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Sample records for hybrid surface passivation

  1. Passivation of surface states in the ZnO nanowire with thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine for hybrid photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Ding, Huaiyi; Wu, Yukun; Sui, Mengqiao; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Su, Wenming; Cui, Zheng; Chen, Liwei

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on the ZnO nanowire (NW) surface results in the long lifetime of photo-generated carriers and thus benefits ZnO NW-based ultraviolet photodetectors by suppressing the dark current and improving the photocurrent gain, but the slow adsorption process also leads to slow detector response time. Here we show that a thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine film is effective in passivating surface trap states of ZnO NWs. As a result, the organic/inorganic hybrid photodetector devices exhibit simultaneously improved photosensitivity and response time. This work suggests that it could be an effective way in interfacial passivation using organic/inorganic hybrid structures.The adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on the ZnO nanowire (NW) surface results in the long lifetime of photo-generated carriers and thus benefits ZnO NW-based ultraviolet photodetectors by suppressing the dark current and improving the photocurrent gain, but the slow adsorption process also leads to slow detector response time. Here we show that a thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine film is effective in passivating surface trap states of ZnO NWs. As a result, the organic/inorganic hybrid photodetector devices exhibit simultaneously improved photosensitivity and response time. This work suggests that it could be an effective way in interfacial passivation using organic/inorganic hybrid structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section includes materials growth, device fabrication, device characterization and the measurement process. Supplementary results and discussion includes electrical properties of the ZnO NW/CuPc device, fitting functions and parameters of photoresponse. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01088k

  2. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Thon, Susanna M.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Carey, Graham H.; Fischer, Armin; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electron-hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device.

  3. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex

    2012-07-29

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  5. Damping characteristics of active-passive hybrid constrained-layer treated beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanning; Wang, Kon-Well

    2000-04-01

    A new configuration of surface damping treatments, Active- Passive Hybrid Constrained Layer (HCL) damping, is analyzed and experimentally investigated. The purpose is to improve the performance of the current active constrained layer (ACL) and passive constrained layer (PCL) treatments by mixing passive and active materials in the constraining layer. In HCL, the viscoelastic material is constrained by an active-passive hybrid constraining layer -- the active part is made of PZT ceramics, and the passive part can be selected by the designer to meet different requirements, such as higher damping performance or lighter weight. The active and passive constraining parts are mechanically connected such that the displacement and force are continuous at the connecting surface, but are isolated electrically so the passive constraining part will not affect the function of its active counterpart. Following a generic study of the HCL concept by the authors earlier, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate and validate the HCL performance through both numerical and experimental investigations on a beam structure. The governing equations and boundary conditions of an HCL treated beam are derived and a finite element model is formulated. Tabletop tests with cantilever beam specimens are used for the experimental study. The new hybrid constrained layer is found to have the advantages of both ACL and PCL. By selecting a stiffer passive constraining material and an optimal active-to-passive length ratio, the HCL can achieve better closed-loop and open-loop performances than the treatment with a pure active constraining layer.

  6. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  7. Surface passivation for CdTe devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L.; Burst, James M.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a method for surface passivation for CdTe devices is provided. The method includes adjusting a stoichiometry of a surface of a CdTe material layer such that the surface becomes at least one of stoichiometric or Cd-rich; and reconstructing a crystalline lattice at the surface of the CdTe material layer by annealing the adjusted surface.

  8. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  9. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  10. Nonspherical atomic effective pseudopotentials for surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpulevich, Anastasia; Bui, Hanh; Antonov, Denis; Han, Peng; Bester, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to extract accurate pseudopotentials for surface passivants, within the framework of the atomic effective pseudopotential method. We retain the imaginary part of the pseudopotential in the construction procedure. This imaginary component in reciprocal space translates into a nonspherical component in real space. This asphericity allows to model surface dipoles and their ensuing band offsets. We show that these surface effects need to be taken into account to model electronic properties of quantum dots accurately—which requires to go beyond the spherical potential approximation for the passivant/surface atoms. The good level of transferability, without additional computational costs, is demonstrated for Si, CdSe, and InP nanostructures. The results are directly compared to large-scale density functional theory calculations.

  11. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaopeng; Chen, Bo; Dai, Jun; Fang, Yanjun; Bai, Yang; Lin, Yuze; Wei, Haotong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-07-01

    The ionic defects at the surfaces and grain boundaries of organic-inorganic halide perovskite films are detrimental to both the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, we show that quaternary ammonium halides can effectively passivate ionic defects in several different types of hybrid perovskite with their negative- and positive-charged components. The efficient defect passivation reduces the charge trap density and elongates the carrier recombination lifetime, which is supported by density-function-theory calculation. The defect passivation reduces the open-circuit-voltage deficit of the p-i-n-structured device to 0.39 V, and boosts the efficiency to a certified value of 20.59 ± 0.45%. Moreover, the defect healing also significantly enhances the stability of films in ambient conditions. Our findings provide an avenue for defect passivation to further improve both the efficiency and stability of solar cells.

  12. Passive Downhole Pressure Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Sully M M; Figueiredo, Sávio W O; Takahashi, Victor L; Llerena, Roberth A W; Braga, Arthur M B

    2017-07-15

    A passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor was developed for real-time pressure monitoring in downhole application. The passive pressure sensor consists of a SAW resonator, which is attached to a circular metal diaphragm used as a pressure transducer. While the membrane deflects as a function of pressure applied, the frequency response changes due to the variation of the SAW propagation parameters. The sensitivity and linearity of the SAW pressure sensor were measured to be 8.3 kHz/bar and 0.999, respectively. The experimental results were validated with a hybrid analytical-numerical analysis. The good results combined with the robust design and packaging for harsh environment demonstrated it to be a promising sensor for industrial applications.

  13. Improved performance of colloidal CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by hybrid passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Chunze; Chen, Hong; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng; Agren, Hans

    2014-11-12

    A hybrid passivation strategy is employed to modify the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), by using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and iodide anions through a ligand exchange reaction in solution. This is found to be an effective way to improve the performance of QDSCs based on colloidal QDs. The results show that MPA can increase the coverage of the QDs on TiO2 electrodes and facilitate the hole extraction from the photoxidized QDs, and simultaneously, that the iodide anions can remedy the surface defects of the CdSe QDs and thus reduce the recombination loss in the device. This hybrid passivation treatment leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of the QDSCs by 41%. Furthermore, an optimal ratio of iodide ions to MPA was determined for favorable hybrid passivation; results show that excessive iodine anions are detrimental to the loading of the QDs. This study demonstrates that the improvement in QDSC performance can be realized by using a combination of different functional ligands to passivate the QDs, and that ligand exchange in solution can be an effective approach to introduce different ligands.

  14. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  15. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  16. Self-Healing Hybrid Protection Architecture for Passive Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas A. Imtiaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Expanding size of passive optical networks (PONs along with high availability expectation makes the reliability performance a crucial need. Most protection architectures utilize redundant network components to enhance network survivability, which is not economical. This paper proposes new self-healing protection architecture for passive optical networks (PONs, with a single ring topology and star-ring topology at feeder and distribution level respectively. The proposed architecture provides desirable protection to the network by avoiding fiber duplication at both feeder and distribution level. Moreover, medium access control (MAC controlled switching is utilized to provide efficient detection, and restoration of faults or cuts throughout the network. Analytical analysis reveals that the proposed self-healing hybrid protection architecture ensures survivability of the affected traffic along with desirable connection availability of 99.9994 % at minimum deployment cost, through simple architecture and simultaneous protection against failures.

  17. Monolithic Hybrid and Passive Mode-Locked 40GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M. G.; Larsson, David; Rae, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs.......For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs....

  18. Monolithic Hybrid and Passive Mode-Locked 40GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M. G.; Larsson, David; Rae, A. R.;

    2006-01-01

    For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs.......For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs....

  19. Hybrid Neodymium-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas-Montiel, Rafael [IMEP-LAHC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Bastard, Lionel [IMEP-LAHC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: lionel.bastard@minatec.inpg.fr; Grosa, Gregory; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel [IMEP-LAHC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-03-25

    In the mid 80s, the doping of optical fibers' core with rare earth atoms has been a major breakthrough in the field of optical telecommunications since it allowed the realization of in line optical amplifiers. However, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are a few meters long and a huge effort has been made in order to realize compact and efficient active devices based on rare-earth-doped waveguides. For this purpose the use of phosphate glasses instead of silicate ones has been investigated because they allow a better solubility of the inserted rare earths. In this paper we present the realization of a hybrid Neodymium-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser made by an ion-exchange on a Schott IOG-1 phosphate laser glass combined with the deposition of a bis(4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)nickel (BDN) saturable absorber diluted in a cellulose acetate polymer cladding. In a first step, we present the continuous wave (CW) operation of the laser with an undoped cladding. We show that for a 3.5 {mu}m wide, 1.5 cm long waveguide realized by a silver-sodium ion-exchange, a 6 mW output has been achieved by creating a Fabry-Perot cavity with dielectric multilayers mirrors sticked to the chip facets. Then, the characterizations performed on the BDN-doped layers are presented. It is shown that a proper selection of the hybrid guiding condition and saturable absorber concentration entail a non-saturated excess absorption of 3.4 dB/cm. Finally, we present the results we obtained on the Q-switched behaviour of the laser. Indeed a repetition rate of 330 kHz is achieved for a pulse energy of 10 nJ and a peak power of 1 W.

  20. Reliable passivation of black phosphorus by thin hybrid coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, S.; Fali, A.; Aghamiri, N.; Yang, L.; Ye, P. D.; Abate, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) possesses several extraordinary physical properties, which include in-plane anisotropy, thickness dependent direct bandgap and high carrier mobility. These physical properties make BP highly desirable from the point of view of fundamental science and modern optoelectronics applications. The excitement about this material has always been accompanied by unreserved skepticism due to its extraordinary degradation under ambient conditions. Here we show ambient degradation of exfoliated BP can be effectively suppressed using thin layer of hybrid metal organic chemical vapor deposition coating of boron nitride (BN) followed by atomic layer deposition coating of Al2O3. We have extensively studied the time dependent surface, optical and electrical properties of BP encapsulated by BN and/or Al2O3 using nanoscale infrared imaging and I-V characterizations. Our results show hybrid thin layer (˜5 nm) BN/Al2O3 coated BP exfoliated on SiO2 substrate is protected from degradation in ambient for over 6 months, much longer than those coated only by BN or Al2O3 layers. Our theoretical modeling of the experimental degradation growth pattern shows that the influence of neighboring elements on the degradation of a given element is minimal for BP flakes with hybrid coating. Electrical characterization further confirms the effectiveness of BN/Al2O3 as encapsulation layer and gate dielectrics with minor changes after several weeks.

  1. Passivity-based adaptive hybrid synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Fan, Zhangbiao; Zhou, Dongming; Cai, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the adaptive hybrid synchronization problem for a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters. Based on the passivity theory and the adaptive control theory, corresponding controllers and parameter estimation update laws are proposed to achieve hybrid synchronization between two identical uncertain hyperchaotic systems with different initial values, respectively. Numerical simulation indicates that the presented methods work effectively.

  2. Passivity-Based Adaptive Hybrid Synchronization of a New Hyperchaotic System with Uncertain Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobing Zhou; Zhangbiao Fan; Dongming Zhou; Xiaomei Cai

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the adaptive hybrid synchronization problem for a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters. Based on the passivity theory and the adaptive control theory, corresponding controllers and parameter estimation update laws are proposed to achieve hybrid synchronization between two identical uncertain hyperchaotic systems with different initial values, respectively. Numerical simulation indicates that the presented methods work effectively.

  3. Reducing roll motion by passive free surface tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Nielsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    Roll stabilisation of motorised vessels plays an important part in reducing passenger discomfort and increasing safety and cargo capacity. Passive free surface tanks are considered a low-cost stabilising method, which is efficient at all speeds without increasing hull resistance. In this study......, a mathematical model for evaluating the performance of a passive free surface tank is established. This is done by coupling a roll model to a fluid flow model. As a numerical example, the seakeeping abilities of a container vessel are evaluated. The necessary methods for performing the simulation are presented...... and the design of a free surface tank is explained. The effects of the passive free surface tank are evaluated and a significant damping effect is observed, particularly in cases with resonant roll....

  4. Hybrid passive-active absorption of a microperforated panel in free field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Pedro; Cuesta, María

    2007-06-01

    Although hybrid passive-active absorption in impedance tubes has been widely analyzed, its study in more realistic conditions remains to be accomplished. This letter describes the practical measurement of the passive-active absorption coefficient in a free field. The passive absorber consists of a microperforated panel backed by an air cavity and a wooden panel. A multichannel active system controls the sound pressure in a reduced cell behind the absorber. Measured absorption coefficients between 200 and 400 Hz account for 0.2-0.4 and 0.72-0.75, in the passive and active cases, respectively, and above 500 Hz both are comparable.

  5. The Surface of Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: A Boon or Bane

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2017-03-03

    Hybrid perovskite single crystals have garnered tremendous research attention and are expected to be next-generation materials for high-efficiency photoactive devices. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the 8 relationship between the optoelectronic properties of these materials and the marginally exploited surface chemistry in ambient air. For instance, a strong surface disorder, including hydration and ion migration, can possibly lead to extremely different optical and electronic properties at the surface compared to the bulk of the single crystal (SC). From this perspective, we evaluate the key variables that underlie the perovskite SC surface restructuring in ambient air and discuss their merits and limitations. In addition, a comprehensive picture of surface disordering, the remarkable change in the charge carrier dynamics and carrier mobility, surface hydration, and the effect of ion migration on the surface behavior will be discussed. Finally, surface passivation methods are highlighted to resolve or overcome the challenges for device integration.

  6. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  7. Novel Hybrid Ligands for Passivating PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots to Enhance the Performance of Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yuehua; Zhao, Baofeng; Gao, Yuping; Liu, Han; Tian, Yiyao; Qin, Donghuan; Wu, Hongbin; Huang, Wenbo; Hou, Lintao

    2015-01-01

    We developed novel hybrid ligands to passivate PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), and two kinds of solar cells based on as-synthesized CQDs were fabricated to verify the passivation effects of the ligands...

  8. Surface passivation of backside-illuminated InSb FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Zheng, Kelin; Wang, Liwen; Geng, Dongfeng; Su, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    A method of passivation of etch-thinned bulk InSb by anodic oxide grown by wet anodization and vacuum deposition of SiNx layers have been investigated Thinned bulk n-type InSb with (111) orientation forms distinctively two types of interfaces on the indium and antimony faces, respectively. The junctions are diffused on the indium face. The paper presents the process and characterization for surface passivation of the backside illuminated Sb face that absorbs the photons. The surface passivation and the interfaces are characterized with Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) devices. The effect of anodic oxide/SiNx passivation was compared to SiNx passivation. The electrical features observed in the C-V curves of MIS structures indicate that anodic oxide grown by wet anodization has the better effect on reducing the surface states and surface recombination velocity. The low-frequency-like response in the inversion region of the C-V curves was explained in view of the oxidation states of In and Sb. Finally, by growing the 30nm anodic oxide and depositing 400nm SiNx on diode structure of InSb, the performance of FPA in this case was compared with the SiNx only method. The results showed the performance of device is better than for the SiNx only method.

  9. Surface passivation for single-molecule protein studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradoss, Stanley D; Haagsma, Anna C; Lee, Young Kwang; Hwang, Jae-Ho; Nam, Jwa-Min; Joo, Chirlmin

    2014-04-24

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be instrumental in understanding a wide range of biological phenomena at the nanoscale. Important examples of what this technique can yield to biological sciences are the mechanistic insights on protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. When interactions of proteins are probed at the single-molecule level, the proteins or their substrates are often immobilized on a glass surface, which allows for a long-term observation. This immobilization scheme may introduce unwanted surface artifacts. Therefore, it is essential to passivate the glass surface to make it inert. Surface coating using polyethylene glycol (PEG) stands out for its high performance in preventing proteins from non-specifically interacting with a glass surface. However, the polymer coating procedure is difficult, due to the complication arising from a series of surface treatments and the stringent requirement that a surface needs to be free of any fluorescent molecules at the end of the procedure. Here, we provide a robust protocol with step-by-step instructions. It covers surface cleaning including piranha etching, surface functionalization with amine groups, and finally PEG coating. To obtain a high density of a PEG layer, we introduce a new strategy of treating the surface with PEG molecules over two rounds, which remarkably improves the quality of passivation. We provide representative results as well as practical advice for each critical step so that anyone can achieve the high quality surface passivation.

  10. Hybrid Active/Passive Jet Engine Noise Suppression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, C. A.; Arcas, N.; Walker, B. E.; Hersh, A. S.; Rice, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel adaptive segmented liner concept has been developed that employs active control elements to modify the in-duct sound field to enhance the tone-suppressing performance of passive liner elements. This could potentially allow engine designs that inherently produce more tone noise but less broadband noise, or could allow passive liner designs to more optimally address high frequency broadband noise. A proof-of-concept validation program was undertaken, consisting of the development of an adaptive segmented liner that would maximize attenuation of two radial modes in a circular or annular duct. The liner consisted of a leading active segment with dual annuli of axially spaced active Helmholtz resonators, followed by an optimized passive liner and then an array of sensing microphones. Three successively complex versions of the adaptive liner were constructed and their performances tested relative to the performance of optimized uniform passive and segmented passive liners. The salient results of the tests were: The adaptive segmented liner performed well in a high flow speed model fan inlet environment, was successfully scaled to a high sound frequency and successfully attenuated three radial modes using sensor and active resonator arrays that were designed for a two mode, lower frequency environment.

