrix for reconstruction, the calibration downtime of the scanning device can be neglected. Furthermore, the signal to noise ratio of the hybrid system matrix is much higher, since the size of the required nanoparticle sample can be chosen independently of the desired voxel size. As the signal to noise ratio influences the reconstruction process, the resulting images have better resolution and are less affected by artefacts. Additionally, a new approach is introduced to address the background signal in image reconstruction. The common technique of subtraction of the background signal is replaced by extending the system matrix with an entry that represents the background. It is shown that this approach reduces artefacts in the reconstructed images.

  1. Geographic epidemiology of gonorrhoea and chlamydia on a large military installation: application of a GIS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, J; Glass, G; Shields, T; Jenkins, P; Gaydos, J; McKee, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The geographic epidemiology of infectious diseases can help in identifying point source outbreaks, elucidating dispersion patterns, and giving direction to control strategies. We sought to establish a geographic information system (GIS) infectious disease surveillance system at a large US military post (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) using STDs as the initial outcome for the model. Methods: Addresses of incident cases were plotted onto digitised base maps of Fort Bragg (for on-post addresses) and surrounding Cumberland County, NC (for off-post addresses) using MAPINFO Version 5. We defined 26 geographic sectors on the installation. Active duty soldiers attending the post preventive medicine clinic were enrolled between July 1998 and June 1999. Results: Gonorrhoea (GC) was diagnosed in 210/2854 (7.4%) and chlamydia (CT) in 445/2860 (15.6%). African-American male soldiers were at higher risk for GC (OR = 4.6 (95% CL 3.0 to 7.2)) and chlamydia (OR = 2.0 (1.4 to 2.7)). For women, there were no ethnic differences in gonorrhoea prevalence, but chlamydia was higher in African-Americans (OR = 2.0 (1.4–2.7)). Rank and housing type were associated with gonorrhoea and chlamydia in men, but were not significant factors in women. For gonorrhoea, two geographic sectors had prevalences between 14.0%–16.5%, three between 10.3%–13.9%, three between 7.1%–10.2%, and five between 3.0%–7.1%.. The geographic distribution demonstrated a core-like pattern where the highest sectors were contiguous and were sectors containing barracks housing lower enlisted grade personnel. In contrast, chlamydia prevalence was narrowly distributed. Conclusion: GIS based disease surveillance was easily and rapidly implemented in this setting and should be useful in developing preventive interventions. PMID:11872858

  2. Laser fusion hybrid reactor systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The work was performed in three phases. The first phase included a review of the many possible laser-reactor-blanket combinations and resulted in the selection of a ''demonstration size'' 500 MWe plant for further study. A number of fast fission blankets using uranium metal, uranium-molybdenum alloy, and uranium carbide as fuel were investigated. The second phase included design of the reactor vessel and internals, heat transfer system, tritium processing system, and the balance of plant, excluding the laser building and equipment. A fuel management scheme was developed, safety considerations were reviewed, and capital and operating costs were estimated. Costs developed during the second phase were unexpectedly high, and a thorough review indicated considerable unit cost savings could be obtained by scaling the plant to a larger size. Accordingly, a third phase was added to the original scope, encompassing the redesign and scaling of the plant from 500 MWe to 1200 MWe (less lasers).

  3. Hybrid illumination systems for a brigth future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels of cosnsump......Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels...... of cosnsumption of 1990. To really get some savings, further improvements have to be done in the area of illumination systems. Our current research is aiming on fiinding- from an eco-designg perspective- precisly those alternative technological systems. Expected results: Withthe cooperation...

  4. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William OBrien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Installation procedures for the single family residential solar heating system at the William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota, are presented. The system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. Information is also given on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements and routine and schedule maintenance.

  5. Estimation and Control of Nonlinear and Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-14

    FSMP). The state space of a Furthermore, define the M x N matriz V and the N x M matrx U hybrid system is a cross-product space of a Euclidean space and...fast states of the group when # = O(e), (iii) the system can be approximated as an averaged value of the system matriz over all their values based on the...consider over all admissible res- Given the system (1)-(2), the corresrponding transfer funcion alizazious. Sinc minimal realizations ame not required to

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  7. Reduction of Airborne Bacterial Burden in the OR by Installation of Unidirectional Displacement Airflow (UDF) Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Thieves, Martin; Hirsch, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Hubert, Helmine; Beppler, Steffen; Seipp, Hans-Martin

    2015-08-13

    Intraoperative bacterial contamination is a major risk factor for postoperative wound infections. This study investigated the influence of type of ventilation system on intraoperative airborne bacterial burden before and after installation of unidirectional displacement air flow systems. We microbiologically monitored 1286 surgeries performed by a single surgical team that moved from operating rooms (ORs) equipped with turbulent mixing ventilation (TMV, according to standard DIN-1946-4 [1999], ORs 1, 2, and 3) to ORs with unidirectional displacement airflow (UDF, according to standard DIN-1946-4, annex D [2008], ORs 7 and 8). The airborne bacteria were collected intraoperatively with sedimentation plates. After incubation for 48 h, we analyzed the average number of bacteria per h, peak values, and correlation to surgery duration. In addition, we compared the last 138 surgeries in ORs 1-3 with the first 138 surgeries in ORs 7 and 8. Intraoperative airborne bacterial burden was 5.4 CFU/h, 5.5 CFU/h, and 6.1 CFU/h in ORs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Peak values of burden were 10.7 CFU/h, 11.1 CFU/h, and 11.0 CFU/h in ORs 1, 2, and 3, respectively). With the UDF system, the intraoperative airborne bacterial burden was reduced to 0.21 CFU/h (OR 7) and 0.35 CFU/h (OR 8) on average (pUDF system in ORs 7 and 8 kept bacterial levels constantly low (<3 CFU/h). A comparison of the last 138 surgeries before with the first 138 surgeries after changing ORs revealed a 94% reduction in average airborne bacterial burden (5 CFU/h vs. 0.29 CFU/h, p<0.01). The unidirectional displacement airflow, which fulfills the requirements of standard DIN-1946-4 annex D of 2008, is an effective ventilation system that reduces airborne bacterial burden under real clinical conditions by more than 90%. Although decreased postoperative wound infection incidence was not specifically assessed, it is clear that airborne microbiological burden contributes to surgical infections.

