WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid system coupled

  1. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...

  2. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  3. Note on the Lax Pair of a Coupled Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; FU Pei-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid lattice,known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation.The coupled hybrid lattice,which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system,is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system.New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.%The hybrid lattice, known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The coupled hybrid lattice, which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system, is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system. New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.

  4. Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0246 Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings Hui Deng UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Photonic in Hybrid Cavity Systems with Strong Matter-Light Couplings 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0256... photons was demonstrated in the designable microcavity structure for the first time, establishing a robust light-matter hybrid states with designable

  5. Magnetic-field-mediated coupling and control in hybrid atomic-nanomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretiakov, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically coupled hybrid quantum systems enable robust quantum state control through Landau-Zener transitions. Here, we show that an ultracold atomic sample coupled to a nanomechanical resonator via oscillating magnetic fields can be used to cool the resonator's mechanical motion, to measure the mechanical temperature, and to enable entanglement of these mesoscopic objects. We calculate the expected coupling for both permanent-magnet and current-conducting nanostring resonators and describe how this hybridization is attainable using recently developed fabrication techniques, including SiN nanostrings and atom chips.

  6. Existence results for a system of coupled hybrid fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ntouyas, Sotiris K; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the existence of solutions for a system of coupled hybrid fractional differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We make use of the standard tools of the fixed point theory to establish the main results. The existence and uniqueness result is elaborated with the aid of an example.

  7. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  8. A HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COUPLED SHEAR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BERRAIS

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear dynamic analysis techniques are rapidly being developed and have been recognized as indispensable tools. However, their use in the design office requires special experience. Consequently they are not generally accepted as analysis/design tools. Additionally, uncertainties are associated with the determination of the earthquake forces, the stiffness and strength of the structure; the selection of the mathematical models; and the form of the earthquake. In this paper a hybrid system for the non-linear dynamic analysis/design of coupled shear walls is briefly described. The system combines expert system technology with finite element method to carry out the dynamic analysis of coupled walls under earthquake forces. The system has been implemented using Quintec-Prolog, Quintec-Flex and FORTRAN 77, and runs on a SUN SPARC station under Unix system.

  9. Coupled Low-thrust Trajectory and System Optimization via Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob Aldo; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of low-thrust trajectories is tightly coupled with the spacecraft hardware. Trading trajectory characteristics with system parameters ton identify viable solutions and determine mission sensitivities across discrete hardware configurations is labor intensive. Local independent optimization runs can sample the design space, but a global exploration that resolves the relationships between the system variables across multiple objectives enables a full mapping of the optimal solution space. A multi-objective, hybrid optimal control algorithm is formulated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm as an outer loop systems optimizer around a global trajectory optimizer. The coupled problem is solved simultaneously to generate Pareto-optimal solutions in a single execution. The automated approach is demonstrated on two boulder return missions.

  10. Hybrid Quantum System of a Nanofiber Mode Coupled to Two Chains of Optically Trapped Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zoubi, Hashem

    2010-01-01

    A tapered optical nanofiber simultaneously used to trap and optically interface of cold atoms through evanescent fields constitutes a new and well controllable hybrid quantum system. The atoms are trapped in two parallel 1D optical lattices generated by suitable far blue and red detuned evanescent field modes very close to opposite sides of the nanofiber surface. Collective electronic excitations (excitons) of each of the optical lattices are resonantly coupled to the second lattice forming symmetric and antisymmetric common excitons. In contrast to the inverse cube dependence of the individual atomic dipole-dipole interaction, we analytically find an exponentially decaying coupling strength with distance between the lattices. The resulting symmetric (bright) excitons strongly interact with the resonant nanofiber photons to form fiber polaritons, which can be observed through linear optical spectra. For large enough wave vectors the polariton decay rate to free space is strongly reduced, which should render t...

  11. Superconducting resonator and Rydberg atom hybrid system in the strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Landra, Alessandro; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    We propose a promising hybrid quantum system, where a highly excited atom strongly interacts with a superconducting L C oscillator via the electric field of capacitor. An external electrostatic field is applied to tune the energy spectrum of the atom. The atomic qubit is implemented by two eigenstates near an avoided-level crossing in the dc Stark map of a Rydberg atom. Varying the electrostatic field brings the atomic-qubit transition on or off resonance with respect to the microwave resonator, leading to a strong atom-resonator coupling with an extremely large cooperativity. Like the nonlinearity induced by Josephson junctions in superconducting circuits, the large atom-resonator interface disturbs the harmonic potential of the resonator, resulting in an artificial two-level particle. Different universal two-qubit logic gates can also be performed on our hybrid system within the space where an atomic qubit couples to a single photon with an interaction strength much larger than any relaxation rates, opening the door to the cavity-mediated state transmission.

  12. Theory of coupled hybrid inorganic/organic systems: Excitation transfer at semiconductor/molecule interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Judith; Verdenhalven, Eike; Theuerholz, Sverre; Knorr, Andreas; Richter, Marten

    2016-03-01

    We derive a theoretical framework for describing hybrid organic-inorganic systems consisting of an ordered organic molecular layer coupled to a semiconductor quantum well (e.g., ZnO). A Heisenberg equation of motion technique based on a density matrix formalism is applied to derive dynamical equations for the composite system on a mesoscopic scale. Our theoretical approach focuses on the inuence of nonradiative Förster excitation transfer across the hybrid interface on linear optical absorption spectra. Therefore, the dielectric screening is discussed at the interface of two materials with different dielectric constants. Moreover, the Förster transfer matrix element is calculated in the point-dipole approximation. For a consistent theoretical description of both constituents (i.e., the molecular layer and the semiconductor substrate), the problem is treated in momentum space. Solving the equations of motion for the microscopic polarizations in frequency space directly leads to an equation for the frequency-dependent linear absorption coefficient. Our theoretical approach forms the basis for studying parameter regimes and geometries with optimized excitation transfer efficiency across the semiconductor/ molecule interface.

  13. Photoionization of few electron systems with a hybrid Coupled Channels approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majety, Vinay Pramod; Scrinzi, Armin

    2014-01-01

    We present the hybrid anti-symmetrized coupled channels method for the calculation of fully differential photo-electron spectra of multi-electron atoms and small molecules interacting with strong laser fields. The method unites quantum chemical few-body electronic structure with strong-field dynamics by solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation in a fully anti-symmetrized basis composed of multi-electron states from quantum chemistry and a one-electron numerical basis. Photoelectron spectra are obtained via the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF) method. Performance and accuracy of the approach are demonstrated for spectra from the helium and berryllium atoms and the hydrogen molecule in linearly polarized laser fields at wavelength from 21 nm to 400 nm. At long wavelengths, helium and the hydrogen molecule at equilibrium inter-nuclear distance can be approximated as single channel systems whereas beryllium needs a multi-channel description.

  14. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maclay, JD; J. Brouwer; Samuelsen, GS

    2007-01-01

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utili...

  15. A scheme for detecting the atom-field coupling constant in the Dicke superradiation regime using hybrid cavity optomechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Liu, Bin; Lian, Jinling; Liang, Jiuqing

    2012-04-23

    We proposed a scheme for detecting the atom-field coupling constant in the Dicke superradiation regime based on a hybrid cavity optomechanical system assisted by an atomic gas. The critical behavior of the Dicke model was obtained analytically using the spin-coherent-state representation. Without regard to the dynamics of cavity field an analytical formula of one-to-one correspondence between movable mirror's steady position and atom-field coupling constant for a given number of atoms is obtained. Thus the atom-field coupling constant can be probed by measuring the movable mirror's steady position, which is another effect of the cavity optomechanics. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. Evaluation of Internal Defect of Composite Laminates Using A Novel Hybrid Laser Generation/Air-Coupled Detection Ultrasonic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Lee, Seung Joon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Joon Hyung [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic C-scan technique is one of very popular techniques being used for detection of flaws in polymer matrix composite(PMC). However, the application of this technique is very limited for evaluation of defects in PMC fabricated by the automated fiber placement process. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel ultrasonic hybrid system based on nondestructive and non-contact ultrasonic techniques for evaluation of delamination in carbon/epoxy and carbon/PPS composite laminates. It was shown that the newly developed ultrasonic hybrid system based on dual air-coupled pitch-catch technique with ultrasonic scattering reflection concept could provide excellent image with higher resolution of delamination in PMC compared with the conventional pitch-catch method. It is expected that this ultrasonic hybrid technique can be applied for on-line inspection of flaws in PMC during the fabrication process

  17. Coherent Atom-Phonon Interaction through Mode Field Coupling in Hybrid Optomechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cotrufo, Michele; Verhagen, Ewold

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel type of optomechanical coupling which enables a tripartite interaction between a quantum emitter, an optical mode and a macroscopic mechanical oscillator. The interaction uses a mechanism we term mode field coupling: mechanical displacement modifies the spatial distribution of the optical mode field, which in turn modulates the atom-photon coupling rate. In properly designed multimode optomechanical systems, we can achieve situations in which mode field coupling is the only possible interaction pathway for the system. This enables, for example, swapping of a single excitation between emitter and phonon, creation of nonclassical states of motion and mechanical ground-state cooling in the bad-cavity regime. Importantly, the emitter-phonon coupling rate can be enhanced through an optical drive field, allowing active control of strong atom-phonon coupling for realistic experimental parameters.

  18. Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M. T.; Vaitiekėnas, S.; Hansen, E. B.; Danon, J.; Leijnse, M.; Flensberg, K.; Nygård, J.; Krogstrup, P.; Marcus, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.

  19. Tunnel and electrostatic coupling in graphene-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Aliaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the transport properties of hybrid devices obtained by depositing graphene on a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide junction hosting a 4 nm-deep 2-dimensional electron system. At low graphene-oxide inter-layer bias, the two electron systems are electrically isolated, despite their small spatial separation. A very efficient reciprocal gating of the two neighboring 2-dimensional systems is shown. A pronounced rectifying behavior is observed for larger bias values and ascribed to the interplay between electrostatic field-effects and tunneling across the LaAlO3 barrier. The relevance of these results in the context of strongly coupled bilayer systems is discussed.

  20. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  1. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  3. A hybrid surface layer parameterization scheme for the two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsafados, Petros; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Varlas, George; Korres, Gerasimos

    2015-04-01

    The two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW has been recently developed in order to study the factors that contribute to the air-sea interaction processes and feedbacks. The coupled system consists of two components: the atmospheric component which is based on the Workstation Eta non-hydrostatic limited area model and the ocean-wave component which is based on the fourth generation OpenMP (OMP) version of the WAM model. The WEW has been already evaluated in a number of high-impact weather and sea state events where generally a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave system has been shown However, the new developed wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces both the near surface wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag considered by the atmospheric model over rough sea surfaces. Such behavior is mainly attributed to the surface layer parameterization scheme of the atmospheric component which is based on the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) scheme. It is noted that this scheme has been adjusted to support independent atmospheric simulations. Therefore, we proceed to develop a new hybrid surface layer parameterization based on the MYJ and the Janssen schemes that operate in the atmospheric and ocean wave components of the WEW, respectively. In this case the roughness length depends on the wave age instead of the Charnock parameter following the formulation proposed by Vickers and Mahrt. The spatial variability of the wave age is estimated at each ocean wave component time step and it is directly provided to the MYJ scheme. The parameterization of the viscous sublayer and the universal functions for the estimation of the near surface wind speed have been also revised accordingly. In this study, a test version of the new hybrid scheme of WEW has been statistically evaluated against a number of buoys and satellite retrievals over the Mediterranean Sea in a case study of high

  4. Transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid exciton of a metal nanoparticle-semiconductor quantum dot system coupled to a plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Chol; Ko, Myong-Chol; Choe, Song-Il; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Li, Jian-Bo; Im, Song-Jin; Ko, Yong-Hae; Jo, Chon-Gyu; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2016-11-01

    The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a metal nanoparticle (MNP) coupled to a one-dimensional surface plasmonic waveguide are investigated theoretically via the real-space approach. We considered that the MNP-SQD interaction leads to the formation of a hybrid exciton and the transmission and reflection of a single incident plasmon could be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the classical control field applied to the MNP-SQD hybrid nanosystem, the kinds of MNPs and the background media. The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with such a hybrid nanosystem discussed here could find applications in the design of next-generation quantum devices, such as single-photon switching and nanomirrors, and in quantum information processing.

  5. Transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid exciton of a metal nanoparticle-semiconductor quantum dot system coupled to a plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Chol; Ko, Myong-Chol; Choe, Song-Il; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Li, Jian-Bo; Im, Song-Jin; Ko, Yong-Hae; Jo, Chon-Gyu; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2016-11-18

    The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a metal nanoparticle (MNP) coupled to a one-dimensional surface plasmonic waveguide are investigated theoretically via the real-space approach. We considered that the MNP-SQD interaction leads to the formation of a hybrid exciton and the transmission and reflection of a single incident plasmon could be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the classical control field applied to the MNP-SQD hybrid nanosystem, the kinds of MNPs and the background media. The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with such a hybrid nanosystem discussed here could find applications in the design of next-generation quantum devices, such as single-photon switching and nanomirrors, and in quantum information processing.

  6. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  7. Hybrid system-environment dynamics with a non-Gaussian bath coupling: Exact dissipaton theory versus extended Zusman equation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-01-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in non-Gaussian coupling environments remains in general an untractable task. In this work we address the key issues on the solutions to a class of non-Gaussian coupling environments. As an illustration we consider explicitly a harmonic bath coupled quadratically with an arbitrary system, at finite temperature, and construct a novel dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) formalism. To validate the underlying dissipaton algebra, we derive in parallel also the extended Zusman equation via a totally different approach, and further prove that DEOM constitutes the resolutions to the latter formalism. Thus, we verify by de facto the novel dissipaton algebraic construction, by which not only the quadratic but also higher-order nonlinear bath couplings can be easily treated. We report the benchmark results on a two-level system dynamics as the interplay between linear and quadratic bath couplings.

  8. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  11. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  12. The Correlated Two-Photon Transport in a One-Dimensional Waveguide Coupling to a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyi; Zhang, Wenzhao; Li, Xun; Yan, Weibin; Zhou, Ling

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the two-photon transport properties inside one-dimensional waveguide side coupled to an atom-optomechanical system, aiming to control the two-photon transport by using the nonlinearity. By generalizing the scheme of Phys. Rev. A 90, 033832, we show that Kerr nonlinearity induced by the four-level atoms is remarkable and can make the photons antibunching, while the nonlinear interaction of optomechanical coupling participates in both the single photon and the two photon processes so that it can make the two photons exhibiting bunching and antibunching.

  13. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  14. Synchronization of stochastically hybrid coupled neural networks with coupling discrete and distributed time-varying delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yang; Zhong Hui-Huang; Fang Jian-An

    2008-01-01

    A general model of linearly stochastically coupled identical connected neural networks with hybrid coupling is proposed,which is composed of constant coupling,coupling discrete time-varying delay and coupling distributed timevarying delay.All the coupling terms are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of Brownian motion,which reflects a more realistic dynamical behaviour of coupled systems in practice.Based on a simple adaptive feedback controller and stochastic stability theory,several sufficient criteria are presented to ensure the synchronization of linearly stochastically coupled complex networks with coupling mixed time-varying delays.Finally,numerical simulatious illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  15. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  16. Visualizing hybridized quantum plasmons in coupled nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kristian Lund; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We present full quantum-mechanical calculations of the hybridized plasmon modes of two nanowires at small separation, providing real-space visualization of the modes in the transition from the classical to the quantum tunneling regime. The plasmon modes are obtained as certain eigenfunctions...... of the dynamical dielectric function, which is computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). For freestanding wires, the energy of both surface and bulk plasmon modes deviate from the classical result for low wire radii and high momentum transfer due to effects of electron spill-out, nonlocal...... response, and coupling to single-particle transitions. For the wire dimer, the shape of the hybridized plasmon modes are continuously altered with decreasing separation, and below 6 A˚, the energy dispersion of the modes deviate from classical results due to the onset of weak tunneling. Below 2-3 A...

  17. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  18. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  19. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  20. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  1. Coupled cavity QED for coherent control of photon transmission (I): Green function approach for hybrid systems with two-level doping

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, F M; Sun, C P; Zhou, L; Shi, Tao; Zhou, Lan

    2006-01-01

    This is the first one of a series of our papers theoretically studying the coherent control of photon transmission along the coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) by doping artificial atoms for various hybrid structures. We will provide the several approaches correspondingly based on Green function, the mean field method and spin wave theory et al. In the present paper we adopt the two-time Green function approach to study the coherent transmission photon in a CROW with homogeneous couplings, each cavity of which is doped by a two-level artificial atom. We calculate the two-time correlation function for photon in the weak-coupling case. Its poles predict the exact dispersion relation, which results in the group velocity coherently controlled by the collective excitation of the doping atoms. We emphasize the role of the population inversion of doping atoms induced by some polarization mechanism.

  2. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  3. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  4. Two Photon Couplings of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    A new formalism is developed for the two photon production of hybrid mesons via intermediate hadronic decays. In an adiabatic and non--relativistic context with spin 1 pair creation we obtain the first absolute estimates of unmixed hybrid production strengths to be small (0.03 - 3 eV) in relation to experimental meson widths (0.1 - 5 keV). Within this context, two photon collisions therefore strongly discriminate between hybrid and conventional meson wave function components at BaBar, Cleo II, LEP2 and LHC, filtering out non--gluonic components. Decay widths of unmixed hybrids are tiny. The formalism also induces conventional meson two photon widths roughly in agreement with experiment.

  5. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  6. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  7. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  8. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  9. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  10. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  11. Photonic molecules formed by coupled hybrid resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Lan; 10.1364/OL.37.003435

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method that enables free-standing whispering-gallery-mode microresonators, and report spectral tuning of photonic molecules formed by coupled free and on-chip resonators with different geometries and materials. We study direct coupling via evanescent fields of free silica microtoroids and microspheres with on-chip polymer coated silica microtoroids. We demonstrate thermal tuning of resonance modes to achieve maximal spectral overlap, mode splitting induced by direct coupling, and the effects of distance between the resonators on the splitting spectra.

  12. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  13. Interactive optomechanical coupling with nonlinear polaritonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrovska, N; Liew, T C H; Kyriienko, O

    2016-01-01

    We study a system of interacting matter quasiparticles strongly coupled to photons inside an optomechanical cavity. The resulting normal modes of the system are represented by hybrid polaritonic quasiparticles, which acquire effective nonlinearity. Its strength is influenced by the presence of the mechanical mode and depends on the resonance frequency of the cavity. This leads to an interactive type of optomechanical coupling, being distinct from the previously studied dispersive and dissipative couplings in optomechanical systems. The emergent interactive coupling is shown to generate effective optical nonlinearity terms of high order, being quartic in the polariton number. We consider particular systems of exciton-polaritons and dipolaritons, and show that the induced effective optical nonlinearity due to the interactive coupling can exceed in magnitude the strength of Kerr nonlinear terms, such as those arising from polariton-polariton interactions. As applications, we show that the higher order terms give...

  14. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  15. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  16. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  17. Superconducting qubit-resonator-atom hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum system where an LC resonator inductively interacts with a flux qubit and is capacitively coupled to a Rydberg atom. Varying the external magnetic flux bias controls the flux qubit flipping and the flux qubit-resonator interface. The atomic spectrum is tuned via an electrostatic field, manipulating the qubit-state transition of atom and the atom-resonator coupling. Different types of entanglement of superconducting, photonic and atomic qubits can be prepared via simply tuning the flux bias and electrostatic field, leading to the implementation of three-qubit Toffoli logic gate.

  18. Investigation of Coupling Characteristics of SOFC/MGT Hybrid System%SOFC/MGT混合系统耦合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 党政; 席光

    2011-01-01

    In a SOFC/MGT hybrid distributed energy system,the performance and safety are greatly influenced by the parameters of MGT.In this paper,a typical numerical model of SOFC/MGT system has been built up.The effects of turbine inlet temperature(TIT) and pressure ratio(PR) to the performance of the hybrid system have been investigated.The results show that the output power and efficiency of the system will come down with the TIT or PR increasing;on the contrary, the possibility that the SOFC and hybrid system may be destroyed will grow with lower value of TIT or PR.Consequently,while a SOFC/MGT hybrid system is designed,it is very important to select appropriate value of TIT and PR.%在SOFC/MGT混合分布式能源系统中,选择不同的系统参数将对SOFC乃至SOFC/MGT混合系统的输出特性、安全运行等造成很大的影响。本文建立了一个典型的SOFC/MGT混合系统计算模型,研究了透平入口温度及燃气轮机压比对混合系统性能的影响。结果表明,透平入口温度和压比增大时,系统的输出功率和效率都会下降,而透平入口温度和压比较小时,SOFC及混合系统因温度过高而产生损坏的可能性增加。因而,在进行SOFC/MGT混合系统进行设计时,应综合考虑,透平入口温度和压比应选择在较合适的范围内。

  19. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  20. Hybrid molecular–continuum methods: From prototypes to coupling software

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    In this contribution, we review software requirements in hybrid molecular-continuum simulations. For this purpose, we analyze a prototype implementation which combines two frameworks-the Molecular Dynamics framework MarDyn and the framework Peano for spatially adaptive mesh-based simulations-and point out particular challenges of a general coupling software. Based on this analysis, we discuss the software design of our recently published coupling tool. We explain details on its overall structure and show how the challenges that arise in respective couplings are resolved by the software. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  2. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  3. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  5. Geomechanical Facies Concept In Fractured Resevoirs and the Application of Hybrid Numerical and Analytical Techniques for the Description of Coupled Transport In Fractured Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C. I.; Wenqing, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2009-04-01

    Exploiting and geo-engineering of fractured rocks in the context of reservoir storage and utilisation is important to applications such as hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geothermal energy, nuclear waste storage and CO2-sequestration. Understanding fluid, mass and energy transport in the three dimensional fracture network is critical to the evaluation planned operating efficiency. Hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical coupled processes under the typical reservoir conditions operate at different scales. Depending on whether the process is continuum dominated (e.g. transfer of stress in the rock body) or discontinuity dominated (e.g. hydraulic transport processes) different methods of numerically investigating and quantifying the system can be applied. A geomechanical facies approach provides the basis for large scale numerical analysis of the coupled processes and prediction of system response. It also provides the basis for a three dimensional holistic understanding of the reservoir systems and the appropriate investigation techniques which could be used to evaluate the capacities of the reservoirs to be investigated as well as appropriate development techniques. Concentrating on the numerical modelling there is often a difficult balance between the numerical stability criteria of the different equation systems which need to be solved to describe the interaction of the dominant processes. The introduction of analytical solutions where possible, functional dependencies and multiple meshes provides on the framework of the geo-mechanical facies concept provides an efficient and stable method for the prediction of the effect of the in situ coupling.