  11. Passive Optical Detection of a Vibrating Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    medium from the incident side without change in frequency; reflectance is the fraction of the incident flux that is reflected.” Nicodemus defines more... differenced the images Figure 2. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of spectralon (approximately Lambertian) and grass. (Reprinted...However, we have raised more questions than we have answered. For example, what fraction of the detected intensity modulation is from surface normal

  12. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  13. Hybrid passive-active modal networks for structural acoustic control (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunefare, Kenneth A.; Lossouarn, Boris; Collet, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of piezoelectric patches bonded to structures provide a means to alter or control, through active or passive means, the dynamic response of the host structure. Numerous active control schemes for such composite structures have been explored. Alternatively, for certain structures, a passive electrical network may be implemented which presents an electrical analog of the modal response of the structure, effectively providing a multi-modal, distributed passive tuned mass modal damper capability. Numerous tuned-mass damper design concepts ("tunings") may be applied to such a passive network. Further, the distributed network analog, when coupled with active control concepts, permits a hybrid distributed passive-active modal control capability. This paper explores this hybrid distributed network control concept applied to a clamped rectangular plate. A unit-cell discrete representation of the plate leads to an electrical analog comprised of passive inductors, transformers and resistors. Addition of synthetic (or controlled) impedances at a limited set of points within the network permits dynamic adjustment of the frequency response of the system.

  14. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mews, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.mews@helmholtz-berlin.de; Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo [Evonik Industries AG, Creavis Technologies and Innovation, Paul-Baumann-Straße 1, D-45772 Marl (Germany)

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120 meV and 200 meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37 ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724 mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  15. Optical properties of Si nanoclusters with passivated surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L.N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.; Chase, L.L.; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Science Dept.; Wooten, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-31

    Si nanoclusters with average size of a few nanometers have been synthesized by thermal vaporization of Si in an Ar buffer gas, and passivated with oxygen or atomic hydrogen. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that these nanoclusters were crystalline. All samples showed strong infrared and/or visible photoluminescence (PL) with varying decay times form nanoseconds to microseconds depending on synthesis conditions. Absorption mainly in the Si cores was observed by photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. The visible components of PL spectra were noted to blue shift and broaden as the size of the Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) was reduced, and there were differences in PL spectra for hydrogen and oxygen passivated nc-Si. This data can be explained best by a model involving absorption between quantum confined states in the Si cores and emission by surface/interface states.

  16. Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, P. F.; Sakata, O.; Marasco, D, L.; Lee, T.-L.; Breneman, K. D.; Keane, D. T.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2000-08-10

    The structure of a passivating sulfide layer on Ge(001) was studied using X-ray standing waves and X-ray fluorescence. The sulfide layer was formed by reacting clean Ge substrates in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S solutions of various concentrations at 80{sup o}C. For each treatment, a sulfide layer containing approximately two to three monolayers (ML) of S was formed on the surface, and an ordered structure was found at the interface that contained approximately 0.4 ML of S. Our results suggest the rapid formation of a glassy GeS{sub x} layer containing 1.5-2.5 ML S residing atop a partially ordered interfacial layer of bridge-bonded S. The passivating reaction appears to be self-limited to 2-3 ML at this reaction temperature.

  17. Hybrid Active and Passive Control of Vibratory Power Flow in Flexible Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Xiong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid active and passive vibration control strategy is developed to reduce the total power flows from machines, subject to multiple excitations, to supporting flexible structures. The dynamic interactions between machines, controllers, and receiving structures are studied. A force feedback control process governed by a proportional control law is adopted to produce active control forces to cancel the transmitted forces in the mounts. Computational simulations of a simple and a multiple dimensional hybrid vibration isolation system are performed to study the force transmissibility and the total power flows from vibration sources through active and passive isolators to the supporting structures. The investigation focuses on the effects of a hybrid control approach to the reduction of power flow transmissions and the influence of the dynamic characteristics of the control on power flow spectra. The hybrid control mechanism is synthesised from the power flow analysis. Conclusions and control strategies, well supported by numerical simulations, are deduced providing very useful guidelines for hybrid vibration isolation design.

  18. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  19. Study on development of active-passive rehabilitation system for upper limbs: Hybrid-PLEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Jin, Y; Fukushima, K; Akai, H; Furusho, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named 'Hybrid-PLEMO' in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.

  20. Characterization of different surface passivation routes applied to a planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G.; Gelain, M.; Carturan, S. [University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Eberth, J. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Grimaldi, M.G.; Tati, S. [University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catania (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The effects of different passivation methods applied to the same planar high-purity germanium gamma radiation detector have been studied. By means of the scanning with a low-energy collimated gamma source, it has been found that the surface passivation gives rise to a dead layer below the intrinsic Ge surface, whose thickness and distribution are strongly dependent on the passivation type. Measured bulk detector properties like the peak-to-Compton ratio and efficiency have shown a dependence on the passivation and an influence of the passivation type on the depletion voltage, whilst the optimal energy resolution has been the same for all the passivations. (orig.)

  1. Passive and active EO sensing of small surface vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Berglund, Folke; Allard, Lars; Öhgren, Johan; Larsson, Hâkan; Amselem, Elias; Gustafsson, Frank; Repasi, Endre; Lutzmann, Peter; Göhler, Benjamin; Hammer, Marcus; McEwen, Kennedy; McEwan, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The detection and classification of small surface targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. This paper will present an overview of a measurement campaign which took place in the Baltic Sea in November 2014. The purpose was to test active and passive EO sensors (10 different types) for the detection, tracking and identification of small sea targets. The passive sensors were covering the visual, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR regions. Active sensors operating at 1.5 μm collected data in 1D, 2D and 3D modes. Supplementary sensors included a weather station, a scintillometer, as well as sensors for positioning and attitude determination of the boats. Three boats in the class 4-9 meters were used as targets. After registration of the boats at close range they were sent out to 5-7 km distance from the sensor site. At the different ranges the target boats were directed to have different aspect angles relative to the direction of observation. Staff from IOSB Fraunhofer in Germany and from Selex (through DSTL) in UK took part in the tests beside FOI who was arranging the trials. A summary of the trial and examples of data and imagery will be presented.

  2. Corona field effect surface passivation of n-type IBC cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, RS; Wilshaw, PR; Reichel, C; Hermle, M.

    2016-01-01

    Passivation of silicon surfaces is an important requirement in achieving high energy conversion efficiencies in interdigitated back contact cells. Surface passivation, commonly achieved by dielectric coatings, can be greatly improved by extrinsic addition of chemical and field effect components. In particular, cell performance is strongly dependent on front surface passivation. In this work device modelling is used to show that 200% relatively better performance can be achieved using charge e...

  3. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Paul J.; Knight, J. Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. .

  4. A hybrid passive localization method under strong interference with a preliminary experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Yang, Yixin; Yang, Kunde; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Strong interference exists in many passive localization problems and may lead to the inefficacy of traditional localization methods. In this study, a hybrid passive localization method is proposed to address strong interference. This method combines generalized cross-correlation and interference cancellation for time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurement, followed by a time-delay-based iterative localization method. The proposed method is applied to a preliminary experiment using three hydrophones. The TDOAs estimated by the proposed method are compared with those obtained by the particle filtering method. Results show that the positions are in agreement when the TDOAs are accurately obtained. Furthermore, the proposed method is more capable of localization in the presence of a strong moving jamming source.

  5. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  6. Design of Passive Analog Electronic Circuits Using Hybrid Modified UMDA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Slezak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid evolutionary passive analog circuits synthesis method based on modified Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA and a local search algorithm is proposed in the paper. The modification of the UMDA algorithm which allows to specify the maximum number of the nodes and the maximum number of the components of the synthesized circuit is proposed. The proposed hybrid approach efficiently reduces the number of the objective function evaluations. The modified UMDA algorithm is used for synthesis of the topology and the local search algorithm is used for determination of the parameters of the components of the designed circuit. As an example the proposed method is applied to a problem of synthesis of the fractional capacitor circuit.

  7. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  8. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio–nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired. PMID:28233871

  9. High quality crystalline silicon surface passivation by combined intrinsic and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttauf, J.A.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Kielen, I.M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Rath, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the influence of thermal annealing on the passivation quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by intrinsic and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. For temperatures up to 255 C, we find an increase in surface passivation quality, corresponding to a decreased da

  10. CFD Analysis of a Hybrid Heat Pipe for In-Core Passive Decay Heat Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Station blackout (SBO) accident is the event that all AC power is totally lost from the failure of offsite and onsite power sources. Although electricity was provided from installed batteries for active system after shutdown, they were failed due to flooding after tsunami. The vulnerability of the current operating power plant's cooling ability during extended station blackout events is demonstrated and the importance of passive system becomes emphasized. Numerous researches about passive system have been studied for proper cooling residual heat after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Heat pipe is the effective passive heat transfer device that latent heat of vaporization is used to transport heat over long distance with even small temperature difference. Since liquid flows due to capillary force from wick structure and steam flows up due to buoyancy force, power is not necessary. Heat pipe is widely used in removal of local hot spot heat fluxes in CPU and thermal management in space crafts and satellites. Hybrid control rod, which consists of heat pipe with B{sub 4}C for wick structure material can be used for removing residual heat after. It can be applied to both for shutdown and cooling of decay heat in reactor. This concept is independent of external reactor situation like operator's mistake or malfunction of active cooling system. Heat pipe cooling system can be applied to Emergency Core Cooling System, In-Vessel Retention, containment and spent fuel cooling, contributing to decrease Core Damage Frequency.

  11. Effects of surface passivation on gliding motility assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Maloney

    Full Text Available In this study, we report differences in the observed gliding speed of microtubules dependent on the choice of bovine casein used as a surface passivator. We observed differences in both speed and support of microtubules in each of the assays. Whole casein, comprised of α(s1, α(s2, β, and κ casein, supported motility and averaged speeds of 966±7 nm/s. Alpha casein can be purchased as a combination of α(s1 and α(s2 and supported gliding motility and average speeds of 949±4 nm/s. Beta casein did not support motility very well and averaged speeds of 870±30 nm/s. Kappa casein supported motility very poorly and we were unable to obtain an average speed. Finally, we observed that mixing alpha, beta, and kappa casein with the proportions found in bovine whole casein supported motility and averaged speeds of 966±6 nm/s.

  12. Surface passivation of aluminum alloy 6061 with gaseous trichlorosilane: A surface investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngongang, Rickielle, E-mail: rickielle.ngongang@airliquide.com [Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, 1 Chemin de la Porte des Loges Les-Loges en Josas, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas (France); Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, UPMC (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6), site d’Ivry, 3 rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Marceau, Eric; Carrier, Xavier; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Methivier, Christophe [Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, UPMC (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6), site d’Ivry, 3 rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Blanc, Jean-Luc; Carre, Martine [Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, 1 Chemin de la Porte des Loges Les-Loges en Josas, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    2014-02-15

    A molecular-scale investigation of the interaction at room temperature between gaseous trichlorosilane (HSiCl{sub 3}), used as a passivating agent, and surfaces of aluminum alloy AA6061 in a polished or hydroxylated state is conducted. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provide information on the topography and morphology of AA6061 before and after hydroxylation and surface passivation, while surface chemistry has been investigated by Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxidation and hydroxylation of the polished alloy surface in boiling water strongly modifies the roughness of the surface, with formation of platelets and needles of oxyhydroxide AlOOH. PM-IRRAS and XPS reveal that, upon adsorption, HSiCl{sub 3} dissociates and mainly forms HSiOH{sub n}(OAl){sub 3−n}, HSi(OSi){sub n}(OAl){sub 3−n} and condensed HSiO{sub x} species, by reaction with -OH groups from the AlOOH surface phase. The amount of deposited Si-containing species is larger on the rough surface of the hydroxylated alloy and this deposit is accompanied by a decrease of the amount of free -OH groups evidenced by PM-IRRAS. These results can find applications in the field of functionalization of aluminum alloys. It is suggested that a homogeneous oxidation of the alloy surface prior to exposure to gaseous HSiCl{sub 3} may enhance the adsorption of the passivating agent.

  13. Surface Restructuring of Hybrid Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2016-11-07

    Hybrid perovskite crystals have emerged as an important class of semiconductors because of their remarkable performance in optoelectronics devices. The interface structure and chemistry of these crystals are key determinants of the device\\'s performance. Unfortunately, little is known about the intrinsic properties of the surfaces of perovskite materials because extrinsic effects, such as complex microstructures, processing conditions, and hydration under ambient conditions, are thought to cause resistive losses and high leakage current in solar cells. We reveal the intrinsic structural and optoelectronic properties of both pristinely cleaved and aged surfaces of single crystals. We identify surface restructuring on the aged surfaces (visualized on the atomic-scale by scanning tunneling microscopy) that lead to compositional and optical bandgap changes as well as degradation of carrier dynamics, photocurrent, and solar cell device performance. The insights reported herein clarify the key variables involved in the performance of perovskite-based solar cells and fabrication of high-quality surface single crystals, thus paving the way toward their future exploitation in highly efficient solar cells.

  14. A Hybrid LCC-VSC HVDC Transmission System Supplying a Passive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Omar

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems continue to be an excellent asset in modern power systems, mainly for their ability to overcome the problems of AC transmission, such as the interconnection of asynchronous grids, stability of long transmission lines, and use of long cables for power transmission. In the past 20 years, Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-HVDC transmission systems were developed and installed in many projects, thereby adding more operational benefits to DC transmission option, such as high controllability, ability to supply weak networks, and reduced converter reactive power demand. Nevertheless, VSC-HVDC transmission suffers from the disadvantages of high losses and cost. In this research, a hybrid HVDC employing a Line Commutated Converter (LCC) as rectifier and a VSC as inverter is used to supply a passive network through a DC cable. The hybrid system is best suited for unidirectional power transmission scenarios, such as power transmission to islands and remote load centers, where the construction of new transmission lines is prohibitively expensive. Control modes for the rectifier and inverter are selected and implemented using Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. Special control schemes are developed for abnormal operating conditions such as starting at light load and recovering from AC network faults. The system performance under steady state and transient conditions is investigated by EMTP-RV simulations. The results show the feasibility of the hybrid system.

  15. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  16. Application of PECVD for bulk and surface passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygowski, T.; Doshi, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, A.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) passivation of bulk and surface defects has been shown to be an important technique to improve the performance of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and single crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, we report the status of our on-going investigation into the bulk and surface passivation properties of PECVD insulators for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of PECVD films to passivate the front (emitter) surface, bulk, and back surface by proper tailoring of deposition and post-PECVD annealing conditions.

  17. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  18. Optimisation of surface passivation for highly reliable angular AMR sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isler, M.; Christoffer, B.; Schoer, G.; Philippsen, B.; Mahnke, M.; Thorns, A.; Riethmueller, W.; Matz, H.; Tobescu, C. [NXP Semiconductors, Stresemannallee 101, 22529 Hamburg (Germany); Vanhelmont, F.; Wolters, R. [NXP Semiconductors, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Engelen, R.; Opran, A. [Philips Applied Technologies, High Tech Campus 7, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Stolk, P. [NXP Semiconductors, Gerstweg 2, 6534 AE Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    For state-of-the-art angular sensors based on the anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) effect in NiFe layers, the angular accuracy over time is limited by a drift of the offset voltage of the Wheatstone bridge configuration. It is shown that the interaction of the passivation layer and the magnetic permalloy is crucial for the drift of the offset voltage. By investigating the time and temperature dependence, the offset drift is attributed to stress relief of the PECVD passivation layer due to microstructural changes. Hydrogen outdiffusion from the passivation layer is involved in the observed stress evolution. It is demonstrated that optimising the passivation layer composition as well as the time of the subsequent annealing is beneficial for stress stabilisation of the permalloy-passivation layer system. With this optimised passivation layer a significant offset drift reduction of the NiFe Wheatstone bridge has been achieved resulting in highly accurate and long-term stable angular AMR sensors. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  20. Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yaping; Seo, Kwanyong; Takei, Kuniharu; Meza, Jhim H; Javey, Ali; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2011-06-08

    Nanowires have unique optical properties and are considered as important building blocks for energy harvesting applications such as solar cells. However, due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, the recombination of charge carriers through surface states reduces the carrier diffusion lengths in nanowires a few orders of magnitude, often resulting in the low efficiency (a few percent or less) of nanowire-based solar cells. Reducing the recombination by surface passivation is crucial for the realization of high-performance nanosized optoelectronic devices but remains largely unexplored. Here we show that a thin layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) coated on a single-crystalline silicon nanowire, forming a core-shell structure in situ in the vapor-liquid-solid process, reduces the surface recombination nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Under illumination of modulated light, we measure a greater than 90-fold improvement in the photosensitivity of individual core-shell nanowires, compared to regular nanowires without shell. Simulations of the optical absorption of the nanowires indicate that the strong absorption of the a-Si shell contributes to this effect, but we conclude that the effect is mainly due to the enhanced carrier lifetime by surface passivation.

  1. Laser direct writing of oxide structures on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen; Grey, Francois;

    1996-01-01

    A focused laser beam has been used to induce oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon. The scanning laser beam removes the hydrogen passivation locally from the silicon surface, which immediately oxidizes in air. The process has been studied as a function of power density and excitation wavelengt...

  2. Effective passivation of Si surfaces by plasma deposited SiOx/a-SiNx:H stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, G.; Mandoc, M. M.; Bordihn, S.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2011-05-01

    Very low surface recombination velocities field-effect passivation was absent for a reference stack comprising thermally grown SiO2. The results indicate that hydrogenation of interface states played a key role in the passivation and remained effective up to annealing temperatures >800 °C.

  3. Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Univ. Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education; Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

  4. Effect of passive ultrasonic agitation during final irrigation on cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Coelho Vinhorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effect of passive ultrasonic agitation on the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique. Materials and Methods Twenty mandibular incisors with mesiodistal-flattened root shape had their crowns sectioned at 1 mm from the cementoenamel junction. Instrumentation was initiated by catheterization with K-type files (Denstply Maillefer #10, #15, and #20 at 3 mm from the working length. Cervical preparation was performed with Largo bur #1 (Dentsply Maillefer followed by apical instrumentation with K-type files #15, #20 and #25, and finishing with ProTaper F2 file (Denstply Maillefer. All files were used up to the working length under irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (Biodynâmica at each instrument change. At the end of instrumentation, the roots were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 10. All specimens received final irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The solution remained in the root canals in Group 1 for one minute; and ultrasonic agitation was performed in Group 2 for one minute using a straight tip inserted at 1 mm from working length. The specimens were processed histologically and the sections were analyzed under optic microscope (×64 to quantify debris present in the root canal. Results The samples submitted to ultrasonic agitation (Group 2 presented significant decrease in the amount of debris in comparison with those of Group 1 (p < 0.05. Conclusions The hybrid instrumentation technique associated with passive ultrasonic agitation promoted greater debris removal in the apical third of the root canals.