  8. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  9. Hybrid Power System for Remote Communications Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    2 ft ft ft -. .0 .0 IA .0 VINO ft Vt VI VI I............... ILl *VI - I Vt - 8* VI I Vt VI Vt Vt Vi ft ft ft ft - 4 I 0 a -.m WILl .4 I-C II) I ft...Electrical Code, New Mexico University, Las Cruces, November 1992. 35. Sandia Laboratories, Maintenance and Operation of Stand- Alone Photovoltaic Systems...Albuquerque, New Mexico , December 1991. 36. Palz, W., Solar Electricity, Chapel River Press, Andover, England, 1980. 37. Boes, E.C., "Photovoltaic

  10. Integrated Hybrid System Architecture for Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Gary P.; Fonseca, Daniel J.; Ray, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual design has been announced of an expert-system computer program, and the development of a prototype of the program, intended for use as a project-management tool. The program integrates schedule and risk data for the purpose of determining the schedule applications of safety risks and, somewhat conversely, the effects of changes in schedules on changes on safety. It is noted that the design has been delivered to a NASA client and that it is planned to disclose the design in a conference presentation.

  11. Engineering resonance dynamics of plasmon hybridized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodigala, Ashok; Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control resonances is crucial in advancing applications of plasmonics ranging from chemical and biological sensing at the single molecule level to on-chip communication via fully optical interconnects. To this end, a method employing an effective Hamiltonian formalism is described to study and tailor resonances of plasmonic systems at optical frequencies. Using this method, we compute the complex poles of the scattering matrix and investigate resonance dynamics of coupled plasmonic bars. We show that symmetry breaking, by tailoring near-field interactions in the whole complex plane, provides a very large degree of tunability, including a controllable negative coupling regime.

  12. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  13. Modeling Hybrid Systems in the Concurrent Constraint Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Adalid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems, which combine discrete and continuous dynamics, require quality modeling languages to be either described or analyzed. The Concurrent Constraint paradigm (ccp is an expressive declarative paradigm, characterized by the use of a common constraint store to communicate and synchronize concurrent agents. In this paradigm, the information is stated in the form of constraints, in contrast to the variable/value style typical of imperative languages. Several extensions of ccp have been proposed in order to model reactive systems. One of these extensions is the Timed Concurrent Constraint Language (tccp that adds to ccp a notion of discrete time and new features to model time-out and preemption actions. The goal of this paper is to explore the expressive power of tccp to describe hybrid systems. We introduce the language Hy-tccp as a conservative extension of tccp, by adding a notion of continuous time and new constructs to describe the continuous dynamics of hybrid systems. In this paper, we present the syntax and the operational semantics of Hy-tccp together with some examples that show the expressive power of our new language.

  14. Measurement and Analysis of Power in Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Keshri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application with renewable energy  sources  such   as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar-wind power generation. Consumers prefer quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor.   To   obtain   quality   power   we   have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topology which improves power quality. This paper presents modeling analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI to be connected between sources, which supplies energy from a hybrid solar wind energy system to the ac grid. The objective of this paper is to show that, with an adequate control, the converter not only can transfer the dc from hybrid solar wind energy system, but also can improve the power factor and quality power of electrical system. Whenever a disturbance occurs on load side, this disturbance can be minimized using open loop and closed loop control systems.

  15. InterTechnology Corporation report of solar energy systems installation costs for selected commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    The results of a study in which the primary objective was to determine actual costs associated with the installation of solar collector and thermal energy storage subsystems in specific non-residential building applications are presented. A secondary objective of the study was to assemble details of existing solar collector and storage subsystem installations, including caveats concerning cost estimating, logistics and installation practices. The study began with the development of an exhaustive listing and compilation of basic data and contacts for non-residential applications of solar heating and cooling of buildings. Both existing projects and those under construction were surveyed. Survey summary sheets for each project encountered are provided as a separate appendix. Subsequently, the rationale used to select the projects studied in-depth is presented. The results of each of the detailed studies are then provided along with survey summary sheets for each of the projects studied. Installation cost data are summarized and the significance of the differences and similarities between the reported projects is discussed. After evaluating the data obtained from the detailed studies, methods for reducing installation labor costs are postulated based on the experience of the study. Some of the methods include modularization of collectors, preplumbing and preinsulating, and collector placement procedures. Methods of cost reduction and a summary discussion of prominent problems encountered in the projects are considered.(WHK)

  16. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  17. Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Hayat Khan Tareen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model

  18. Battery monitoring in Mexican hybrid power systems; Monitoreo de las baterias en sistemas de potencia hibridos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Agredano, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Hybrid power systems for an autonomous power supply are based on different renewable and fossil energy sources. They are considered as a good option for the power supply of remote areas. In these systems an energy storage is a vital necessity and very often this storage will consist of batteries which are generally connected in series and parallel arrays, or both. In Mexico as in other countries, the most extensively use batteries used for this application are the stationary and electric car type deep cycle batteries. However the experience with them in these systems is generally not very good. One way to overcome this problem is to maintain a regular monitoring of installing monitoring equipment, in order to make preventive actions before a developing fault can have serious consequences and in this manner increase the practical lifetime of the batteries. Unfortunately, battery monitoring is not easy task because most of the hybrid power systems are installed in remote areas which makes it difficult and expensive. In Mexico it has been not possible to maintain a regular monitoring of all hybrid power systems installed, due to the high cost of this work and the lack of founds. The hybrid power systems installed in the state of Quintana Roo are the only systems that have been continuously monitored since their installation. This paper gives an overview of the hybrid power systems installed in Mexico, focusing in the battery banks, the way they are being monitored, the main parameters used to detect possible premature problems and the method used to evaluate the battery bank conditions. Finally some results from the battery banks monitoring activities are presented. [Espanol] Los sistemas de potencia hibridos para un suministro autonomo de energia a regiones remotas, estan basados en diferentes fuentes de energia fosiles y renovables. Estos son considerados como una buena opcion para el suministro de energia a areas remotas. En estos sistemas es una necesidad vital el

  19. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  20. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  1. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations......, the proposal extends a hybrid tag-based recommender system with a semantic factor, which looks for tag relations in different semantic sources. In order to evaluate the benefits acquired with the semantic extension, we have compared the new findings with results from a previous experiment involving 38 people......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. This paper proposes a semantic...