  6. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  7. 32 tesla hybrid magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, M.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Weggel, R.J. (MIT Cambridge (U.S.A.))

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the design and construction of a hybrid magnet system to generate 32T with 9MW of electrical power. The system consist of an 11T niobium-titanium superconducting magnet, a 1.8K/4.2K cryostat, and a high-performance, water-cooled Bitter magnet, all of which are discussed in the paper.

  8. Towards a hybrid strong/weak coupling approach to jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We explore a novel hybrid model containing both strong and weak coupling physics for high energy jets traversing a deconfined medium. This model is based on supplementing a perturbative DGLAP shower with strongly coupled energy loss rate. We embed this system into a realistic hydrodynamic evolution of hot QCD plasma. We confront our results with LHC data, obtaining good agreement for jet RAARAA, dijet imbalance AJAJ and fragmentation functions.

  9. A system coupling hybrid biological method with UV/O3 oxidation and membrane separation for treatment and reuse of industrial laundry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Janus, Magdalena; Brożek, Piotr; Bering, Sławomira; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jacek; Morawski, Antoni W

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities of application of a three-step system combining hybrid biological treatment followed by advanced UV/O3 oxidation with in situ generated O3 and membrane separation (ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF)) to treat and reuse the wastewater from an industrial laundry are presented. By the application of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (HMBBR), the total organic carbon concentration was reduced for about 90 %. However, since the HMBBR effluent still contained organic contaminants as well as high concentrations of inorganic ions and exhibited significant turbidity (8.2 NTU), its further treatment before a possible reuse in the laundry was necessary. The UV/O3 pretreatment prior to UF was found to be an efficient method of the membrane fouling alleviation. During UF, the turbidity of wastewater was reduced below 0.3 NTU. To remove the inorganic salts, the UF permeate was further treated during NF. The NF permeate exhibited very low conductivity (27-75 μS/cm) and contained only small amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+); thus ,it could be reused at any stage of the laundry process.

  10. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  11. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  12. Mechanism of hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the interval between laminations in a permanent-magnet inductor motor which makes the air-gap magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet very uneven in the axial direction, and limits the performance of a motor. Proposes a hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor to compensate for the uneven air-gap magnetic field, thereby improving the performance of a motor.

  13. Stability estimates for hybrid coupled domain decomposition methods

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbach, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    Domain decomposition methods are a well established tool for an efficient numerical solution of partial differential equations, in particular for the coupling of different model equations and of different discretization methods. Based on the approximate solution of local boundary value problems either by finite or boundary element methods, the global problem is reduced to an operator equation on the skeleton of the domain decomposition. Different variational formulations then lead to hybrid domain decomposition methods.

  14. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  15. Exciton-plasmon Coupling and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Monolayer Semiconductors Hybridized with Ag Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Weijie, Zhao; Bo, Liu; Ivan, Verzhbitskiy; Shisheng, Li; Francesco, Giustiniano; Daichi, Kozawa; Ping, Loh Kian; Kazunari, Matsuda; Koichi, Okamoto; Rupert, Oulton F; Goki, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems of excitons strongly coupled to localized surface plasmons supported by metallic nanoparticles define a new approach to control light-matter interactions. Here, we report exciton-plasmon coupling in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as MoS2 and WS2, hybridized with silver nanoparticles. Prominent photoluminescence enhancement in monolayer MoS2 was observed with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) tuned to the exciton resonance. By tuning the excitation energy, the contributions from near field enhancement and radiative emission rate enhancement via Purcell effect were resolved. Strong coherent dipole-dipole coupling between excitons and LSPR in resonant condition manifests as an electromagnetically induced transparency window in the extinction spectra of the localized surface plasmon. In this strong coupling regime a new quasi-particle, known as a plexciton, is expected to exhibit distinct properties, which exist in neither of the original particles. Our results demonstrate that ...

  16. Dynamical systems revisited : Hybrid systems with Zeno executions

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JUN; Johansson, Karl Henrik; Lygeros, John; Sastry, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    Results from classical dynamical systems are generalized to hybrid dynamical systems. The concept of omega limit set is introduced for hybrid systems and is used to prove new results on invariant sets and stability, where Zeno and non-Zeno hybrid systems can be treated within the same framework. As an example, LaSalle's Invariance Principle is extended to hybrid systems. Zeno hybrid systems are discussed in detail. The omega limit set of a Zeno execution is characterized for classes of hybrid...

  17. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    As initially suggested by E. Sontag, it is possible to approximate an arbitrary nonlinear system by a set of piecewise linear systems. In this work we concentrate on how to control a system given by a set of piecewise linear systems defined on simplices. By using the results of L. Habets and J. van...... Schuppen, it is possible to find a controller for the system on each of the simplices thus guaranteeing that the system flow on the simplex only will leave the simplex through a subset of its faces. Motivated by R. Forman, on the triangulated state space we define a combinatorial vector field, which...... indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow...

  18. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  20. 型钢边缘构件-钢连梁焊接型混合连肢墙节点滞回性能有限元分析%FEM Analyses on Hysteretic Behavior of Steel Coupling Beam-column Connections with Steel Boundary Elements Welded in Hybrid Coupled Shear Wall Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 苏明周; 王丽; 李旭东

    2012-01-01

    The finite element analyses on hysteretic behavior of steel coupling beam-column connections with steel boundary elements welded in hybrid coupled shear wall system were performed by using the FEM software ABAQUS for numerical simulation,so as to obtain the seismic performance of hybrid coupled shear wall system under low cyclic loading.The results of the finite element analyses agree quite well with experimental results.Meanwhile,the finite element analysis results and experimental results all indicate that the hysteretic curve of connections in hybrid coupled wall is full,and the ductility factor and ultimate bearing capacity are high,which shows that this kind of connection has high seismic performance,and is suitable for using in the high-rise buildings in high-intensity earthquake areas.%通过利用ABAQUS有限元软件对型钢边缘构件-钢连梁焊接型混合连肢墙(HCW)节点滞回性能进行有限元分析,研究混合连肢墙在低周循环荷载作用下的抗震性能,并将有限元计算结果与试验结果进行了对比,吻合情况较好。同时,试验研究与有限元分析结果均表明:节点滞回曲线饱满,且延性系数及极限承载力较高,表明节点具有良好的抗震性能。

  1. Hybrid Quantum Device with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Coupled to Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Bo; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Rabl, Peter; Nori, Franco

    2016-07-01

    We show that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond interfaced with a suspended carbon nanotube carrying a dc current can facilitate a spin-nanomechanical hybrid device. We demonstrate that strong magnetomechanical interactions between a single NV spin and the vibrational mode of the suspended nanotube can be engineered and dynamically tuned by external control over the system parameters. This spin-nanomechanical setup with strong, intrinsic, and tunable magnetomechanical couplings allows for the construction of hybrid quantum devices with NV centers and carbon-based nanostructures, as well as phonon-mediated quantum information processing with spin qubits.

  2. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  3. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

  4. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipkes, Christoph; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Koehl, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-10

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ.

  5. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  6. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ~40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  7. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-05-26

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  9. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  10. Participation in sizing methods and management improvement for the isolated hybrid systems coupling photovoltaic generator and power generating unit. Application in developing countries; Participation a l'amelioration des methodes de dimensionnement et de gestion pour les systemes isoles hybrides de production d'electricite, couplant generateur photovoltaique et groupe electrogene. Application dans les pays en voie de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camez, C.

    2004-09-15

    One of the applications justifying more the use of renewable energies is the electrification of isolated sites. Sites for which connection to the local distribution network is being out of price or impossible. These sites are most of the time electrified with a diesel generator. This technology is tested and mature however two major disadvantages can be raised here: necessary routine maintenance and the fuel provisioning management. Photovoltaic system can answer here the request and little solar home systems (100 Watts) are installed. In the particular situation of a village electrification, the consumers quickly see in these systems a strong limitation with the development. Reliability, evolution, comfort, service are the masters words here, the development of a micro industry also seems necessary to a village development. It is then necessary to propose a micro network type solution. Such a generator cannot be think completely photovoltaic, presenting an important over-cost compared to a conventional solution. The idea of conventional and renewable energy coupling is born. Such a multi-source system: hybrid, implies an increased sizing and management complexity. An analysis software tool was developed: HYPSIM, this one makes it possible to optimize the operation of such a system. HYPSIM made possible to - Justify the relevance of a photovoltaic/diesel generator/batteries system. - Conclude on the sizing criteria to be observed. (author)

  11. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  12. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  13. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  14. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  15. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    generation by the TEG is insignificant compared to electrical output by the PV panel, and the TEG plays only a small role on power generation in the hybrid PV/TEG panel. However, contribution of the TEG in the power generation can be improved via higher ZT thermoelectric materials and geometry optimization......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different...

  16. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  17. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  18. DISPATCHING OF HYBRID WINDPHOTOVOLTAIC- MICROTURBINESSTORAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BRINI SAOUSSEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents model for Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of Hybrid power system including wind and photovoltaic energies. The model combines the stochastic data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for photovoltaic energy. The penetration of wind andphotovoltaic powers into traditional network will cause some implications such as security concerns due to its unpredictable nature. The production systems of renewable energy are generally coupled with the network with energy storage devices and micro sources. In this paper, a bi-objective economic environmental dispatchproblem considering wind and photovoltaic penetration is formulated, which treats economic and environmental impacts as conflicting objectives. It applied multiobjective optimization by approach SPEA to solve (EED problem.

  19. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: C.Morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T. [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Spintronics Research Group, Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), VNU-HCM, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  20. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  1. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  2. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  3. Consensus of Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long

    2017-01-27

    In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  4. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  5. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  6. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao, E-mail: htyu@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Meili [School of Informational Technology and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China); Che, Yanqiu [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  7. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  8. A hybrid algorithm for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jonathan U; Yates, Christian A

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic simulation methods can be applied successfully to model exact spatio-temporally resolved reaction-diffusion systems. However, in many cases, these methods can quickly become extremely computationally intensive with increasing particle numbers. An alternative description of many of these systems can be derived in the diffusive limit as a deterministic, continuum system of partial differential equations (PDEs). Although the numerical solution of such PDEs is, in general, much more efficient than the full stochastic simulation, the deterministic continuum description is generally not valid when copy numbers are low and stochastic effects dominate. Therefore, to take advantage of the benefits of both of these types of models, each of which may be appropriate in different parts of a spatial domain, we have developed an algorithm that can be used to couple these two types of model together. This hybrid coupling algorithm uses an overlap region between the two modelling regimes. By coupling fluxes at one end of the interface and using a concentration-matching condition at the other end, we ensure that mass is appropriately transferred between PDE- and compartment-based regimes. Our methodology gives notable reductions in simulation time in comparison with using a fully stochastic model, while maintaining the important stochastic features of the system and providing detail in appropriate areas of the domain. We test our hybrid methodology robustly by applying it to several biologically motivated problems including diffusion and morphogen gradient formation. Our analysis shows that the resulting error is small, unbiased and does not grow over time.

  9. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we genera

  10. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Th

  11. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  12. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  13. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  14. Collective scattering in hybrid nanostructures with many atomic oscillators coupled to an electromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauché, Pierre; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Lalanne, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable interest in collective effects in hybrid systems formed by molecular or atomic ensembles strongly coupled by an electromagnetic resonance. For analyzing such collective effects, we develop an efficient and general theoretical formalism based on the natural modes of the resonator. The main strength of our approach is its generality and the high level of analyticity enabled by modal analysis, which allows one to model complex hybrid systems without any restriction on the resonator shapes or material properties, and to perform statistical computations to predict general properties that are robust to spatial and polarization disorders. Most notably, we establish that super-radiant modes remain even after ensemble averaging and act as an "invisibility cloak" with a spectral bandwidth that scales with the number of oscillators and the spatially averaged Purcell factor.

  15. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun

    2008-01-01

    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  16. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  17. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status.

  18. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  19. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  20. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  1. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  2. Quickest detection in coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiliadis, Olympia; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This work considers the problem of quickest detection of signals in a coupled system of N sensors, which receive continuous sequential observations from the environment. It is assumed that the signals, which are modeled a general Ito processes, are coupled across sensors, but that their onset times may differ from sensor to sensor. The objective is the optimal detection of the first time at which any sensor in the system receives a signal. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem in which an extended average Kullback- Leibler divergence criterion is used as a measure of detection delay, with a constraint on the mean time between false alarms. The case in which the sensors employ cumulative sum (CUSUM) strategies is considered, and it is proved that the minimum of N CUSUMs is asymptotically optimal as the mean time between false alarms increases without bound.

  3. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  4. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...... applied for implementing this semantics in the UPPAAL-SMC simulation engine. We report on two applications of the resulting tool-set coming from systems biology and energy aware buildings....

  5. A global hybrid coupled model based on Atmosphere-SST feedbacks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2011-01-01

    A global hybrid coupled model is developed, with the aim of studying the effects of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks on the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The model includes a global ocean general circulation model and a statistical atmosphere model. The statistical atmosphere model is based on linear regressions of data from a fully coupled climate model on sea surface temperature both locally and hemispherically averaged, being the footprint of Atlantic meridional overturning variability. It provides dynamic boundary conditions to the ocean model for heat, freshwater and wind-stress. A basic but consistent representation of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks is captured in the hybrid coupled model and it is more than ten times faster than the fully coupled climate model. The hybrid coupled model reaches a steady state with a climate close to the one of the fully coupled climate model, and the two models also have a similar response (collapse) of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulati...

  6. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  7. Mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling between silicon and hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid plasmonic (HP) modes allow strong optical field confinement and simultaneously low propagation loss, offering a potentially compact and efficient platform for on-chip photonic applications. However, their implementation is hampered by the low coupling efficiency between dielectric guided modes and HP modes, caused by mode mismatch and polarization difference. In this work, we present a mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling structure that adiabatically rotates the TE mode in a silicon waveguide and couples it to the HP mode in a strip silicon-dielectric-metal waveguide. Simulation shows that high coupling factors of 92%, 78%, 75%, and 73% are achievable using Ag, Au, Al, and Cu as the metal cap, respectively, at a conversion length of about 5 μm. For an extremely broad wavelength range of 1300-1800 nm, the coupling factor is >64% with a Ag metal cap, and the total back-reflection power, including all the mode reflections and backscattering, is below -40 dB, due to the adiabatic mode transition. Our device does not require high-resolution lithography and is tolerant to fabrication variations and imperfections. These attributes together make our device suitable for optical transport systems spanning all telecommunication bands.

  8. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  9. Photo-Ionization of Noble Gases: A Demonstration of Hybrid Coupled Channels Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pramod Majety

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of the recently developed hybrid coupled channels approach to study photo-ionization of noble gas atoms: Neon and Argon. We first compute multi-photon ionization rates and cross-sections for these inert gas atoms with our approach and compare them with reliable data available from R-matrix Floquet theory. The good agreement between coupled channels and R-matrix Floquet theory show that our method treats multi-electron systems on par with the well established R-matrix theory. We then apply the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF method with our approach to compute total and angle resolved photo-electron spectra from Argon with linearly and circularly polarized 12 nm wavelength laser fields, a typical wavelength available from Free Electron Lasers (FELs.

  10. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  11. Superconducting Resonator-Rydberg Atom Hybrid in the Strong Coupling Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, Maria Martinez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We propose a promising hybrid quantum system, where a highly-excited atom strongly interacts with a superconducting LC oscillator via the electric field of capacitor. An external electrostatic field is applied to tune the energy spectrum of atom. The atomic qubit is implemented by two eigenstates near an avoided-level crossing in the DC Stark map of Rydberg atom. Varying the electrostatic field brings the atomic-qubit transition on- or off-resonance to the microwave resonator, leading to a strong atom-resonator coupling with an extremely large cooperativity. Like the nonlinearity induced by Josephson junctions in superconducting circuits, the large atom-resonator interface disturbs the harmonic potential of resonator, resulting in an artificial two-level particle. Different universal two-qubit logic gates can also be performed on our hybrid system within the space where an atomic qubit couples to a single photon with an interaction strength much larger than any relaxation rates, opening the door to the cavity...

  12. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  13. Spin Seebeck effect and thermoelectric phenomena in superconducting hybrids with magnetic textures or spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathen, Marianne Etzelmüller; Linder, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically consider the spin Seebeck effect, the charge Seebeck coefficient, and the thermoelectric figure of merit in superconducting hybrid structures including either magnetic textures or intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We demonstrate that large magnitudes for all these quantities are obtainable in Josephson-based systems with either zero or a small externally applied magnetic field. This provides an alternative to the thermoelectric effects generated in high-field (~1 T) superconducting hybrid systems, which were recently experimentally demonstrated. The systems studied contain either conical ferromagnets, spin-active interfaces, or spin-orbit coupling. We present a framework for calculating the linear thermoelectric response for both spin and charge of a system upon applying temperature and voltage gradients based on quasiclassical theory which allows for arbitrary spin-dependent textures and fields to be conveniently incorporated.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Tuhin

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

  15. Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, José Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

  16. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  17. Cracked structure-acoustic coupling problems by hybrid fractal FE and BE methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国荣; 仲伟芳

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the sound-structure interaction is important for effective control of noise and vibration in structural acoustic systems. Cracked elastic structure-sound interaction problems are studied by employing the hybrid fractal FEM and BEM. The degrees of freedom of the system can be reduced greatly through adopting fractal FEM in discretizing the cracked elastic structure; while the exterior acoustic field is calculated by BEM, which automatically satisfies Sommerfeld's radiation condition. Numerical examples are given and show that the resonant frequencies of the structure-acoustic coupled system decrease as the depth of the crack increases, and that the crack has a significant effect on the acoustical field in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  18. Performance evaluation of a hybrid system for efficient palm oil mill effluent treatment via an air-cathode, tubular upflow microbial fuel cell coupled with a granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Pei-Fang; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Tan, Ivy Ai Wei; Mohamed Amin, Mohamed Afizal; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Bujang, Kopli

    2016-09-01

    An air-cathode MFC-adsorption hybrid system, made from earthen pot was designed and tested for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Such design had demonstrated superior characteristics of low internal resistance (29.3Ω) and favor to low-cost, efficient wastewater treatment and power generation (55mW/m(3)) with average current of 2.13±0.4mA. The performance between MFC-adsorption hybrid system was compared to the standalone adsorption system and results had demonstrated great pollutants removals of the integrated system especially for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD3), total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and total nitrogen (TN) because such system combines the advantages of each individual unit. Besides the typical biological and electrochemical processes that happened in an MFC system, an additional physicochemical process from the activated carbon took place simultaneously in the MFC-adsorption hybrid system which would further improved on the wastewater quality.

  19. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  20. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  1. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  2. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  3. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  4. A Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ali Shoukat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES under mutual committee of symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Asymmetric (public key Cryptosystems associates several performance issues like computational incompetence, memory wastages, energy consumptions and employment limitations on bulky data sets but they are quite secure and reliable in key exchange over insecure remote communication channels. Symmetric (private key cryptosystems are 100 times out performed, having no such issues but they cannot fulfill non-repudiation, false modifications in secret key, fake modifications in cipher text and origin authentication of both parties while exchanging information. These contradictory issues can be omitted by utilizing hybrid encryption mechanisms (symmetric+asymmetric to get optimal benefits of both schemes. Several hybrid mechanisms are available with different logics but our logic differs in infrastructural design, simplicity, computational efficiency and security as compared to prior hybrid encryption schemes. Some prior schemes are either diversified in performance aspects, customer satisfaction, memory utilization or energy consumptions and some are vulnerable against forgery and password guessing (session key recovery attacks. We have done some functional and design related changes in existing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI to achieve simplicity, optimal privacy and more customer satisfaction by providing Hybrid Encryption System (HES that is able to fulfill all set of standardized security constraints. No such PKI based generic hybrid encryption scheme persists as we have provided in order to manage all these kinds of discussed issues.

  5. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  6. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  7. Hybrid singular systems of differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷刚; 张纪峰

    2002-01-01

    This work develops hybrid models for large-scale singular differential system and analyzestheir asymptotic properties. To take into consideration the discrete shifts in regime across whichthe behavior of the corresponding dynamic systems is markedly different, our goals are to develophybrid systems in which continuous dynamics are intertwined with discrete events under random-jumpdisturbances and to reduce complexity of large-scale singular systems via singularly perturbed Markovchains. To reduce the complexity of large-scale hybrid singular systems, two-time scale is used in theformulation. Under general assumptions, limit behavior of the underlying system is examined. Usingweak convergence methods, it is shown that the systems can be approximated by limit systems inwhich the coefficients are averaged out with respect to the quasi-stationary distributions. Since thelimit systems have fewer states, the complexity is much reduced.