  5. Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.

  6. Toward an active passive waveguide array for lower hybrid application on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, F.; Gourlan, C.; Marra, A.; Roccon, M.; Tuccillo, A.A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy); Bibet, P.; Froissard, P.; Goniche, M.; Kazarian, F.; Mailloux, J.; Rey, G.; Simoncini, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1998-07-01

    Toward the realization of Advanced Tokamak scenarios on ITER, Lower Hybrid Wave is an efficient way to drive the current especially in the region of low to medium temperature of the discharge, leading therefore to hollow current profile with the possibility of improved confinement. The amount of power necessary to fulfill the task is estimated around 50 MW, that meansthousands of waveguides with the present design of the antenna. The thermal load on ITER, that is 0.5 MW/m{sup 2} and 10 MW/m{sup 3}, for neutron heating, calls for a very efficient water cooling at the mouth of the antenna. A new concept of launcher, made of an array of active and passive waveguides fed by multijunction, has been proposed to satisfy these constraints: the Passive-Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna. The aim of the work is to validate the PAM conceptual design for future applications on ITER like machine. In the first step of the collaboration the numerical analysis performed on this specific antenna has allowed to define the microwave design of the structure. A PAM module has been designed that, despite the small dimension of the FTU ports, can inject the required power spectra with good directivity and coupling for all the studied experimental conditions. Moreover the foreseen experimental situation on FTU will allow for direct comparison with traditional grill injecting spectra with same N{sub //peak} on the machine at the same time. (author)

  7. Improved PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell using inverted structure and effective passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xisheng; Yang, Dong; Yang, Zhou; Guo, Xiaojia; Liu, Bin; Ren, Xiaodong; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-10-11

    The PEDOT:PSS is often used as the window layer in the normal structured PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell (HSC), leading to significantly reduced response, especially in red and near-infrared region. By depositing the PEDOT:PSS on the rear side of the c-Si wafer, we developed an inverted structured HSC with much higher solar cell response in the red and near-infrared spectrum. Passivating the other side with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) before electrode deposition, the minority carrier lifetime has been significantly increased and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted HSC is improved to as high as 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 634 mV, fill factor (FF) of 70.5%, and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.2 mA cm(-2), an improvement of 33% over the control device. The improvements are ascribed to inverted configuration and a-Si:H passivation, which can increase photon carrier generation and reduce carrier recombination, respectively. Both of them will benefit the photovoltaic performance and should be considered as effective design strategies to improve the performance of organic/c-Si HSCs.

  8. Improved PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell using inverted structure and effective passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xisheng; Yang, Dong; Yang, Zhou; Guo, Xiaojia; Liu, Bin; Ren, Xiaodong; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-10-01

    The PEDOT:PSS is often used as the window layer in the normal structured PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell (HSC), leading to significantly reduced response, especially in red and near-infrared region. By depositing the PEDOT:PSS on the rear side of the c-Si wafer, we developed an inverted structured HSC with much higher solar cell response in the red and near-infrared spectrum. Passivating the other side with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) before electrode deposition, the minority carrier lifetime has been significantly increased and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted HSC is improved to as high as 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 634 mV, fill factor (FF) of 70.5%, and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.2 mA cm-2, an improvement of 33% over the control device. The improvements are ascribed to inverted configuration and a-Si:H passivation, which can increase photon carrier generation and reduce carrier recombination, respectively. Both of them will benefit the photovoltaic performance and should be considered as effective design strategies to improve the performance of organic/c-Si HSCs.

  9. Band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for highly efficient near-infrared responsive PbS quantum dot photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ru; Niu, Haihong; Ji, Fengwei; Wan, Lei; Mao, Xiaoli; Guo, Huier; Xu, Jinzhang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-11-01

    PbS is a promising light harvester for near-infrared (NIR) responsive quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics due to its narrow bulk band gap (0.41 eV) and large exciton Bohr radius (18 nm). However, the relatively low conduction band (CB) and high-density surface defects of PbS as two major drawbacks for its use in solar cells severely hamper the photovoltaic performance enhancement. In this work, a modified solution-based successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) utilizing mixed cationic precursors of Pb2+ and Cd2+ is explored, and such a scheme offers two benefits, band-structure tailoring and surface passivation. In-situ deposited CdS suppresses the excessive growth of PbS in the mesopores, thereby facilitating the favorable electron injection from PbS to TiO2 in view of the up-shifted CB level of QDs; the intimate interpenetration of two sulfides with each other leads to superior passivation of trap state defects on PbS, which suppresses the interfacial charge recombination. With the construction of photovoltaics based on such a hybrid (Pb,Cd)S/CdS configuration, impressive power conversion efficiency up to 4.08% has been reached, outperforming that of the conventional PbS/CdS pattern (2.95%). This work highlights the great importance of band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for constructing highly efficient PbS QD photovoltaics.

  10. Passive hybrid force-position control for tele-operation based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, L.; Andriot, C.

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid force-position control aims at controlling position and force in separate directions. It is particularly useful to perform certain robotic tasks. In tele-operation context, passivity is important because it ensures stability when the system interacts with any passive environment. In this paper, we propose an original approach to hybrid force-position control of a force reflecting tele-robot system. It is based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism corresponding to the task. the resulting control law is passive. Experiments on a 6 degrees of freedom tele-operation system consisting in following a bent pipe under several control modes validate the approach. (authors). 12 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Novel Hybrid Ligands for Passivating PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots to Enhance the Performance of Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuehua Yang; Baofeng Zhao; Yuping Gao; Han Liu; Yiyao Tian; Donghuan Qin; Hongbin Wu; Wenbo Huang; Lintao Hou

    2015-01-01

    We developed novel hybrid ligands to passivate PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), and two kinds of solar cells based on as-synthesized CQDs were fabricated to verify the passivation effects of the ligands. It was found that the ligands strongly affected the optical and electrical properties of CQDs, and the performances of solar cells were enhanced strongly. The optimized hybrid ligands, oleic amine/octyl-phosphine acid/CdCl2 improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) to much higher of 3.72%for Schottky diode cell and 5.04%for p–n junction cell. These results may be beneficial to design passivation strategy for low-cost and high-performance CQDs solar cells.

  12. Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is...

  13. Adaptive Passivity-Based Control of PEM Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALANTAR, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source and their power electronic interfacing is modelled based on Euler-Lagrange framework. Subsequently, adaptive passivity-based controllers are synthesized using the energy shaping and damping injection technique. Local asymptotic stability is insured as well. In addition, the power management system is designed in order to manage power flow between components. Evaluation of the proposed system and simulation of the hybrid system are accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink. Afterwards, linear PI controllers are provided for the purpose of comparison with proposed controllers responses. The results show that the outputs of hybrid system based on adaptive passivity-based controllers have a good tracking response, low overshoot, short settling time and zero steady-state error. The comparison of results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed controllers for reference DC voltage and resistive load changes.

  14. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  15. Silicon surface passivation using thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Jhuma; Vandana; Batra, Neha; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Maurya, K. K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is a potential material for equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling in microelectronics; however, its surface passivation properties particularly on silicon are not well explored. This paper reports investigation on passivation properties of thermally deposited thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition system (ALD) on silicon surface. As-deposited pristine film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with <100 cm/s surface recombination velocity (SRV) vis-à-vis thicker films. Further improvement in passivation quality is achieved with annealing at 400 °C for 10 min where the SRV reduces to ∼20 cm/s. Conductance measurements show that the interface defect density (Dit) increases with film thickness whereas its value decreases after annealing. XRR data corroborate with the observations made by FTIR and SRV data.

  16. Investigation of moisture stability and PL characteristics of terpineol-passivated organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents a novel method for preparing perovskite films using a simple processing technique. Perovskite paste was prepared by dispersing an equimolar mix of PbI2 and methyl ammonium iodide powders into terpineol with stirring. From these precursors, perovskite films were fabricated using doctor blading and drying for 24 h at room temperature. The prepared films were then placed into relative humidity (RH levels of 30, 50, and 70 % to test the moisture stability. The crystal structure, phases, and morphology were investigated with XRD and SEM/EDX. These samples exhibited good stability against long time exposure to moisture for 70 days. The XRD results showed that samples stored at RH 70 % contained only a small amount of hydrate compound after 70 days storage, while in the sample stored at RH 50 %, the formation of PbI2 was observed. The sample at RH 30 % manifested almost no change when stored for the same storage period. We attribute the enhanced moisture stability, compared with the spin-coated samples, to a passivated surface of the perovskite film by terpineol which exhibits a hydrophobic moiety. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show that the passivation of surface defect states by the formation of either PbI2 or hydrated compound leads to prolonged charge carrier recombination times. Graphical Abstract

  17. Passive hybrid technique for the vibration mitigation of systems of interconnected stays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracoglia, Luca; Jones, Nicholas P.

    2007-11-01

    The problem of stay oscillation mitigation in cable-stayed bridges, usually induced by wind or wind and rain, may require the introduction of passive devices, such as dampers on individual stays or the use of transverse restrainers (cross-ties). The damper performance is often affected by the geometrical constraints of the bridge deck that limit the installation of such devices to locations very close to the end of the cable. On the other hand, cross-ties are generally incapable of direct energy dissipation. Therefore, the authors have proposed and analyzed a hybrid passive system in which the advantages of both techniques are applied to the oscillation mitigation of complex interconnected systems with multiple external dampers at the deck level, in correspondence with the cross-tie lines. This paper summarizes the relevant findings of a research program involving the authors' efforts focused on the in-plane free-vibration analysis of stay-cable systems. This research is also based upon some recent results associated with the analytical solution of a taut-cable with two attached viscous dampers. These findings are initially extended to a simplified network with reduced number of connectors and one damper, for which the derivation of analytical solution is still possible. Subsequently, an existing multistay multidamped arrangement on a real bridge is considered, in which a fully numerical approach is required. The modal behavior is compared to the simplified examples, also enabling the interpretation of the results in the context of more general guidelines for potential future application.

  18. Infrared exploration of the architectural heritage: from passive infrared thermography to hybrid infrared thermography (HIRT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfarra, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, infrared thermographic approaches have been considered either passive or active. In the latter case, the heat flux is historically attributed to a non-natural heat source. The use of the sun has recently been incorporated into the active approach thanks to multi-temporal inspections. In this paper, an innovative hybrid thermographic (HIRT approach is illustrated. It combines both the time component and the solar source to obtain quantitative information such as the defect depth. Thermograms were obtained by inspecting the facade of the Santa Maria Collemaggio church (L’Aquila, Italy, whereas quantitative results related to the sub-superficial discontinuities were obtained thanks to the use of advanced techniques. Experimental results linked to passive approach (i.e., the mosaicking procedure of the thermograms performed by selecting a set of historic churches are also included in order to explain, when and where, the hybrid procedure should be used.Hasta la fecha, los enfoques sobre la termografía infrarroja han sido considerados, o pasivos, o activos. En este último caso, el flujo de calor se obtiene a través de una fuente de calor no natural. El uso de energía solar ha sido recientemente incorporado al enfoque activo gracias a los estudios multitemporales. En este trabajo, se ilustra un enfoque innovador de la termografía híbrida (HIRT. Se combina tanto el componente de tiempo y la fuente de energía solar para recuperar la información cuantitativa así como la profundidad del defecto. Las imágenes térmicas se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de la fachada de la Iglesia de Santa María Collemaggio (L’Aquila, Italia, mientras que los resultados cuantitativos inherentes a las discontinuidades sub-superficiales se obtuvieron gracias al uso de otras técnicas avanzadas. Los resultados experimentales vinculados al enfoque pasivo (es decir, el proceso de mosaico de las imágenes térmicas derivan de un conjunto de Iglesias

  19. Hybrid Active-Passive Systems for Control of Aircraft Interior Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Chris R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the large potential for hybrid active-passive systems for attenuating interior noise in aircraft fuselages. The main advantage of an active-passive system is, by utilizing the natural dynamics of the actuator system, the control actuator power and weight is markedly reduced and stability/robustness is enhanced. Three different active-passive approaches were studied in the past year. The first technique utilizes multiple tunable vibration absorbers (ATVA) for reducing narrow band sound radiated from panels and transmitted through fuselage structures. The focus is on reducing interior noise due to propeller or turbo fan harmonic excitation. Two types of tunable vibration absorbers were investigated; a solid state system based upon a piezoelectric mechanical exciter and an electromechanical system based upon a Motran shaker. Both of these systems utilize a mass-spring dynamic effect to maximize tile output force near resonance of the shaker system and so can also be used as vibration absorbers. The dynamic properties of the absorbers (i.e. resonance frequency) were modified using a feedback signal from an accelerometer mounted on the active mass, passed through a compensator and fed into the drive component of the shaker system (piezoelectric element or voice coil respectively). The feedback loop consisted of a two coefficient FIR filter, implemented on a DSP, where the input is acceleration of tile ATVA mass and the output is a force acting in parallel with the stiffness of the absorber. By separating the feedback signal into real and imaginary components, the effective natural frequency and damping of the ATVA can be altered independently. This approach gave control of the resonance frequencies while also allowing the simultaneous removal of damping from the ATVA, thus increasing the ease of controllability and effectiveness. In order to obtain a "tuned" vibration absorber the chosen resonant frequency was set to the excitation

  20. Mesoscale Elucidation of Surface Passivation in the Li-Sulfur Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2017-02-15

    The cathode surface passivation caused by Li2S precipitation adversely affects the performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Li2S precipitation is a complicated mesoscale process involving adsorption, desorption and diffusion kinetics, which are affected profoundly by the reactant concentration and operating temperature. In this work, a mesoscale interfacial model is presented to study the growth of Li2S film on carbon cathode surface. Li2S film growth experiences nucleation, isolated Li2S island growth and island coalescence. The slow adsorption rate at small S(2-) concentration inhibits the formation of nucleation seeds and the lateral growth of Li2S islands, which deters surface passivation. An appropriate operating temperature, especially in the medium-to-high temperature range, can also defer surface passivation. Fewer Li2S nucleation seeds form in such an operating temperature range, thereby facilitating heterogeneous growth and potentially inhibiting the lateral growth of the Li2S film, which may ultimately result in reduced surface passivation. The high specific surface area of the cathode microstructure is expected to mitigate the surface passivation.

  1. Superconducting-electromagnetic hybrid bearing using YBCO bulk locks for passive axial levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolsky, R. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, Cx. P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil). E-mail: nicolsky at if.ufrj.br; Andrade, R. de Jr. [DEE/EE/UFRJ, Cx. P. 68515, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Ripper, A.; Stephan, R.M. [PEM/COPPE/UFRJ, Cx. P. 68504, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); David, D.F.B.; Santisteban, J.A. [Engenharia/UFF, Rua Passo da Patria 156, Niteroi 24210-240 (Brazil); Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Strasser, T. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hoch Technologie (IPHT), Helmhotzweg 4, D07743, Jena (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    A superconducting/electromagnetic hybrid bearing has been designed using active radial electromagnetic positioning and a superconducting passive axial levitator. This bearing has been tested for an induction machine with a vertical shaft. The prototype was conceived as a four-pole, two-phase induction machine using specially designed stator windings for delivering torque and radial positioning simultaneously. The radial bearing uses four eddy-current sensors, displaced 90 deg. from each other, for measuring the shaft position and a PID control system for feeding back the currents. The stator windings have been adapted from the ones of a standard induction motor. The superconducting axial bearing has been assembled with commercial NdFeB permanent magnets and a set of seven top-seeded-melt-textured YBCO large-grain cylindrical blocks. The bearing set-up was previously simulated by a finite element method for different permanent magnet-superconductor block configurations. The stiffness of the superconducting axial bearing has been investigated by measuring by a dynamic method the vertical and transversal elastic constants for different field cooling processes. The resulting elastic constants show a linear dependence on the air gap, i.e. the clearance between the permanent magnet assembly and the set of superconducting large-grain blocks, which is dependent on cooling distance. (author)

  2. Hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation Passive Optical Networks based on network coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Bai, Wei; Liu, Xin; Feng, Nan; Maier, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Network coding (NC) integrated into Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is regarded as a promising solution to achieve higher throughput and energy efficiency. To efficiently support multimedia traffic under this new transmission mode, novel NC-based hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation PONs (NG-PONs) including energy management, time slot management, resource allocation, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) scheduling are proposed in this paper. First, we design an energy-saving scheme that is based on Bidirectional Centric Scheduling (BCS) to reduce the energy consumption of both the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Units (ONUs). Next, we propose an intra-ONU scheduling and an inter-ONU scheduling scheme, which takes NC into account to support service differentiation and QoS assurance. The presented simulation results show that BCS achieves higher energy efficiency under low traffic loads, clearly outperforming the alternative NC-based Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme. Furthermore, BCS is shown to provide better QoS assurance.

  3. Effects of molybdenum on the composition and nanoscale morphology of passivated austenitic stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Vincent; Peng, Hao; Klein, Lorena H; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Marcus, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Surface analysis by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy has been applied to provide new insight on Mo effects on the composition and nanostructure of the passive films grown in sulfuric acid on well-controlled Fe-17Cr-14.5Ni-2.3Mo(100) austenitic stainless steel single crystal surfaces. A duplex hydroxylated oxide matrix, 1.8-1.9 nm thick, is formed with a strong partition between Cr(iii) and Fe(iii) in the inner and outer layers, respectively. Cr(iii) is increasingly enriched by preferential iron oxide dissolution upon passivation and ageing. Ni, only present as oxide traces in the film, is enriched in the alloy underneath. Mo, mostly present as Mo(iv) in the Cr-rich inner layer prior to anodic polarisation, becomes increasingly enriched (up to 16% of cations) mostly as Mo(vi) in the Fe-rich outer layer of the passive film, with ageing promoting this effect. Metallic Mo is not significantly enriched below the passive film produced from the native oxide covered surface. Mo does not markedly impact the nanogranular morphology of the native oxide film nor its local thickness variations assigned to substrate site effects on Cr(iii) enrichment. Site specific preferential passivation still takes place at the (native) oxide-covered step edges of the alloy surface, and transient dissolution remains preferentially located on the terraces. Nanostructures, possibly Mo-containing, and healing local depressions formed by transient dissolution during passivation, appear as a specific effect of the Mo presence. Another Mo effect, observed even after 20 h of passivation, is to prevent crystallisation at least in the Fe-rich outer part of the passive film where it is concentrated mostly as Mo(vi) (i.e. molybdate) species.