  2. Installation of Ion Beam Facility with Mass Production System for Industrial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Young; Lee, Jae Sang; Kim, Yong Gi; Min, Yi Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae Han [Shinki Intermobile Co., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Electroplated baths produce hexavalent chromium, restricted by environmental legislation. Therefore the development of alternative processes is required. The ion beam process has been known to be environmentally friendly because the processing is done in a vacuum environment and only a small addition of the elements is required to change the optical properties of the polymeric components effectively. In earlier stage of study, it had been studied the change of PC/ABS polymer (polycarbonate (PC) / acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)) surface glossiness after ion beam irradiation. As a result, surface degradations can be prevented or greatly reduced under long term UV (Ultra-violet) and visible light exposure test. To apply manufacturing of industrial products, we designed and installed ion beam equipment with mass production system which is the simplest and most economical process for economic feasibility. The objective of the study is the development of a ion beam accelerator with about 90keV/30mA used for industrial applications on the basis of experiences obtained from the construction of the DuoPIGatron ion source and acceleration tube. Also, We submitted design approval and received its confirmation for sale from KINS (Korea Institute Nuclear Safety). A ion beam facility with beam energy of 90keV and current 30mA had designed and constructed for industrial application. Design and construction of the ion beam facility, Design and construction of ion source and acceleration tube. No-load discharge test for arcing and beam extraction test for 90keV/30mA, Design approval acquisition from KINS for sale.

  3. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  4. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the pro...

  5. Hybrid Predictive Models for Accurate Forecasting in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mussetta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate forecasting of energy production from renewable sources represents an important topic also looking at different national authorities that are starting to stimulate a greater responsibility towards plants using non-programmable renewables. In this paper the authors use advanced hybrid evolutionary techniques of computational intelligence applied to photovoltaic systems forecasting, analyzing the predictions obtained by comparing different definitions of the forecasting error.

  6. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  7. Stabilization of Finite Automata with Application to Hybrid Systems Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Imura, Jun-ichi; Hiraishi, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the state feedback stabilization problem of a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), and its application to stabilizing model predictive control (MPC) of hybrid systems. In the modeling of a DFA, a linear state equation representation recently proposed by the authors is used. First, this representation is briefly explained. Next, after the notion of equilibrium points and stabilizability of the DFA are defined, a necessary and sufficient condition for the DFA to be stabili...

  8. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  9. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  10. Severe Slugging in Air-Water Hybrid Riser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the subsea pipeline gathering system, severe slugging flow is prone to occur. Severe slugging flow brings major threat to production and flow assurance in oil and gas industry due to periodical pressure oscillation and large liquid volume. Currently many researchers pay much more attention on L-shaped riser, catenaries, and S-shaped riser; little research has been made on hybrid riser, which is applied in the Africa West and Gulf of Mexico oil fields. Flow characteristics simulation for hybrid riser is made in this paper, using the one-dimensional and quasi-equilibrium model to simulate not only the riser-base pressure, severe slugging period, and the liquid slug length of the whole system but also base-pressure in the flexible pipe section. The calculated results match well with the experiment data. Besides, the influence of flexible pipe to the severe slugging characteristics of hybrid riser system is analyzed, which are significant for the determination of riser structure.

  11. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  12. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  13. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  14. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Ravn, Anders P.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty...... outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeated until the fault is detected by a passive diagnoser. It is demonstrated how the generated excitation signal...

  15. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  16. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaji Assadi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of the thermal performance was done, using the solar ray-tracing model provided by the ANSYS-FLUENT software.

  17. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  19. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  20. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report documents a trial installation of LED apron lighting that replaced the existing high-pressure sodium luminaires at Philadelphia International Airport. Such high-mast applications remain challenging for LED technology, and the lessons learned from this project may help facility managers and LED product manufacturers better meet those challenges.

  1. Installing Snowplow Cameras and Integrating Images into MnDOT's Traveler Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 2015 and 2016, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) installed network video dash- and ceiling-mounted cameras on 226 snowplows, approximately one-quarter of MnDOT's total snowplow fleet. The cameras were integrated with the onboard m...

  2. Using a Configuration System to Design Toilets and Place Installation Shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2013-01-01

    a bathroom configurator to architects. The aim of the configurator is to help architects design a bathroom according to relevent requirements and norms. In offering the configurator, the firm aims to enable a design that can be coordinated with a prefabricated installation shaft sold by the firm, and also...

  3. Multi-criteria assessment of hybrid renewable energy systems for Nigeria's coastline communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E O Diemuodeke; S Hamilton; A Addo

    2016-01-01

    ... the climate change in this country. Methods The HOMER hybrid optimisation software and multi-criteria decision-making, based on the TOPSIS algorithm, were used to determine the best hybrid energy system...

  4. An online hybrid BCI system based on SSVEP and EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Cinetto, Andrea; Wang, Yijun; Chen, Xiaogang; Gao, Shangkai; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-04-01

    Objective. A hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device combined with at least one other communication system that takes advantage of both parts to build a link between humans and machines. To increase the number of targets and the information transfer rate (ITR), electromyogram (EMG) and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) were combined to implement a hybrid BCI. A multi-choice selection method based on EMG was developed to enhance the system performance. Approach. A 60-target hybrid BCI speller was built in this study. A single trial was divided into two stages: a stimulation stage and an output selection stage. In the stimulation stage, SSVEP and EMG were used together. Every stimulus flickered at its given frequency to elicit SSVEP. All of the stimuli were divided equally into four sections with the same frequency set. The frequency of each stimulus in a section was different. SSVEPs were used to discriminate targets in the same section. Different sections were classified using EMG signals from the forearm. Subjects were asked to make different number of fists according to the target section. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and mean filtering was used to classify SSVEP and EMG separately. In the output selection stage, the top two optimal choices were given. The first choice with the highest probability of an accurate classification was the default output of the system. Subjects were required to make a fist to select the second choice only if the second choice was correct. Main results. The online results obtained from ten subjects showed that the mean accurate classification rate and ITR were 81.0% and 83.6 bits min-1 respectively only using the first choice selection. The ITR of the hybrid system was significantly higher than the ITR of any of the two single modalities (EMG: 30.7 bits min-1, SSVEP: 60.2 bits min-1). After the addition of the second choice selection and the correction task, the accurate classification rate and ITR was