  8. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  10. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  11. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  12. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  13. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  14. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Transport signatures in topological systems coupled to ac fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Leonard; Gómez-León, Álvaro

    2017-02-01

    We study the transport properties of a topological system coupled to an ac electric field by means of Floquet-Keldysh formalism. We consider a semi-infinite chain of dimers coupled to a semi-infinite metallic lead and obtain the density of states and current when the system is out of equilibrium. Our formalism is nonperturbative and allows us to explore, in the thermodynamic limit, a wide range of regimes for the ac field, arbitrary values of the coupling strength to the metallic contact and corrections to the wide-band limit (WBL). We find that hybridization with the contact can change the dimerization phase, and that the current dependence on the field amplitude can be used to discriminate between them. We also show the appearance of side bands and nonequilibrium zero-energy modes, characteristic of the Floquet systems. Our results directly apply to the stability of nonequilibrium topological phases, when transport measurements are used for their detection.

  16. A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.

  17. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  18. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.

  19. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  1. Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  2. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  3. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  4. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  5. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  6. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  7. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June-September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  8. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Prasad; C J Johny; Jagdeep Singh Sodhi

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June– September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  9. Novel coupling scheme to control dynamics of coupled discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Ambika, G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new coupling scheme to control spatio-temporal patterns and chimeras on 1-d and 2-d lattices and random networks of discrete dynamical systems. The scheme involves coupling with an external lattice or network of damped systems. When the system network and external network are set in a feedback loop, the system network can be controlled to a homogeneous steady state or synchronized periodic state with suppression of the chaotic dynamics of the individual units. The control scheme has the advantage that its design does not require any prior information about the system dynamics or its parameters and works effectively for a range of parameters of the control network. We analyze the stability of the controlled steady state or amplitude death state of lattices using the theory of circulant matrices and Routh-Hurwitz criterion for discrete systems and this helps to isolate regions of effective control in the relevant parameter planes. The conditions thus obtained are found to agree well with those obtained from direct numerical simulations in the specific context of lattices with logistic map and Henon map as on-site system dynamics. We show how chimera states developed in an experimentally realizable 2-d lattice can be controlled using this scheme. We propose this mechanism can provide a phenomenological model for the control of spatio-temporal patterns in coupled neurons due to non-synaptic coupling with the extra cellular medium. We extend the control scheme to regulate dynamics on random networks and adapt the master stability function method to analyze the stability of the controlled state for various topologies and coupling strengths.

  10. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  11. Analysis of hybrid solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J.

    1980-10-01

    The TRNSYS simulation program was used to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

  12. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  13. New Tools for Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-02

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 2-17, January 2003. [4] A. Megretski, "Robustness...34Output stabilizability of discrete-event dynamic systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 36, no.8, pp. 925-935, August 1991. [6] K...Passino, A. Michel and P. Antsaklis, "Lyapunov stability of a class of discrete event systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 39, no.

  14. Analysis and experimental validation of the middle-frequency vibro-acoustic coupling property for aircraft structural model based on the wave coupling hybrid FE-SEA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunju; Li, Pengbo; Lin, Huagang

    2016-06-01

    The finite element (FE) method is suitable for low frequency analysis and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) for high frequency analysis, but the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis at middle frequency, especially with a certain range of uncertainty system, requires some new methods. A hybrid FE-SEA method is proposed in this study and the Monte Carlo method is used to check the hybrid FE-SEA method through the energy response analysis of a beam-plate built-up structure with some uncertainty, and the results show that two kinds of calculation results match well consistently. Taking the advantage of the hybrid FE-SEA method, the structural vibration and the cabin noise field responses under the vibro-acoustic coupling for an aircraft model are numerically analyzed, and, also, the corresponding experiment is carried out to verify the simulated results. Results show that the structural vibration responses at low frequency accord well with the experiment, but the error at high frequency is greater. The error of sound pressure response level in cabin throughout the spectrum is less than 3 dB. The research proves the reliability of the method proposed in this paper. This indicates that the proposed method can overcome the strict limitations of the traditional method for a large complex structure with uncertainty factors, and it can also avoid the disadvantages of solving complex vibro-acoustic system using the finite element method or statistical energy analysis in the middle frequency.

  15. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  16. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZAIBI, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; ROBOAM, xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  17. Frequency-Locking in Coupled Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bam-Bi; LIU Zong-Hua; ZHENG Zhi-Gang

    2001-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for measuring the phase synchronization (frequency-locking) of coupled N nonidentical oscillators, which can characterize frequency-locking for chaotic systems without well-defined phase by measuring the mean frequency. Numerical simulations confirm the existence of frequency-locking. The relations between the mean frequency and the coupling strength and the frequency mismatch are given. For the coupled hyperchaotic systems, the frequency-locking can be better characterized by more than one mean frequency curves.

  18. From Coupled Dynamical Systems to Biological Irreversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2002-01-01

    In the first half of the paper, some recent advances in coupled dynamical systems, in particular, a globally coupled map are surveyed. First, dominance of Milnor attractors in partially ordered phase is demonstrated. Second, chaotic itinerancy in high-dimensional dynamical systems is briefly reviewed, with discussion on a possible connection with a Milnor attractor network. Third, infinite-dimensional collective dynamics is studied, in the thermodynamic limit of the globally coupled map, wher...

  19. Biomolecule/nanomaterial hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Yehezkeli, Omer; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The integration of biomolecules with metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes yields new hybrid nanostructures of unique features that combine the properties of the biomolecules and of the nano-elements. These unique features of the hybrid biomolecule/nanoparticle systems provide the basis for the rapid development of the area of nanobiotechnology. Recent advances in the implementation of hybrid materials consisting of biomolecules and metallic nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots will be discussed. The following topics will be exemplified: (i) The electrical wiring of redox enzymes with electrodes by means of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, and the application of the modified electrodes as amperometric biosensors or for the construction of biofuel cells. (ii) The biocatalytic growth of metallic nanoparticles as a means to construct optical or electrical sensors. (iii) The functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomolecules and the application of the hybrid nanostructures for developing different optical sensors, including intracellular sensor systems. (iv) The use of biomolecule-metallic nanoparticle nanostructures as templates for growing metallic nanowires, and the construction of fuel-driven nano-transporters.

  20. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  1. Hybrid-system approach to fault-tolerant quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ashley M.; Huang, Jingjing; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a layered hybrid-system approach to quantum communication that involves the distribution of a topological cluster state throughout a quantum network. Photon loss and other errors are suppressed by optical multiplexing and entanglement purification. The scheme is scalable to large distances, achieving an end-to-end rate of 1 kHz with around 50 qubits per node. We suggest a potentially suitable implementation of an individual node composed of erbium spins (single atom or ensemble) coupled via flux qubits to a microwave resonator, allowing for deterministic local gates, stable quantum memories, and emission of photons in the telecom regime.

  2. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  3. A global hybrid coupled model based on atmosphere-SST feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A.; Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands); Dijkstra, Henk A. [Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A global hybrid coupled model is developed, with the aim of studying the effects of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks on the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The model includes a global ocean general circulation model and a statistical atmosphere model. The statistical atmosphere model is based on linear regressions of data from a fully coupled climate model on sea surface temperature both locally and hemispherically averaged, being the footprint of Atlantic meridional overturning variability. It provides dynamic boundary conditions to the ocean model for heat, freshwater and wind-stress. A basic but consistent representation of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks is captured in the hybrid coupled model and it is more than 10 times faster than the fully coupled climate model. The hybrid coupled model reaches a steady state with a climate close to the one of the fully coupled climate model, and the two models also have a similar response (collapse) of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to a freshwater hosing applied in the northern North Atlantic. (orig.)

  4. Modal theory of modified spontaneous emission for a hybrid plasmonic photonic-crystal cavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical modal description of the rich physics involved in hybrid plasmonic-photonic devices that is confirmed by full dipole solutions of Maxwell's equations. Strong frequency-dependence for the spontaneous emission decay rate of a quantum dipole emitter coupled to these hybrid structures is predicted. In particular, it is shown that the Fano-type resonances reported experimentally in hybrid plasmonic systems, arise from a very large interference between dominant quasinormal modes of the systems in the frequency range of interest. The presented model forms an efficient basis for modelling quantum light-matter interactions in these complex hybrid systems and also enables the quantitativ prediction and understanding of non-radiative coupling losses.

  5. Statistical energy analysis of similarly coupled systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) for non-conservatively coupled dynamical systems under non-correlative or correlative excitations, energy relationship between two similar SEA systems is established in the paper. The energy relationship is verified theoretically and experimentally from two similar SEA systems i.e., the structure of a coupled panel-beam and that of a coupled panel-sideframe, in the cases of conservative coupling and non-conservative coupling respectively. As an application of the method, relationship between noise power radiated from two similar cutting systems is studied. Results show that there are good agreements between the theory and the experiments, and the method is valuable to analysis of dynamical problems associated with a complicated system from that with a simple one.

  6. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  7. Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability arises in connection with the synchronization of coupled oscillator systems when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components or with significant variations of the phase velocity...

  8. ELECTRICAL AND DYNAMIC BRAKING OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE ON THE ROADS WITH LOW COUPLING COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitovskyi, O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There were carried out theoretical researches of the processes of the electrical and dynamic braking of the vehicle with hybrid power-plant on the roads with low coupling coefficient, it was proved the probability of the wheels blocking appearing, during electrical and dynamic braking.

  9. Hybrid modelling of near-field coupling onto grounded wire under ultra-short duration perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, B.; Liu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    A time-frequency (TF) hybrid model (HM) for investigating the interaction between EM near-field (NF) aggression and grounded wire is addressed. The HM is based on the combination of techniques for extracting the EM NF radiated by electronic structures and the calculation of electrical disturbances across the wire due to EM coupling. The computation method is fundamentally inspired from transmission line (TL) theory under EM illumination. The methodology including flow chart interpreting the routine algorithm based on the combination of frequency and time domain approaches is featured. An experimental result showing the EM coupling between patch antenna-wire from 1.5-3.5GHz reveals the efficiency of the HM in frequency domain. The relevance of this HM was illustrated with a structure comprised of 20cm aggressor and 5cm victim I-shaped wires placed above a planar ground plane. The aggressor was excited with 40ns duration perturbation signal. After Matlab implementation of the HM, the disturbance voltages across the extremity of the victim wire were extracted. This simple and fast HM is useful for the EMC engineering during the design and fabrication phases of electrical and electronic systems.

  10. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  12. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET

  13. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  14. Metal-Semiconductor Nanoparticle Hybrids Formed by Self-Organization: A Platform to Address Exciton-Plasmon Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelow, Christian; Theuerholz, T Sverre; Schmidtke, Christian; Richter, Marten; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Kloust, Hauke; Ye, Ziliang; Weller, Horst; Heinz, Tony F; Knorr, Andreas; Lange, Holger

    2016-08-10

    Hybrid nanosystems composed of excitonic and plasmonic constituents can have different properties than the sum of of the two constituents, due to the exciton-plasmon interaction. Here, we report on a flexible model system based on colloidal nanoparticles that can form hybrid combinations by self-organization. The system allows us to tune the interparticle distance and to combine nanoparticles of different sizes and thus enables a systematic investigation of the exciton-plasmon coupling by a combination of optical spectroscopy and quantum-optical theory. We experimentally observe a strong influence of the energy difference between exciton and plasmon, as well as an interplay of nanoparticle size and distance on the coupling. We develop a full quantum theory for the luminescence dynamics and discuss the experimental results in terms of the Purcell effect. As the theory describes excitation as well as coherent and incoherent emission, we also consider possible quantum optical effects. We find a good agreement of the observed and the calculated luminescence dynamics induced by the Purcell effect. This also suggests that the self-organized hybrid system can be used as platform to address quantum optical effects.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Flow and Fuel Regression Rate Coupling in Hybrid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STOIA-DJESKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid propulsion offers some remarkable advantages like high safety and high specific impulse and thus it is considered a promising technology for the next generation launchers and space systems. The purpose of this work is to validate a design tool for hybrid rocket motors (HRM through numerical simulations.

  16. Future hybrid systems: solar and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Broussard, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[NREL MURA Intern from Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Future solar and hydrogen hybrid systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences, as well as solar parks, are presented. Landarea issues are evaluated, and the economics and potential of these approaches are examined in terms of roadmap predictions on PV and hydrogen pathways. (orig.)

  17. Spectral Selectivity Applied To Hybrid Concentration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, M. A.; Luttmann, F.; Osborn, D. E.; Jacobson, M. R.; MacLeod, H. A.

    1985-12-01

    The efficiency of conversion of concentrated solar energy can be improved by separating the solar spectrum into portions matched to specific photoquantum processes and the balance used for photothermal conversion. The basic approaches of spectrally selective beam splitters are presented. A detailed simulation analysis using TRNSYS is developed for a spectrally selective hybrid photovoltaic/photothermal concentrating system. The analysis shows definite benefits to a spectrally selective approach.

  18. Polarization rotation and coupling between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2015-04-20

    We present a polarization rotation and coupling scheme that rotates a TE(0) mode in a silicon waveguide and simultaneously couples the rotated mode to a hybrid plasmonic (HP(0)) waveguide mode. Such a polarization rotation can be realized with a partially etched asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a silicon strip waveguide, a thin oxide spacer, and a metal cap made from copper, gold, silver or aluminum. Two implementations, one with and one without the tapering of the metal cap are presented, and different taper shapes (linear and exponential) are also analyzed. The devices have large 3 dB conversion bandwidths (over 200 nm at near infrared) and short length (< 5 μm), and achieve a maximum coupling factor of ∼ 78% with a linearly tapered silver metal cap.

  19. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  20. Optical protein modulation via quantum dot coupling and use of a hybrid sensor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark; Winder, Eric; Lueking, Donald; Friedrich, Craig; Mallick, Govind; Karna, Shashi

    2010-09-01

    Harnessing the energy transfer interactions between the optical protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) could provide a novel bio-nano electronics substrate with a variety of applications. In the present study, a polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride based I-SAM technique has been utilized to produce bilayers, trilayers and multilayers of alternating monolayers of bR, PDAC and QD's on a conductive ITO substrate. The construction of multilayer systems was directly monitored by measuring the unique A570 nm absorbance of bR, as well as QD fluorescence emission. Both of these parameters displayed a linear relationship to the number of monolayers present on the ITO substrate. The photovoltaic response of bilayers of bR/PDAC was observed over a range of 3 to 12 bilayers and the ability to efficiently create an electrically active multilayered substrate composed of bR and QDs has been demonstrated for the first time. Evaluation of QD fluorescence emission in the multilayer system strongly suggests that FRET coupling is occurring and, since the I-SAM technique provide a means to control the bR/QD separation distance on the nanometer scale, this technique may prove highly valuable for optimizing the distance dependent energy transfer effects for maximum sensitivity to target molecule binding by a biosensor. Finally, preliminary studies on the production of a sensor protein/bR hybrid gene construct are presented. It is proposed that the energy associated with target molecule binding to a hybrid sensor protein would provide a means to directly modulate the electrical output from a sensor protein/bR biosensor platform.

  1. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  2. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  3. Identical synchronization of coupled Rossler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Y.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Analyzing the transverse stability of low periodic orbits embedded in the synchronized chaotic state for a system of two coupled Rössler oscillators, we obtain the conditions for synchronization and determine the coupling parameters for which riddled basins of attraction may arise. It is shown how...

  4. A general purpose characterization system for rooftop hybrid microconcentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Jones, Christopher; Thomsen, Elizabeth; Diez, Vicente Munoz; Harvey, J.; Everett, Vernie; Blakers, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    A versatile characterization system for hybrid thermal and photovoltaic solar receivers is presented and demonstrated. The characterization of the thermal loss and effective area of a novel hybrid receiver is presented.

  5. Cultural Change, the Hybrid Administrative System and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... crackdown on corruption, this article explores the view that it is the hybrid .... decentralization and public participation in governance creates new demands. ..... The Hybrid Administrative System and Corporate Culture.

  6. Hybrid modeling and prediction of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alun L.; Flores, Kevin B.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific analysis often relies on the ability to make accurate predictions of a system’s dynamics. Mechanistic models, parameterized by a number of unknown parameters, are often used for this purpose. Accurate estimation of the model state and parameters prior to prediction is necessary, but may be complicated by issues such as noisy data and uncertainty in parameters and initial conditions. At the other end of the spectrum exist nonparametric methods, which rely solely on data to build their predictions. While these nonparametric methods do not require a model of the system, their performance is strongly influenced by the amount and noisiness of the data. In this article, we consider a hybrid approach to modeling and prediction which merges recent advancements in nonparametric analysis with standard parametric methods. The general idea is to replace a subset of a mechanistic model’s equations with their corresponding nonparametric representations, resulting in a hybrid modeling and prediction scheme. Overall, we find that this hybrid approach allows for more robust parameter estimation and improved short-term prediction in situations where there is a large uncertainty in model parameters. We demonstrate these advantages in the classical Lorenz-63 chaotic system and in networks of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons before application to experimentally collected structured population data. PMID:28692642

  7. Differential dynamic logics - automated theorem proving for hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, we introduce differential dynamic logic as a new logic with which correctness properties of hybrid systems with parameterized system dynamics can be specified and verified naturally. As a verificati...

  8. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  9. A Dynamical Simulation Facility for Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Back, A; Myers, M; Back, Allen; Guckenheimer, John; Myers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: This paper establishes a general framework for describing hybrid dynamical systems which is particularly suitable for numerical simulation. In this context, the data structures used to describe the sets and functions which comprise the dynamical system are crucial since they provide the link between a natural mathematical formulation of a problem and the correct application of standard numerical algorithms. We describe a partial implementation of the design methodology and use this simulation tool for a specific control problem in robotics as an illustration of the utility of the approach for practical applications.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  11. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  12. Research of IDSS Architecture Based on Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biao; YANG Bao-an

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of building IDSS on hybrid systems, and adopts XML technology to manage isomeric knowledge in hybrid systems. The paper proposes a new architecture of hybrid systems based IDSS whose core system is isomeric knowledge system. The architecture is composed of knowledge component, problems processing system, data component and intelligent user interface. This new architecture aims to enhance the capability of integrating hybrid systems, to improve the supporting effectiveness of decision-making and the intelligent level of IDSS, and tries a new way to elevate the system's ability of handling and learning knowledge.

  13. Anisotropic superconductivity and vortex dynamics in magnetially coupled F/S and F/S/F hybrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetrov, G.; Belkin, A.; Iavarone, M.; Fedor, J.; Novosad, V.; Milosevic, M. V.; Peeters, F. M. (Materials Science Division); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (Temple Univ.); (Slovak Academy of Sciences); (Univ. Antwerpen)

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically coupled superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids offer advanced routes for nanoscale control of superconductivity. Magnetotransport characteristics and scanning tunneling microscopy images of vortex structures in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids reveal rich superconducting phase diagrams. Focusing on a particular combination of a ferromagnet with a well-ordered periodic magnetic domain structure with alternating out-of-plane component of magnetization, and a small coherence length superconductor, we find directed nucleation of superconductivity above the domain wall boundaries. We show that near the superconductor-normal state phase boundary the superconductivity is localized in narrow mesoscopic channels. In order to explore the Abrikosov flux line ordering in F/S hybrids, we use a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Ginzburg-Landau simulations. The magnetic stripe domain structure induces periodic local magnetic induction in the superconductor, creating a series of pinning-anti-pinning channels for externally added magnetic flux quanta. Such laterally confined Abrikosov vortices form quasi-1D arrays (chains). The transitions between multichain states occur through propagation of kinks at the intermediate fields. At high fields we show that the system becomes nonlinear due to a change in both the number of vortices and the confining potential. In F/S/F hybrids we demonstrate the evolution of the anisotropic conductivity in the superconductor that is magnetically coupled with two adjacent ferromagnetic layers. Stripe magnetic domain structures in both F-layers are aligned under each other, resulting in a directional superconducting order parameter in the superconducting layer. The conductance anisotropy strongly depends on the period of the magnetic domains and the strength of the local magnetization. The anisotropic conductivity of up to three orders of magnitude can be achieved with a spatial critical temperature modulation of 5% of T{sub c

  14. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  15. Flow-radiation coupling for atmospheric entries using a Hybrid Statistical Narrow Band model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucasse, Laurent; Scoggins, James B.; Rivière, Philippe; Magin, Thierry E.; Soufiani, Anouar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a Hybrid Statistical Narrow Band (HSNB) model is implemented to make fast and accurate predictions of radiative transfer effects on hypersonic entry flows. The HSNB model combines a Statistical Narrow Band (SNB) model for optically thick molecular systems, a box model for optically thin molecular systems and continua, and a Line-By-Line (LBL) description of atomic radiation. Radiative transfer calculations are coupled to a 1D stagnation-line flow model under thermal and chemical nonequilibrium. Earth entry conditions corresponding to the FIRE 2 experiment, as well as Titan entry conditions corresponding to the Huygens probe, are considered in this work. Thermal nonequilibrium is described by a two temperature model, although non-Boltzmann distributions of electronic levels provided by a Quasi-Steady State model are also considered for radiative transfer. For all the studied configurations, radiative transfer effects on the flow, the plasma chemistry and the total heat flux at the wall are analyzed in detail. The HSNB model is shown to reproduce LBL results with an accuracy better than 5% and a speed up of the computational time around two orders of magnitude. Concerning molecular radiation, the HSNB model provides a significant improvement in accuracy compared to the Smeared-Rotational-Band model, especially for Titan entries dominated by optically thick CN radiation.

  16. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  17. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  18. BEAM COUPLING PHENOMENA IN FAST KICKER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; GLENN,J.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    Beam coupling phenomena have been observed in most fast kicker systems through out Brookhaven Collider-Accelerator complex. With ever-higher beam intensity, the signature of the beam becomes increasingly recognizable. The beam coupling at high intensity produced additional heat dissipation in high voltage modulator, thyratron grids, thyratron driver circuit sufficient to damage some components, and causes trigger instability. In this paper, we will present our observations, basic coupling mode analysis, relevance to the magnet structures, issues related to the existing high voltage modulators, and considerations of the future design of the fast kicker systems.