  4. Effect of excimer laser annealing on a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors passivated by solution-processed hybrid passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of excimer laser annealing (ELA) as a low temperature annealing alternative to anneal amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) passivated by a solution-processed hybrid passivation layer. Usually, a-IGZO is annealed using thermal annealing at high temperatures of up to 400 °C. As an alternative to high temperature thermal annealing, two types of ELA, XeCl (308 nm) and KrF (248 nm) ELA, are introduced. Both ELA types enhanced the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs leading to a mobility improvement of ~13 cm2 V-1 s-1 and small threshold voltage which varied from ~0-3 V. Furthermore, two-dimensional heat simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics was used to identify possible degradation sites, analyse laser heat localization, and confirm that the substrate temperature is below 50 °C. The two-dimensional heat simulation showed that the substrate temperature remained at very low temperatures, less than 30 °C, during ELA. This implies that any flexible material can be used as the substrate. These results demonstrate the large potential of ELA as a low temperature annealing alternative for already-passivated a-IGZO TFTs.

  5. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  6. Preliminary Test of a small heat pipe for hybrid control rod in-core passive decay heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Guk; Ban, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper introduces 'Hybrid control rod' combining its original function and heat removal ability. The high temperature operation and high resistance of radiation should be considered to adopt the hybrid heat pipe at the in-core condition. Other design consideration is to make extra inlet parts because it has a high risk of inlet boundary failure. It means that the introduction of heat pipe system is difficult to present nuclear power plants. The other concepts are presented to out-core cooling design but it has low performance compared with in-core heat removal system. Hybrid heat pipe for in-core heat removal system suggests the solution of these problems. Ultimate objective of this research is to develop the passive emergency decay heat removal system using hybrid heat pipes targeting design bases accidents such as station black-out (SBO) and small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). The purpose of this work is to confirm the performance and heat transfer behavior of hybrid heat pipe. The hybrid heat pipe has special condition for operation. Therefore, it is hard to analyze their behavior in core. Table I shows the characteristics of hybrid heat pipe and consideration for manufacturing the heat pipe.

  7. Enhanced luminescence of near-surface quantum wells passivated in situ by InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsanen, H.; Sopanen, M.; Taskinen, M.; Tulkki, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Optoelectronics Lab.; Ahopelto, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The authors have studied the optical properties of MOVPE grown Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As/GaAs structures passivated by in situ deposition of InP on the surface. One monolayer of InP was used for the passivation. The surface recombination was studied by photoluminescence measurements of near-surface Al{sub 0.22}Ga{sub 0.78}As/GaAs quantum wells. The luminescence intensity of the passivated samples increased by about five orders of magnitude for quantum wells located at less than 5 nm from the surface as compared to unpassivated samples. Furthermore, the authors observed a blueshift of 15 meV for a passivated surface quantum well. The effect of the thin InP layer on the Fermi level pinning on the surface was studied by photoreflectance of a surface-i-n{sup +} sample. The pinning position was reduced by 0.3 eV from the mid-bandgap value.

  8. Direct passivation of hydride-terminated silicon (100) surfaces by free-radically tethered polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Isaac W; Carter, Kenneth R

    2009-08-18

    A simple and effective means for passivating crystalline silicon is reported by the use of free-radical polymerization (FRP) to directly graft polymer chains to a hydride-terminated surface (Si-H). Complete surface coverage and passivation was achieved in approximately 24 h at 60 degrees C or 30 min at 90 degrees C. Mechanistic studies determined that chain attachment followed a hydride-transfer-based grafting-to mechanism. The grafting process is compatible with a variety of monomers and was used to assemble polymer brush layers (2-12 nm thick), with grafting densities ranging from 0.02 to 0.65 chains/nm2 rivaling densities typically obtained by grafting-from scenarios. This new passivation route provides a uniquely accessible means to covalently anchor dense polymer brushes to silicon surfaces without the need for functionalization of the polymer chain ends or the substrate.

  9. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoshan Dai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  10. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-09-25

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  11. Simultaneous dopant diffusion and surface passivation in a single rapid thermal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachiq, A.; Slaoui, A.; Georgopoulos, L.; Ventura, L.; Monna, R.; Muller, J.C. [Laboratoire PHASE, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1996-09-01

    Results on simultaneous formation of emitter/back-surface field or emitter/surface passivation in a single rapid thermal cycle are presented. We have investigated the diffusion kinetics of dopant elements like phosphorus, boron (from a doped spin-on glass (SOD) film), aluminium (from evaporated films) or aluminium-boron (from an Al-B SOD film). In particular, we have shown that rapid thermal co-diffusion of P and Al (or Al-B) leads to low sheet resistances, optical emitter profiles and a high gettering effect. Furthermore, the possibility of using the remaining SOD films as a surface passivation layer was investigated. Dark saturation current measurements as deduced from the photoconductivity decay technique demonstrate the passivation effect of the remaining SOD film. The highest efficiency of 12.8% obtained was achieved on SOD oxide-coated solar cells. (author)

  12. Robust passive dynamics of the musculoskeletal system compensate for unexpected surface changes during human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; de Graaf, Wendy W; Farley, Claire T; Moritz, Chet T; Richard Casius, L J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2009-09-01

    When human hoppers are surprised by a change in surface stiffness, they adapt almost instantly by changing leg stiffness, implying that neural feedback is not necessary. The goal of this simulation study was first to investigate whether leg stiffness can change without neural control adjustment when landing on an unexpected hard or unexpected compliant (soft) surface, and second to determine what underlying mechanisms are responsible for this change in leg stiffness. The muscle stimulation pattern of a forward dynamic musculoskeletal model was optimized to make the model match experimental hopping kinematics on hard and soft surfaces. Next, only surface stiffness was changed to determine how the mechanical interaction of the musculoskeletal model with the unexpected surface affected leg stiffness. It was found that leg stiffness adapted passively to both unexpected surfaces. On the unexpected hard surface, leg stiffness was lower than on the soft surface, resulting in close-to-normal center of mass displacement. This reduction in leg stiffness was a result of reduced joint stiffness caused by lower effective muscle stiffness. Faster flexion of the joints due to the interaction with the hard surface led to larger changes in muscle length, while the prescribed increase in active state and resulting muscle force remained nearly constant in time. Opposite effects were found on the unexpected soft surface, demonstrating the bidirectional stabilizing properties of passive dynamics. These passive adaptations to unexpected surfaces may be critical when negotiating disturbances during locomotion across variable terrain.

  13. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Dhaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature (∼200 °C grown atomic layer deposition (ALD films of AlN, TiN, Al2O3, GaN, and TiO2 were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP nanowires (NWs, and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL at low temperatures (15K, and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al2O3. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al2O3 provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  14. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhaka, Veer, E-mail: veer.dhaka@aalto.fi; Perros, Alexander; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Micronova, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 (Finland); Naureen, Shagufta; Shahid, Naeem [Research School of Physics & Engineering, Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko [Department of Applied Physics and Nanomicroscopy Center, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 (Finland); Srinivasan, Anand [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low temperature (∼200 °C) grown atomic layer deposition (ALD) films of AlN, TiN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaN, and TiO{sub 2} were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP) nanowires (NWs), and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures (15K), and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å) film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL) was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars) to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  15. Role of surface fixed charge in the surface passivation of thermal atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on crystalline-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Y. N.; He, Y.; Huang, C. Y.; Zhou, C. L.; Ma, X. G.; Chen, R.; Chu, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, surface passivation of thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on Si has been investigated. A quantitative analysis shows that field-effect passivation based on surface fixed charge combined with chemical passivation is assumed to contribute to the passivation performance and that a low defect density is critical to passivation quality. The surface fixed negative charge, which is exponentially modulated from ˜0 cm-2 to -2×1012 cm-2 by annealing, is proposed to have arisen from the reconstruction of the interfacial SiO x layer.

  16. Very low surface recombination velocity in n-type c-Si using extrinsic field effect passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ruy S.; Woodcock, Frederick; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, field-effect surface passivation is characterised as either intrinsic or extrinsic, depending on the origin of the charges present in passivation dielectric layers. The surface recombination velocity of float zone, 1 Ω cm, n-type silicon was reduced to 0.15 cm/s, the lowest ever observed for a passivating double layer consisting of thermally grown silicon dioxide and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride. This result was obtained by enhancing the intrinsic chemical and field-effect passivation of the dielectric layers with uniform, extrinsic field-effect passivation induced by corona discharge. The position and stability of charges, both intrinsic and extrinsic, were characterised and their passivation effect was seen stable for two months with surface recombination velocity field-effect passivation provided a further decrease by a factor of 3.

  17. Effect of Swim Cap Surface Roughness on Passive Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, great attention has been given to the improvements in swimming performance that can be obtained by wearing "technical swimsuits"; the technological evolution of these materials only marginally involved swim caps production, even if several studies have pointed out the important role of the head (as main impact point with the fluid) on hydrodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on passive drag (Dp) of 3 swim cap models: a smooth silicon helmet cap (usually used during swimming competitions), a silicon helmet cap with "dimples," and a silicon helmet cap with "wrinkles." Experiments were performed on 10 swimmers who were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at 3 speeds (1.5, 1.7, and 1.9 m·s) and in 2 body positions: LA (arms above the swimmer's head) and SA (arms alongside the body). The Dp values obtained in each trial were divided by the square of the corresponding speed to obtain the speed-specific drag (the k coefficient = Dp/v). No differences in k were observed among swim caps in the LA position. No differences in k were observed between the smooth and dimpled helmets also in the SA position; however, the wrinkled swim cap helmet showed a significant larger k (4.4%) in comparison with the model with dimples, when the swimmers kept their arms alongside the body (in the SA position). These data suggest that wearing a wrinkled swim cap helmet can be detrimental to performance at least in this specific position.

  18. GaAs Surface Passivation for Device Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Physics Letters 38, 167 (1981). 10. A Ga203 surface layer with the low band bending may also be pro- duced by heating the initial etched surface to... Physics of MOS Insulators, Edited by G. Lucovsky, S.T. Pantelides, and F.L. Galeener -Pergamon Press, New York, 1980) p. 202. 7. E.A. Kraut, R.W...E. Luscher , W. S. Knodle, and Y. Chai, Electronics 53, (19), 160 (1980). 2. J. P. Hobson and E. V. Kornelsen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 701(1979). 3

  19. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin, E-mail: fyq01@zstu.edu.cn; Fu, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO{sub 2}/shape memory polyurethane (SiO{sub 2}/SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO{sub 2}/SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface.

  20. A charge transport study in diamond, surface passivated by high-k dielectric oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovi, Kiran Kumar, E-mail: KiranKumar.Kovi@angstrom.uu.se; Majdi, Saman; Gabrysch, Markus; Isberg, Jan [Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 21 (Sweden)

    2014-11-17

    The recent progress in the growth of high-quality single-crystalline diamond films has sparked interest in the realization of efficient diamond power electronic devices. However, finding a suitable passivation is essential to improve the reliability and electrical performance of devices. In the current work, high-k dielectric materials such as aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide were deposited by atomic layer deposition on intrinsic diamond as a surface passivation layer. The hole transport properties in the diamond films were evaluated and compared to unpassivated films using the lateral time-of-flight technique. An enhancement of the near surface hole mobility in diamond films of up to 27% is observed when using aluminum oxide passivation.

  1. Polydimethylsiloxane Rods for the Passive Sampling of Pesticides in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Randon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the low cost synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS rods is described, and the performances of this new passive sampling device (in laboratory and in situ are compared to the passive stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE for the monitoring of pesticides from different classes (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in surface waters. The influence of synthesis parameters of PDMS rods (i.e., heating temperature, heating time and relative amount of curing agent were assessed regarding their efficiency for the extraction of the target pesticides through a Hadamard’s experimental design. This allowed the determination of the effect of the three parameters on the sorption of pesticides within four experiments. Thus, specific conditions were selected for the synthesis of the PDMS rods (heating at 80 °C for 2 h with 10% of curing agent. Laboratory experiments led to similar to lower extraction recovery in the PDMS rods in comparison with passive SBSE, depending on the pesticide. The in situ application demonstrated the efficiency of the PDMS rods for the passive sampling of the target pesticides in river water, although lower amounts of pesticides were recovered in comparison with passive SBSE. So, these very low cost PDMS rods could be used as an alternative to passive SBSE for large-scale monitoring campaigns.

  2. The intensity dependence of surface recombination in high concentration solar cells with charge induced passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Nasby, R. D.

    High intensity solar cells which are designed to minimize series resistance and shadowing losses, frequently employ an illuminated surface which is relatively far removed from the collecting junctions. This requires that the surface be well passivated to minimize surface recombination. One technique frequently employed to minimize surface recombination is to incorporate a fixed charge in the passivating oxide. This work shows that at sufficiently high intensities the surface recombination can increase dramatically. This results in a reduction in the high intensity collection efficiency. A comparison of the collection efficiency of interdigitated back contact cells and etched multiple vertical junction cells is given which shows that EMVJ cells are less sensitive to this effect than IBC cells.

  3. Passivation of the surface of rear contact solar cells by porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, O. [Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University, 64 Vladimirskaya, 01033, Kiev (Ukraine) and Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, UMR 5511, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: oleksiy.nichiporuk@insa-lyon.fr; Kaminski, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, UMR 5511, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemiti, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, UMR 5511, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fave, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, UMR 5511, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Litvinenko, S. [Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University, 64 Vladimirskaya, 01033, Kiev (Ukraine); Skryshevsky, V. [Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University, 64 Vladimirskaya, 01033, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-07-26

    In this paper we analyse the passivation of the front surface of p-Si interdigitated rear contacts solar cell (IBC) by a thin porous silicon (PS) layer. Effectively, an efficiency improvement of 87% in relative was observed after porous silicon layer formation on the front surface of the IBC cell. The origin of surface passivation by the PS layer was studied by Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) method. The front surface of rear contacts cell with thin porous silicon layer was scanned by a modulated red laser beam in presence of a permanent light with different wavelengths and intensities. It was shown that without permanent illumination, the photocurrent of the cell with PS layer is very low, even lower than for a cell with unpassivated surface. However with short permanent wavelength illumination a strong increase of photocurrent was observed (8-10 times{exclamation_point}). The light-dependent porous silicon passivation phenomenon is explained by a significant negative charge accumulation at the PS/p-Si interface traps under illumination. This leads to the formation of a hi-low (p{sup +}/p) junction at the front surface of the cell and to the reduction of the front surface recombination rate, like in Front Surface Field Solar Cell.

  4. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  5. Surface passivation of efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells using thermal atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Che-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Jui; Chang, Che-Wei; Huang, Jhih-Jie; Yang, Ming-Jui; Tjahjono, Budi; Huang, Jian-Jia; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2013-10-09

    Efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells passivated by an Al2O3 layer are demonstrated. The broadband antireflection of the nanotextured black silicon solar cells was provided by fabricating vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays on the n(+) emitter. A highly conformal Al2O3 layer was deposited upon the SiNW arrays by the thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) based on the multiple pulses scheme. The nanotextured black silicon wafer covered with the Al2O3 layer exhibited a low total reflectance of ∼1.5% in a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm. The Al2O3 passivation layer also contributes to the suppressed surface recombination, which was explored in terms of the chemical and field-effect passivation effects. An 8% increment of short-circuit current density and 10.3% enhancement of efficiency were achieved due to the ALD Al2O3 surface passivation and forming gas annealing. A high efficiency up to 18.2% was realized in the ALD Al2O3-passivated nanotextured black silicon solar cells.

  6. Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chi, Chun-Yung; Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Chen, Chun-Chung; Theiss, Jesse; Bushmaker, Adam W; Lalumondiere, Stephen; Yeh, Ting-Wei; Povinelli, Michelle L; Zhou, Chongwu; Dapkus, P Daniel; Cronin, Stephen B

    2012-09-12

    We report a systematic study of carrier dynamics in Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-passivated GaAs nanowires. With passivation, the minority carrier diffusion length (L(diff)) increases from 30 to 180 nm, as measured by electron beam induced current (EBIC) mapping, and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime increases from sub-60 ps to 1.3 ns. A 48-fold enhancement in the continuous-wave PL intensity is observed on the same individual nanowire with and without the Al(x)Ga(1-x)As passivation layer, indicating a significant reduction in surface recombination. These results indicate that, in passivated nanowires, the minority carrier lifetime is not limited by twin stacking faults. From the PL lifetime and minority carrier diffusion length, we estimate the surface recombination velocity (SRV) to range from 1.7 × 10(3) to 1.1 × 10(4) cm·s(-1), and the minority carrier mobility μ is estimated to lie in the range from 10.3 to 67.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the passivated nanowires.

  7. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochen; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.; Chi, Dongzhi; Bhatia, Charanjit S.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiOx) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiOx films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiOx films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiOx films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiOx has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiOx in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance of anodic TiO(2) nanotube arrays by surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Qunfang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Haifeng; Cheng, Chuanwei; Zhu, Xufei; Yin, Min; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-08

    One-dimensional anodic titanium oxide nanotube (TONT) arrays provide a direct pathway for charge transport, and thus hold great potential as working electrodes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. However, the prominent surface recombination due to the large amount surface defects hinders the performance improvement. In this work, the surface states of TONTs were passivated by conformal coating of high-quality Al2O3 onto the tubular structures using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The modified TONT films were subsequently employed as anodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The photocurrent (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) recorded under air mass 1.5 global illumination presented 0.8 times enhancement on the electrode with passivation coating. The reduction of surface recombination rate is responsible for the substantially improved performance, which is proposed to have originated from a decreased interface defect density in combination with a field-effect passivation induced by a negative fixed charge in the Al2O3 shells. These results not only provide a physical insight into the passivation effect, but also can be utilized as a guideline to design other energy conversion devices.