  5. Application of MIMO Techniques in sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, X.; Yue, X.; Liu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-12-01

    The sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system contains of the sky wave transmission stations at different sites and several surface wave radar stations. The subject comes from the national 863 High-tech Project of China. The hybrid sky-surface wave system and the HF surface wave system work simultaneously and the HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) can work in multi-static and surface-wave networking mode. Compared with the single mode radar system, this system has advantages of better detection performance at the far ranges in ocean dynamics parameters inversion. We have applied multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) techniques in this sea-state radar system. Based on the multiple channel and non-causal transmit beam-forming techniques, the MIMO radar architecture can reduce the size of the receiving antennas and simplify antenna installation. Besides, by efficiently utilizing the system's available degrees of freedom, it can provide a feasible approach for mitigating multipath effect and Doppler-spread clutter in Over-the-horizon Radar. In this radar, slow-time phase-coded MIMO method is used. The transmitting waveforms are phase-coded in slow-time so as to be orthogonal after Doppler processing at the receiver. So the MIMO method can be easily implemented without the need to modify the receiver hardware. After the radar system design, the MIMO experiments of this system have been completed by Wuhan University during 2015 and 2016. The experiment used Wuhan multi-channel ionospheric sounding system(WMISS) as sky-wave transmitting source and three dual-frequency HFSWR developed by the Oceanography Laboratory of Wuhan University. The transmitter system located at Chongyang with five element linear equi-spaced antenna array and Wuhan with one log-periodic antenna. The RF signals are generated by synchronized, but independent digital waveform generators - providing complete flexibility in element phase and amplitude control, and waveform type and parameters

  6. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... trajectory of the book is directed by a movement aimed at addressing a series of basic questions that get at the heart of what installation art is and how it is defined: How does installation structure time, space and representation? How does it address and engage its viewers? And how does it draw...... in the surrounding world to become part of the work? Featuring the work of such well-known artists as Bruce Nauman, Pipilotti Rist, Ilya Kabakov and many others, this book breaks crucial new ground in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of this multifarious art form....

  7. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  8. Hybrid networking sensing system for structural health monitoring of a concrete cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Chien, Ting-Chou; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is the remote structural health monitoring to identify the torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes of a concrete cable-stayed bridge using a hybrid networking sensing system. The system consists of one data aggregation unit, which is daisy-chained to one or more sensing nodes. A wireless interface is used between the data aggregation units, whereas a wired interface is used between a data aggregation unit and the sensing nodes. Each sensing node is equipped with high-precision MEMS accelerometers with adjustable sampling frequency from 0.2 Hz to 1.2 kHz. The entire system was installed inside the reinforced concrete box-girder deck of Hwamyung Bridge, which is a cable stayed bridge in Busan, South Korea, to protect the system from the harsh environmental conditions. This deployment makes wireless communication a challenge due to the signal losses and the high levels of attenuation. To address these issues, the concept of hybrid networking system is introduced with the efficient local power distribution technique. The theoretical communication range of Wi-Fi is 100m. However, inside the concrete girder, the peer to peer wireless communication cannot exceed about 20m. The distance is further reduced by the line of sight between the antennas. However, the wired daisy-chained connection between sensing nodes is useful because the data aggregation unit can be placed in the optimal location for transmission. To overcome the limitation of the wireless communication range, we adopt a high-gain antenna that extends the wireless communication distance to 50m. Additional help is given by the multi-hopping data communication protocol. The 4G modem, which allows remote access to the system, is the only component exposed to the external environment.

  9. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  10. Performance and Economics of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Energy System: Naval Air Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, E. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Olsen, T. (Timothy Olsen Consulting)

    1999-07-06

    This report provides an overview of the wind resource, economics and operation of the recently installed wind turbines in conjunction with diesel power for the Naval Air Landing Field (NALF), San Clemente Island (SCI), California Project. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system is to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is also intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen-oxide emissions and other pollutants. The first two NM 225/30 225kW wind turbines were installed and started shake-down operations on February 5, 1998. This report describes the initial operational data gathered from February 1998 through January 1999, as well as the SCI wind resource and initial cost of energy provided by the wind turbines on SCI. In support of this objective, several years of data on the wind resources of San Clemente Island were collected and compared to historical data. The wind resource data were used as input to economic and feasibility studies for a wind-diesel hybrid installation for SCI.

  11. Stability of simultaneously triangularizable switched systems on hybrid domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Eisenbarth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the results of [8, 15, 22], which provide sufficient conditions for the global exponential stability of switched systems under arbitrary switching via the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function. In particular, we extend the Lie algebraic results in [15] to switched systems with hybrid non-uniform discrete and continuous domains, a direct unifying generalization of switched systems on R and Z, and extend the results in [8, 22] to a larger class of switched systems, namely those whose subsystem matrices are simultaneously triangularizable. In addition, we explore an easily checkable characterization of our required hypotheses for the theorems. Finally, conditions are provided under which there exists a stabilizing switching pattern for a collection of (not necessarily stable linear systems that are simultaneously triangularizable and separate criteria are formed which imply the stability of the system under a given switching pattern given a priori.

  12. Analysis of Non-Linear Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Assouramou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to compute, for probabilistic hybrid systems, the clock approximation and linear phase-portrait approximation that have been proposed for non probabilistic processes by Henzinger et al. The techniques permit to define a rectangular probabilistic process from a non rectangular one, hence allowing the model-checking of any class of systems. Clock approximation, which applies under some restrictions, aims at replacing a non rectangular variable by a clock variable. Linear phase-approximation applies without restriction and yields an approximation that simulates the original process. The conditions that we need for probabilistic processes are the same as those for the classic case.