  19. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink.

  20. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  1. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  2. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  3. Spontaneously Igniting Hybrid Fuel-Oxidiser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly outlining the recent developments in hybrid rockets, the work carried out by the author on self-igniting (hypergolic solid fuel-liquid oxidiser systems has been reviewed. A major aspect relates to the solid derivatives of hydrazines, which have been conceived as fuels for hybrid rockets. Many of these N-N bonded compounds ignite readily, with very short ignition delays, on coming into contact with liquid oxidisers, like HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/ O/sub 4/. The ignition characteristics have been examined as a function of the nature of the functional group in the fuel molecule, in an attempt to establish a basis for the hypergolic ignition in terms of chemical reactivity of the fuel-oxidiser combination. Important chemical reactions occurring in the pre-ignition stage have been identified by examining the quenched reaction products. Hybrid systems exhibiting synergistic hypergolicity in the presence of metal powders have investigated. An estimation of the rocket performance parameters, experimental determination of the heats of combustion in HNO/sub 3/, thermal decomposition characteristics, temperature profile by thin film thermometry and product identification by the rapid scan FT-IR, are among the other relevant studies made on these systems. A significant recent development has been the synthesis of new N-N bonded viscous binders, capable of rataining the hypergolicity of the fuel powders embedded therein as well as providing the required mechanical strength to the grain. Several of these resins have been characterised. Metallised fuel composites of these resins having high loading of magnesium are found to have short ignition delays and high performance parameters.

  4. [Plasma temperature calculation and coupling mechanism analysis of laser-double wire hybrid welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Ying

    2013-04-01

    The plasma radiation of laser-double wire hybrid welding was collected by using fiber spectrometer, the coupling mechanism of arc with laser was studied through high-speed photography during welding process, and the temperature of hybrid plasma was calculated by using the method of Boltzmann plot. The results indicated that with laser hybrid, luminance was enhanced; radiation intensity became stronger; arc was attracted to the laser point; cross section contracted and arc was more stable. The laser power, welding current and arc-arc distance are important factors that have great influence on electron temperature. Increase in the laser power, amplification of welding current and reduction of arc-arc distance can all result in the rise of temperature.

  5. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    interactions for such a nanosystem exhibits two pronounced resonances and interpret the coupling in terms of Fano resonances. The higher energy resonance is identified as a symmetric hybridization mode between localized plasmon resonances in the island semishell array and surface plasmon polaritons...... in the metal film and while the lower energy resonance is identified as a corresponding anti-symmetric hybridization mode. Increasing the size of the particle arrays enhances and red shifts the resonances. We show that adding a dielectric spacer between the semishell island array and the metal film results...... in a red shifting of the resonances and introduce an additional high energy spectral peak. The effect of the spacer layer is interpreted as a reduced hybridization and the generation of additional localized surface plasmon resonances....

  6. Monolithic formulation of electromechanical systems within the context of hybrid finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish; Jog, C. S.

    2017-03-01

    In electromechanical devices, a strong coupling exists between the electromagnetic and displacement field. Due to this strong interaction, a need arises to develop a robust, fully coupled scheme for modeling electromechanical phenomena. With this goal in view, we present a monolithic numerical scheme for modeling fully coupled electromechanical systems. It is shown in the literature that for structural problems, hybrid elements that are based on a two-field variational formulation are less susceptible to locking and provide a robust numerical strategy especially for shell-type structures. Hence, we extend our monolithic formulation to the hybrid finite element framework. Our monolithic formulation is based on a total Lagrangian framework, where the eddy current and structural equations are solved on the reference configuration. Consistent linearization is performed to ensure a quadratic rate of convergence. The efficacy of the presented algorithm, and especially that of the hybrid formulation is demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  7. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  8. THE USE OF GENETIC ALGORITHM IN DIMENSIONING HYBRID AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUS T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the working principle of genetic algorithms used to dimension autonomous hybrid systems. It is presented a study case in which is dimensioned and optimized an autonomous hybrid system for a residential house located in Cluj-Napoca. After the autonomous hybrid system optimization is performed, it is achieved a reduction of the total cost of system investment, a reduction of energy produced in excess and a reduction of CO2 emissions.

  9. Identical Synchronous Criterion for a Coupling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGXiangao; ANOWei; LUOXinmin; ZHUFuchen

    2004-01-01

    A new identical synchronous criterion of a coupling system, which is the time average of the derivative of the Lyapunov function, is proposed to determine the synchronous occurrence of any coupling system. Three examples with linear or nonlinear feedback synchronous systems are introduced to test some synchronous parameters that are the conditional Lyapunov exponents, the time average of the derivative of the Lyapunov function,the mean square error of the synchronization. Having obtained the synchronous parameters with the change of the feedback gains, we discover that Pecora and Carroll's criterion and He and Vaidya's reduced criterion are only fit to determine the synchronization of the identical selfsynchronization system which is a special example in the coupling systems, and are not taken as the general identical synchronous criterion of any coupling system. However,no matter whether the largest conditional Lyapunov exponent or the derivative of the Lyapunov function is positive or negative, synchronization of the coupling systems will occur,as long as the average change ratio of the derivative of the Lyapunov function tends to zero.

  10. Control Systems for a Dynamic Multi-Physics Model of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Fugate, David W [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different local markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  11. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  12. Efficient parabolic evaluation of coupling terms in hybrid quantum/classical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida, Adolfo, E-mail: bastida@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Soler, Miguel Angel; Zuniga, Jose; Requena, Alberto [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Miguel, Beatriz [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-03-30

    A parabolic interpolation function of time is proposed to evaluate the non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements and the adiabatic energies at intermediate times within the classical time integration interval in hybrid quantum/classical simulations. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of this parabolic approximation are illustrated by carrying out a numerical application to the well-studied vibrational relaxation of I{sub 2} in liquid xenon.

  13. The Nonlinear Coupling of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Ring Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2004-01-01

    The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space, and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. In this paper we present the morphology, dynamics, and level of LHW activity generated by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the May 2-7, 1998 storm period on the global scale. The LHWs were calculated based on a newly developed self-consistent model (Khazanov et. al., 2002, 2003) that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes the evolution of EMIC waves. It is found that the LHWs are excited by helium ions due to their mass dependent drift in the electric field of EMIC waves. The level of LHW activity is calculated assuming that the induced scattering process is the main saturation mechanism for these waves. The calculated LHWs electric fields are consistent with the observational data.

  14. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  15. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  16. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  17. Ground states of linearly coupled Schrodinger systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the standing waves of a linearly coupled Schrodinger system which arises from nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics. The coefficients of the system are spatially dependent and have a mixed behavior: they are periodic in some directions and tend to positive constants in other directions. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that the system has a positive ground state. In addition, when the L-infinity-norm of the coupling coefficient tends to zero, the asymptotic behavior of the ground states is also obtained.

  18. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surfa...

  19. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surfa...

  20. Automation Comparison Procedure for Verification of Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 999, Springer-Verlag, (1995). [2] Bowler, 0., Grotzky, J., Nielson, M., Nilson.S., and Van Buren, J...Remmel, J.B., "Feedback Derivations: Near Optimal Controls for Hybrid Systems", to appear in Hybrid Systems III, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science . [6...Grossman, R.L., Nerode, A., Ravn, A. and Rischel, H. eds., Hybrid Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer

  1. Discrete integrable system and its integrable coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives new discrete integrable system based on discrete isospectral problem. It shows that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. Finally, integrable couplings of the obtained system is given by means of semi-direct sums of Lie algebras.

  2. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Power Coupling System with Two-stage Planetary Gear Trains for Hybrid System%混合动力两级行星机构动力耦合系统动力学建模及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉涛; 陈营生

    2012-01-01

    以基于双转子电机的混合动力传动系统的两级行星齿轮机构动力耦合系统为研究对象,考虑前后两级行星齿轮机构的齿轮副啮合刚度、中心构件的扭转支撑刚度、连接部分的扭转耦合刚度、各构件惯性等基本因素,详细推导并建立两级行星齿轮耦合系统的纯扭转动力学模型.利用两级行星齿轮机构的有关参数进行特征值问题求解,得到系统整体模型的固有特性,按照振型特点把系统的振动形式划分为三种模式:整体扭转振动模式、前排行星轮振动模式和后排行星轮振动模式.在整体模式下固有频率为单根,系统各构件均以一定幅度做扭转振动;前、后排行星轮模式下固有频率均为二重根,且除了其自身外,其他构件均无振动.归纳分析得到的各振动模式特征与前人有关结论相吻合.同时指出连接部分的耦合刚度对系统振动特性的影响,并作了初步分析.%A power coupling system with two-stage planetary gear trains is considered, which is a part of a novel hybrid power train system based on a double-rotor motor. Many fundamental factors are taken into account, such as mesh stiffness of gear pairs of the two-stage planetary gears, torsional stiffness of the central parts, torsional coupling stiffness of the connecting section, inertia of the system, etc. Purely torsional dynamic model of the coupling system is developed. The reduced-order eigenvalue problems are derived by using the related parameters of the system, and the natural characteristics of the system is shown. The vibration modes of the system are classified into three categories: overall rotational mode, front row planet mode, rear row planet mode. In overall mode, the natural frequency is a simple root and each part of the system has torsional vibration to some extent. However, the natural frequency is a double root in the other two modes and no part of system vibrates except the planet gears

  3. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  4. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  5. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  6. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  7. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  8. Colorimetric calibration of coupled infrared simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fei, Jindong; Gao, Yang; Du, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In order to test 2-color infrared sensors, a coupled infrared simulation system can generate radiometric outputs with wavelengths that range from less than 3 microns to more than 12 microns. There are two channels in the coupled simulation system, optically combined by a diachronic beam combiner. Each channel has an infrared blackbody, a filter, a diaphragm, and diaphragm-motors. The system is projected to the sensor under testing by a collimator. This makes it difficult to calibrate the system with only one-band thermal imager. Errors will be caused in the radiance levels measured by the narrow band thermal imager. This paper describes colorimetric temperature measurement techniques that have been developed to perform radiometric calibrations of these infrared simulation systems above. The calibration system consists of two infrared thermal imagers; one is operated at the wavelength range of MW-IR, and the other at the range of LW-IR.

  9. Spontaneous Emission Control in a Tunable Hybrid Photonic System

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Due to the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image the superemitter traces the inverse LDOS of the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  10. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-05-24

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Because of the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image, the superemitter traces the inverse of the LDOS enhancement provided by the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  11. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid

  12. Hybrid intelligent PID control design for PEMFC anode system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-min WANG; Ying-ying ZHANG; Guang-yi CAO

    2008-01-01

    Control design is important for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generator. This work researched the anode system of a 60-kW PEMFC generator. Both anode pressure and humidity must he maintained at ideal levels during steady operation. In view of characteristics and requirements of the system, a hybrid intelligent PID controller is designed specifically based on dynamic simulation. A single neuron PI controller is used for anode humidity by adjusting the water injection to the hydrogen cell. Another incremental PID controller, based on the diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) dynamic identification, is used to control anode pressure to be more stable and exact by adjusting the hydrogen flow rate. This control strategy can avoid the coupling problem of the PEMFC and achieve a more adaptive ability. Simulation results showed that the control strategy can maintain both anode humidity and pressure at ideal levels regardless of variable load, nonlinear dynamic and coupling characteristics of the system. This work will give some guides for further control design and applications of the total PEMFC generator.

  13. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  14. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan, E-mail: linjingquan@cust.edu.cn [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-09-21

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  15. On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.

  16. The Gwaii Haanas PV hybrid system : analysis of system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [GPCo Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-05-01

    The operation of the photovoltaic/battery/genset hybrid power system at the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve warden station in British Columbia has been monitored since July 2001 as part of the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre-Varennes Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Systems Program. The data collected has been used to validate hybrid system simulation tools being developed under the sponsorship of the Program. The analyzed data, along with the simulation tools, provided insight into the operation of the Gwaii Haanas power system. It also assisted in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Data indicates that the system functions well and is appropriately dimensioned and configured. The modules are arranged in two sub-arrays, with modules connected in parallel, showing remarkable tolerance to shading of part of the array. Almost complete discharge of the batteries occurs during the winter, when the Park residence is unoccupied. During the summer, users should keep track of the battery state-of-charge. Some recommendations were made to prolong the battery life. 1 ref., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  17. [Wireless ECG measurement system with capacitive coupling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Adrian; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a measurement system that captures an electrocardiogram (ECG) using capacitively coupled electrodes. The measurement system was integrated into an off-the-shelf office chair (so-called "Aachen SmartChair"). Whereas for classical ECG measurement adhesive is used to attach conductively coupled electrodes to bare skin, the system presented allows ECG measurement through clothing without direct skin contact. Furthermore, a ZigBee communication module was integrated to allow wireless transmission of ECG data to a PC or an ICU patient monitor. For system validation, classical ECG using conductive electrodes was obtained simultaneously. First measurement results, including variations of cloth thickness and material, are presented and some of the system-specific problems of this approach are discussed.

  18. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  19. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  20. 正常金属-分子量子点-超导耦合系统的介观输运%Mesoscopic transport through a hybrid system with a single molecular dot coupled to normal metal and superconducting leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桥; 张亚民

    2011-01-01

    运用非平衡格林函数理论、正则变换以及BCS平均场理论研究了正常金属-分子量子点-超导耦合系统(N-MQD-S)的介观输运,得到了系统的电流公式并选择适当的参数进行了数值计算.数值计算结果表明:电声子耦合强度λ与线宽函数Γ对系统的输运行为有较大影响.当λ增大时,由声子辅助隧穿所产生的共振峰将高于分子量子点自身能级产生的共振峰;当线宽函数Γ增大时,在Andreev反射共振峰的两侧将出现新的边峰.%We have investigated the mesoscopic transport through the normal metal-molecule quantum dot-superconductor(N-MQD-S)system by using nonequilibrium Green's function and canonical transformation of the electron-phonon interaction.We employ BCS theory to describe the Hamiltonian of the superconducting lead.The coupling strength λ of electron-phonon interaction(EPI)has huge influence on the current.As the λ increases,the peak caused by the phonon-assisted transport is higher than the main peak.This is different from N-MQD-N system.We also find that the linewidth function Γ affect the transport properties of the system.As the Γincreases,side peaks emerge around the peak caused by Andreev reflection.

  1. Coherent regimes of globally coupled dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents a method by which the mean field dynamics of a population of dynamical systems with parameter diversity and global coupling can be described in terms of a few macroscopic degrees of freedom. The method applies to populations of any size and functional form in the region...

  2. Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ling

    2006-01-01

    Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c>0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c<0.

  3. Hybrid quantum circuit with a superconducting qubit coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yuimaru; Grezes, Cecile; Vion, Denis; Esteve, Daniel; Bertet, Patrice [Quantronics Group, SPEC (CNRS URA 2464), CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diniz, Igor; Auffeves, Alexia [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Isoya, Jun-ichi [Research Center for Knowledge Communities, University of Tsukuba, 305-8550 Tsukuba (Japan); Jacques, Vincent; Dreau, Anais; Roch, Jean-Francois [LPQM (CNRS, UMR 8537), Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2013-07-01

    We report the experimental realization of a hybrid quantum circuit combining a superconducting qubit and an ensemble of electronic spins. The qubit, of the transmon type, is coherently coupled to the spin ensemble consisting of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in a diamond crystal via a frequency-tunable superconducting resonator acting as a quantum bus. Using this circuit, we prepare arbitrary superpositions of the qubit states that we store into collective excitations of the spin ensemble and retrieve back into the qubit. We also report a new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature with a qubit using the hybrid quantum circuit, as well as our recent progress on spin echo experiments.

  4. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  5. Recent progress in battery models for hybrid wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Baring-Gould, I.; Stein, W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the latest University of Massachusetts work on the analytical modeling and experimental testing of battery component models for hybrid power systems. An extension of the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM), developed at the University of Massachusetts is presented. The original model was based on a combination of phenomenological and physical considerations. As described in this paper, the modified KiBaM can now model the sharp increase in voltage near the end of charging, and the sharp drop in voltage when the battery is nearly empty. This model may readily be coupled with a DC load or charging source (such as a DC wind turbine or photovoltaic panels) to determine the corresponding DC bus voltage. For example, it is now an integral part of the DC bus section of the University of Massachusetts HYBRID simulation models. The paper describes the development of the extensions to the KiBaM model and the method of determining the constants from test data. On the experimental/applications side, it includes an illustration of how the constants are obtained from representative data (using a specially developed testing apparatus), and an example of how the model can be used.

  6. Nonclassical correlation between optical and microwave photons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Chen, Xiang; Lin, Gongwei; Lin, Xiumin

    2016-10-01

    A scheme to correlate optical and microwave photons is proposed in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system, where mechanical resonator is coupled to both optical and microwave fields. Analytical and numerical simulation results show that the cross-correlation function between Stokes and anti-Stokes photons strongly violates the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which confirms the nonclassical correlation between the optical and microwave photons. It is worth noting that the nonclassical photon pairs with vast different wavelengths, which may be useful for quantum communication, are generated under the experimentally accessible weak coupling limit rather than single-photon strong coupling regime. In addition, the protocol provides a possible route to combine the respective advantages of optical photons, microwave photons, and phonons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system.

  7. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  8. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  9. Influence of gas puff location on the coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET ELMy H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A. [CEA, IRFM, France; Petrzilka, V. [Assoc. Euratom-IPP.CR, Czech Republic; Baranov, Y. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Brix, M [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, France; Jacquet, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Kirov, K K [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Mailloux, J. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Mayoral, M.-L. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Nave, M. F. F. [Association EURATOM/IST, Lisbon, Portugal; Ongena, J. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium

    2012-01-01

    Reliable coupling of the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) to H-mode plasmas in JET is made feasible through a dedicated gas injection system, located at the outer wall and magnetically connected to the antenna (Pericoli Ridolfini et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 349, Ekedahl et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 351, Ekedahl et al 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 044001). An experiment was carried out in JET in order to investigate whether a gas injection from the top of the torus, as is foreseen for the main gas injection in ITER, could also provide good coupling of the LH waves if magnetically connected to the antenna. The results show that a top gas injection was not efficient for providing a reliable LHCD power injection, in spite of being magnetically connected and in spite of using almost twice the amount of gas flow compared with the dedicated outer mid-plane gas puffing system. A dedicated gas injection system, set in the outer wall and magnetically connected to the LHCD antenna, is therefore recommended in order to provide the reliable coupling conditions for an LHCD antenna in ITER.

  10. Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, S.; Jimenez, A.

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of the controllability properties of three thermally coupled distillation sequences (Petlyuk, sequence with side rectifier, and sequence with side stripper) using singular value decomposition is developed. Those properties are also compared to the energy consumption required for separating ternary mixtures. The parameters obtained via singular value decomposition show that sequences with a side rectifier or a side stripper have better control properties than the Petlyuk system, although the Petlyuk scheme has lower energy requirements than the systems with side columns.

  11. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  12. Surface plasmon-assisted optical bistability in the quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengjun; Qi, Yihong; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigated optical bistability (OB) of a coupled excition-plasmon hybrid system in a unidirectional ring cavity. It is found that the threshold and the region of OB can be tuned by adjusting the center-center distance between the quantum dot and metal nanoparticle (MNP), the Rabi frequency of the control field and the radius of the MNP. Due to the significantly enhanced optical nonlinearity by the surface plasmon effect, the threshold of OB can be decreased greatly when the probe field is parallel to the major axis of the hybrid system. The enhanced OB may have promising applications in optical switching and optical storage.

  13. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chikang

    2015-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of graphene. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system by using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the graphene and the gold cluster. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkably strong, selectable tuning and polarization dependent plasmon resonance enhanced in wide frequency regions. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect in a graphene-based photoelectric device.

  14. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  15. Non-Covalent Fluorescent Labeling of Hairpin DNA Probe Coupled with Hybridization Chain Reaction for Sensitive DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Luna; Zhang, Yonghua; Li, Junling; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2016-04-01

    An enzyme-free signal amplification-based assay for DNA detection was developed using fluorescent hairpin DNA probes coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The hairpin DNAs were designed to contain abasic sites in the stem moiety. Non-covalent labeling of the hairpin DNAs was achieved when a fluorescent ligand was bound to the abasic sites through hydrogen bonding with the orphan cytosine present on the complementary strand, accompanied by quench of ligand fluorescence. As a result, the resultant probes, the complex formed between the hairpin DNA and ligand, showed almost no fluorescence. Upon hybridization with target DNA, the probe underwent a dehybridization of the stem moiety containing an abasic site. The release of ligand from the abasic site to the solution resulted in an effective fluorescent enhancement, which can be used as a signal. Compared with a sensing system without HCR, a 20-fold increase in the sensitivity was achieved using the sensing system with HCR. The fluorescent intensity of the sensing system increased with the increase in target DNA concentration from 0.5 nM to 100 nM. A single mismatched target ss-DNA could be effectively discriminated from complementary target DNA. Genotyping of a G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was successfully demonstrated with the sensing system. Therefore, integrating HCR strategy with non-covalent labeling of fluorescent hairpin DNA probes provides a sensitive and cost-effective DNA assay.