  9. Optical near-field lithography on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen

    1996-01-01

    We report on a novel lithography technique for patterning of hydrogen-passivated amorphous silicon surfaces. A reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope with uncoated fiber probes has been used to locally oxidize a thin amorphous silicon layer. Lines of 110 nm in width, induced...

  10. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Baochen, E-mail: liaobaochen@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G.; Bhatia, Charanjit S., E-mail: elebcs@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chi, Dongzhi [A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2014-06-23

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiO{sub x} films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiO{sub x} films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiO{sub x} films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiO{sub x} has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiO{sub x} in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  11. Dynamic stability of passive dynamic walking on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy Li-Shin; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2007-12-01

    Falls that occur during walking are a significant health problem. One of the greatest impediments to solve this problem is that there is no single obviously "correct" way to quantify walking stability. While many people use variability as a proxy for stability, measures of variability do not quantify how the locomotor system responds to perturbations. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in walking surface variability affect changes in both locomotor variability and stability. We modified an irreducibly simple model of walking to apply random perturbations that simulated walking over an irregular surface. Because the model's global basin of attraction remained fixed, increasing the amplitude of the applied perturbations directly increased the risk of falling in the model. We generated ten simulations of 300 consecutive strides of walking at each of six perturbation amplitudes ranging from zero (i.e., a smooth continuous surface) up to the maximum level the model could tolerate without falling over. Orbital stability defines how a system responds to small (i.e., "local") perturbations from one cycle to the next and was quantified by calculating the maximum Floquet multipliers for the model. Local stability defines how a system responds to similar perturbations in real time and was quantified by calculating short-term and long-term local exponential rates of divergence for the model. As perturbation amplitudes increased, no changes were seen in orbital stability (r(2)=2.43%; p=0.280) or long-term local instability (r(2)=1.0%; p=0.441). These measures essentially reflected the fact that the model never actually "fell" during any of our simulations. Conversely, the variability of the walker's kinematics increased exponentially (r(2)>or=99.6%; pwalking stability are related to each other and to risk of falling.

  12. Highly condensed fluorinated methacrylate hybrid material for transparent low-kappa passivation layer in LCD-TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Yeon; Yang, Seung-Cheol; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2010-03-01

    Photocurable and highly condensed fluorinated methacrylate oligosiloxane, with a low dielectric constant (kappa = 2.54), was prepared by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel condensation reaction. The oligosiloxane resin was then spin-coated, photocured, and thermally baked in order to fabricate a fluorinated methacrylate hybrid material (FM hybrimer) thin film. This study investigated the application of this FM hybrimer film as a low-kappa passivation layer in LCD-based thin film transistors (TFT). It was found that a dielectric constant as low as kappa = 2.54 could be obtained, without introducing pores in the dense FM hybrimer films. This study compares FM hybrimer film characteristics with those required for passivation layers in LCD-TFTs, including thermal stability, optical transmittance, hydrophobicity, gap fill, and planarization effects as well as electrical insulation.

  13. Towards the hybrid organic semiconductor fet (hosfet) : electrical and electrochemical characterization of functionalized and unfunctionalized, covalently bound organic monolayers on silicon surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik Jouwert

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1993 the class of covalently bound organic monolayers on oxide free silicon surfaces have found their way to multiple application fields such as passivation layers in solar cells, masking layers in lithographic processing, insulating films in hybrid moleculesilicon electr

  14. Analysis of selected surface characteristics and latent heat storage for passive solar space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.; Leigh, R.

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the value of various technical improvements in the solar collector and thermal storage subsystems of passive solar residential, agricultural, and industrial systems for two regions of the country. The evaluated improvements are: decreased emissivity and increased absorptivity of absorbing surfaces, decreased reflectivity, and decreased emissivity of glazing surface, and the substitution of sensible heat storage media with phase change materials. The value of each improvement is estimated by the additional energy savings resulting from the improvement.

  15. Crowding-induced Cooperativity in DNA Surface Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qun-li; Ren, Chun-lai; Su, Xiao-hang; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    High density DNA brush is not only used to model cellular crowding, but also has a wide application in DNA-functionalized materials. Experiments have shown complicated cooperative hybridization/melting phenomena in these systems, raising the question that how molecular crowding influences DNA hybridization. In this work, a theoretical modeling including all possible inter and intramolecular interactions, as well as molecular details for different species, is proposed. We find that molecular crowding can lead to two distinct cooperative behaviours: negatively cooperative hybridization marked by a broader transition width, and positively cooperative hybridization with a sharper transition, well reconciling the experimental findings. Moreover, a phase transition as a result of positive cooperativity is also found. Our study provides new insights in crowding and compartmentation in cell, and has the potential value in controlling surface morphologies of DNA functionalized nano-particles. PMID:25875056

  16. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  17. Organic and inorganic surface passivations of TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Yang, Changduk; Choi, Won-Youl

    2012-10-01

    Surface passivation of photoelectrodes is widely used to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We use the organic and inorganic materials as a surface-passivating layer of photoelectrodes and introduce the effect of surface passivation on the power conversion efficiency of DSCs. TiO2 nanotube arrays are fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil for photoelectrodes of DSCs. Surface passivating layers are conducted by immersing photoelectrode in various precursor solutions. MgO and WO3 are selected for inorganic passivation. PC61BM is used for organic passivation. In case of inorganic passivation, a basic material (MgO) which has a high isoelectric point (pI >7) shows higher power conversion efficiency of 2.63% by increasing of open circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.74 V than bare sample of 2.55%. But, an acidic material (WO3) shifts Voc to low potential resulting in a worse efficiency of DSCs. In case of organic passivation, PC61BM enhances photocurrents and decreases Voc value compared to bare sample. The power conversion efficiency of PC61BM-coated DSCs is overall improved due to enhanced photocurrents despite of Voc offset to low potential. Back-transfer electron blocking, dye adsorption, TiO2 conduction band shifting, and additional charge generation by surface passivation are discussed.

  18. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  19. The Reduction of Aqueous Metal Species on the Surfaces of Fe(II)-Containing Oxides: The Role of Surface Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of aqueous transition metal species at the surfaces of Fe(II)- containing oxides has important ramifications in predicting the transport behavior in ground water aquifers. Experimental studies using mineral suspensions and electrodes demonstrate that structural Fe(II) heterogeneously reduces aqueous ferric, cupric, vanadate and chromate ions on magnetite and ilmenite surfaces. The rates of metal reduction on natural oxides is strongly dependent on the extent of surface passivation and redox conditions in the weathering environment. Synchrotron studies show that surface oxidation of Fe(II)-containing oxide minerals decreases their capacity for Cr(VI) reduction at hazardous waste disposal sites.

  20. Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2012-01-26

    In recent years germanium has been emerging as a mainstream material that could have important applications in the microelectronics industry. The principle aim of this study is to review investigations of the diffusion of technologically important p- and n-type dopants as well as surface and interface passivation issues in germanium. The diffusion of impurities in germanium is interrelated to the formation of clusters whenever possible, and possibilities for point defect engineering are discussed in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  2. Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroneos, A.; Dimoulas, A. [MBE Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Schwingenschloegl, U. [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-02

    In recent years germanium has been emerging as a mainstream material that could have important applications in the microelectronics industry. The principle aim of this study is to review investigations of the diffusion of technologically important p- and n-type dopants as well as surface and interface passivation issues in germanium. The diffusion of impurities in germanium is interrelated to the formation of clusters whenever possible, and possibilities for point defect engineering are discussed in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Al2O3 Passivation on c-si Surfaces for Low Temperature Solar Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saynova, D.S.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Burgers, A.R.; Mewe, A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Cianci, E.; Seguini, G.; Perego, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2,I-20864 Agrate Brianza MB (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Functional passivation of high resistivity p-type c-Si wafer surfaces was achieved using 10 nm Al2O3 layers and low temperatures for both the thermal ALD process and post-deposition anneal. Effective lifetime values higher than 1 ms were measured at excess carrier density {delta}n=1015 cm{sup -3}. This result was reached in combination with temperatures of 100C and 200C for the Al2O3 layer deposition and anneal, respectively. The Al2O3/c-Si interface was characterized using conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. In particular, significantly reduced interface density of the electrically active defects Dit {approx} 2x1010 eV{sup -1}cm{sup -2} was detected, which enabled excellent chemical passivation. The measured density of fixed charges at the interface, Qf, after anneal were in the range +1x10{sup 12} to -1x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} indicating that both inversion and accumulation conditions result in relevant field-effect passivation using Al2O3 layers and low temperature processes. Numerical simulations on representative test structures show that the uniform Qf effect can be understood in terms of a surface damage region (SDR) present near the interface in combination with asymmetry in the lifetime of holes and electrons in the SDR. The combination of low processing temperatures, thin layers and good passivation properties facilitate a technology for future low temperature solar cell applications.

  4. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  5. Patterned hybrid nanohole array surfaces for cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Nathan P; Lou, Yi; Muth, John F; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-06

    We report the fabrication of hybrid nanohole array surfaces to study the role of the surface nanoevironment on cell adhesion and cell migration. We use polystyrene beads and reactive ion etching to control the size and the spacing between nanoholes on a tailored self-assembled monolayer inert gold surface. The arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and brightfield microscopy. For cell adhesion studies, cells were seeded to these substrates to study the effect of ligand spacing on cell spreading, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion structure and size. Finally, comparative cell migration rates were examined on the various nanohole array surfaces using time-lapse microscopy.

  6. Passivation of c-Si surfaces by sub-nm amorphous silicon capped with silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yimao, E-mail: yimao.wan@anu.edu.au; Yan, Di; Bullock, James; Zhang, Xinyu; Cuevas, Andres [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

    2015-12-07

    A sub-nm hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film capped with silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) is shown to provide a high level passivation to crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. When passivated by a 0.8 nm a-Si:H/75 nm SiN{sub x} stack, recombination current density J{sub 0} values of 9, 11, 47, and 87 fA/cm{sup 2} are obtained on 10 Ω·cm n-type, 0.8 Ω·cm p-type, 160 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused, and 120 Ω/sq boron-diffused silicon surfaces, respectively. The J{sub 0} on n-type 10 Ω·cm wafers is further reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 fA/cm{sup 2} when the a-Si:H film thickness exceeds 2.5 nm. The passivation by the sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thermally stable at 400 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 min on all four c-Si surfaces. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a reduction in interface defect density and film charge density with an increase in a-Si:H thickness. The nearly transparent sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thus demonstrated to be a promising surface passivation and antireflection coating suitable for all types of surfaces encountered in high efficiency c-Si solar cells.

  7. Application and comparison of band gap narrowing models for passivated phosphorus doped silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Achim; Greulich, Johannes; Haug, Halvard; Wolf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the recently proposed band-gap narrowing model by Yan and Cuevas [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 044508 (2013)] is evaluated by simulations of the recombination pre-factor J0 of highly phosphorus doped, passivated crystalline silicon surfaces, which are particularly relevant for solar cell applications. The results were fitted to experimental J0 data measured on a large range of samples exhibiting different dopant profiles and passivation coatings, both for planar and textured surfaces. For each sample, the surface recombination velocity parameter Sp was extracted by fitting the simulation results to the experimental data. We show that the Yan and Cuevas' model developed for Fermi-Dirac statistics leads to a smooth and monotonically increasing curve for Sp as a function of the surface dopant concentration Nsurf, for both investigated passivation layers. We provide a parameterization for this relation and compare the findings with those obtained with the widely used model by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684 (1998)]. On the other hand, we show that the apparent band gap narrowing of Yan and Cuevas developed for use with Boltzmann statistics cannot be used to describe the experimental data, requiring unphysical negative Sp values for high Nsurf.

  8. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman

    2017-02-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  9. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui-Chun; Priante, Davide; Retamal, Jose Ramon Duran; Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ajia, Idirs; Mitra, Somak; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-03-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of -31 mA/cm(2) at -0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  10. Integer quantum Hall effect on a six-valley hydrogen-passivated silicon (111) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K; McFarland, R N; Kane, B E

    2007-07-01

    We report magnetotransport studies of a two-dimensional electron system formed in an inversion layer at the interface between a hydrogen-passivated Si(111) surface and vacuum. Measurements in the integer quantum Hall regime demonstrate that the expected sixfold valley degeneracy for these surfaces is broken, resulting in an unequal occupation of the six valleys and anisotropy in the resistance. We hypothesize the misorientation of Si surface breaks the valley states into three unequally spaced pairs, but the observation of odd filling factors is difficult to reconcile with noninteracting electron theory.

  11. Passivation layer effect on surface integrity induced by Cu-CMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wei-En [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Chung Hsing Rd., Sec.4 Chu Tung, Hsin Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Chang A., E-mail: artchen@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec.4 Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yan-De [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec.4 Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yong-Qing [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Chung Hsing Rd., Sec.4 Chu Tung, Hsin Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yao-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec.4 Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-31

    To achieve efficient Cu-Chemical-Mechanical Polishing planarization at miniaturized device dimensions, there is a need for a better understanding of the surface integrity induced by the process. Surface quality and stresses are the two selected indices in this article to evaluate the Cu-CMP process induced surface integrity. The thickness of the passivation layer and the penetration depth of abrasives are considered as the main effects for the generations of surface qualities and residual stress. Experimental validation on copper films on silicon wafer was performed by CMP with different pads and slurries to generate varied residual stresses and surface qualities. Depth of scratches and surface roughness were measured by the atomic force microscope. The stress measurements of the thin films were performed by a Grazing Incident X-ray diffraction instrument with its principles based upon modified sin{sup 2}{Psi} method. Accordingly, the surface roughness and stress were related to the thickness of the passivation layer and the CMP process conditions. When the penetration depth is larger than the passivation layer thickness, the roughness values are mainly decided by the selection of pads and the resultant penetration depth. In addition, the residual stress profiles are dependent on the CMP process conditions which include the slurries and pad parameters. The stress profile obtained for the slurry SDK with soft pad Politex composed smallest maximum tensile stress below the surface and a steady transition of stress profile compared to the stress profile obtained at the initial condition. At the condition for the same slurry SDK, but with a hard pad of IC1000, the CMP process induced larger maximum stress and sharper profile transition.

  12. Crystalline silicon surface passivation by thermal ALD deposited Al doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath Panigrahi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of good quality silicon surface passivation using thermal ALD deposited Al doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films is demonstrated. AZO films are prepared by introducing aluminium precursor in between zinc and oxygen precursors during the deposition. The formation of AZO is confirmed by ellipsometry, XRD and Hall measurements. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff greater than 1.5ms at intermediate bulk injection levels is realized for symmetrically passivated p-type silicon surfaces under optimised annealing conditions of temperature and time in hydrogen ambient. The best results are realised at 450°C annealing for >15min. Such a layer may lead to implied open circuit voltage gain of 80mV.

  13. Fabrication and surface passivation of porous 6H-SiC by atomic layer deposited films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    photoluminescence was observed and the etching process was optimized in terms of etching time and thickness. Enormous enhancement as well as redshift and broadening of photoluminescence spectra were observed after the passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and TiO2 films. No obvious luminescence was observed...... above the 6H-SiC crystal band gap, which suggests that the strong photoluminescence is ascribed to surface state produced during the anodic etching....

  14. Multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves based on cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F.; Xia, J.; Xu, Z.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional active seismic survey can no longer be properly applied in highly populated urban areas due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. Passive seismic methods, however, have gained much more attention from the engineering geophysics community because of their environmental friendly and deeper investigation depth. Due to extracting signal from noise has never been as comfortable as that in active seismic survey, how to make it more efficiently and accurately has been emphasized. We propose a multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves (MAPW) based on long noise sequences cross-correlations to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a relative low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz) in urban areas. We utilize seismic interferometry to produce common virtual source gathers from one-hour-long noise records and do dispersion measurements by using the classic passive multi-channel analysis of surface waves (PMASW). We used synthetic tests to demonstrate the advantages of MAPW for various noise distributions. Results show that our method has the superiority of maximizing the analysis accuracy. Finally, we used two field data applications to demonstrate the advantages of our MAPW over the classic PMASW on isolating azimuth of the predominant noise sources and the effectivity of combined survey of active multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and MAPW. We suggest, for the field operation using MAPW, that a parallel receiver line which is close to a main road or river, if any, with one or two hours noise observation will be an effective means for an unbiased dispersion image. Keywords: passive seismic method, MAPW, MASW, cross-correlation, directional noise source, spatial-aliasing effects, inversion

  15. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  16. High-performance silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells through surface passivation and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Peng, Kui-Qing; Pan, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xue; Yang, Yang; Li, Li; Meng, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-10-10

    Nanowire solar cells: Pt nanoparticle (PtNP) decorated C/Si core/shell nanowire photoelectrochemical solar cells show high conversion efficiency of 10.86 % and excellent stability in aggressive electrolytes under 1-sun AM 1.5 G illumination. Superior device performance is achieved by improved surface passivation of the nanowires by carbon coating and enhanced interfacial charge transfer by PtNPs.

  17. Si surface passivation by Al2O3 thin films deposited using a low thermal budget atomic layer deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguini, G.; Cianci, E.; Wiemer, C.; Perego, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza MB (Italy); Saynova, D.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-05

    High-quality surface passivation of crystalline Si is achieved using 10 nm thick Al2O3 films fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition at 100C. After a 5 min post deposition annealing at 200C, the effective carrier lifetime is 1 ms, indicating a functional level of surface passivation. The interplay between the chemical and the field effect passivation is investigated monitoring the density of interface traps and the amount of fixed charges with conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The physical mechanisms underlying the surface passivation are described. The combination of low processing temperatures, thin layers, and good passivation properties facilitate a technology for low-temperature solar cells.