  13. Bidirectional hybrid CATV/radio-over-fiber WDM transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Peng, Hsiang-Chun; Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Lin, Yi-Zsai

    2010-02-01

    A bidirectional hybrid cable antenna television (CATV)/radio-over-fiber (ROF) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system using injection locking technique to suppress the rf power degradation, tunable optical bandpass filter to generate optical single-sideband format for the CATV signal or only one optical sideband format for the ROF one, and photonic crystal fiber to reduce the net dispersion is proposed and demonstrated. Impressive performances of the carrier-to-noise ratio, the composite second-order, the composite triple beat, and the bit error rate were obtained in our proposed systems.

  14. Hybrid Networks and Risk Management in a System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    intelligent, autonomous systems and human operators in multi-domain Battle Management Networks, (i.e Command, Control, Communications, Computer and Intelligence (C4I) networks/sensor grids). However, the incorporation of intelligent and autonomous weapon systems in complex military operations introduces both...... new possibilities and new types of risk, as well as legal and ethical concerns. At the same time, the rapid acceleration and hybridization of the battlespace challenges the classical military bureaucracies and its legal-rational decision-making processes. This paper will address some of the legal...

  15. A Hybrid Shortest Path Algorithm for Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lan, Chien-Lun

    2007-12-01

    Combined with Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), the vehicle navigation system had become a quite popular product in daily life. A key component of the navigation system is the Shortest Path Algorithm. Navigation in real world must face a network consists of tens of thousands nodes and links, and even more. Under the limited computation capability of vehicle navigation equipment, it is difficult to satisfy the realtime response requirement that user expected. Hence, this study focused on shortest path algorithm that enhances the computation speed with less memory requirement. Several well-known algorithms such as Dijkstra, A* and hierarchical concepts were integrated to build hybrid algorithms that reduce searching space and improve searching speed. Numerical examples were conducted on Taiwan highway network that consists of more than four hundred thousands of links and nearly three hundred thousands of nodes. This real network was divided into two connected sub-networks (layers). The upper layer is constructed by freeways and expressways; the lower layer is constructed by local networks. Test origin-destination pairs were chosen randomly and divided into three distance categories; short, medium and long distances. The evaluation of outcome is judged by actual length and travel time. The numerical example reveals that the hybrid algorithm proposed by this research might be tens of thousands times faster than traditional Dijkstra algorithm; the memory requirement of the hybrid algorithm is also much smaller than the tradition algorithm. This outcome shows that this proposed algorithm would have an advantage over vehicle navigation system.

  16. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  17. Harmonic Resonance Damping with a Hybrid Compensation System in Power Systems with Dispersed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and a group of distributed passive filters has been studied previously. The passive filters are used for each distorting load or Dispersed Generation (DG) unit to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active...... filter is connected in parallel with the distributed passive filters and loads/DGs to correct the system unbalance and remove the remaining harmonic components. The effectiveness of the presented compensation system has also been demonstrated. This paper studies the performance of the hybrid compensation...... system under system harmonic resonance. The harmonic resonance and the characteristics of harmonic sources are briefly described. The damping effects of the active filter in the hybrid filter system are analyzed with a simplified circuit. An example system including various power electronic interfaces...

  18. Installation Restoration General Environmental Technology Development. Field Demonstration of Incinerator Feed System for Explosives-Contaminated Soils. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    AD-Al178 768’ INSTALLATION R I ?RATjOh GEERI)LENIRN fAL /~E~INOLOKimU ONN I U TNEV r) INC NUST / OFEPA r MARi ~ EAL. JAN I7 UNCLASSIID AN -, -R 91...LABORATORY P. 0. BOX 210 CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND 21501-0210 HAZARDS ANALYSIS OF INCINERATOR FEED SYSTEM JANUARY 1986 A. T. KUCERA PREPARED FOR ROY F

  19. Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Iris; Zhou, Yu Rong; Dynes, James F; Yuan, Zhiliang; Klar, Andreas; Sharpe, Andrew; Plews, Alan; Lucamarini, Marco; Radig, Christian; Neubert, Jörg; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Chunnilall, Christopher; Lepert, Guillaume; Sinclair, Alastair; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lord, Andrew; Shields, Andrew

    2014-09-22

    We present results from the first field-trial of a quantum-secured DWDM transmission system, in which quantum key distribution (QKD) is combined with 4 × 10 Gb/s encrypted data and transmitted simultaneously over 26 km of field installed fiber. QKD is used to frequently refresh the key for AES-256 encryption of the 10 Gb/s data traffic. Scalability to over 40 DWDM channels is analyzed.

  20. Time and materials needed to survey, inject systemic fungicides, and install root-graft barriers for Dutch elm disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; Charles J. Kostichka; Charles J. Kostichka

    1986-01-01

    Dutch elm disease control practice in 15 communities showed a wide range of time and material required to apply control methods. The median time used for each method was: sanitation survey, 9.8 hours per square mile; symptom survey, 96 hours per thousand elms; systemic fungicide injection, 1.4 hours per elm; and root-graft barrier installation, 2.2 hours per barrier (5...

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Wen He; Rui Xiong; Yu-Hua Chang

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UD...

  2. Neural system modeling and simulation using Hybrid Functional Petri Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Wang, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Petri net formalism has been proved to be powerful in biological modeling. It not only boasts of a most intuitive graphical presentation but also combines the methods of classical systems biology with the discrete modeling technique. Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) was proposed specially for biological system modeling. An array of well-constructed biological models using HFPN yielded very interesting results. In this paper, we propose a method to represent neural system behavior, where biochemistry and electrical chemistry are both included using the Petri net formalism. We built a model for the adrenergic system using HFPN and employed quantitative analysis. Our simulation results match the biological data well, showing that the model is very effective. Predictions made on our model further manifest the modeling power of HFPN and improve the understanding of the adrenergic system. The file of our model and more results with their analysis are available in our supplementary material.