  16. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  17. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  18. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  19. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  20. 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Andreas; Günther, Michael; Maten, E; Müller, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems held March 2013 in the Castle of Eringerfeld, Geseke in the neighborhood of Paderborn, Germany. It examines the wide range of current research topics in descriptor systems, including mathematical modeling, index analysis, wellposedness of problems, stiffness and different time-scales, cosimulation and splitting methods and convergence analysis. In addition, the book also presents applications from the automotive and circuit industries that show that descriptor systems provide challenging problems from the point of view of both theory and practice.   The book contains nine papers and is organized into three parts: control, simulation, and model order reduction. It will serve as an ideal resource for applied mathematicians and engineers, in particular those from mechanics and electromagnetics, who work with coupled differential equations.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using Hybrid Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    GHOMRI Latefa; Alla, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    Some extensions of PNs permitting HDS modeling were presented here. The first models to be presented are continuous PNs. This model may be used for modeling either a continuous system or a discrete system. In this case, it is an approximation that is often satisfactory. Hybrid PNs combine in the same formalism a discrete PN and a continuous PN. Two hybrid PN models were considered in this chapter. The first, called the hybrid PN, has a deterministic behavior; this means that we can predict th...

  2. A Discrete Lax-Integrable Coupled System Related to Coupled KdV and Coupled mKdV Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; JIA Ma; LOU Sen-Yue

    2007-01-01

    A modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) lattice is found to be also a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.A discrete coupled system is derived from the single lattice equation and its Lax pair is proposed. The coupled system is shown to be related to the coupled KdV and coupled mKdV systems which are widely used in physics.

  3. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  4. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  5. Coupled Oscillator Systems Having Partial PT Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Beygi, Alireza; Bender, Carl M

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines chains of $N$ coupled harmonic oscillators. In isolation, the $j$th oscillator ($1\\leq j\\leq N$) has the natural frequency $\\omega_j$ and is described by the Hamiltonian $\\frac{1}{2}p_j^2+\\frac{1}{2}\\omega_j^2x_j^2$. The oscillators are coupled adjacently with coupling constants that are purely imaginary; the coupling of the $j$th oscillator to the $(j+1)$st oscillator has the bilinear form $i\\gamma x_jx_{j+1}$ ($\\gamma$ real). The complex Hamiltonians for these systems exhibit {\\it partial} $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry; that is, they are invariant under $i\\to-i$ (time reversal), $x_j\\to-x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ even). [They are also invariant under $i\\to-i$, $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to- x_j$ ($j$ even).] For all $N$ the quantum energy levels of these systems are calculated exactly and it is shown that the ground-state energy is real. When $\\omega_j=1$ for all $j$, the full spectrum consists of a real energy spectrum embedded in a complex one; the eigenfunctions correspondi...

  6. Plasma characteristics in inductively and capacitively coupled hybrid source using single RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Yong; Lee, Moo-Young; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Parallel combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) using single RF generator was proposed to linear control of the plasma density with RF power. In the case of ICP, linear control of the plasma density is difficult because there is a density jump up due to E to H transition. Although the plasma density of CCP changes linearly with power, the density is lower than that of ICP due to high ion energy loss at the substrate. In our hybrid source, the single RF power generator was connected to electrode and antenna, and the variable capacitor was installed between the antenna and the power generator to control the current flowing through the antenna and the electrode. By adjusting the current ratio between the antenna and the electrode, linear characteristic of plasma density with RF power is achieved.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  8. Security Enhancement With Optimal QOS Using EAP-AKA In Hybrid Coupled 3G-WLAN Convergence Network

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, R; Dananjayan, P; 10.5121/iju.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    The third generation partnership project (3GPP) has addressed the feasibility of interworking and specified the interworking architecture and security architecture for third generation (3G)-wireless local area network (WLAN), it is developing, system architecture evolution (SAE)/ long term evolution (LTE) architecture, for the next generation mobile communication system. To provide a secure 3G-WLAN interworking in the SAE/LTE architecture, Extensible authentication protocol-authentication and key agreement (EAP-AKA) is used. However, EAP-AKA have several vulnerabilities. Therefore, this paper not only analyses the threats and attacks in 3G-WLAN interworking but also proposes a new authentication and key agreement protocol based on EAP-AKA. The proposed protocol combines elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) with symmetric key cryptosystem to overcome the vulnerabilities. The proposed protocol is used in hybrid coupled 3G-WLAN convergence network to analyse its efficiency in terms of QoS metrics, the results ob...

  9. Improving Diagnosability of Hybrid Systems through Active Diagnosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault diagnosis is key to ensuring system safety through fault-adaptive control. This task is diffcult in hybrid systems with combined continuous and discrete...

  10. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  11. Reactive Coupling Effects on Amplitude Death of Coupled Limit-Cycle Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-Hua; LI Xiao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Amplitude death in coupled limit-cycle systems induced by the reactive coupling is studied. The presence of reactive coupling parameter changes the amplitude death process of the system,and increases the critical coupling strength for the emergence of amplitude death.When the systems are in the state of complete or partial amplitude death,increasing the reactive coupling will increase the number of partial synchronization groups,implying the increase of disorder of the system.Increasing the reactive coupling makes the elimination of the amplitude death of the systems harder.

  12. 太阳能光电-热一体化与热泵耦合系统的热力性能实验研究%Experimental Study of Thermal Performances of the Sloar Photovoltaic-thermal Hybrid and Heat Pump Coupled Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴应; 龚光彩; 王晨光

    2015-01-01

    太阳能光电−热一体化(solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid,PV-T)系统产生的热水的温度通常达不到生活所需的水温,如果和热泵联合工作,则可以提供较高温度的热水,系统的实用性明显提高。理论上在PV-T提供的热能与热泵吸收的热能相等时, PV-T与热泵能很好的匹配耦合,在此基础上建立了PV-T与热泵耦合的热力分析模型。结合热管式 PV-T 系统实验装置和热泵实验装置进行测试的实验数据,对该耦合系统的热力性能进行分析,基于两种不同算法,得出了匹配情况下PV-T耦合热泵系统的COP,实验还得出PV-T系统的火用效率为0.08左右,热泵的火用效率为0.38左右,匹配情况下耦合系统的火用效率为0.05左右,该 PV-T耦合热泵系统有较好的节能效果。文中对系统提出了节能建议。该研究结果为PV-T与热泵耦合工作的应用及其系统参数的选用提供理论依据。%Temperature of the hot water produced by solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid(PV-T) system usually can not reach the required hot water temperature of daily life. Working with heat pump, the PV-T system can provide hot water with higher temperature and the practicability of this system will be improved significantly. When the heat energy produced by the PV-T system is equal to that absorbed by the heat pump, the PV-T and heat pump coupled systems can achieve a very good match in theory. Based on this condition, a theoretical model of the coupled systems was established. The thermal performance was tested and analyzed according to the experimental data obtained from the PV-T and heat pump equipments.COP of the coupled systems under matching condition was concluded by two different algorithms. The exergy efficiency of the PV-T system and heat pump were about 0.08 and 0.38, respectively. The exergy efficiency of the coupled systems was about 0.05 under matching condition, which implied that the coupled

  13. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  14. Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Q.; Luxmoore, Isaac J.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Savostianova, Nadja A.; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R.

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ~60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.

  15. A regularized and renormalized electrostatic coupling Hamiltonian for hybrid quantum-mechanical-molecular-mechanical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P K; Gogonea, V

    2005-10-22

    We describe a regularized and renormalized electrostatic coupling Hamiltonian for hybrid quantum-mechanical (QM)-molecular-mechanical (MM) calculations. To remedy the nonphysical QM/MM Coulomb interaction at short distances arising from a point electrostatic potential (ESP) charge of the MM atom and also to accommodate the effect of polarized MM atom in the coupling Hamiltonian, we propose a partial-wave expansion of the ESP charge and describe the effect of a s-wave expansion, extended over the covalent radius r(c), of the MM atom. The resulting potential describes that, at short distances, large scale cancellation of Coulomb interaction arises intrinsically from the localized expansion of the MM point charge and the potential self-consistently reduces to 1r(c) at zero distance providing a renormalization to the Coulomb energy near interatomic separations. Employing this renormalized Hamiltonian, we developed an interface between the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics program and the classical molecular-dynamics simulation program Groningen machine for chemical simulations. With this hybrid code we performed QM/MM calculations on water dimer, imidazole carbon monoxide (CO) complex, and imidazole-heme-CO complex with CO interacting with another imidazole. The QM/MM results are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the geometry of these complexes and other computational data found in literature.

  16. Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Q; Luxmoore, Isaac J; Mikhailov, Sergey A; Savostianova, Nadja A; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R

    2015-11-20

    Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ∼60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.

  17. Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya, Victoria O; Cadena, Erasmo; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G

    2014-07-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a putative biodiesel production plant in which the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris, was grown using an existing system similar to a published commercial-scale hybrid cultivation. The hybrid system couples airlift tubular photobioreactors with raceway ponds in a two-stage process for high biomass growth and lipid accumulation. The results show that microalgal biodiesel production would have a significantly lower environmental impact than fossil-derived diesel. Based on the functional unit of 1 ton of biodiesel produced, the hybrid cultivation system and hypothetical downstream process (base case) would have 42% and 38% savings in global warming potential (GWP) and fossil-energy requirements (FER) when compared to fossil-derived diesel, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential process parameters on the LCA results. The maximum reduction in GWP and FER was observed under mixotrophic growth conditions with savings of 76% and 75% when compared to conventional diesel, respectively.

  18. Influence of the anodic recirculation transient behaviour on the SOFC hybrid system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Mario L.; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide F. [Thermochemical Power Group (TPG), Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti, Universita di Genova (Italy)

    2005-09-26

    This paper addresses the off-design and transient response of a high efficiency hybrid system based on the coupling of a recuperated micro-gas turbine (mGT) with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The work focuses on the anodic side where an ejector exploits the pressure energy of the fuel to recirculate part of the exhaust gas, in order to maintain a proper value for the steam-to-carbon ratio (STCR) and to support the reforming reactions. Two different stand-alone time-dependent ejector models are presented and validated against experimental data. Then, the most suitable model for cycle simulations, in term of calculation time, has been employed for the transient analysis of the entire hybrid system. The SOFC hybrid system transient behaviour is presented and discussed at several operating conditions from an electrochemical, fluid dynamic and thermal point of view. (author)

  19. Influence of the anodic recirculation transient behaviour on the SOFC hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mario L.; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide F.

    This paper addresses the off-design and transient response of a high efficiency hybrid system based on the coupling of a recuperated micro-gas turbine (mGT) with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The work focuses on the anodic side where an ejector exploits the pressure energy of the fuel to recirculate part of the exhaust gas, in order to maintain a proper value for the steam-to-carbon ratio (STCR) and to support the reforming reactions. Two different stand-alone time-dependent ejector models are presented and validated against experimental data. Then, the most suitable model for cycle simulations, in term of calculation time, has been employed for the transient analysis of the entire hybrid system. The SOFC hybrid system transient behaviour is presented and discussed at several operating conditions from an electrochemical, fluid dynamic and thermal point of view.

  20. Hybrid Recommender System for Joining Virtual Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of social networks and virtual communities has created problematic for users of different ages and preferences; in addition, since the true nature of groups is not clearly outlined, users are uncertain about joining various virtual groups and usually face the trouble of joining the undesired ones. As a solution, in this study, we introduced the hybrid community recommender system which offers customized recommendations based on user preferences. Although techniques such as content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods are available, these techniques are not enough efficient and in some cases make problems and bring limitations to users. Our method is based on a combination of content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods. It is created by selecting related features of users based on supervised entropy as well as using association rules and classification method. Supposing users in each community or group share similar characteristics, by hierarchical clustering, heterogeneous members are identified and removed. Unlike other methods, this is also applicable for users who have just joined the social network where they do not have any connections or group memberships. In such situations, this method could still offer recommendations.

  1. Polymer hybrid materials for planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Martin; Prucker, Oswald; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Planar optronic systems made entirely from polymeric functional materials on polymeric foils are interesting architectures for monitoring and sensing applications. Key components in this regard are polymer hybrid materials with adjustable optical properties. These materials can then be processed into optical components such as waveguides for example by using embossing techniques. However, the resulting microstructures have often low mechanical or thermal stability which quickly leads to a degradation of the microstructures accompanied often by a complete loss of function. A simple and versatile way to increase the thermal and mechanical stability of polymers is to connect the individual chains to a polymer network by using thermally or photochemically reactive groups. Upon excitation, these groups form reactive intermediates such as radicals or nitrenes which then crosslink with adjacent C-H-groups through a C,H insertion reaction (CHic = C,H insertion based crosslinking). To generate waveguide structures a PDMS stamp is filled with the waveguide core material e.g. poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which is modified with a few mol% of the thermal crosslinker and hot embossed onto a foil substrate e.g. PMMA. In this one-step hot embossing process polymer ridge waveguides are formed and simultaneously the polymer becomes crosslinked. Due to the reaction across the boundary between waveguide and substrate it is also possible to combine initially incompatible polymers for the waveguide and the substrate foil. The thermomechanical properties of the obtained materials are studied.

  2. Emulating solid-state physics with a hybrid system of ultracold ions and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissbort, U; Cocks, D; Negretti, A; Idziaszek, Z; Calarco, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Hofstetter, W; Gerritsma, R

    2013-08-23

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  3. Reconstruction of the coupling architecture in an ensemble of coupled time-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, I. V.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Prokhorov, M. D.

    2012-08-01

    A method for reconstructing the coupling architecture and values in an ensemble of time-delay interacting systems with an arbitrary number of couplings between ensemble elements is proposed. This method is based on reconstruction of the model equations of ensemble elements and diagnostics of the coupling significance by successive trial exclusion or adding coupling coefficients to the model.

  4. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  6. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  7. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  8. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  9. Hybrid Upwind Discretization for the Implicit Simulation of Three-Phase Coupled Flow and Transport with Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, F. P.; Mallison, B.; Tchelepi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The systems of algebraic equations arising from implicit (backward-Euler) finite-volume discretization of the conservation laws governing multiphase flow in porous media are quite challenging for nonlinear solvers. In the presence of counter-current flow due to buoyancy, the coupling between flow (pressure) and transport (saturations) is often the cause of nonlinear problems when single-point Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU) is used. To overcome such convergence problems in practice, the time step is reduced and Newton's method is restarted from the solution at the previous converged time step. Here, we generalize the work of Lee, Efendiev and Tchelepi [Advances in Water Resources, 2015] to propose an Implicit Hybrid Upwinding (IHU) scheme for coupled flow and transport. In the pure transport problem, we show that the numerical flux obtained with IHU is differentiable, monotone and consistent for two and three-phase flow. For coupled flow and transport, we prove saturation physical bounds as well as the existence of a solution to our scheme. Challenging two- and three-phase heterogeneous multi-dimensional numerical tests confirm that the new scheme is non-oscillatory and convergent, and illustrate the superior convergence rate of our IHU-based Newton solver for large time steps.

  10. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  11. A Unified Mutual Coupling Model for Multiple Antenna Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu-jiang; NIE Zai-ping

    2006-01-01

    A unified mutual coupling model for multiple antenna communication systems based on moment methods is proposed. This model combines antenna coupling and RF front-end circuit coupling, thus providing a more accurate and complete analysis of the mutual coupling effect on multiple antenna systems.

  12. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  13. Exact Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Bilinear SOS Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems and stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems. A hybrid symbolic-numeric method is presented to compute exact inequality invariants of hybrid systems and exact estimates of regions of attraction of autonomous systems efficiently. Some numerical invariants of a hybrid system or an estimate of region of attraction can be obtained by solving a bilinear SOS program via PENBMI solver or iterative method, then the modified Newton refinement and rational vector recovery techniques are applied to obtain exact polynomial invariants and estimates of regions of attraction with rational coefficients. Experiments on some benchmarks are given to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

  14. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2015-06-24

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of "materials that compute", we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

  15. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  16. Potentials of Optical Damage Assessment Techniques in Automotive Crash-Concepts composed of FRP-Steel Hybrid Material Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosch, M.; Spiegelhalter, B.; Soot, T.; Lukaszewicz, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hiermaier, S.

    2017-05-01

    With car manufacturers simultaneously facing increasing passive safety and efficiency requirements, FRP-metal hybrid material systems are one way to design lightweight and crashworthy vehicle structures. Generic automotive hybrid structural concepts have been tested under crash loading conditions. In order to assess the state of overall damage and structural integrity, and primarily to validate simulation data, several NDT techniques have been assessed regarding their potential to detect common damage mechanisms in such hybrid systems. Significant potentials were found particularly in combining 3D-topography laser scanning and X-Ray imaging results. Ultrasonic testing proved to be limited by the signal coupling quality on damaged or curved surfaces.

  17. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup M. Gakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources maximum power from the sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm with a standard perturbs and observed method will be used for the Photo Voltaic system. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to give continuous power supply to the load. The gating pulses to the inverter switches are implemented with conventional and fuzzy controller. This hybrid wind-photo voltaic system is modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Simulation circuit is analyzed and results are presented for this hybrid wind and solar energy system.

  18. Pre-implantation genetic screening using fluorescence in situ hybridization in couples of Indian ethnicity: Is there a scope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Gada Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a high incidence of numerical chromosomal aberration in couples with repeated in vitro fertilization (IVF failure, advanced maternal age, repeated unexplained abortions, severe male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS, a variant of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, screens numerical chromosomal aberrations in couples with normal karyotype, experiencing poor reproductive outcome. The present study includes the results of the initial pilot study on 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS cycles. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of PGS in couples with poor reproductive outcome. Settings and Design: Data of initial 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS for various indications was evaluated. Subjects and Methods: Blastomere biopsy was performed on cleavage stage embryos and subjected to two round fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH testing for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y as a two-step procedure. Results: Six of the 9 couples (10 PGS cycles conceived, including a twin pregnancy in a couple with male factor infertility, singleton pregnancies in a couple with secondary infertility, in three couples with adverse obstetric outcome in earlier pregnancies and in one couple with repeated IVF failure. Conclusion: In the absence of availability of array-comparative genomic hybridization in diagnostic clinical scenario for PGS and promising results with FISH based PGS as evident from the current pilot study, it is imperative to offer the best available services in the present scenario for better pregnancy outcome for patients.

  19. Nonlinear coupling of lower hybrid waves to the kinetic low-frequency plasma response in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, K. Y.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.

    A hybrid kinetic-fluid model is developed which is relevant to lower hybrid spikelets observed in the topside auroral ionosphere [Vago et al., 1992; Eriksson et al., 1994]. In contrast to previous fluid models [Shapiro et al., 1995; Tam and Chang, 1995; Seyler, 1994; Shapiro et al., 1993] our linear low frequency plasma response is magnetized and kinetic. Fluid theory is used to incorporate the nonlinear wave coupling. Performing a linear stability analysis, we calculate the growth rate for the modulational instability, driven by a lower hybrid wave pump. We find that both the magnetic and kinetic effects inhibit the modulational instability.

  20. Enhancing Intrinsic Stability of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cell by Strong, yet Balanced, Electronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, the meteoric development of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSC) astonished the community. The efficiency has already reached the level needed for commercialization; however, the instability hinders its deployment on the market. Here, we report a mechanism to chemically stabilize PSC absorbers. We propose to replace the widely used methylammonium cation (CH3NH3+) by alternative molecular cations allowing an enhanced electronic coupling between the cation and the PbI6 octahedra while maintaining the band gap energy within the suitable range for solar cells. The mechanism exploits establishing a balance between the electronegativity of the materials’ constituents and the resulting ionic electrostatic interactions. The calculations demonstrate the concept of enhancing the electronic coupling, and hence the stability, by exploring the stabilizing features of CH3PH3+, CH3SH2+, and SH3+ cations, among several other possible candidates. Chemical stability enhancement hence results from a strong, yet balanced, electronic coupling between the cation and the halides in the octahedron. This shall unlock the hindering instability problem for PSCs and allow them to hit the market as a serious low-cost competitor to silicon based solar cell technologies.

  1. Enhancing Intrinsic Stability of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cell by Strong, yet Balanced, Electronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the meteoric development of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSC) astonished the community. The efficiency has already reached the level needed for commercialization; however, the instability hinders its deployment on the market. Here, we report a mechanism to chemically stabilize PSC absorbers. We propose to replace the widely used methylammonium cation (CH3NH3+) by alternative molecular cations allowing an enhanced electronic coupling between the cation and the PbI6 octahedra while maintaining the band gap energy within the suitable range for solar cells. The mechanism exploits establishing a balance between the electronegativity of the materials’ constituents and the resulting ionic electrostatic interactions. The calculations demonstrate the concept of enhancing the electronic coupling, and hence the stability, by exploring the stabilizing features of CH3PH3+, CH3SH2+, and SH3+ cations, among several other possible candidates. Chemical stability enhancement hence results from a strong, yet balanced, electronic coupling between the cation and the halides in the octahedron. This shall unlock the hindering instability problem for PSCs and allow them to hit the market as a serious low-cost competitor to silicon based solar cell technologies. PMID:27457130

  2. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  3. Characterization of the non-resonant radiation damping in coupled cavity photon magnon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J. W.; Kaur, S.; Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S.; Yao, B. M.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2017-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated the non-resonant radiation damping in the coupled cavity photon-magnon system in addition to the resonant radiation damping which results in the linewidth exchange between the magnon-like and photon-like hybrid modes. The contribution of this non-resonant effect becomes apparent when the cavity photon-magnon resonance frequencies are mismatched. By carefully examining the change in the linewidth and the shift in the magnon resonance as a function of the coupling strength between the cavity photons and magnons, we can quantitatively describe this non-resonant radiation damping by including an additional relaxation channel for the hybridized photon-magnon system. This experimental realization and theoretical modelling of the non-resonant radiation damping in the cavity photon-magnon system may help in the design and adaptation of these systems for practical applications.

  4. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  5. DESIGNING A HYBRID INTELLIGENT MINING SYSTEM FOR CREDIT RISK EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a novel hybrid intelligent mining system integrating rough sets theory and support vector machines is developed to extract efficiently association rules from original information table for credit risk evaluation and analysis.In the proposed hybrid intelligent system,support vector machines are used as a tool to extract typical features and filter its noise,which are different from the previous studies where rough sets were only used as a preprocessor for support vector machines.Such an approach could reduce the information table and generate the final knowledge from the reduced information table by rough sets.Therefore,the proposed hybrid intelligent system overcomes the diffi-culty of extracting rules from a trained support vector machine classifier and possesses the robustness which is lacking for rough-set-based approaches.In addition,the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid intelligent system is illustrated with two real-world credit datasets.