  18. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of deposition temperature of thermal ALD deposited Al2O3 films on silicon surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Neha; Gope, Jhuma; Vandana, Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Singh, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of deposition temperature (Tdep) and subsequent annealing time (tanl) of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films on silicon surface passivation (in terms of surface recombination velocity, SRV) is investigated. The pristine samples (as-deposited) show presence of positive fixed charges, QF. The interface defect density (Dit) decreases with increase in Tdep which further decreases with tanl up to 100s. An effective surface passivation (SRV<8 cm/s) is realized for Tdep ≥ 200 °C. The present investigation suggests that low thermal budget processing provides the same quality of passivation as realized by high thermal budget process (tanl between 10 to 30 min).

  20. The binding of phosphonic acids at aluminium oxide surfaces and correlation with passivation of aluminium flake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel J; Camp, Philip J; Henderson, David K; Lovatt, Paul A; Nation, David A; Richards, Stuart; Tasker, Peter A

    2007-04-07

    Measurements of adsorption isotherms of a series of thirteen mono- and di-phosphonic acids have shown that these bind strongly to the surface of high surface area aluminium trihydroxide. The incorporation of such phosphonates into a suspension of aluminium flake in an aqueous medium, modelling the continuous phase of a water-based paint, greatly suppresses the evolution of hydrogen. Whilst strong binding of the phosphonate to aluminium oxides is an essential criterion for good passivation, other factors such as the hydrophobicity of the ligand are also important in suppressing hydrogen-evolution.

  1. Gold-Organic Hybrids: On-Surface Synthesis and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-12-01

    Gold-organic hybrids can be prepared on gold substrates by on-surface dehalogenation of molecular precursors with multiple halogen substituents. Various contact geometries of covalent arylAu bonds are achieved by changing the halogen substituents in the bay or peri regions. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) investigations allow a better understanding of the structure/property relationships in various gold-aryl contacts. Recent progress on the synthesis, large-scale alignment, and STS measurement of gold-organic hybrids is described, ending with an emphasis on potential future applications, e.g., as precursors (intermediates) for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on insulating surfaces, and as a model system to investigate the role of covalent arylAu bonds in electron transport through gold-GNR contacts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c......-Si). The TiO2 films were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at temperatures in the range of 80-300  ̊C using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as Ti precursor and water as the oxidant. The influence of TiO2 thickness (5, 10, 20 nm), presence of additional tunneling interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3...

  3. Metastability of a-SiOx:H thin films for c-Si surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenelli, L.; Martini, L.; Imbimbo, L.; Asquini, R.; Menchini, F.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M.

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of a-SiOx:H films obtained by PECVD in heterojunction solar cells is a key to further increase their efficiency, because of its transparency in the UV with respect to the commonly used a-Si:H. At the same time this layer must guarantee high surface passivation of the c-Si to be suitable in high efficiency solar cell manufacturing. On the other hand the application of amorphous materials like a-Si:H and SiNx on the cell frontside expose them to the mostly energetic part of the sun spectrum, leading to a metastability of their passivation properties. Moreover as for amorphous silicon, thermal annealing procedures are considered as valuable steps to enhance and stabilize thin film properties, when performed at opportune temperature. In this work we explored the reliability of a-SiOx:H thin film layers surface passivation on c-Si substrates under UV exposition, in combination with thermal annealing steps. Both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates were considered. To understand the effect of UV light soaking we monitored the minority carriers lifetime and Sisbnd H and Sisbnd O bonding, by FTIR spectra, after different exposure times to light coming from a deuterium lamp, filtered to UV-A region, and focused on the sample to obtain a power density of 50 μW/cm2. We found a certain lifetime decrease after UV light soaking in both p- and n-type c-Si passivated wafers according to a a-SiOx:H/c-Si/a-SiOx:H structure. The role of a thermal annealing, which usually enhances the as-deposited SiOx passivation properties, was furthermore considered. In particular we monitored the UV light soaking effect on c-Si wafers after a-SiOx:H coating by PECVD and after a thermal annealing treatment at 300 °C for 30 min, having selected these conditions on the basis of the study of the effect due to different temperatures and durations. We correlated the lifetime evolution and the metastability effect of thermal annealing to the a-SiOx:H/c-Si interface considering the evolution

  4. Metal-dielectric hybrid surfaces as integrated optoelectronic interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, Vijay K.; Hymel, Thomas M.; Lai, Ruby A.; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-03

    An optoelectronic device has a hybrid metal-dielectric optoelectronic interface including an array of nanoscale dielectric resonant elements (e.g., nanopillars), and a metal film disposed between the dielectric resonant elements and below a top surface of the resonant elements such that the dielectric resonant elements protrude through the metal film. The device may also include an anti-reflection coating. The device may further include a metal film layer on each of the dielectric resonant elements.

  5. Passive temperature compensation in hybrid magnets with application to the Fermilab stacker and recycler ring dipole design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Marks, S.; Loper, C.; Halbach, K.

    1995-06-01

    Design theory of hybrid (permanent magnet plus iron) accelerator magnets with application to the proposed permanent magnet recycler and stacker rings at the Fermi National Laboratory is presented. Field stability in such devices requires that changes in the strength of the permanent magnet material with temperature be compensated. Field tuning techniques, including those employing variable capacitance between energized pole and magnet yoke and those employing variable energization of magnet pole pieces, are described. Mechanical configurations capable of achieving temperature compensation passively, including use of expanding liquids/gases and bimetallic springs are outlined. Active configurations, relying on a actuator, in addition to temperature compensation, have the additional benefit of enabling magnet tuning about a nominal operating field level.

  6. Analysis of Wetting Characteristics on Microstructured Hydrophobic Surfaces for the Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the heat transfer surface in the passive containment cooling system, the anticorrosion coating (AC of steel containment vessel (CV must meet the requirements on heat transfer performance. One of the wall surface ACs with simple structure, high mechanical strength, and well hydrophobic characteristics, which is conductive to form dropwise condensation, is significant for the heat removal of the CV. In this paper, the grooved structures on silicon wafers by lithographic methods are systematically prepared to investigate the effects of microstructures on the hydrophobic property of the surfaces. The results show that the hydrophobicity is dramatically improved in comparison with the conventional Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter model. In addition, the experimental results are successfully explained by the interface state effect. As a consequence, it is indicated that favorable hydrophobicity can be obtained even if the surface is with lower roughness and without any chemical modifications, which provides feasible solutions for improving the heat transfer performance of CV.

  7. A three-degree-of-freedom hybrid vibration isolation system using adaptive proportional control supported by passive weight support mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chu, Chih-Liang

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a three-degree-of-freedom hybrid vibration isolation system integrated with an active sky-hook damper and a passive weight support mechanism for highly sensitive measurement equipment, e.g. atomic force microscopes, suffering from building vibration. Active sky-hook damper applies proportional controller incorporated with an adaptive filter to reduce the resonance of the passive weight support mechanism at nature frequency. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. The adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error between the measuring input signal and the absolute vibration velocity. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the system could effectively reduce transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies both in vertical and horizontal directions.

  8. Plasma synthesis and liquid-phase surface passivation of brightly luminescent Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangolini, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jurbergs, D. [InnovaLight, Inc., 3303 Octavius Dr., Suite 104, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Rogojina, E. [InnovaLight, Inc., 3303 Octavius Dr., Suite 104, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kortshagen, U. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: uk@me.umn.edu

    2006-12-15

    While silicon's optical properties are improved at the nanoscale, they also become highly sensitive to the properties of the surfaces and interfaces of silicon nanostructures. For instance, while reported quantum yields for photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots covered by a native oxide are often in the few percent range, quantum yields as high as 30% have been found in quantum dots whose surfaces were passivated by covalently bonded organic molecules. In this paper, we describe an approach that is based on the gas phase synthesis of silicon quantum dots in a nonthermal plasma, and the subsequent organic surface passivation in the liquid phase. Nanocrystals are formed within a few milliseconds with a high mass yield in a nonthermal plasma. Various organic ligands such as octadecene, dodecence, and styrene are grafted onto the nanocrystal surfaces in a reaction known as hydrosilylation. Materials are characterized through transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence measurements. The particle size distributions are found to be relatively monodisperse and are well controllable through the plasma process parameters. Photoluminescence quantum yields as high as 60-70% have been achieved for particles luminescing in the red range of the visible spectrum.

  9. Surface passivation effects on the electronic and optical properties of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Masoud Bezi

    2015-01-01

    Using time-dependent density functional theory the optical absorption spectrum of SiC nanocrystals was studied with changes in their surface structures as they are passivated with some functional groups such as amine (-NH2), amide (-CONH2), hydroxyl (-OH), carboxylic acid (-CO2H) and thiol (-SH) groups. The variations of some quantities such as formation energy, optical gap, single particle energy gap and lowest exciton binding energy of SiC nanocrystals are discussed with changes in their surface structure. Results indicate that in all cases the silicon dangling bonds on the surface of SiC nanocrystals are favorable for constructing stable structures with attached functional groups as in some cases their stability is more than pure hydrogenated SiC nanocrystal as an ideal structure. Also the functional groups attached to the surface of SiC nanocrystals change the optical properties of the SiC nanocrystals as the changes are remarkable for amide and thiol passivated nanocrystals.

  10. Surface passivation effects on the electronic and optical properties of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javan, Masoud Bezi, E-mail: javan.masood@gmail.com

    2015-01-01

    Using time-dependent density functional theory the optical absorption spectrum of SiC nanocrystals was studied with changes in their surface structures as they are passivated with some functional groups such as amine (–NH{sub 2}), amide (–CONH{sub 2}), hydroxyl (–OH), carboxylic acid (–CO{sub 2}H) and thiol (–SH) groups. The variations of some quantities such as formation energy, optical gap, single particle energy gap and lowest exciton binding energy of SiC nanocrystals are discussed with changes in their surface structure. Results indicate that in all cases the silicon dangling bonds on the surface of SiC nanocrystals are favorable for constructing stable structures with attached functional groups as in some cases their stability is more than pure hydrogenated SiC nanocrystal as an ideal structure. Also the functional groups attached to the surface of SiC nanocrystals change the optical properties of the SiC nanocrystals as the changes are remarkable for amide and thiol passivated nanocrystals.

  11. Tuning luminescent properties of CdSe nanoclusters by phosphine surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Iryna; Anton, Halina; Dmitruk, Igor; Mely, Yves

    2016-12-01

    Appropriate surface ligands are required for tuning the physicochemical and photophysical properties of nanoclusters (NCs). These surface ligands are especially critical for passivating the small (CdSe)33,34 NCs where the majority of atoms are at the NC surface. In this study, triphenylphosphine (TPP), trioctylphosphine (TOP) and tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine (TPFP) have been tested as capping agents for alkylamine-coated CdSe NCs. TPP and TOP compounds are found to increase the quantum yield of photoluminescence (PL) from 0.15% to 0.6% and 0.53%, respectively, and to preserve this increased PL with time, probably by preventing charge leakage as a result of their binding to Se atoms. Since no dramatic change in the shape of NCs’ PL spectrum occurs after surface treatment, both the exciton band and the low-energy broad band in magic NCs are thought to describe the intrinsic luminescence properties of the NCs. As a result, the PL increase due to Se passivation is thought to be mainly caused by a decrease in the efficiency of the NC nonradiative pathways.

  12. Mapping surface soil moisture using an aircraft-based passive microwave instrument: algorithm and example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Le Vine, David E.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave remote sensing at L-band (21 cm wavelength) can provide a direct measurement of the surface soil moisture for a range of cover conditions and within reasonable error bounds. Surface soil moisture observations are rare and, therefore, the use of these data in hydrology and other disciplines has not been fully explored or developed. Without satellite-based observing systems, the only way to collect these data in large-scale studies is with an aircraft platform. Recently, aircraft systems such as the push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) and the electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) have been developed to facilitate such investigations. In addition, field experiments have attempted to collect the passive microwave data as part of an integrated set of hydrologic data. One of the most ambitious of these investigations was the Washita'92 experiment. Preliminary analysis of these data has shown that the microwave observations are indicative of deterministic spatial and temporal variations in the surface soil moisture. Users of these data should be aware of a number of issues related to using aircraft-based systems and practical approaches to applying soil moisture estimation algorithms to large data sets. This paper outlines the process of mapping surface soil moisture from an aircraft-based passive microwave radiometer system for the Washita'92 experiment.

  13. Morphotectonic evolution of passive margins undergoing active surface processes: large-scale experiments using numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Romain; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Extension of the continental lithosphere can lead to the formation of a wide range of rifted margins styles with contrasting tectonic and geomorphological characteristics. It is now understood that many of these characteristics depend on the manner extension is distributed depending on (among others factors) rheology, structural inheritance, thermal structure and surface processes. The relative importance and the possible interactions of these controlling factors is still largely unknown. Here we investigate the feedbacks between tectonics and the transfers of material at the surface resulting from erosion, transport, and sedimentation. We use large-scale (1200 x 600 km) and high-resolution (~1km) numerical experiments coupling a 2D upper-mantle-scale thermo-mechanical model with a plan-form 2D surface processes model (SPM). We test the sensitivity of the coupled models to varying crust-lithosphere rheology and erosional efficiency ranging from no-erosion to very efficient erosion. We discuss how fast, when and how the topography of the continents evolves and how it can be compared to actual passive margins escarpment morphologies. We show that although tectonics is the main factor controlling the rift geometry, transfers of masses at the surface affect the timing of faulting and the initiation of sea-floor spreading. We discuss how such models may help to understand the evolution of high-elevated passive margins around the world.

  14. As-grown graphene/copper nanoparticles hybrid nanostructures for enhanced intensity and stability of surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Fei; Dong, Feng-Xi; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Wang, Lei; Bi, Yan-Gang; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Yue-Feng; Feng, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-11-01

    The transfer-free fabrication of the high quality graphene on the metallic nanostructures, which is highly desirable for device applications, remains a challenge. Here, we develop the transfer-free method by direct chemical vapor deposition of the graphene layers on copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) to realize the hybrid nanostructures. The graphene as-grown on the Cu NPs permits full electric contact and strong interactions, which results in a strong localization of the field at the graphene/copper interface. An enhanced intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) supported by the hybrid nanostructures can be obtained, which induces a much enhanced fluorescent intensity from the dye coated hybrid nanostructures. Moreover, the graphene sheets covering completely and uniformly on the Cu NPs act as a passivation layer to protect the underlying metal surface from air oxidation. As a result, the stability of the LSPRs for the hybrid nanostructures is much enhanced compared to that of the bare Cu NPs. The transfer-free hybrid nanostructures with enhanced intensity and stability of the LSPRs will enable their much broader applications in photonics and optoelectronics.

  15. Improving the performance of amorphous and crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells by monitoring surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettauf, J.W.A.; Van der Werf, C.H.M.; Kielen, I.M.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics, Physics of Devices, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The influence of thermal annealing on the crystalline silicon surface passivating properties of selected amorphous silicon containing layer stacks (including intrinsic and doped films), as well as the correlation with silicon heterojunction solar cell performance has been investigated. All samples have been isochronally annealed for 1 h in an N{sub 2} ambient at temperatures between 150C and 300C in incremental steps of 15C. For intrinsic films and intrinsic/n-type stacks, an improvement in passivation quality is observed up to 255C and 270C, respectively, and a deterioration at higher temperatures. For intrinsic/n-type a-Si:H layer stacks, a maximum minority carrier lifetime of 13.3 ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} has been measured. In contrast, for intrinsic/p-type a-Si:H layer stacks, a deterioration in passivation is observed upon annealing over the whole temperature range. Comparing the lifetime values and trends for the different layer stacks to the performance of the corresponding cells, it is inferred that the intrinsic/p-layer stack is limiting device performance. Furthermore, thermal annealing of p-type layers should be avoided entirely. We therefore propose an adapted processing sequence, leading to a substantial improvement in efficiency to 16.7%, well above the efficiency of 15.8% obtained with the 'standard' processing sequence.

  16. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  17. Passivation of silicon surfaces by heat treatment in liquid water at 110 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Tomohisa

    2015-10-01

    We report the effective passivation of silicon surfaces by heating single-crystalline silicon substrates in liquid water at 110 °C for 1 h. High photo-induced effective minority carrier lifetimes τeff were obtained ranging from 8.3 × 10-4 to 3.1 × 10-3 s and from 1.2 × 10-4 to 6.0 × 10-4 s for the n- and p-type samples, respectively, under 635 nm light illumination, while the τeff values of the initial bare samples were lower than 1.2 × 10-5 s. The heat treatment in liquid water at 110 °C for 1 h resulted in low surface recombination velocities ranging from 7 to 34 cm/s and from 49 to 250 cm/s for the n- and p-type samples, respectively. The photo-conductivity of the n-type sample was increased from 3.8 × 10-3 (initial) to 1.4 × 10-1 S/cm by the present heat treatment under air-mass (AM) 1.5 light illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The thickness of the passivation layer was estimated to be only approximately 0.7 nm. Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type solar cells were demonstrated with Al and Au metal formation on the passivated surface. Rectified current voltage and solar cell characteristics were observed. The open circuit voltages were obtained to be 0.52 and 0.49 V under AM 1.5 light illumination at 100 mW/cm2 for the n- and p-type samples, respectively.

  18. Chemcatcher and DGT passive sampling devices for regulatory monitoring of trace metals in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; Knutsson, Jesper; Guigues, Nathalie; Mills, Graham A; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Greenwood, Richard

    2008-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate whether the performance of passive sampling devices in measuring time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations supports their application in regulatory monitoring of trace metals in surface waters, such as for the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD). The ability of the Chemcatcher and the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) device sampler to provide comparable TWA concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was tested through consecutive and overlapping deployments (7-28 days) in the River Meuse (The Netherlands). In order to evaluate the consistency of these TWA labile metal concentrations, these were assessed against total and filtered concentrations measured at relatively high frequencies by two teams using standard monitoring procedures, and metal species predicted by equilibrium speciation modeling using Visual MINTEQ. For Cd and Zn, the concentrations obtained with filtered water samples and the passive sampling devices were generally similar. The samplers consistently underestimated filtered concentrations of Cu and Ni, in agreement with their respective predicted speciation. For Pb, a small labile fraction was mainly responsible for low sampler accumulation and hence high measurement uncertainty. While only the high frequency of spot sampling procedures enabled the observation of higher Cd concentrations during the first 14 days, consecutive DGT deployments were able to detect it and provide a reasonable estimate of ambient concentrations. The range of concentrations measured by spot and passive sampling, for exposures up to 28 days, demonstrated that both modes of monitoring were equally reliable. Passive sampling provides information that cannot be obtained by a realistic spot sampling frequency and this may impact on the ability to detect trends and assess monitoring data against environmental quality standards when concentrations fluctuate.