  3. Measurability and Safety Verification for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with the interplay of randomness and continuous time is important for the formal verification of many real systems. Considering both facets is especially important for wireless sensor networks, distributed control applications, and many other systems of growing importance. An important...... traditional design and verification goal for such systems is to ensure that unsafe states can never be reached. In the stochastic setting, this translates to the question whether the probability to reach unsafe states remains tolerable. In this paper, we consider stochastic hybrid systems where the continuous...... method that establishes safe upper bounds on reachability probabilities. To arrive there requires us to solve semantic intricacies as well as practical problems. In particular, we show that measurability of a complete system follows from the measurability of its constituent parts. On the practical side...

  4. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  5. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  6. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  7. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  8. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic......Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  9. Thermopower Wave-Driven Hybrid Supercapacitor Charging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Hwang, Hayoung; Yeo, Taehan; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2016-11-16

    The development of new energy sources and harvesting methods has increased with the rapid development of multiscale wireless and portable systems. A thermopower wave (TW) is a potential portable energy source that exhibits a high power density. TWs generate electrical energy via the transport of charges inside micro- or nanostructured materials. This transport is induced by self-propagating combustion. Despite the high specific power of TWs, the generation of energy by TWs is transient, making a TW device a one-time use source, which is a critical limitation on the further advancement of this technology. Herein, we first report the development of a hybrid supercapacitor charging system driven by consecutive TWs to accumulate multiple amounts of energy generated by the repetitive combustion of the chemical fuel. In this study, hybrid layers composed of a supercapacitor (poly(vinyl alcohol)/MnO2/nickel) and solid fuel layer (nitrocellulose film) were fabricated as one integrated platform. Combustion was initiated by the ignition of the fuel layer, resulting in the production of electrical energy, attributed to the potential difference between two electrodes, and the transport of charges inside one of the electrodes. Electrical energy could simultaneously and directly charge the supercapacitor, and the discharged voltage could be significantly increased in comparison with the voltage level before the application of a TW. Furthermore, the application of multiple TWs in succession in the hybrid supercapacitor charging system successfully allowed for stack voltage amplification, which was synchronized to each TW. The results of this study could be used to understand the underlying phenomena for charging supercapacitors with the variation of thermal energy and to advance the application of TWs as more efficient, practical energy sources.

  10. Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A novel full piezoelectric multilayer stacked hybrid actuation/transduction system. The system demonstrates significantly-enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer stacked negative and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that for this system, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The system consists of at least 2 layers which include electromechanically active components. The layers are arranged such that when electric power is applied, one layer contracts in a transverse direction while the second layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the first layer. An alternate embodiment includes a third layer. In this embodiment, the outer two layers contract in parallel transverse directions while the middle layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the outer layers.

  11. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  12. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  13. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  14. A hybrid FIA/HPLC system incorporating monolithic column chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, Jacqui L. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Francis, Paul S. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)], E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au; Agg, Kent M. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Marshall, Graham D. [GlobalFIA, Fox Island, WA 98333 (United States); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)

    2007-09-26

    We have combined the generation of solvent gradients using milliGAT pumps, chromatographic separations with monolithic columns and chemiluminescence detection in an instrument manifold that approaches the automation and separation efficiency of HPLC, whilst maintaining the positive attributes of flow injection analysis (FIA), such as manifold versatility, speed of analysis and portability. As preliminary demonstrations of this hybrid FIA/HPLC system, we have determined six opiate alkaloids (morphine, pseudomorphine, codeine, oripavine, ethylmorphine and thebaine) and four biogenic amines (vanilmandelic acid, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid) in human urine, using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) and acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

  15. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Samatova, Nagiza [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  16. Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

  17. Optimization of Hybrid PV/Wind Energy System Using Genetic Algorithm (GA)

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Kumar Ramoji; Bibhuti Bhusan Rath

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach of optimum design for a Hybrid PV/Wind energy system is presented in order to assist the designers to take into consideration both the economic and ecological aspects. When the stand alone energy system having photovoltaic panels only or wind turbine only are compared with the hybrid PV/wind energy systems, the hybrid systems are more economical and reliable according to climate changes. This paper presents an optimization technique to design the ...

  18. MOVIH-IDS: A mobile-visualization hybrid intrusion detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Cosío, Álvaro; Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Pellicer Figueras, María A.; Abraham, Ajith P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid artificial intelligent system for Intrusion Detection, called MOVIH-IDS, is presented in this study. A hybrid model built by means of a multiagent system that incorporates an unsupervised connectionist Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has been defined to guaranty an efficient computer network security architecture. This hybrid IDS facilitates the intrusion detection in dynamic networks, in a more flexible and adaptable manner. The proposed improvement of the system in this pape...

  19. Gram Schmidt Based Greedy Hybrid Precoding for Frequency Selective Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath Jr., Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid analog/digital precoding allows millimeter wave MIMO systems to leverage large antenna array gains while permitting low cost and power consumption hardware. Most prior work has focused on hybrid precoding for narrow-band mmWave systems. MmWave systems, however, will likely operate on wideband channels with frequency selectivity. Therefore, this paper considers frequency selective hybrid precoding with RF beamforming vectors taken from a quantized codebook. For this system, a low-comple...

  20. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  1. Evaluation of the computerized utilities energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 282{sup nd} Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.; Tapp, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    Under the provisions of Interagency Agreement DOE No. 1938-B090-A1 between the U.S. DOE and the U.S. Army in Europe, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is evaluating utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at selected U.S. Army installations in Europe. Evaluations of the overall performance and energy efficiency of the UEMCSs installed at U.S. Army installations in Heidelberg, Goeppingen, Pirmasens, Baumholder, and Grafenwoehr, Germany have already been completed. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the UEMCS installed at the 282nd Base Support Battalion in Hohenfels, Germany, which is operated by the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Utilities Division. No savings based on observed trends of annual energy consumption can be attributed to the Honeywell 5600 system UEMCS. Estimates are presented of energy savings from implementing the Honeywell 1000 UEMCS. Major recommendations related to implementation of the 5600 UEMCS are delineated.