  6. Asymptotic Stabilizability of a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Seroka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asymptotic stabilizability in probability of a class of stochastic nonlinear control hybrid systems (with a linear dependence of the control with state dependent, Markovian, and any switching rule is considered in the paper. To solve the issue, the Lyapunov technique, including a common, single, and multiple Lyapunov function, the hybrid control theory, and some results for stochastic nonhybrid systems are used. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability in probability for a considered class of hybrid systems are formulated. Also the stabilizing control in a feedback form is considered. Furthermore, in the case of hybrid systems with the state dependent switching rule, a method for a construction of stabilizing switching rules is proposed. Obtained results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  7. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  8. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve t...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  9. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on complex network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIAN FUZHONG; LIU WEILONG

    2016-06-01

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network was affected by different information sources. Another is how to achieve hybrid synchronization on the network. In this paper, the theoretical analysis andnumerical simulation on various complex networks are implemented. The results indicate that the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems is feasible.

  10. Measurements of nanoresonator-qubit interactions in a hybrid quantum electromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, F.; Hao, Y.; Brito, F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Irish, E. K.; LaHaye, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments to probe the basic quantum properties of motional degrees of freedom of mechanical systems have developed rapidly over the last decade. One promising approach is to use hybrid electromechanical systems incorporating superconducting qubits and microwave circuitry. However, a critical challenge facing the development of these systems is to achieve strong coupling between mechanics and qubits while simultaneously reducing coupling of both the qubit and mechanical mode to the environment. Here we report measurements of a qubit-coupled mechanical resonator system consisting of an ultra-high-frequency nanoresonator and a long coherence-time superconducting transmon qubit, embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. It is demonstrated that the nanoresonator and transmon have commensurate energies and transmon coherence times are one order of magnitude larger than for all previously reported qubit-coupled nanoresonators. Moreover, we show that numerical simulations of this new hybrid quantum system are in good agreement with spectroscopic measurements and suggest that the nanoresonator in our device resides at low thermal occupation number, near its ground state, acting as a dissipative bath seen by the qubit. We also outline how this system could soon be developed as a platform for implementing more advanced experiments with direct relevance to quantum information processing and quantum thermodynamics, including the study of nanoresonator quantum noise properties, reservoir engineering, and nanomechanical quantum state generation and detection.

  11. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanbin Yu; Dongdong Zhang; Haitao Min; Yi Tang; Tao Zhu(GCAP-CASPER, Physics Department, Baylor University, One Bear Place, # 97316, Waco, TX 76798-7316, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE) function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC) coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB). In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between s...

  12. User-interfaces for hybrid systems: Analysis and design through hybrid reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Meeko Mitsuko Karen

    Hybrid systems combine discrete state dynamics, which model mode switching, with continuous state dynamics, which model the physical processes themselves. Applications of hybrid system theory to automated systems have traditionally assumed that the controller itself is an automaton which runs in parallel with the system under control. We model human interaction with hybrid systems, which involves the user; the automation's discrete mode-logic, and the underlying continuous dynamics of the physical system. Often in safety-critical systems, user-interfaces display a reduced set of information about the entire system, however must still provide adequate information and must not confuse the user. We present (1) a method of designing a discrete event system abstraction of the hybrid system, in order to verify or design user-interfaces for hybrid human-automation systems, and (2) the relationship between user-interfaces and discrete observability properties. Using a hybrid computational tool for reachability, we find the largest region in which the system can always remain---this is the safe region of operation. By implementing a controller which arises from this computation, we mathematically guarantee that this safe region is invariant. Assigning discrete states to the computed invariant regions, we create a discrete event system from this hybrid system with safety restrictions. This abstraction can then be used in existing interface verification and design methods. A user-interface, modeled as a discrete system, must, not only be reduced (extraneous information has been eliminated), but also "immediately observable". We derive conditions for immediate observability, in which the current state can be constructed from the current output and last occurring event. Based on finite state machine state-reduction techniques, we synthesize an output for remote user-interfaces which fulfills this property. Aircraft are prime examples of complex, safety-critical systems. In

  13. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  14. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  15. EXPONENTIAL ESTIMATES FOR STOCHASTIC DELAY HYBRID SYSTEMS WITH MARKOVIAN SWITCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of norm bounds for the solutions of stochastic hybrid systems with Markovian switching and time delay. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, mean square exponential estimates for the solutions of this class of linear stochastic hybrid systems are derived. Finally, An example is illustrated to show the applicability and effectiveness of our method.

  16. Strategy and gaps for modeling, simulation, and control of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, Rob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish a strategy for modeling and simulation of candidate hybrid energy systems. Modeling and simulation is necessary to design, evaluate, and optimize the system technical and economic performance. Accordingly, this report first establishes the simulation requirements to analysis candidate hybrid systems. Simulation fidelity levels are established based on the temporal scale, real and synthetic data availability or needs, solution accuracy, and output parameters needed to evaluate case-specific figures of merit. Accordingly, the associated computational and co-simulation resources needed are established; including physical models when needed, code assembly and integrated solutions platforms, mathematical solvers, and data processing. This report first attempts to describe the figures of merit, systems requirements, and constraints that are necessary and sufficient to characterize the grid and hybrid systems behavior and market interactions. Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and effective cost of Effective Cost of Energy (ECE), as opposed to the standard Levelized Cost of Electricty (LCOE), are introduced as technical and economical indices for integrated energy system evaluations. Financial assessment methods are subsequently introduced for evaluation of non-traditional, hybrid energy systems. Algorithms for coupled and iterative evaluation of the technical and economic performance are subsequently discussed. This report further defines modeling objectives, computational tools, solution approaches, and real-time data collection and processing (in some cases using real test units) that will be required to model, co-simulate, and optimize; (a) an energy system components (e.g., power generation unit, chemical process, electricity management unit), (b) system domains (e.g., thermal, electrical or chemical energy generation, conversion, and transport), and (c) systems control modules. Co-simulation of complex, tightly coupled

  17. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  18. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  19. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Coupled HMM for Complex Interacting Processes Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianghua(刘江华); Chen Jiapin; Cheng Junshi

    2004-01-01

    Coupled Hidden Markov Model (CHMM) is the extension of traditional HMM, which is mainly used for complex interactive process modeling such as two-hand gestures. However, the problems of finding optimal model parameter are still of great interest to the researches in this area. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for the CHMM training. Chaos is used to initialize GA and used as mutation operator. Experiments on Chinese TaiChi gestures show that standard GA (SGA) based CHMM training is superior to Maximum Likelihood (ML) HMM training. HGA approach has the highest recognition rate of 98.0769%, then 96.1538% for SGA. The last one is ML method, only with a recognition rate of 69.2308%.

  20. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Madison, Jonathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holm, Elizabeth Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Patterson, Burton R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Homer, Eric R. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  1. Hybrid metal-dielectric, slow wave structure with magnetic coupling and compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.V., E-mail: asmirnov@radiabeam.com [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Savin, E. [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    A number of electron beam vacuum devices such as small radiofrequency (RF) linear accelerators (linacs) and microwave traveling wave tubes (TWTs) utilize slow wave structures which are usually rather complicated in production and may require multi-step brazing and time consuming tuning. Fabrication of these devices becomes challenging at centimeter wavelengths, at large number of cells, and when a series or mass production of such structures is required. A hybrid, metal-dielectric, periodic structure for low gradient, low beam current applications is introduced here as a modification of Andreev’s disk-and-washer (DaW) structure. Compensated type of coupling between even and odd TE01 modes in the novel structure results in negative group velocity with absolute values as high as 0.1c–0.2c demonstrated in simulations. Sensitivity to material imperfections and electrodynamic parameters of the disk-and-ring (DaR) structure are considered numerically using a single cell model.

  2. Reachability computation for hybrid systems with Ariadne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Benvenuti; D. Bresolin; A. Casagrande; P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Ferrari; E. Mazzi; T. Villa; A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAriadne is an in-progress open environment to design algorithms for computing with hybrid automata, that relies on a rigorous computable analysis theory to represent geometric objects, in order to achieve provable approximation bounds along the computations. In this paper we discuss the

  3. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  4. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  5. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  6. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  7. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  8. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

  10. Hyperpolarization in coupled multi-spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchak, Sergey Evgen' evich

    2010-06-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on multi-spin systems using variation of the external magnetic field were performed with high spectral resolution. The main focus was investigating the behaviour of hyperpolarized nuclear spin states in the coupled spin systems in its dependence on the strength of the magnetic field in order to discriminate field dependent effects from others and to optimize the hyperpolarization (HP) yield. All experiments were done on liquid state solutions, thus, the main interaction between the spins was scalar spin-spin coupling, which is not averaged in low viscosity liquids in contrast to dipolar spin-spin interaction. It was possible to separate the paramagnetic effect from the strong coupling effect. Several methods of hyperpolarization were explored: Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP), Parahydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP), and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). Experiments were performed with the aim to manipulate hyperpolarization by control of spin coherences and to exploit the encoded information for analytical purposes. Criteria for the polarization manipulation at variable field were derived and experimentally checked. The DNP experiments were conducted with driving the electronic spins off equilibrium by applying a train of radio-frequency pulses in comparison with cw irradiation. Strong hyperpolarization was obtained in the hydrogenation reaction of styrene with the singlet spin isomer of hydrogen gas (parahydrogen) and studied at variable field. While for the protons originating from parahydrogen the high polarization was observed at all field amplitudes, in low field also polarization of the phenyl ring protons of the product was detected as a result of polarization transfer among strongly coupled spins. CIDNP techniques were applied to amino acids, nucleotides and cycloketones. The most extensive investigation was performed on radical intermediates of the essential amino acid methionine and of

  11. A PRODUCT HYBRID GMRES ALGORITHM FOR NONSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-jiang Zhong

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that the residual polynomials resulted from successive restarting cycles of GMRES(m) may differ from one another meaningfully. In this paper, it is further shown that the polynomials can complement one another harmoniously in reducing the iterative residual. This characterization of GMRES(m) is exploited to formulate an efficient hybrid iterative scheme, which can be widely applied to existing hybrid algorithms for solving large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. In particular, a variant of the hybrid GMRES algorithm of Nachtigal, Reichel and Trefethen (1992) is presented. It is described how the new algorithm may offer significant performance improvements over the original one.

  12. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles....

  13. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  14. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  15. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  16. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  17. Hybrid Communication System Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid architecture between terrestrial and satellite networks based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is employed here. In hybrid architecture, the users will be able to avail the services through the terrestrial networks as well as the satellite networks. The users located in urban areas will be served by the existing terrestrial mobile networks and similarly the one located in rural areas will be provided services through the satellite networks. The technique which is used to achieve this objective is called Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming also called time domain beamforming. When the data is received at the satellite end, the Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming extracts the desired user data from the interferer user by applying the complex weights to the received symbol. The weight for the next symbol is then updated by Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm and then is applied to it. This process is carried out till all the desired user data is extracted.

  18. A general strategy for nanohybrids synthesis via coupled competitive reactions controlled in a hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).

  19. Density convection near radiating ICRF antennas and its effect on the coupling of lower hybrid waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Kazarian, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Mayoral, M.L.; Mailloux, J. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Noterdaeme, J.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Garching (Germany)]|[Gent University, EESA Dept. (Belgium); Tuccillo, A.A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Combined operation of lower hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) waves can result in a degradation of the LH wave coupling, as observed both in the Tore-Supra and Jet tokamaks. The reflection coefficient on the part of the LH launcher magnetically connected to the powered ICRF antenna increases, suggesting a local decrease in the electron density in the connecting flux tubes. This has been confirmed by Langmuir probe measurements on the LH launchers in the latest Tore-Supra experiments. Moreover, recent experiments in Jet indicate that the LH coupling degradation depends on the ICRF power and its launched k{sub /} spectrum. The 2D density distribution around the Tore-Supra ICRF antennas has been modelled with the CELLS-code, balancing parallel losses with diffusive transport and sheath induced ExB convection, obtained from RF field mapping using the ICANT-code. The calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations, i.e. density depletion is obtained, localised mainly in the antenna shadow, and dependent on ICRF power and antenna spectrum. (authors)

  20. Analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System Designs for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    arrival of the Insight, nearly every major automotive manufacturer has released its own hybrid model. The Toyota Prius , released to the US in 2001, has...dominated the hybrid marketplace with US sales topping 1,000,000 in March 2009.17 The Prius features a power-split hybrid system enabling use of an

  1. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-06-19

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system's periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  2. Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.

    2007-11-01

    A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.

  3. Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Markov strings are strong Markov processes with the cadlag property. We then show how a very general class of stochastic hybrid processes can be embedded in the framework of Markov strings. This class,...

  4. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakRecommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas.Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identitas penggu...

  5. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  6. Generalization of Dielectric-Dependent Hybrid Functionals to Finite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawand, Nicholas P.; Vörös, Márton; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-10-01

    The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.

  7. Impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems stability, dissipativity, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Wassim M; Nersesov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    This book develops a general analysis and synthesis framework for impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. Such a framework is imperative for modern complex engineering systems that involve interacting continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics with multiple modes of operation that place stringent demands on controller design and require implementation of increasing complexity--whether advanced high-performance tactical fighter aircraft and space vehicles, variable-cycle gas turbine engines, or air and ground transportation systems. Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems goes beyond similar

  8. Enzyme-free and isothermal detection of microRNA based on click-chemical ligation-assisted hybridization coupled with hybridization chain reaction signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Motoi

    2015-05-01

    An enzyme-free and isothermal microRNA (miRNA) detection method has been developed based on click-chemical ligation-assisted hybridization coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) on magnetic beads (MBs). The click-chemical ligation between an azide-modified probe DNA and a dibenzocyclooctyne-modified probe DNA occurred through the hybridization of target miRNA (miR-141). HCR on MBs was performed by the addition of DNA hairpin monomers (H1 and H2). After magnetic separation and denaturation/rehybridization of HCR products ([H1/H2] n ), the resulting HCR products were analyzed by the fluorescence emitted from an intercalative dye, allowing amplification of the fluorescent signal. The proposed assay had a limit of detection of 0.55 fmol, which was 230-fold more sensitive than that of the HCR on the MBs coupled with a conventional sandwich hybridization assay (without click-chemical ligation) (limit of detection 127 fmol). Additionally, the proposed assay could discriminate between miR-141 and other miR-200 family members. In contrast to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques using enzymes and thermal cycling, this is an enzyme-free assay that can be conducted under isothermal conditions and can specifically detect miR-141 in fetal bovine serum.

  9. Hybrid plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled dimers and their physical origins revealed by polarization resolved dark field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled nanosphere monomers and dimers. Together with full-wave numerical simulation results, it is found that while the monomer-film system supports two hybridized dipole-like plasmon modes having different oscillating orientations and resonance strengths, the scattering spectrum of the dimer-film system features two additional peaks, one strong yet narrow resonant mode corresponding to a bonding dipolar moment and one hybridized higher order resonant mode, both polarized along the dimer axis. In particular, we demonstrate that the polarization dependent scattering radiation of the film-coupled nanosphere dimer can be used to optically distinguish from monomers and concurrently determine the spatial orientation of the dimer with significantly improved accuracy at the single-particle level, illustrating a simple yet highly sensitive plasmon resonance based nanometrology method.Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled

  10. Tuning the Photon Statistics of a Strongly Coupled Nanophotonic System

    CERN Document Server

    Dory, Constantin; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L; Kelaita, Yousif; Sapra, Neil V; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of single- and multi-photon emission from detuned strongly coupled systems based on the quantum-dot-photonic-crystal resonator platform. Transmitting light through such systems can generate a range of non-classical states of light with tunable photon counting statistics due to the nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states. By controlling the detuning between emitter and resonator, the transmission can be tuned to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. Despite the strongly-dissipative nature of these systems, we find that by utilizing a self-homodyne interference technique combined with frequency-filtering we are able to find a strong two-photon component of the emission in the multi-photon regime. In order to explain our correlation measurements, we propose rate equation models that capture the dominant processes of emission both in the single- and multi-photon regimes. These models are then supported by quantum-optical simulations that fully cap...

  11. Preference of Chaotic Synchronization in a Coupled Laser System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yun; ZHU Shi-Qun; WU Liang

    2005-01-01

    In a coupled laser system, the dynamics of the receiving laser is investigated when two separate transmitting lasers are injected into the receiving laser with different coupling strengths. It is shown that the phenomenon of preference of chaotic synchronization appears under appropriate coupling conditions. The receiving laser will entrain the pulses of either one or both transmitting lasers when the coupling is strong while it keeps its own dynamics when the coupling is weak.

  12. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system’s periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  13. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower...... switching control, distributed dynamic regulation and coordinated switching con-trol are designed fully dependent on the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and the logical relationships be-tween them, and interact with each other by means of the mul-ti-agent system to form hierarchical......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  14. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A.

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  15. Three-phase inductive-coupled structures for contactless PHEV charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-You; Shen, Hung-Yu; Li, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a new-type three-phase inductive-coupled structure is proposed for the contactless plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging system regarding with SAE J-1773. Four possible three-phase core structures are presented and subsequently investigated by the finite element analysis. To study the correlation between the core geometric parameter and the coupling coefficient, the magnetic equivalent circuit model of each structure is also established. In accordance with the simulation results, the low reluctance and the sharing of flux path in the core material are achieved by the proposed inductive-coupled structure with an arc-shape and three-phase symmetrical core material. It results in a compensation of the magnetic flux between each phase and a continuous flow of the output power in the inductive-coupled structure. Higher coupling coefficient between inductive-coupled structures is achieved. A comparison of coupling coefficient, mutual inductance, and self-inductance between theoretical and measured results is also performed to verify the proposed model. A 1 kW laboratory scale prototype of the contactless PHEV charging system with the proposed arc-shape three-phase inductive-coupled structure is implemented and tested. An overall system efficiency of 88% is measured when two series lithium iron phosphate battery packs of 25.6 V/8.4 Ah are charged.

  16. INEXPENSIVE, OFF THE SHELF HYBRID MICROWAVE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, T; Paul Burket, P; John Scogin, J

    2007-06-21

    A hybrid-heating microwave oven provides the energy to heat small 10-gram samples of spent metal tritide storage bed material to release tenaciously held decay product {sup 3}He. Complete mass balance procedures require direct measurement of added or produced gases on a tritide bed, and over 1100 C is necessary to release deep trapped {sup 3}He. The decomposition of non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3} and the quantitative measurement of CO{sub 2} within 3% of stoichiometry demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus to capture generated (released) gases.

  17. Hybrid simulation theory for a classical nonlinear dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Paul L.; Govindjee, Sanjay

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid simulation is an experimental and computational technique which allows one to study the time evolution of a system by physically testing a subset of it while the remainder is represented by a numerical model that is attached to the physical portion via sensors and actuators. The technique allows one to study large or complicated mechanical systems while only requiring a subset of the complete system to be present in the laboratory. This results in vast cost savings as well as the ability to study systems that simply can not be tested due to scale. However, the errors that arise from splitting the system in two requires careful attention, if a valid simulation is to be guaranteed. To date, efforts to understand the theoretical limitations of hybrid simulation have been restricted to linear dynamical systems. In this work we consider the behavior of hybrid simulation when applied to nonlinear dynamical systems. As a model problem, we focus on the damped, harmonically-driven nonlinear pendulum. This system offers complex nonlinear characteristics, in particular periodic and chaotic motions. We are able to show that the application of hybrid simulation to nonlinear systems requires a careful understanding of what one expects from such an experiment. In particular, when system response is chaotic we advocate the need for the use of multiple metrics to characterize the difference between two chaotic systems via Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions, as well as correlation exponents. When system response is periodic we advocate the use of L2 norms. Further, we are able to show that hybrid simulation can falsely predict chaotic or periodic response when the true system has the opposite characteristic. In certain cases, we are able to show that control system parameters can mitigate this issue.

  18. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  19. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  1. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  2. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolganova, Irina N., E-mail: in.dolganova@gmail.com; Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.ru; Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  3. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  4. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  5. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Roberti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimental results with real mobile robots are included to validate the proposed vision system.

  6. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  7. Load flow computations in hybrid transmission - distributed power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobbes, E.D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We interconnect transmission and distribution power systems and perform load flow computations in the hybrid network. In the largest example we managed to build, fifty copies of a distribution network consisting of fifteen nodes is connected to the UCTE study model, resulting in a system consisting

  8. Study of optimal control problems for hybrid dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Rui; Wang Lei; Wang Yuzhen

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of continuous systems, optimal control problem is proposed for a class of controlled Hybrid dynamical systems. Then a mathematical method- HDS minimum principle is put forward, which can solve the above problem. The HDS minimum principle is proved by means of Ekeland's variational principle.

  9. COUPLING VIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BRIDGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炎; 黄小清; 马友发

    2004-01-01

    By applying the sinusoidal wave mode to simulate the rugged surface of bridge deck,accounting for vehicle-bridge interaction and using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a coupling vibration model of vehicle-bridge system was developed. The model was solved by mode analyzing method and Runge-Kutta method, and the dynamic response and the resonance curve of the bridge were obtained. It is found that there are two resonance regions, one represents the main resonance while the other the minor resonance, in the resonance curve. The influence due to the rugged surface, the vibration mode of bridge, and the interaction between vehicle and bridge on vibration of the system were discussed. Numerical results show that the influence due to these parameters is so significant that the effect of roughness of the bridge deck and the mode shape of the bridge can't be ignored and the vehicle velocity should be kept away from the critical speed of the vehicle.