  19. A Bragg-Mirror-Based Semiconductor Saturable Absorption Mirror at 800 nm with Low Temperature and Surface State Hybrid Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-Gang; MA Xiao-Yu; WANG Yi-Shan; CHEN Guo-Fu; ZHAO Wei; ZHANG Zhi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel 800-nm Bragg-mirror-based semiconductor saturable absorption mirror with low temperature and surface state hybrid absorber, with which we can realize the passive soliton mode locking of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by 532-nm green laser which produces pulses as short as 37fs. The reflection bandwidth of the mirror is 30nm and the pulse frequency is 107MHz. The average output power is 1.1 W at the pump power of 7.6W.

  20. Effects of surface passivation by lithium on the mechanical and electronic properties of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Pérez, L. A.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we present a density functional theory study of the mechanical and electronic properties of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown along the [111] crystallographic direction with a diamond structure and surface passivated with hydrogen (H) and lithium (Li) atoms. The study is performed within the local density approximation by applying the supercell method. The results indicate that the energy gap is a function of the Li concentration and the nanowire diameter. Furthermore, the Young's modulus (Y) increases as the nanowire diameter increases, consistent with experimental reports. The increase in the Li concentration at the surface leads to a larger Y value compared to the Y value of the completely H-passivated SiNWs, except for the thinner nanowires. Moreover, the structure of the latter nanowires experiences important changes when the Li concentration increases up to the maximum Li atoms per cell. These results demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously control the energy gap and the Young's modulus by tuning the Li concentration on the surface of the SiNWs and could help to understand the structural changes that the silicon nanowire arrays experience during the lithiation process in Li batteries.

  1. A new passive seismic method based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Zongbo; Pan, Yudi

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a new passive seismic method (PSM) based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). We utilize seismic interferometry to sort common virtual source gathers (CVSGs) from ambient noise and analyze obtained CVSGs to construct 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs) map using the MASW. Standard ambient noise processing procedures were applied to the computation of cross-correlations. To enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the empirical Green's functions, a new weighted stacking method was implemented. In addition, we proposed a bidirectional shot mode based on the virtual source method to sort CVSGs repeatedly. The PSM was applied to two field data examples. For the test along Han River levee, the results of PSM were compared with the improved roadside passive MASW and spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC). For test in the Western Junggar Basin, PSM was applied to a 70 km long linear survey array with a prominent directional urban noise source and a 60 km-long Vs profile with 1.5 km in depth was mapped. Further, a comparison about the dispersion measurements was made between PSM and frequency-time analysis (FTAN) technique to assess the accuracy of PSM. These examples and comparisons demonstrated that this new method is efficient, flexible, and capable to study near-surface velocity structures based on seismic ambient noise.

  2. Interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cell and the effect of front surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meijun; Bowden, Stuart; Das, Ujjwal; Birkmire, Robert

    2007-08-01

    This letter reports interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells which combine the performance benefits of both back contact and heterojunction technologies while reducing their limitations. Low temperature (interdigitated heteroemitter and contacts in the rear preserves substrate lifetime while minimizes optical losses in the front. The IBC-SHJ structure is ideal for diagnosing surface passivation quality, which is analyzed and measured by internal quantum efficiency and minority carrier lifetime measurements. Initial cells have independently confirmed efficiency of 11.8% under AM1.5 illumination. Simulations indicate efficiencies greater than 20% after optimization.

  3. 3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  4. 3D Numerical Simulation Analysis of Passive Drag near Free Surface in Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹杰民; 李天赠; 陈学彬; 李毓湘; 韦永康

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k-εturbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer’s arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  5. Temporal observations of surface soil moisture using a passive microwave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of 10 aircraft flights was conducted over agricultural fields to evaluate relationships between observed surface soil moisture and soil moisture predicted using passive microwave sensor observations. An a priori approach was used to predict values of surface soil moisture for three types of fields: tilled corn, no-till corn with soybean stubble, and idle fields with corn stubble. Acceptable predictions were obtained for the tilled corn fields, while poor results were obtained for the others. The source of error is suspected to be the density and orientation of the surface stubble layer; however, further research is needed to verify this explanation. Temporal comparisons between observed, microwave predicted, and soil water-simulated moisture values showed similar patterns for tilled well-drained fields. Divergences between the observed and simulated measurements were apparent on poorly drained fields. This result may be of value in locating and mapping hydrologic contributing areas.

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  7. Thin Film Silicon Nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Hong, Lei; Tan, Yew Heng; Tan, Chuan Seng; Rusli

    2016-06-01

    SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are fabricated on 10.6-μm-thick crystalline Si thin films. Cells with Si nanowires (SiNWs) of different lengths fabricated using the metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) technique have been investigated. A surface treatment process using oxygen plasma has been applied to improve the surface quality of the SiNWs, and the optimized cell with 0.7-μm-long SiNWs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.83 %. The surface treatment process is found to remove surface defects and passivate the SiNWs and substantially improve the average open circuit voltage from 0.461 to 0.562 V for the optimized cell. The light harvesting capability of the SiNWs has also been investigated theoretically using optical simulation. It is found that the inherent randomness of the MCEE SiNWs, in terms of their diameter and spacing, accounts for the excellent light harvesting capability. In comparison, periodic SiNWs of comparable dimensions have been shown to exhibit much poorer trapping and absorption of light.

  8. On the c-Si surface passivation mechanism by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoex, B.; Gielis, J. J. H.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Al2O3 is a versatile high-κ dielectric that has excellent surface passivation properties on crystalline Si (c-Si), which are of vital importance for devices such as light emitting diodes and high-efficiency solar cells. We demonstrate both experimentally and by simulations that the surface passivation can be related to a satisfactory low interface defect density in combination with a strong field-effect passivation induced by a negative fixed charge density Qf of up to 1013 cm-2 present in the Al2O3 film at the interface with the underlying Si substrate. The negative polarity of Qf in Al2O3 is especially beneficial for the passivation of p-type c-Si as the bulk minority carriers are shielded from the c-Si surface. As the level of field-effect passivation is shown to scale with Qf2, the high Qf in Al2O3 tolerates a higher interface defect density on c-Si compared to alternative surface passivation schemes.

  9. Heat Removal Performance of Hybrid Control Rod for Passive In-Core Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The two-phase closed heat transfer device can be divided by thermosyphon heat pipe and capillary wicked heat pipe which uses gravitational force or capillary pumping pressure as a driving force of the convection of working fluid. If there is a temperature difference between reactor core and ultimate heat sink, the decay heat removal and reactor shutdown is possible at any accident conditions without external power sources. To apply the hybrid control rod to the commercial nuclear power plants, its modelling about various parameters is the most important work. Also, its unique geometry is coexistence of neutron absorber material and working fluid in a cladding material having annular vapor path. Although thermosyphon heat pipe (THP) or wicked heat pipe (WHP) shows high heat transfer coefficients for limited space, the maximum heat removal capacity is restricted by several phenomena due to their unique heat transfer mechanism. Validation of the existing correlations on the annular vapor path thermosyphon (ATHP) which has different wetted perimeter and heated diameter must be conducted. The effect of inner structure, and fill ratio of the working fluid on the thermal performance of heat pipe has not been investigated. As a first step of the development of hybrid heat pipe, the ATHP which contains neutron absorber in the concentric thermosyphon (CTHP) was prepared and the thermal performance of the annular thermosyphon was experimentally studied. The heat transfer characteristics and flooding limit of the annular vapor path thermosyphon was studied experimentally to model the performance of hybrid control rod. The following results were obtained: (1) The annular vapor path thermosyphon showed better evaporation heat transfer due to the enhanced convection between adiabatic and condenser section. (2) Effect of fill ratio on the heat transfer characteristics was negligible. (3) Existing correlations about flooding limit of thermosyphon could not reflect the annular vapor

  10. Passive monitoring for near surface void detection using traffic as a seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J.; Nazari, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this poster we present preliminary results based on our several field experiments in which we study seismic detection of voids using a passive array of surface geophones. The source of seismic excitation is vehicle traffic on nearby roads, which we model as a continuous line source of seismic energy. Our passive seismic technique is based on cross-correlation of surface wave fields and studying the resulting power spectra, looking for "shadows" caused by the scattering effect of a void. High frequency noise masks this effect in the time domain, so it is difficult to see on conventional traces. Our technique does not rely on phase distortions caused by small voids because they are generally too tiny to measure. Unlike traditional impulsive seismic sources which generate highly coherent broadband signals, perfect for resolving phase but too weak for resolving amplitude, vehicle traffic affords a high power signal a frequency range which is optimal for finding shallow structures. Our technique results in clear detections of an abandoned railroad tunnel and a septic tank. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a technology for the simultaneous imaging of shallow underground structures and traffic monitoring near these structures.

  11. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Achim, E-mail: achim-kimmerle@gmx.de; Momtazur Rahman, Md.; Werner, Sabrina; Mack, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Richter, Armin [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haug, Halvard [Institute for Energy Technology, Instituttveien 18, 2007 Kjeller (Norway)

    2016-01-14

    We investigate the surface recombination velocity S{sub p} at the silicon-dielectric interface of phosphorus-doped surfaces for two industrially relevant passivation schemes for crystalline silicon solar cells. A broad range of surface dopant concentrations together with a high accuracy of evaluating the latter is achieved by incremental back-etching of the surface. The analysis of lifetime measurements and the simulation of the surface recombination consistently apply a set of well accepted models, namely, the Auger recombination by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 1–14 (2012)], the carrier mobility by Klaassen [Solid-State Electron. 35, 953–959 (1992); 35, 961–967 (1992)], the intrinsic carrier concentration for undoped silicon by Altermatt et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1598–1604 (2003)], and the band-gap narrowing by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684–3695 (1998)]. The results show an increased S{sub p} at textured in respect to planar surfaces. The obtained parameterizations are applicable in modern simulation tools such as EDNA [K. R. McIntosh and P. P. Altermatt, in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (2010), pp. 1–6], PC1Dmod [Haug et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 131, 30–36 (2014)], and Sentaurus Device [Synopsys, Sentaurus TCAD, Zürich, Switzerland] as well as in the analytical solution under the assumption of local charge neutrality by Cuevas et al. [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 1181–1183 (1993)].

  12. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Achim; Momtazur Rahman, Md.; Werner, Sabrina; Mack, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Richter, Armin; Haug, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the surface recombination velocity Sp at the silicon-dielectric interface of phosphorus-doped surfaces for two industrially relevant passivation schemes for crystalline silicon solar cells. A broad range of surface dopant concentrations together with a high accuracy of evaluating the latter is achieved by incremental back-etching of the surface. The analysis of lifetime measurements and the simulation of the surface recombination consistently apply a set of well accepted models, namely, the Auger recombination by Richter et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 1-14 (2012)], the carrier mobility by Klaassen [Solid-State Electron. 35, 953-959 (1992); 35, 961-967 (1992)], the intrinsic carrier concentration for undoped silicon by Altermatt et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1598-1604 (2003)], and the band-gap narrowing by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684-3695 (1998)]. The results show an increased Sp at textured in respect to planar surfaces. The obtained parameterizations are applicable in modern simulation tools such as EDNA [K. R. McIntosh and P. P. Altermatt, in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (2010), pp. 1-6], PC1Dmod [Haug et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 131, 30-36 (2014)], and Sentaurus Device [Synopsys, Sentaurus TCAD, Zürich, Switzerland] as well as in the analytical solution under the assumption of local charge neutrality by Cuevas et al. [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 40, 1181-1183 (1993)].

  13. High efficiency photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma synthesis and organic surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangolini, L.; Kortshagen, U. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jurbergs, D.; Rogojina, E. [Innovalight Inc., 3303 Octavius Drive Suite 104, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    An efficient synthesis route for highly luminescent silicon quantum dots is presented. Silicon nanocrystals were synthesized in the gas phase using an argon-silane non-thermal plasma in a continuous flow reactor. Liquid phase surface passivation was used to improve the optical properties and avoid surface oxidation of the silicon quantum dots. Various alkenes, such as octadecene, dodecene and styrene, were covalently bonded to the plasma-produced particles, while strictly avoiding exposure of the raw powder to oxidizing agents. Stable colloidal solutions of silicon quantum dots with ensemble quantum yields between 60% and 70% were achieved. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Enhanced Lifetime of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface Passivation of Metal Oxide Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-07-29

    The role of electron selective interfaces on the performance and lifetime of polymer solar cells were compared and analyzed. Bilayer interfaces consisting of metal oxide films with cationic polymer modification namely poly ethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) were found to enhance device lifetime compared to bare metal oxide films when used as an electron selective cathode interface. Devices utilizing surface-modified metal oxide layers showed enhanced lifetimes, retaining up to 85% of their original efficiency when stored in ambient atmosphere for 180 days without any encapsulation. The work function and surface potential of zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO/PEIE interlayers were evaluated using Kelvin probe and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) respectively. Kelvin probe measurements showed a smaller reduction in work function of ZnO/PEIE films compared to bare ZnO films when aged in atmospheric conditions. KPFM measurements showed that the surface potential of the ZnO surface drastically reduces when stored in ambient air for 7 days because of surface oxidation. Surface oxidation of the interface led to a substantial decrease in the performance in aged devices. The enhancement in the lifetime of devices with a bilayer interface was correlated to the suppressed surface oxidation of the metal oxide layers. The PEIE passivated surface retained a lower Fermi level when aged, which led to lower trap-assisted recombination at the polymer-cathode interface. Further photocharge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV) measurements were performed on fresh and aged samples to evaluate the field required to extract maximum charges. Fresh devices with a bare ZnO cathode interlayer required a lower field than devices with ZnO/PEIE cathode interface. However, aged devices with ZnO required a much higher field to extract charges while aged devices with ZnO/PEIE showed a minor increase compared to the fresh devices. Results indicate that surface modification can act as a

  15. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian

    2011-01-24

    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  16. Analysis of the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant to power a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle for a high altitude mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Jordi; Sánchez, Fernando; Lozano, Antonio; Barroso, Jorge; Barreras, Félix

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant control system to be implemented in a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle capable to ascend up to the high troposphere (10,000 m). The powerplant is based on a high-temperature PEM fuel cell connected in parallel to a set of lithium-polymer batteries and regulated by two power diodes. Test performed in steady state demonstrates that the use of the hybrid system increases the efficiency of the stack by more than 7% because the voltage at the main DC bus is limited by the batteries. The robustness of the passive control system is proved in a long-term test in which random perturbations of ±15% are applied to the average power that would be demanded during the ascent flight. The hybridization of the stack with the batteries eliminates sudden peaks in the current generated by the stack, which are responsible for prompt degradation phenomena that drastically reduce its useful lifetime. The study demonstrates that with the passive hybrid powerplant it is possible to reach the target height with the gas storage system considered in the application, contrary to what happens with the simple power plant.

  17. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  18. Compact surface plasmon amplifier in nonlinear hybrid waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-shu, Wang; Dan-qing, Wang; Xiao-peng, Hu; Tao, Li; Shi-ning, Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP), a sub-wavelength surface wave promising for photonic integration, always suffers from the large metallic loss that seriously restricts its practical application. Here, we propose a compact SPP amplifier based on a nonlinear hybrid waveguide (a combination of silver, LiNbO3, and SiO2), where a couple of Bragg gratings are introduced in the waveguide to construct a cavity. This special waveguide is demonstrated to support a highly localized SPP-like hybrid mode and a low loss waveguide-like hybrid mode. To provide a large nonlinear gain, a pumping wave input from the LiNbO3 waveguide is designed to resonate inside the cavity and satisfy the cavity phase matching to fulfill the optical parametric amplification (OPA) of the SPP signal. Proper periods of gratings and the cavity length are chosen to satisfy the impedance matching condition to ensure the high input efficiency of the pump wave from the outside into the cavity. In theoretical calculations, this device demonstrates a high performance in a very compact scheme (∼ 3.32 μm) and a much lower pumping power for OPA compared with single-pass pumping. To obtain a comprehensive insight into this cavity OPA, the influences of the pumping power, cavity length, and the initial phase are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322439, 11274165, 11321063, and 91321312), the Dengfeng Project B of Nanjing University, China, and the PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  19. Ab initio study of subsurface diffusion of Cu on the H-passivated Si(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prieto, A.; Bowler, D. R.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we use density-functional theory calculations to analyze both the stability and diffusion of Cu adatoms near and on the H-passivated Si(001) surface. Two different Cu sources are considered: depositing Cu from vacuum, and contaminating Cu outdiffusing from bulk Si. Deposited Cu from vacuum quickly moves subsurface to an interstitial site in the third Si layer (T2). Once there, Cu adatoms enter a subsurface zigzag migration route between T2 and another subsurface site, T2→HSL→T2 , along the dimer row direction. Contaminating Cu outdiffusing from bulk is found to be a fast diffuser along both parallel and perpendicular directions to the dimer row when far from the surface. It is attracted to the layers close to the surface and becomes trapped at an interstitial site located at the sixth Si layer (T3). As the outdiffusing Cu atoms get closer to the surface, a channeling zigzag diffusion along the dimer row direction, similar to that one followed by deposited Cu from vacuum, is favoured over diffusion along the perpendicular direction. These results are consistent with previous experimental work done on similar systems and will motivate further experiments on the interesting interaction between Cu and Si surfaces.