  2. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  3. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  4. Product Lifecycle Management Technology Applied in Missile Launching Systems Production and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Karasev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problems in the construction of the launch-site "Vostochniy" production and installation logistic. The stages of complex high-end product lifecycle described. The concepts and techniques of life cycle management and variants of their application offered as solution of this problems. Practical way to optimize logistics and lifecycle management processes using ILS Suite multi-agent software submitted. Side effect of this solution is creating of relevant integrated logistic support database, that could be used in the future projects. Results for tests and some perspectives for future investigation described.

  5. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  6. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination. I...... in the surrounding world to become part of the work? Featuring the work of such well-known artists as Bruce Nauman, Pipilotti Rist, Ilya Kabakov and many others, this book breaks crucial new ground in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of this multifarious art form.......Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...

  7. Monobuoy monitoring system - project, installation and preliminary results; Sistema de monitoracao de monoboias maritimas - desenvolvimento, instalacao e analise preliminar de resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniel L.; Machado Filho, Remo Z. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Medeiros Junior, Adory J. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    A monobuoy monitoring system was developed and installed on 2004 in two oil terminals of TRANSPETRO. The main purpose of this system is to assure that monobuoys will be assisted during offloading operations, which will reduce the risk of accidents and detect immediately damages on mooring lines and equipment. The system comprises a Control Module on terminal site and a Remote Monitoring Unit, installed on each monobuoy. The link between modules is provided by an UHF radio-modem. The parameters acquired are pitch, roll, heave, geographic position, internal variables, and, if available, pressure and temperature of lines, traction on mooring system, etc. Positioning information is processed by the PETRONAV Positioning System. The whole process is registered and monitored on terminal with graphical interface. This article describes the development and installation of the system and the preliminary analysis of data produced since the system was installed. (author)

  8. Hybrid membrane contactor system for creating semi-breathing air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, D. V.

    2012-02-01

    Typically, the equipment to create an artificial climate does not involve changing the composition of the respiratory air. In particular in medical institutions assumes the existence of plant of artificial climate and disinfection in operating rooms and intensive care wards. The use of a hybrid membrane-absorption systems for the generation of artificial atmospheres are improving the respiratory system, blood is enriched or depleted of various gases, resulting in increased stamina, there is a better, faster or slower metabolism, improves concentration and memory. Application of the system contributes to easy and rapid recovery after the operation. By adding a special component, with drug activity, air ionization, and adjust its composition, you can create a special, more favorable for patients with the atmosphere. These factors allow for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients and reduce mortality of heavy patients.

  9. CQR; A hybrid expert system for security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.D. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Talukdar, S.N. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Engineering Design Research Center); Nixon, J.C. (Allegheny Power System Corp., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    An off-line prototype, called CQR, of a system for on-line security assessment has been built and tested in conjunction with a western Pennsylvania utility. CQR is a hybrid of rule based programs written in OPS5 and numerical tools written in FORTRAN. CQR uses the utility's full power system model, accepts arbitrary operating conditions, evaluates the base case, evaluates a contingency list using distribution factors, selects and evaluates a small number of AC contingencies, makes an explicit assessment of power system security, and presents results to the operator in a compact and understandable report. Security is decomposed into components that are evaluated independently, allowing separate criteria to be applied to the base case and contingencies. Transient stability is dealt with through dynamically imposed operating limits. CQR's strong points are the correctness, consistency and compactness of its reports. Run times are acceptable for real time operation.

  10. An Optimization Framework for Dynamic Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenbo Du; Humberto E Garcia; Christiaan J.J. Paredis

    2014-03-01

    A computational framework for the efficient analysis and optimization of dynamic hybrid energy systems (HES) is developed. A microgrid system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) is modeled using the Modelica language in the Dymola environment. The optimization loop is implemented in MATLAB, with the FMI Toolbox serving as the interface between the computational platforms. Two characteristic optimization problems are selected to demonstrate the methodology and gain insight into the system performance. The first is an unconstrained optimization problem that optimizes the dynamic properties of the battery, reactor and generator to minimize variability in the HES. The second problem takes operating and capital costs into consideration by imposing linear and nonlinear constraints on the design variables. The preliminary optimization results obtained in this study provide an essential step towards the development of a comprehensive framework for designing HES.

  11. Local analysis of hybrid systems on polyhedral sets with state-dependent switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leth John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with stability analysis of hybrid systems. Various stability concepts related to hybrid systems are introduced. The paper advocates a local analysis. It involves the equivalence relation generated by reset maps of a hybrid system. To establish a tangible method for stability analysis, we introduce the notion of a chart, which locally reduces the complexity of the hybrid system. In a chart, a hybrid system is particularly simple and can be analyzed with the use of methods borrowed from the theory of differential inclusions. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how stability of a hybrid system can be reduced to a specialization of the well established stability theory of differential inclusions. A number of examples illustrate the concepts introduced in the paper.

  12. Reliability analysis of a robotic system using hybridized technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Komal; Lather, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this manuscript, the reliability of a robotic system has been analyzed using the available data (containing vagueness, uncertainty, etc). Quantification of involved uncertainties is done through data fuzzification using triangular fuzzy numbers with known spreads as suggested by system experts. With fuzzified data, if the existing fuzzy lambda-tau (FLT) technique is employed, then the computed reliability parameters have wide range of predictions. Therefore, decision-maker cannot suggest any specific and influential managerial strategy to prevent unexpected failures and consequently to improve complex system performance. To overcome this problem, the present study utilizes a hybridized technique. With this technique, fuzzy set theory is utilized to quantify uncertainties, fault tree is utilized for the system modeling, lambda-tau method is utilized to formulate mathematical expressions for failure/repair rates of the system, and genetic algorithm is utilized to solve established nonlinear programming problem. Different reliability parameters of a robotic system are computed and the results are compared with the existing technique. The components of the robotic system follow exponential distribution, i.e., constant. Sensitivity analysis is also performed and impact on system mean time between failures (MTBF) is addressed by varying other reliability parameters. Based on analysis some influential suggestions are given to improve the system performance.