  10. Dimension Reduction Near Periodic Orbits of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Burden, Samuel; Sastry, S Shankar

    2011-01-01

    When the Poincar\\'{e} map associated with a periodic orbit of a hybrid dynamical system has constant-rank iterates, we demonstrate the existence of a constant-dimensional invariant subsystem near the orbit which attracts all nearby trajectories in finite time. This result shows that the long-term behavior of a hybrid model with a large number of degrees-of-freedom may be governed by a low-dimensional smooth dynamical system. The appearance of such simplified models enables the translation of analytical tools from smooth systems-such as Floquet theory-to the hybrid setting and provides a bridge between the efforts of biologists and engineers studying legged locomotion.

  11. Hamiltonian Forms for a Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; YANG Hong-Xiang; LU Rong-Wu

    2008-01-01

    A semi-direct sum of two Lie algebras of four-by-four matrices is presented, and a discrete four-by-fore matrix spectral problem is introduced. A hierarchy of discrete integrable coupling systems is derived. The obtained integrable coupling systems are all written in their Hamiltonian forms by the discrete variational identity. Finally, we prove that the lattice equations in the obtained integrable coupling systems are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  12. Hierarchical modeling and control of hybrid systems with two layers; Hierarchische Modellierung und Regelung hybrider Systeme auf zwei Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stursberg, Olaf; Paschedag, Tina; Rungger, Matthias; Ding, Hao [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Regelungs- und Systemtheorie

    2010-08-15

    While hybrid dynamic models are, to a certain degree, established for modeling systems with heterogeneous dynamics, most approaches for design and analysis of hybrid systems are restricted to monolithic models without hierarchy. This contribution first shows, how modular hybrid systems with two layers of decision, as appropriate for representing manufacturing systems for example, can be modeled systematically. The second part proposes a technique for fixing discrete inputs (for coordinating control) and continuous inputs (for embedded continuous controllers) in combination. The method uses a graph-based search on the upper decision layer, while principles of predictive control are used on the lower layer. The procedure of modeling and control is illustrated for a manufacturing process. (orig.)

  13. Photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems: The design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Chapman, R. N.

    A photovoltaic/storage system by itself may be uneconomical for stand-alone applications with large energy demands. However, by combining the PV system with a back-up energy source, such as a diesel, gasoline, or propane/thermoelectric generator, system economics can be improved. Such PV/fossil hybrid systems are being used, but their design has required detailed modeling to determine the optimal mix of photovoltaics and back-up energy. Recent data on diesel field reliability and a new design technique for stand-alone systems have overcome this problem. The approach provides the means for sizing the photovoltaic system to obtain a near optimal hybrid system, with about a 90% savings in back-up fuel costs. System economics are determined by comparing PV capital cost to the present value of the displaced diesel operation and maintenance costs.

  14. Diagnosing Hybrid Systems: a Bayesian Model Selection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlraith, Sheila A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diagnosing noisy complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems-models of continuous behavior, interleaved by discrete transitions. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. Building on our previous work in this area (MBCG99;MBCG00), our specific focus in this paper ins on the mathematical formulation of the hybrid monitoring and diagnosis task as a Bayesian model tracking algorithm. The nonlinear dynamics of many hybrid systems present challenges to probabilistic tracking. Further, probabilistic tracking of a system for the purposes of diagnosis is problematic because the models of the system corresponding to failure modes are numerous and generally very unlikely. To focus tracking on these unlikely models and to reduce the number of potential models under consideration, we exploit logic-based techniques for qualitative model-based diagnosis to conjecture a limited initial set of consistent candidate models. In this paper we discuss alternative tracking techniques that are relevant to different classes of hybrid systems, focusing specifically on a method for tracking multiple models of nonlinear behavior simultaneously using factored sampling and conditional density propagation. To illustrate and motivate the approach described in this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diganosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  15. Adaptive and Reliable Control Algorithm for Hybrid System Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel Hakeem Abdel Sattar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stand-alone system is defined as an autonomous system that supplies electricity without being connected to the electric grid. Hybrid systems combined renewable energy source, that are never depleted (such solar (photovoltaic (PV, wind, hydroelectric, etc. , With other sources of energy, like Diesel. If these hybrid systems are optimally designed, they can be more cost effective and reliable than single systems. However, the design of hybrid systems is complex because of the uncertain renewable energy supplies, load demands and the non-linear characteristics of some components, so the design problem cannot be solved easily by classical optimisation methods. The use of heuristic techniques, such as the genetic algorithms, can give better results than classical methods. This paper presents to a hybrid system control algorithm and also dispatches strategy design in which wind is the primary energy resource with photovoltaic cells. The dimension of the design (max. load is 2000 kW and the sources is implemented as flow 1500 kw from wind, 500 kw from solar and diesel 2000 kw. The main task of the preposed algorithm is to take full advantage of the wind energy and solar energy when it is available and to minimize diesel fuel consumption.

  16. Study on Torque Calculation for Hybrid Magnetic Coupling and Influencing Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Peng-yu; Li, De-yong

    2017-03-01

    Specific to a problem that the present transmission of magnetic coupling torque was subjected to restrictions of its own structure, a hybrid magnetic coupling was proposed. Then, finite element method was adopted to carry out numerical calculations for its three-dimensional magnetic field to obtain three-dimensional magnetic field distribution of radial and axial configurations. Major influencing factors of its torque, such as lengths of axial and radial air gaps, thicknesses of axial and radial permanent magnets, the number of slots in axial copper rotor, thickness of axial and radial copper rotor, etc., were analyzed. The relevant results indicated that in certain conditions of shapes, ten magnetic poles of the axial permanent magnet rotor, nine of the radial permanent magnet rotor and nine slots from the axial copper rotor were used. Correspondingly, the axial copper rotor had a thickness of 20 mm and it was 5 mm for the radial copper rotor. Moreover, the maximum torque could reach 190 N.m approximately. If lengths of axial and radial air gaps increased, the torque may go down otherwise. Within a certain scope, the torque rose in the first place and then fell with increases in the permanent magnet thickness of axial permanent magnetic rotor, the number of axial and radial magnetic poles, the number of slots in axial copper rotor, and the thickness of axial copper rotor. Additionally, the number of slots in the axial copper rotor could not be equivalent to that of magnetic poles in axial permanent magnetic rotor. However, as the permanent magnet thickness of radial permanent magnetic rotor rose, the torque went up as well.

  17. Hybrid simulations of solenoidal radio-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen discharges at low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Hong; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have described a radio-frequency (RF) inductively coupled H2 plasma using a hybrid computational model, incorporating the Maxwell equations and the linear part of the electron Boltzmann equation into global model equations. This report focuses on the effects of RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current on the spatial profiles of the induced electric field and plasma absorption power density. The plasma parameters, i.e., plasma density, electron temperature, density of negative ion, electronegativity, densities of neutral species, and dissociation degree of H2, as a function of absorption power, are evaluated at different gas pressures. The simulation results show that the utilization efficiency of the RF source characterized by the coupling efficiency of the RF electric field and power to the plasma can be significantly improved at the low RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current, due to a low plasma density in these cases. The densities of vibrational states of H2 first rapidly increase with increasing absorption power and then tend to saturate. This is because the rapidly increased dissociation degree of H2 with increasing absorption power somewhat suppresses the increase of the vibrational states of H2, thus inhibiting the increase of the H-. The effects of absorption power on the utilization efficiency of the RF source and the production of the vibrational states of H2 should be considered when setting a value of the coil current. To validate the model simulations, the calculated electron density and temperature are compared with experimental measurements, and a reasonable agreement is achieved.

  18. Hybrid Atom Electrostatic System for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Françoise; Lebat, Vincent; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The subject of this poster comes within the framework of new concepts identification and development for future satellite gravity missions, in continuation of previously launched space missions CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and ongoing and prospective studies like NGGM, GRACE 2 or E-GRASP. We were here more focused on the inertial sensors that complete the payload of such satellites. The clearly identified instruments for space accelerometry are based on the electrostatic technology developed for many years by ONERA and that offer a high level of performance and a high degree of maturity for space applications. On the other hand, a new generation of sensors based on cold atom interferometry (AI) is emerging and seems very promising in this context. These atomic instruments have already demonstrated on ground impressive results, especially with the development of state-of-the-art gravimeters, and should reach their full potential only in space, where the microgravity environment allows long interaction times. Each of these two types of instruments presents their own advantages which are, for the electrostatic sensors (ES), their demonstrated short term sensitivity and their high TRL, and for AI, amongst others, the absolute nature of the measurement and therefore no need for calibration processes. These two technologies seem in some aspects very complementary and a hybrid sensor bringing together all their assets could be the opportunity to take a big step in this context of gravity space missions. We present here the first experimental association on ground of an electrostatic accelerometer and an atomic accelerometer and underline the interest of calibrating the ES instrument with the AI. Some technical methods using the ES proof-mass as the Raman Mirror seem very promising to remove rotation effects of the satellite on the AI signal. We propose a roadmap to explore further in details and more rigorously this attractive hybridization scheme in order to assess its potential

  19. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  20. Optical-digital hybrid image search system in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko; Watanabe, Eriko

    2016-09-01

    To improve the versatility and usability of optical correlators, we developed an optical-digital hybrid image search system consisting of digital servers and an optical correlator that can be used to perform image searches in the cloud environment via a web browser. This hybrid system employs a simple method to obtain correlation signals and has a distributed network design. The correlation signals are acquired by using an encoder timing signal generated by a rotating disk, and the distributed network design facilitates the replacement and combination of the digital correlation server and the optical correlator.

  1. Engine-driven hybrid air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaokui QIN; Hongmei LU; Xiong LIU; Gerhard SCHMITZ

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid air-conditioning system that com-bines an engine-driven chiller with desiccant dehumidifi-cation was configured and experimentally tested to provide reliable data for energy consumption and operation cost. The engine performance and the desiccant wheel perfor-mance were measured and a numeric model previously set up for dehumidification capacity prediction was validated. For a reference building, the results based upon measured data show that under present electricity/gas price ratio, more than 40% of operation cost can be saved by the hybrid system.

  2. Suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with microarray analysis to examine differential expression of genes in virus infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Shirin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High throughput detection of differential expression of genes is an efficient means of identifying genes and pathways that may play a role in biological systems under certain experimental conditions. There exist a variety of approaches that could be used to identify groups of genes that change in expression in response to a particular stimulus or environment. We here describe the application of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH coupled with cDNA microarray analysis for isolation and identification of chicken transcripts that change in expression on infection of host cells with a paramyxovirus. SSH was used for initial isolation of differentially expressed transcripts, a large-scale validation of which was accomplished by microarray analysis. The data reveals a large group of regulated genes constituting many biochemical pathways that could serve as targets for future investigations to explore their role in paramyxovirus pathogenesis. The detailed methods described herein could be useful and adaptable to any biological system for studying changes in gene expression.

  3. Hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics and finite-difference diffusion model: simulation of reactive polymer coupling and interfacial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2013-10-21

    A novel hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and finite difference (FD) solution of partial differential equations is proposed to simulate complex reaction-diffusion phenomena in heterogeneous systems. DPD is used for the detailed molecular modeling of mass transfer, chemical reactions, and phase separation near the liquid∕liquid interface, while FD approach is applied to describe the large-scale diffusion of reactants outside the reaction zone. A smooth, self-consistent procedure of matching the solute concentration is performed in the buffer region between the DPD and FD domains. The new model is tested on a simple model system admitting an analytical solution for the diffusion controlled regime and then applied to simulate practically important heterogeneous processes of (i) reactive coupling between immiscible end-functionalized polymers and (ii) interfacial polymerization of two monomers dissolved in immiscible solvents. The results obtained due to extending the space and time scales accessible to modeling provide new insights into the kinetics and mechanism of those processes and demonstrate high robustness and accuracy of the novel technique.

  4. Indirect Coupling between Two Cavity Photon Systems via Ferromagnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Hyde, Paul; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally realize indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with the ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). We find that some indirectly coupled modes of our system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. These indirectly coupled microwave modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. This work has potential for use in controllable optical devices and information processing technologies.

  5. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-06-01

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C4F8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. CxFy (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C4F8 reaction set used in the model. The C4F8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  6. Hybrid magnetoresistance in Pt-based multilayers: Effect originated from strong interfacial spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kangkang; Xiao, Jiaxing; Wu, Yong; Miao, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Jianhua; Jiang, Yong

    2016-02-04

    The hybrid magnetoresistance (MR) behaviors in Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt, Mn1.5Ga/Pt and Mn1.5Ga/Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt multilayers have been investigated. Both planer Hall effect (PHE) and angle-dependent MR in Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt revealed the combination of spin Hall MR (SMR) and normal anisotropic MR (AMR), indicating the large contribution of strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the interfaces. When Pt contacted with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) metal Mn1.5Ga, the strong interfacial SOC modified the effective anomalous Hall effect. The MR in Mn1.5Ga/Pt/Co90Fe10/Pt is not a simple combination of SMR and AMR, but ascribed to the complicated domain wall scattering and strong interfacial SOC when Pt is sandwiched by the in-plane magnetized Co90Fe10 and the PMA Mn1.5Ga.

  7. Sexual Meaning Systems of Engaged Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Catherine Fourre; Maddock, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Administered Sexual Meaning Survey to 526 couples. Findings supported hypothesis that engaged couples would be less discrepant in sexual meanings than randomly paired men and women. Regression analyses provided evidence that level of education, church attendance, discrepancy in religious affiliation, cohabitation status, and agreement on family…

  8. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects’ forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA and baseline (BL tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  9. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  10. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachakhidze, Manana; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kaladze, Tamaz

    2014-06-01

    Modern ground-based and satellite methods of viewing enables to reveal those multiple anomalous geophysical phenomena which become evident in the period preceding earthquake and are directly connected with the process of its preparation. Lately special attention is attributed to the electromagnetic emissions fixed during large earthquake, and has already been successfully detected in Japan, America and Europe. Unfortunately there is no electromagnetic emissions detection network in Georgia, but the offered work, based on experimental data of foreign researchers and electrodynamics, presents an important theory about the electromagnetic emissions generation fixed in the earthquake preparation period. The extremely interesting methodology of possible prediction of earthquake is created and all anomalous geophysical phenomena are interpreted which take place some months, days or hours before earthquake in the lithosphereatmosphere-ionosphere coupling system. Most interesting is the idea of the authors to consider the electromagnetic radiation as the main earthquake precursor for the purpose of earthquake prediction, because of its informative nature and to consider all other anomalous geophysical phenomena which accompany the process of earthquake preparation as earthquake indicators. The offered work is the completely novel approach in earthquake problem searching with the view of earthquake prediction. It can form the base for creation of principally new trend in seismology, to be called conditionally "Earthquake Predictology".

  11. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  12. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  13. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the ''energy hub'' formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case. (author)

  14. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  15. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  16. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  17. Chaotic attractor transforming control of hybrid Lorenz-Chen system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian; Wang Qiao; Gu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on passive theory, this paper studies a hybrid chaotic dynamical system from the mathematics perspective to implement the control of system stabilization.According to the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system, the stabilization control region is gotten.The controller is designed to stabilize fast the minimum phase Lorenz-Chen chaotic system after equivalently transforming from chaotic system to passive system. The simulation results show that the system not only can be controlled at the different equilibria, but also can be transformed between the different chaotic attractors.

  18. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeate...

  19. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF WIND/PV AND BATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Almi; M. Arrouf; H.Belmili; S. Boulouma; Bendib, B

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with power control of a wind and solar hybrid generation system for interconnection operation with electric distribution system. Power control strategy is to extract the maximum energy available from varying condition of wind speed and solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum power, variable speed control is employed for wind turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied for photovoltaic system. The grid i...

  20. A Hybrid Architecture for Web-based Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Dunstan

    2012-01-01

    A recent technique is to represent the knowledge base of an expert system in XML format. XML parsers are then used to convert XML data into expert system language code. The code is executed or interpreted when providing responses to user queries. Web-based expert system (WBES) architectures may be characterized according to where the application knowledge base resides. Applications of both client and server-sided WBES architectures appear in the literature. A hybrid architecture is proposed w...

  1. THERMOELECTRIC AND MICROBATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM WITH ITS POWER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; Integration of a power source with a MEMS to obtain an autonomous or remote system is a very challenging task. Such a device is currently being developed. It consists in hybriding an energy storage system (thin film solid state battery) with a scavenging energy system (thermogenerator) in a very small volume. It requires also power management to both control charge of the batt...

  2. Switches and Jumps in Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1998-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. We extend conventional action systems with a ...

  3. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  4. Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishifuji, Miki; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2006-07-01

    Effective utilization of coupled surface plasmon resonance from gold nanoparticles was demonstrated experimentally for optoelectronic applications based on second-order nonlinear optics. Hybrid polymer nanoassemblies were constructed by manipulating gold nanoparticle arrays with nonlinear optical active polymer nanosheets to investigate the second harmonic generation. The gold nanoparticle arrays were assembled on heterodeposited polymer nanosheets. The second harmonic light intensity was enhanced by a factor of 8. The observed enhancement was attributed to coupling of surface plasmons between two adjacent gold nanoparticles, thereby enhancing the surface electromagnetic field around the nanoparticles at the fundamental light wavelength (1064nm).

  5. CPV hybrid system in ISFOC building, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Pablo; Alamillo, César; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Óscar; Martínez, María; Rubio, Francisca; Cadavid, Andros; Navarro, José; Hillenbrand, Sascha; Ballesteros-Sánchez, Isabel; Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2012-10-01

    PV Off-Grid systems have demonstrated to be a good solution for the electrification of remote areas [1]. A hybrid system is one kind of these systems. The principal characteristic is that it uses PV as the main generator and has a backup power supply, like a diesel generator, for instance, that is used when the CPV generation is not enough to meet demand. To study the use of CPV in these systems, ISFOC has installed a demonstration hybrid system at its headquarters. This hybrid system uses CPV technology as main generator and the utility grid as the backup generator. A group of batteries have been mounted as well to store the remaining energy from the CPV generator when nedeed. The energy flows are managed by a SMA system based on Sunny Island inverters and a Multicluster-Box (figure 1). The Load is the air-conditioning system of the building, as it has a consumption profile higher than the CPV generator and can be controlled by software [2]. The first results of this system, as well as the first chances of improvement, as the need of a bigger CPV generator and a better management of the energy stored in the batteries, are presented in this paper.

  6. Generalized circuit model for coupled plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, Felix; Tserkezis, Christos; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Sigle, Daniel O; Pukenas, Laurynas; Evans, Stephen D; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytic circuit model for coupled plasmonic dimers separated by small gaps that provides a complete account of the optical resonance wavelength. Using a suitable equivalent circuit, it shows how partially conducting links can be treated and provides quantitative agreement with both experiment and full electromagnetic simulations. The model highlights how in the conducting regime, the kinetic inductance of the linkers set the spectral blue-shifts of the coupled plasmon.

  7. Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Mark

  8. Toward a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Blom, H.A.P.; Lygeros, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Ma

  9. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  10. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  11. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations...

  12. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  13. Hybrid annealing using a quantum simulator coupled to a classical computer

    CERN Document Server

    Graß, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Finding the global minimum in a rugged potential landscape is a computationally hard task, often equivalent to relevant optimization problems. Simulated annealing is a computational technique which explores the configuration space by mimicking thermal noise. By slow cooling, it freezes the system in a low-energy configuration, but the algorithm often gets stuck in local minima. In quantum annealing, the thermal noise is replaced by controllable quantum fluctuations, and the technique can be implemented in modern quantum simulators. However, quantum-adiabatic schemes become prohibitively slow in the presence of quasidegeneracies. Here we propose a strategy which combines ideas from simulated annealing and quantum annealing. In such hybrid algorithm, the outcome of a quantum simulator is processed on a classical device. While the quantum simulator explores the configuration space by repeatedly applying quantum fluctuations and performing projective measurements, the classical computer evaluates each configurati...

  14. Total Stability Properties Based on Fixed Point Theory for a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust stability results for nominally linear hybrid systems are obtained from total stability theorems for purely continuous-time and discrete-time systems by using the powerful tool of fixed point theory. The class of hybrid systems dealt consists, in general, of coupled continuous-time and digital systems subject to state perturbations whose nominal (i.e., unperturbed parts are linear and, in general, time-varying. The obtained sufficient conditions on robust stability under a wide class of harmless perturbations are dependent on the values of the parameters defining the over-bounding functions of those perturbations. The weakness of the coupling dynamics in terms of norm among the analog and digital substates of the whole dynamic system guarantees the total stability provided that the corresponding uncoupled nominal subsystems are both exponentially stable. Fixed point stability theory is used for the proofs of stability. A generalization of that result is given for the case that sampling is not uniform. The boundedness of the state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the global boundedness of the solutions for all time. The existence of a fixed point for the sampled state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the existence of a fixed point of an extended auxiliary discrete system and the existence of a global asymptotic attractor of the solutions which is either a fixed point or a limit n globally stable asymptotic oscillation.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  16. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... or a chaotic behavior, the system is considered away from the synchronization. Therefore, the paper proposes a concept that the system may be de-synchronized by making it chaotic. A de-synchronization scheme is developed. It includes a synchronization-early-monitoring detector by calculating the maximum...... consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  17. Hybrid Systems for Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari P.V N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few knowledge representation (KR techniques available for efficiently representing knowledge. However, with the increase in complexity, better methods are needed. Some researchers came up with hybrid mechanisms by combining two or more methods. In an effort to construct an intelligent computer system, a primary consideration is to represent large amounts of knowledge in a way that allows effective use and efficiently organizing information to facilitate making the recommended inferences. There are merits and demerits of combinations, and standardized method of KR is needed. In this paper, various hybrid schemes of KR were explored at length and details presented.

  18. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni;

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  19. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  1. Improving an Hybrid Literary Book Recommendation System through Author Ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, Paula Cristina; Martins, Bruno; Calado, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Literary reading is an important activity for individuals and choosing to read a book can be a long time commitment, making book choice an important task for book lovers and public library users. In this paper we present an hybrid recommendation system to help readers decide which book to read next. We study book and author recommendation in an hybrid recommendation setting and test our approach in the LitRec data set. Our hybrid book recommendation approach purposed combines two item-based collaborative filtering algorithms to predict books and authors that the user will like. Author predictions are expanded in to a book list that is subsequently aggregated with the former list generated through the initial collaborative recommender. Finally, the resulting book list is used to yield the top-n book recommendations. By means of various experiments, we demonstrate that author recommendation can improve overall book recommendation.

  2. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  3. Multilingual interfaces for parallel coupling in multiphysics and multiscale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Jacob, R. L.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Australian National Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems are emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science, largely because of increased computing power provided by the distributed-memory parallel programming model on commodity clusters. These systems often present a parallel coupling problem in their intercomponent data exchanges. Another potential problem in these coupled systems is language interoperability between their various constituent codes. In anticipation of combined parallel coupling/language interoperability challenges, we have created a set of interlanguage bindings for a successful parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit. We describe the method used for automatically generating the bindings using the Babel language interoperability tool, and illustrate with short examples how MCT can be used from the C++ and Python languages. We report preliminary performance reports for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to the rapid prototyping of large parallel coupled systems.

  4. Efficient Time-Step Coupling For Hybrid Continuum/Molecular Modelling of Unsteady Micro-Scale Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerby, Duncan A.; Duque-Daza, Carlos A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we describe a numerical method for the efficient time-accurate coupling of hybrid continuum/molecular micro gas flow solvers. Hybrid approaches are commonly used when non-equilibrium effects in the flow field are spatially localized; in these regions a more accurate, but typically more expensive, solution procedure is adopted. Although this can greatly increase efficiency in steady flows, in unsteady flows the evolution of the solution as a whole is restricted by the maximum time step allowed by the molecular-based/kinetic model; numerically speaking, this is a stiff problem. In the method presented in this paper we exploit time-scale separation, when it exists, to partially decouple the temporal evolution of the two parts of the hybrid model. This affords major computational savings. The method is a modified/extended version of the seamless heterogeneous multiscale method (SHMM). Our approach allows multiple micro steps (molecular steps) before coupling with the macro (continuum) solver: we call this a multi-step SHMM. This maintains the main advantages of SHMM (computational speed-up and flexible application) while improving on accuracy and greatly reducing the number of continuum computations and instances of coupling required. The improved accuracy of the multi-step SHMM is demonstrated for two canonical one-dimensional transient flows (oscillatory Poiseuille and oscillatory Couette flow) and for rarefied-gas oscillatory Poiseuille flow.

  5. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  6. Estimating coupling directions in the cardiorespiratory system using recurrence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong; Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-08-28

    The asymmetry of coupling between complex systems can be studied by conditional probabilities of recurrence, which can be estimated by joint recurrence plots. This approach is applied for the first time on experimental data: time series of the human cardiorespiratory system in order to investigate the couplings between heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and respiration. We find that the respiratory system couples towards the heart rate, and the heart rate towards the mean arterial blood pressure. However, our analysis could not detect a clear coupling direction between the mean arterial blood pressure and respiration.

  7. Complex Dynamical Behavior in Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-29

    2010. J15. T. Hu, T. Thibodeau , A.R. Teel, ``A Unified Lyapunov Approach to Analysis of Oscillations and Stability for Systems With Piecewise...Hu, T. Thibodeau , A.R. Teel, ``Analysis of oscillation and stability for systems with piecewise linear components via saturation functions

  8. Overview of a Hybrid Underwater Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    integrated HUC system. As part of the HUC system, the Navigator display is also transmitted to a monocular display installed on a diver’s helmet. An...feet in length, 6.5 feet in width with a maximum depth of 8 feet. Pumps are used to generate a current in the flume. The water holds particulate matter

  9. Chaotic synchronization in coupled spatially extended beam-plasma systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filatov, Roman A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; ALEXEY A. KORONOVSKII

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of the chaotic synchronization regimes has been discovered for the coupled spatially extended beam-plasma Pierce systems. The coupling was introduced only on the right bound of each subsystem. It has been shown that with coupling increase the spatially extended beam-plasma systems show the transition from asynchronous behavior to the phase synchronization and then to the complete synchronization regime. For the consideration of the chaotic synchronization we used the concept of...

  10. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  11. A Hybrid Approach to the Optimization of Multiechelon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In freight transportation there are two main distribution strategies: direct shipping and multiechelon distribution. In the direct shipping, vehicles, starting from a depot, bring their freight directly to the destination, while in the multiechelon systems, freight is delivered from the depot to the customers through an intermediate points. Multiechelon systems are particularly useful for logistic issues in a competitive environment. The paper presents a concept and application of a hybrid approach to modeling and optimization of the Multi-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Two ways of mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP are integrated in one environment. The strengths of MP and CLP in which constraints are treated in a different way and different methods are implemented and combined to use the strengths of both. The proposed approach is particularly important for the discrete decision models with an objective function and many discrete decision variables added up in multiple constraints. An implementation of hybrid approach in the ECLiPSe system using Eplex library is presented. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-CVRP and its variants are shown as an illustrative example of the hybrid approach. The presented hybrid approach will be compared with classical mathematical programming on the same benchmark data sets.

  12. HYBRID SHEARWALL SYSTEM — SHEAR STRENGTH AT THE INTERFACE CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wirth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a series of alternating, displacement-controlled load tests on ten one-third scale models, to study the behaviour of the interface of a hybrid shear wall system, it was proved that the concept of hybrid construction in earthquake prone regions is feasible. The hybrid shear-wall system consists of typical reinforced concrete shear walls with composite edge members or flanges. Ten different anchorage bar arrangements were developed and tested to evaluate the column-shearwall interface behaviour under cyclic shear forces acting along the interface between column and wall panel. Finite element models of the test specimens were developed that were capable of capturing the integrated concrete and reinforcing steel behaviour in the wall panels. Special models were  developed to capture the interface behaviour between the edge columns and the shear wall. A comparison between the experimental results and the numerical results shows excellent agreement, and clearly supports the validity of the model developed for predicting the non-linear response of the hybrid wall system under various load conditions.

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  14. Photonic crystal coupled TiO(2)/polymer hybrid for efficient photocatalysis under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaozu; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yaobin

    2010-05-01

    Inverse TiO(2) opal photonic crystal coupled TiO(2)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT) was structured on FTO substrate for efficient photocatalysis under visible light irradiation (lambda > 400 nm). We expected that the photocatalytic capability of this hybrid photocatalyst could be enhanced by the efficient visible light absorption owing to the photonic crystal structure and effective charge separation owing to the unique heterojunction built between TiO(2) and P3HT. The bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT photocatalyst was prepared first by depositing inverse TiO(2) opal on FTO substrate via replicating polystyrene opal, followed by spin coating a layer of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the inverse TiO(2) opal. The as prepared bilayer TiO(2) was modified by P3HT via dipping method. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images demonstrated that the as prepared photocatalyst was composed of inverse TiO(2) opal layer and TiO(2) nanoparticles layer. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the optical absorption for bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT was more intensive than for pristine TiO(2) nanoparticle/P3HT (NP-TiO(2)/P3HT) in the range of 400-650 nm. The enhanced generation of photocurrent under visible light irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) was observed using the bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT. The results of photocatalytic experiments under visible light irradiation revealed that the pseudofirst-order kinetic constant of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using the bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT was 2.08 times as great as that using NP-TiO(2)/P3HT, showing the advantage of the unique structure in the bilayer TiO(2)/P3HT for efficient photocatalysis.

  15. Optimal Design and Hybrid Control for the Electro-Hydraulic Dual-Shaking Table System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to develop an optimal electro-hydraulic dual-shaking table system with high waveform replication precision. The parameters of hydraulic cylinders, servo valves, hydraulic supply power and gravity balance system are designed and optimized in detail. To improve synchronization and tracking control precision, a hybrid control strategy is proposed. The cross-coupled control using a novel based on sliding mode control based on adaptive reaching law (ASMC, which can adaptively tune the parameters of sliding mode control (SMC, is proposed to reduce the synchronization error. To improve the tracking performance, the observer-based inverse control scheme combining the feed-forward inverse model controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is identified applying the recursive least squares (RLS algorithm and then the feed-forward inverse controller is designed based on zero phase error tracking controller (ZPETC technique. To compensate disturbance and model errors, disturbance observer is used cooperating with the designed inverse controller. The combination of the novel ASMC cross-coupled controller and proposed observer-based inverse controller can improve the control precision noticeably. The dual-shaking table experiment system is built and various experiments are performed. The experimental results indicate that the developed system with the proposed hybrid control strategy is feasible and efficient and can reduce the tracking errors to 25% and synchronization error to 16% compared with traditional control schemes.

  16. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  17. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  18. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  20. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  1. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  2. H∞ Controller Design for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for the H∞ synthesis problems of asynchronous hybrid systems with input-output delays are proposed. The continuous-time lifting approach of sampled-data systems is extended to a hybrid system with multiple delays, and some feasible formulas to calculate the operators of the equivalent discrete-time (DT system are given. Different from the existing methods derived from symplectic pair theory or by state augmentation, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to solve the synthesis problem is explicitly constructed. The delay-dependent stability conditions we obtained can be described in terms of nonstrict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which are much more convenient to be solved by LMI tools.

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  4. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  5. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... that combines different energy sources for heat production will be used. The work has been carried out in scope of 4th Generation District Heating Technologies and Systems project.......District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...

  6. Hybrid Expert Systems In Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark J.; Gregory, Paul J.

    1987-04-01

    Vision systems capable of inspecting industrial components and assemblies have a large potential market if they can be easily programmed and produced quickly. Currently, vision application software written in conventional high-level languages such as C or Pascal are produced by experts in program design, image analysis, and process control. Applications written this way are difficult to maintain and modify. Unless other similar inspection problems can be found, the final program is essentially one-off redundant code. A general-purpose vision system targeted for the Visual Machines Ltd. C-VAS 3000 image processing workstation, is described which will make writing image analysis software accessible to the non-expert both in programming computers and image analysis. A significant reduction in the effort required to produce vision systems, will be gained through a graphically-driven interactive application generator. Finally, an Expert System will be layered on top to guide the naive user through the process of generating an application.

  7. A hybrid soliton-based system: generation and steering of cavity solitons by means of photorefractive soliton electro-activation

    CERN Document Server

    Columbo, Lorenzo; Brambilla, Massimo; Prati, Franco; Tissoni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid soliton-based system consisting of a centrosymmetric photorefractive crystal, supporting photorefractive solitons, coupled to a vertical cavity surface emitting laser, supporting multistable cavity solitons. The composite nature of the system, which couples a propagative/conservative field dynamics to a stationary/dissipative one, allows to observe a more general and unified system phenomenology and to conceive novel photonic functionalities. The potential of the proposed hybrid system becomes clear when investigating the generation and control of cavity solitons by propagating a plane wave through electro-activated solitonic waveguides in the crystal. By changing the electro-activation voltage of the crystal, we prove that cavity solitons can be turned on and shifted with controlled velocity across the device section. The scheme can be exploited for applications to optical information encoding and processing.

  8. Applications of Elliptic Equation to Nonlinear Coupled Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUZun-Tao; LIUShi-Da; LIUShi-Kuo

    2003-01-01

    The elliptic equation is taken as a transformation and applied to solve nonlinear coupled systems. It is shown that this method is more powerful to give more kinds of solutions, such as rational solutions, solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and so on, so this method can be taken as a unified method in solving nonlinear coupled systems.

  9. Applications of Elliptic Equation to Nonlinear Coupled Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIU Shi-Kuo

    2003-01-01

    The elliptic equation is taken as a transformation and applied to solve nonlinear coupled systems. Itis shown that this method is more powerful to give more kinds of solutions, such as rational solutions, solitary wavesolutions, periodic wave solutions and so on, so this method can be taken as a unified method in solving nonlinear coupled systems.

  10. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  11. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  12. New generation of two-dimensional spintronic systems realized by coupling of Rashba and Dirac fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, Sergey V; Tsirkin, Stepan S; Nechaev, Ilya A; Echenique, Pedro M; Chulkov, Evgueni V

    2015-08-04

    Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems.

  13. A hybrid stepping motor system with dual CPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晗璎; 赵克; 孙力

    2004-01-01

    An indirect method of measuring the rotor position based on the magnetic reluctance variation is presented in the paper. A single-chip microprocessor 80C196KC is utilized to compensate the phase shift produeed by the process of position signals. At the same time, a DSP (Data Signal Processor) unit is used to realize the speed and current closed-loops of the hybrid stepping motor system. At last, experimental results show the control system has excellent static and dynamic characteristics.

  14. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Georg Wolschin

    2003-05-01

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model for rapidity distributions of participant baryons is set up and solved analytically. The evolution from SIS via AGS and SPS to RHIC energies is discussed. Strong-coupling diffusion produces double-peaked spectra in central collisions at the higher SPS momentum of 158 A$\\cdot$GeV/c and beyond.

  15. Phase-coupled optical diode based on PT symmetric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate a phase-coupled parity-time symmetric plasmonic system, and theoretically achieved the all optical on-chip plasmonic diode using the coupled mode theory. The proposed symmetrical system consists of one loss cavity and one gain cavity each coupled with the waveguide, and we find that the controllable amplification of the input field can be achieved by changing the power coupling fraction between the resonators and the waveguide. Moreover, this loss-gain symmetric system could work as a frequency comb filter, and the operation on the device could be controlled by tuning the coupling strength between the two plasmonic cavities by tuning the coupling distance between the cavities and the waveguide.

  16. Three Sides Billboard Wind-Solar Hybrid System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high development of world economy, the demand of energy is increasing all the time, As energy shortage and environment problem are increasing outstanding, Renewable energy has been attracting more and more attention. A kind of three sides billboard supply by wind-Solar hybrid system has been designed in this paper, the overall structure of the system, components, working principle and control strategy has been analyzed from the system perspective. The software and hardware of the system are debugged together and the result is acquired. System function is better and has achieved the expected results.

  17. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  18. Hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Mazzei, Pietro; Minichiello, Francesco; Palma, Daniele [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    HVAC systems in supermarkets must assure both thermal comfort for occupants and suitable climatic conditions for refrigerated cases, which operate better with low ambient relative humidity (40-45%). Since open display cases substantially reduce sensible load and moderately reduce latent load, ambient sensible/total heat load ratio is less than usual. Thus, if dehumidification is carried out with a traditional cooling coil, over-sizing of the coil and re-heating of the treated air are necessary, with energy and economic waste. To offset these disadvantages, hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification may be employed. In this paper a case study is presented in which a traditional HVAC system is compared to hybrid systems with chemical dehumidification. Dynamic simulation codes (DOE and DesiCalc{sup (}TM)) and test reference year data (TRY), opportunely elaborated, have been used. Annual operating costs have been estimated and large savings have been obtained with hybrid systems. Considerable reduction of electric energy demand as well as better control of thermal-hygrometric conditions were noted. A simple payback of about 1 year has been obtained. Finally, a virtual retrofitting operation on 30% of the existing HVAC systems in Italian supermarkets has shown significant operating cost savings. [Author].

  19. Coupled dynamic systems and Le Chatelier's principle in noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidanik, G.; Becker, K. J.

    2004-05-01

    Investigation of coupling an externally driven dynamic system-a master dynamic system-to a passive one-an adjunct dynamic system-reveals that the response of the adjunct dynamic system affects the precoupled response of the master dynamic system. The responses, in the two dynamic systems when coupled, are estimated by the stored energies (Es) and (E0), respectively. Since the adjunct dynamic system, prior to coupling, was with zero (0) stored energy, E0s=0, the precoupled stored energy (E00) in the master dynamic system is expected to be reduced to (E0) when coupling is instituted; i.e., one expects E0system would result from the coupling. It is argued that the change in the disposition of the stored energies as just described may not be the only change. The coupling may influence the external input power into the master dynamic system which may interfere with the expected noise control. Indeed, the coupling may influence the external input power such that the expected beneficial noise control may not materialize. Examples of these kinds of noise control reversals are cited.

  20. Experiences from the Roadrunner petascale hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sancho Pitarch, Jose C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barker, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peraza, Josh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flexible microprocessors (AMD Opterons) with high-performing accelerators (IBM PowerXCell 8i) resulted in the extremely powerful Roadrunner system. Many challenges in both hardware and software were overcome to achieve its goals. In this talk we detail some of the experiences in achieving performance on the Roadrunner system. In particular we examine several implementations of the kernel application, Sweep3D, using a work-queue approach, a more portable Thread-building-blocks approach, and an MPI on the accelerator approach.

  1. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  2. Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Karl E.

    1976-01-01

    Using educational organizations as a case in point, it is argued that the concept of loose coupling incorporates a surprising number of disparate observations about organizations, suggests novel functions, creates stubborn problems for methodologists, and generates intriguing questions for scholars. (Author)

  3. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient......Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... than CPV-only system. The results indicate that contribution of the TEG in power generation enhances at high sun concentrations. Depending to critical design parameters of the CPV and the TEG, there are optimal values for heat transfer coefficient in the heat sink that offer minimum energy cost....

  4. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  5. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  7. Recent advances on hybrid approaches for designing intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Pedrycz, Witold; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains pape...

  8. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  9. A Review of Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setare Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of research activities and different types of studies in brain-computer interface (BCI systems show potential in this young research area. Research teams have studied features of different data acquisition techniques, brain activity patterns, feature extraction techniques, methods of classifications, and many other aspects of a BCI system. However, conventional BCIs have not become totally applicable, due to the lack of high accuracy, reliability, low information transfer rate, and user acceptability. A new approach to create a more reliable BCI that takes advantage of each system is to combine two or more BCI systems with different brain activity patterns or different input signal sources. This type of BCI, called hybrid BCI, may reduce disadvantages of each conventional BCI system. In addition, hybrid BCIs may create more applications and possibly increase the accuracy and the information transfer rate. However, the type of BCIs and their combinations should be considered carefully. In this paper, after introducing several types of BCIs and their combinations, we review and discuss hybrid BCIs, different possibilities to combine them, and their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  11. Hybrid illumination systems for a brigth future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels of cosnsump......Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels...... of cosnsumption of 1990. To really get some savings, further improvements have to be done in the area of illumination systems. Our current research is aiming on fiinding- from an eco-designg perspective- precisly those alternative technological systems. Expected results: Withthe cooperation...

  12. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    notation for specifying real-time systems. The main contributions are (i) a technique for capturing the reachable states of the continuously changing state variables of the LHA as CLP constraints; (ii) a way of representing events in the LHA as constraints in CLP, along with a product construction...... and argue that we contribute to the general field of using static analysis tools for verification...

  13. A Hybrid Neuromechanical Ambulatory Assist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    testing and production of the technical components of the untethered HNP2 prototype and new wireless communication and control system. Any human test...reduce resistance to flow and to create a cleaner appearance. Potential manifold solutions and their advantages and disadvantages were presented in our...Quinn RD, Triolo RJ. Improving stand-to-sit maneuver for individuals with spinal cord injury. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 13:27

  14. Lower Hybrid System upgrade on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, B.; Beunas, A.; Bibet, P.; Kazarian, F.

    2003-12-01

    An upgrade of the heating systems is in progress on Tore Supra. It is focused on the manufacturing of a new coupler, using the PAM concept as foreseen for ITER launcher, and the upgrade of the existing transmitter by replacing the 16 existing 500 kW, 210 s klystrons with new 750 kW, 1000s klystrons. Main features of the launcher and klystron are presented.

  15. Hybrid Recommender System based on Autoencoders

    OpenAIRE

    Strub, Florian; Gaudel, Romaric; Mary, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A standard model for Recommender Systems is the Matrix Completion setting: given partially known matrix of ratings given by users (rows) to items (columns), infer the unknown ratings. In the last decades, few attempts where done to handle that objective with Neural Networks, but recently an architecture based on Autoencoders proved to be a promising approach. In current paper, we enhanced that architecture (i) by using a loss function adapted to input data with missing...

  16. Efficient Hybrid Propulsion System Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    utilize real measurements and parameters within the simulation model [3,4,5]. Moreover, it is also important to build a single core control model in...ICE, engine disconnect clutch , ISG, 6-speed automatic transmission, differential, final drives at the rear axle; FMOT, 2-speed manual transmission...calculation, torque management, safety limit monitoring and fault tolerance, component/local and system/global efficiency calculations, power split

  17. Solitary Wave Solutions for the Coupled Ito System and a Generalized Hirota-Satsuma Coupled KdV System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Feng; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2001-01-01

    We make use of an extended tanh-function method and symbolic computation to construct four kinds of travelling solitary wave solutions for the coupled Ito system and a generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system.PACS numbers: 02.90.+p, 03.40.-t

  18. General mechanism for amplitude death in coupled systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, V; Ambika, G; Amritkar, R E

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a general mechanism for amplitude death in coupled synchronizable dynamical systems. It is known that when two systems are coupled directly, they can synchronize under suitable conditions. When an indirect feedback coupling through an environment or an external system is introduced in them, it is found to induce a tendency for antisynchronization. We show that, for sufficient strengths, these two competing effects can lead to amplitude death. We provide a general stability analysis that gives the threshold values for onset of amplitude death. We study in detail the nature of the transition to death in several specific cases and find that the transitions can be of two types--continuous and discontinuous. By choosing a variety of dynamics, for example, periodic, chaotic, hyperchaotic, and time-delay systems, we illustrate that this mechanism is quite general and works for different types of direct coupling, such as diffusive, replacement, and synaptic couplings, and for different damped dynamics of the environment.

  19. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  20. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.