  13. Predicting System Accidents with Model Analysis During Hybrid Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land D.; Throop, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Standard discrete event simulation is commonly used to identify system bottlenecks and starving and blocking conditions in resources and services. The CONFIG hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool can simulate such conditions in combination with inputs external to the simulation. This provides a means for evaluating the vulnerability to system accidents of a system's design, operating procedures, and control software. System accidents are brought about by complex unexpected interactions among multiple system failures , faulty or misleading sensor data, and inappropriate responses of human operators or software. The flows of resource and product materials play a central role in the hazardous situations that may arise in fluid transport and processing systems. We describe the capabilities of CONFIG for simulation-time linear circuit analysis of fluid flows in the context of model-based hazard analysis. We focus on how CONFIG simulates the static stresses in systems of flow. Unlike other flow-related properties, static stresses (or static potentials) cannot be represented by a set of state equations. The distribution of static stresses is dependent on the specific history of operations performed on a system. We discuss the use of this type of information in hazard analysis of system designs.

  14. Input coding for neuro-electronic hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jude Baby; Abraham, Grace Mathew; Singh, Katyayani; Ankolekar, Shreya M; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Liquid State Machines have been proposed as a framework to explore the computational properties of neuro-electronic hybrid systems (Maass et al., 2002). Here the neuronal culture implements a recurrent network and is followed by an array of linear discriminants implemented using perceptrons in electronics/software. Thus in this framework, it is desired that the outputs of the neuronal network, corresponding to different inputs, be linearly separable. Previous studies have demonstrated this by either using only a small set of input stimulus patterns to the culture (Hafizovic et al., 2007), large number of input electrodes (Dockendorf et al., 2009) or by using complex schemes to post-process the outputs of the neuronal culture prior to linear discriminance (Ortman et al., 2011). In this study we explore ways to temporally encode inputs into stimulus patterns using a small set of electrodes such that the neuronal culture's output can be directly decoded by simple linear discriminants based on perceptrons. We demonstrate that network can detect the timing and order of firing of inputs on multiple electrodes. Based on this, we demonstrate that the neuronal culture can be used as a kernel to transform inputs which are not linearly separable in a low dimensional space, into outputs in a high dimension where they are linearly separable. Thus simple linear discriminants can now be directly connected to outputs of the neuronal culture and allow for implementation of any function for such a hybrid system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. A Probability-Based Hybrid User Model for Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology, the available information or knowledge is exponentially increased, and this causes the well-known information overload phenomenon. This problem is more serious in product design corporations because over half of the valuable design time is consumed in knowledge acquisition, which highly extends the design cycle and weakens the competitiveness. Therefore, the recommender systems become very important in the domain of product domain. This research presents a probability-based hybrid user model, which is a combination of collaborative filtering and content-based filtering. This hybrid model utilizes user ratings and item topics or classes, which are available in the domain of product design, to predict the knowledge requirement. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental results shows that the proposed method gains better performance in most of the parameter settings. This work contributes a probability-based method to the community for implement recommender system when only user ratings and item topics are available.

  16. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  17. Control Valve Trajectories for SOFC Hybrid System Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, Megan; Banta, Larry; Rosen, William; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Control and management of cathode airflow in a solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid power system was analyzed using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) hardware simulation at the National Energy Technology (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy. This work delves into previously unexplored operating practices for HyPer, via simultaneous manipulation of bypass valves and the electric load on the generator. The work is preparatory to the development of a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) controller for HyPer. A factorial design of experiments was conducted to acquire data for 81 different combinations of the manipulated variables, which consisted of three air flow control valves and the electric load on the turbine generator. From this data the response surface for the cathode airflow with respect to bypass valve positions was analyzed. Of particular interest is the control of airflow through the cathode during system startup and during large load swings. This paper presents an algorithm for controlling air mass flow through the cathode based on a modification of the steepest ascent method.

  18. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  19. An Interactive Personalized Recommendation System Using the Hybrid Algorithm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of e-commerce, the contradiction between the disorder of business information and customer demand is increasingly prominent. This study aims to make e-commerce shopping more convenient, and avoid information overload, by an interactive personalized recommendation system using the hybrid algorithm model. The proposed model first uses various recommendation algorithms to get a list of original recommendation results. Combined with the customer’s feedback in an interactive manner, it then establishes the weights of corresponding recommendation algorithms. Finally, the synthetic formula of evidence theory is used to fuse the original results to obtain the final recommendation products. The recommendation performance of the proposed method is compared with that of traditional methods. The results of the experimental study through a Taobao online dress shop clearly show that the proposed method increases the efficiency of data mining in the consumer coverage, the consumer discovery accuracy and the recommendation recall. The hybrid recommendation algorithm complements the advantages of the existing recommendation algorithms in data mining. The interactive assigned-weight method meets consumer demand better and solves the problem of information overload. Meanwhile, our study offers important implications for e-commerce platform providers regarding the design of product recommendation systems.

  20. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs—often referred to as “business process” or “soft” costs—for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. Annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2010 soft costs related to the DOE priority areas of (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) installation labor; and (4) installer labor for arranging third-party financing. Annual expenditure and labor-hour data were collected from 87 PV installers. After eliminating outliers, the survey sample consists of 75 installers, representing approximately 13% of all residential PV installations and 4% of all commercial installations added in 2010. Including assumed permitting fees, in 2010 the average soft costs benchmarked in this analysis total $1.50/W for residential systems (ranging from $0.66/W to $1.66/W between the 20th and 80th percentiles). For commercial systems, the median 2010 benchmarked soft costs (including assumed permitting fees) are $0.99/W for systems smaller than 250 kW (ranging from $0.51/W to $1.45/W between the 20th and 80th percentiles) and $0.25/W for systems larger than 250 kW (ranging from $0.17/W to $0.78/W between the 20th and 80th percentiles). Additional soft costs not benchmarked in the present analysis (e.g., installer profit, overhead, financing, and contracting) are significant and would add to these figures. The survey results provide a benchmark for measuring—and helping to accelerate—progress over the next decade toward achieving the DOE SunShot Initiative’s soft-cost-reduction targets. We conclude that the selected non-hardware business processes add considerable cost to U.S. PV systems, constituting 23% of residential PV system price, 17% of small commercial system price, and 5% of large commercial system price (in 2010