  20. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  1. Fabrication of Co/Si nanowires by ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy on hydrogen-passivated Si(100) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; Ilge, B; De Nijs, J

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated nanometer width Co/Si metal lines on Si(100) surfaces by ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHVSTM) based nanolithography on the hydrogen-passivated surface, combined with vapor deposition of Co at room temperature and subsequent annealing. The STM tip was used to def

  2. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  3. Surface Passivation of ZrO2 Artificial Dentures by Magnetized Coaxial Plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hara, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiko; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Nihon University Team

    2015-09-01

    Recent growth and fabrication technologies for functional materials have been greatly contributed to drastic development of oral surgery field. Zirconia based ceramics is expected to utilize artificial dentures because these ceramics have good biocompatibility, high hardness and aesthetic attractively. However, to apply these ceramics to artificial dentures, this denture is removed from a dental plate because of weakly bond. For improving this problem, synthesis an Al passivation-layer on the ceramics for bonding with these dental items is suitable. In order to deposit the passivation layer, we focused on a magnetized coaxial plasma deposition (MCPD). The greatest characteristic of MCPD is that high-melting point metal can be deposited on various substrates. Additionally, adhesion force between substrate and films deposited by the MCPD is superior to it of general deposition methods. In this study, we have reported on the growth techniques of Al films on ZrO2 for contributing to oral surgery by the MCPD. Surface of deposited films shows there were some droplets and thickness of it is about 200 nm. Thickness is increased to 500 nm with increasing applied voltage.

  4. A wireless demodulation system for passive surface acoustic wave torque sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaojun; Fan, Yanping; Qi, Hongli; Chen, Jing; Han, Tao; Cai, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are utilized as torque sensors for their passive and wireless features. However, the response of a SAW torque sensor is difficult to detect because of the transient response duration and interruption of channel noise, which limit the application of SAW torque sensors. The sensitive mechanism and response function of a passive wireless SAW torque sensor are analyzed in this study. A novel demodulation system involving both hardware and software is developed for the SAW torque sensor. A clipping amplifier is utilized in the hardware to widen the dynamic response range and increase the length of the valid signal. Correlation extension and centroid algorithms are designed to lengthen the received signal and improve the estimation accuracy of the center frequency of the response signal, respectively. Meanwhile, a fast binary search algorithm is proposed to accelerate the scanning cycle according to the developed response function. Finally, the SAW torque sensor demodulation system is set up and SAW resonators with high sensitivity are fabricated on a quartz substrate. The presented demodulation system is tested, and a standard deviation of 0.28 kHz is achieved. This value is much smaller than that of classic and modern spectrum estimation methods. The sensitivity of resonance frequency shift versus torque on the shaft of the assembled senor is 2.03 kHz/Nm; the coefficient of determination is 0.999, and the linearity is 0.87%. Experimental results verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed SAW torque sensor demodulation system.

  5. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film.

  6. A novel power control strategy of Modular Multi-level Converter in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems for passive networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Zhenda; Wu, Rui; Yang, Xiaodong;

    2014-01-01

    With the development of High Voltage DC Transmission (HVDC) technology, there will be more and more HVDC-AC hybrid transmission system in the world. A basic challenge in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems is to optimize the power sharing between DC and AC lines, which become more severe when...... supplying power for passive networks, as the surplus power can only flow back to power grids through the AC lines. To deal with this issue, it demands not only accurate system capability design but also flexible power control strategy of power converters in VSC-HVDC. This paper proposes a novel power...

  7. Energy efficient flexible hybrid wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing passive optical network with pay as you grow deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit Kumar; Madavi, Amresh Ashok; Janyani, Vijay

    2017-02-01

    A flexible hybrid wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing passive optical network architecture that allows dual rate signals to be sent at 1 and 10 Gbps to each optical networking unit depending upon the traffic load is proposed. The proposed design allows dynamic wavelength allocation with pay-as-you-grow deployment capability. This architecture is capable of providing up to 40 Gbps of equal data rates to all optical distribution networks (ODNs) and up to 70 Gbps of a asymmetrical data rate to the specific ODN. The proposed design handles broadcasting capability with simultaneous point-to-point transmission, which further reduces energy consumption. In this architecture, each module sends a wavelength to each ODN, thus making the architecture fully flexible; this flexibility allows network providers to use only required OLT components and switch off others. The design is also reliable to any module or TRx failure and provides services without any service disruption. Dynamic wavelength allocation and pay-as-you-grow deployment support network extensibility and bandwidth scalability to handle future generation access networks.

  8. Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water-Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    windows, optical components, protective eyewear, and clothing, this type of surface is desired for the material to be soil repellent and water ...Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology by Amanda S. Weerasooriya, Jacqueline Yim, Andres A...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-6898 April 2014 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid

  9. Surface passivation of GaInAsSb photodiodes with thioacetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, A.; Joullie, A.; Chevrier, F.; Cuminal, Y.; Ferblantier, G.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (IES-CEM2), UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Calas, P. [UMR CNRS 5073 CHIMIE, Case 017, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Nieto, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    AlGaAsSb/GaInAsSb heterojunction mesa photodiodes having 2.2 {mu}m cutoff wavelength, grown by MBE on (p) GaSb substrates, have been passivated using thioacetamide CH{sub 4}CSNH{sub 2} and ammonium sulphide (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S. Superior characteristics were obtained from devices processed with thioacetamide in acid medium (pH=2.4). At room temperature the surface leakage currents were suppressed, and the photodiodes showed R{sub 0}A product as high as 16 {omega}cm{sup 2} and detectivity D{sup *}(2 {mu}m,0 V){proportional_to}10{sup 10} cmHz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}. A model explaining sulfuration mechanisms with thioacetamide and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Remote vibration measurement: a wireless passive surface acoustic wave resonator fast probing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Ballandras, S; Alzuaga, S; Martin, G; Sandoz, P

    2012-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshian, S; Jokinen, V; Franssila, S

    2016-08-21

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum template. The ALD titania transfers to the elastomeric scaffold via sacrificial release etching. The sacrificial release method allows for high aspect ratio, even 100 μm deep and successful release of overhanging structures, unlike conventional peeling. The ALD titania conformally covers the 3D multihierarchical structures of the template and protects the polymer during the release etch. Afterwards it prevents the high aspect ratio nanostructures from elasticity based collapse. The resulting nanostructured hybrid PDMS/titania replicas display robust superhydrophobicity without any further fluoro-coating or modification. Their mechanical and thermal robustness results from a thick nanostructured elastomeric layer which is conformally covered by ceramic titania instead of a monolayer hydrophobic coating. We have demonstrated the durability of these replicas against mechanical abrasion, knife scratches, rubbing, bending, peel tape test, high temperature annealing, UV exposure, water jet impingement and long term underwater storage. Though the material loses its superhydrophobicity in oxygen plasma exposure, a fast recovery from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic can be achieved after 20 min UV irradiation. UV-assisted recovery is correlated with the high photoactivity of ALD titania film. This novel hybrid material will be applicable to the large area superhydrophobic surfaces in practical outdoor applications.

  12. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga) Se-2 solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vermang, Bart; Timo Watjen, Jorn; Fjallstrom, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al2O3 layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact w...

  13. Characterization of Al2O3 as CIGS surface passivation layer in high-efficiency CIGS solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel method of reducing the rear surface recombination in copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells, using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3, has been evaluated via qualitative opto-electrical characterization. The idea stems from the silicon (Si) industry, where rear surface passivation layers are used to boost the open-circuit voltage and, hence, the cell efficiency. To enable a qualitative assessment of the passivation effect, Al/Al2O3/CIGS metal-...

  14. Surface-Induced Hybridization between Graphene and Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Allen L. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States).; Koch, Roland J. [Technische Universitat, Chemnitz (Germany); Ong, Mitchell T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Fang, Wenjing [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hofmann, Mario [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, Ki Kang [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States).; Seyller, Thomas [Technische Universitat, Chemnitz (Germany); Dresselhaus, Mildred S. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Reed, Evan J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kong, Jing [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Palacios, Tomás [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Carbon-based materials such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes have inspired a broad range of applications ranging from high-speed flexible electronics all the way to ultrastrong membranes. However, many of these applications are limited by the complex interactions between carbon-based materials and metals. In this work, we experimentally investigate the structural interactions between graphene and transition metals such as palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti), which have been confirmed by density functional simulations. We find that the adsorption of titanium on graphene is more energetically favorable than in the case of most metals, and density functional theory shows that a surface induced p-d hybridization occurs between atomic carbon and titanium orbitals. This strong affinity between the two materials results in a short-range ordered crystalline deposition on top of graphene as well as chemical modifications to graphene as seen by Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). This induced hybridization is interface-specific and has major consequences for contacting graphene nanoelectronic devices as well as applications toward metal-induced chemical functionalization of graphene.

  15. Surface-induced hybridization between graphene and titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Allen L; Koch, Roland J; Ong, Mitchell T; Fang, Wenjing; Hofmann, Mario; Kim, Ki Kang; Seyller, Thomas; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Reed, Evan J; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-08-26

    Carbon-based materials such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes have inspired a broad range of applications ranging from high-speed flexible electronics all the way to ultrastrong membranes. However, many of these applications are limited by the complex interactions between carbon-based materials and metals. In this work, we experimentally investigate the structural interactions between graphene and transition metals such as palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti), which have been confirmed by density functional simulations. We find that the adsorption of titanium on graphene is more energetically favorable than in the case of most metals, and density functional theory shows that a surface induced p-d hybridization occurs between atomic carbon and titanium orbitals. This strong affinity between the two materials results in a short-range ordered crystalline deposition on top of graphene as well as chemical modifications to graphene as seen by Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). This induced hybridization is interface-specific and has major consequences for contacting graphene-nanoelectronic devices as well as applications toward metal-induced chemical functionalization of graphene.

  16. Dual passivation of GaAs (110) surfaces using O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and trimethylaluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Tyler J.; Edmonds, Mary [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Chagarov, Evgueni [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Droopad, Ravi [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The nucleation and passivation of oxide deposition was studied on defect-free GaAs (110) surfaces to understand passivation of surfaces containing only III-V heterobonds. The passivation process on GaAs (110) was studied at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy while the electronic structure was determined by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The bonding of the oxidant and reductant were modeled with density functional theory. To avoid Fermi level pinning during gate oxide atomic layer deposition, a dual passivation procedure was required using both a reductant, trimethylaluminum (TMA), and an oxidant, O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O. Dosing GaAs (110) with TMA resulted in the formation of an ordered complete monolayer of dimethylaluminum which passivates the group V dangling bonds but also forms metal-metal bonds with conduction band edge states. These edge states were suppressed by dosing the surface with oxidants O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O which selectively react with group III-aluminum bonds. The presence of an ordered Al monolayer with a high nucleation density was indirectly confirmed by XPS and STS.

  17. A spectroscopic method for the evaluation of surface passivation treatments on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Lee A., E-mail: lee.walsh36@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Hurley, Paul K.; Lin, Jun [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Cockayne, Eric [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithesburg, MD 20899 (United States); O’Regan, T.P. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithesburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Surface potential changes can be detected from HAXPES measurements. • Flat band voltage shifts can be detected from HAXPES measurements. • Agreement between HAXPES and C–V measurements in Si based MOS structures. • Agreement between HAXPES and C–V measurements in GaAs based MOS structures. - Abstract: Combined hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and electrical characterisation measurements have been shown to provide complementary information on the electrical performance of Si and GaAs based metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures. The results obtained indicate that surface potential changes at the semiconductor/dielectric interface due to the presence of different work function metals can be detected from HAXPES measurements. Changes in the semiconductor band bending at zero gate voltage and the flat band voltage values derived from C–V measurements are in agreement with the semiconductor core level shifts measured from the HAXPES spectra. These results highlight the potential application of this measurement approach in the evaluation of the efficacy of surface passivation treatments: HAXPES—hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; C–V—capacitance voltage; D{sub it}—interface state density; BE—binding energy, at reducing defect states densities in MOS structures.

  18. Passivation of the surface of aluminum nanopowders by protective coatings of the different chemical origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Soon; Gromov, Alexander A.; Strokova, Julia I.

    2007-04-01

    The results of investigation and analysis of electro-exploded aluminum nanopowders, whose surface were passivated with the following substances: liquids - nitrocellulose (NC), oleic acid (C 17H 33COOH) and stearic acid (C 17H 35COOH), suspended in kerosene and ethanol, fluoropolymer; solids - boron and nickel; gases - N 2, CO 2 and air (for a comparison) are discussed. The surface protection for the aluminum nanopowders by coatings of different chemical origins leads to the some advantages of the powders properties for an application in energetic systems, e.g. solid propellants and "green" propellants (Al-H 2O). Aluminum nanopowders with a protected surface showed the increased stability to oxidation in air during the storage period and higher reactivity by heating. The TEM-visual diagram of the formation and stabilization of the coatings on the particles has been proposed on the basis of experimental results. The kinetics of the interaction of aluminum nanopowders with air has been discussed. The recommendations concerning an efficiency of the protective "non-Al 2O 3" layers on aluminum nanoparticles were proposed.

  19. Colossal positive magnetoresistance in surface-passivated oxygen-deficient strontium titanite

    KAUST Repository

    David, Adrian

    2015-05-15

    Modulation of resistance by an external magnetic field, i.e. magnetoresistance effect, has been a long-lived theme of research due to both fundamental science and device applications. Here we report colossal positive magnetoresistance (CPMR) (>30,000% at a temperature of 2 K and a magnetic field of 9 T) discovered in degenerate semiconducting strontium titanite (SrTiO3) single crystals capped with ultrathin SrTiO3/LaAlO3 bilayers. The low-pressure high-temperature homoepitaxial growth of several unit cells of SrTiO3 introduces oxygen vacancies and high-mobility carriers in the bulk SrTiO3, and the three-unit-cell LaAlO3 capping layer passivates the surface and improves carrier mobility by suppressing surface-defect-related scattering. The coexistence of multiple types of carriers and inhomogeneous transport lead to the emergence of CPMR. This unit-cell-level surface engineering approach is promising to be generalized to others oxides, and to realize devices with high-mobility carriers and interesting magnetoelectronic properties.

  20. Long-wave approximation for hybridization modeling of local surface plasmonic resonance in nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben Q; Liu, Changhong

    2011-01-15

    A hybridization model for the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoshell is developed within the framework of long-wave approximation. Compared with the existing hybridization model derived from the hydrodynamic simulation of free electron gas, this approach is much simpler and gives identical results for a concentric nanoshell. Also, with this approach, the limitations associated with the original hybridization model are succinctly stated. Extension of this approach to hybridization modeling of more complicated structures such as multiplayered nanoshells is straightforward.

  1. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen passivation no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In research on carrier recombination on SiO2/doped silicon interface, measurements were carried out on minority carrier life with respect to p-type silicon substrates with which phosphorus with high and low concentrations are diffused uniformly on the surface and non-uniformly on the back and then oxidized. The measurements were performed for the purpose of evaluating the carrier recombination at p-n junctions. Effective life time of oxidized test samples increased longer than that of prior to the oxidization as a result of effect of surface passivation contributing remarkably. In research on reduction in carrier recombination on SiO2/Si interface by using H radical annealing, experiments were conducted by using a method that uses more active H-atoms. As a result, it was revealed that the reduction effect is recognized at as low temperature as 200{degree}C, and photo-bias effect is also noticeable. Other research activities included analytic research on minority carrier recombination on micro crystalline silicon/crystalline silicon interface, and experimental research on evaluation of minority carrier life of poly-crystalline silicon wafers. 6 figs.

  2. A synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Wang, Liangxing; Hao, Hongchen; Shi, Wei; Lu, Ming

    2015-07-01

    P-type Si substrate based solar cells were prepared with indium-tin-oxide thin films as the front top electrodes and Al layers as the rear ones. A synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance was investigated. The surface texture was conducted by NaOH etching of Si, and field-effect passivations were performed by introducing SiO2 and Al2O3 thin film layers at the front and rear sides of the Si solar cell, respectively. The surface texture treatment makes the Si solar cell efficiency increase from 9.81% to 11.08%. After the synergetic treatments of surface texture and field-effect passivations, the efficiency further increased to 15.04%, that is, a more than 50% relative efficiency enhancement was obtained. This work demonstrates the significant effectiveness and facile applicability of the synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance.

  3. Improved discharge capacity and suppressed surface passivation of zinc anode in dilute alkaline solution using surfactant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Xiao, Lifen

    The capacity utilization of zinc anode is usually very low in dilute alkaline solution or at high rate discharge because of the passivation of zinc surface. This problem can be considerably overcome by use of surfactant additive in electrolyte. In this work, it is found that with addition of 2% sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in 20% KOH solution, the discharge capacity of zinc anode increases from 360 to 490 mAh/g at moderate discharge rate of 40 mA/g, corresponding to a 35% increase in the capacity utilization. Based on the electrochemical and morphological observation of the anodic passivation behaviors of zinc electrode, this effect is revealed that due to the SDBS adsorption, the passive layer formed on the zinc surface has a loose and porous structure rather than a dense and compact film. This type of surface layer facilitates the diffusive exchange of the solution reactant and discharged product through the surface deposit layer and therefore effectively suppresses the surface passivation of zinc anode.

  4. Surface and Atmospheric Contributions to Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures for Falling Snow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Johnson, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    Physically based passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms require a set of relationships between satellite -observed brightness temperatures (TBs) and the physical state of the underlying atmosphere and surface. These relationships are nonlinear, such that inversions are ill ]posed especially over variable land surfaces. In order to elucidate these relationships, this work presents a theoretical analysis using TB weighting functions to quantify the percentage influence of the TB resulting from absorption, emission, and/or reflection from the surface, as well as from frozen hydrometeors in clouds, from atmospheric water vapor, and from other contributors. The percentage analysis was also compared to Jacobians. The results are presented for frequencies from 10 to 874 GHz, for individual snow profiles, and for averages over three cloud-resolving model simulations of falling snow. The bulk structure (e.g., ice water path and cloud depth) of the underlying cloud scene was found to affect the resultant TB and percentages, producing different values for blizzard, lake effect, and synoptic snow events. The slant path at a 53 viewing angle increases the hydrometeor contributions relative to nadir viewing channels. Jacobians provide the magnitude and direction of change in the TB values due to a change in the underlying scene; however, the percentage analysis provides detailed information on how that change affected contributions to the TB from the surface, hydrometeors, and water vapor. The TB percentage information presented in this paper provides information about the relative contributions to the TB and supplies key pieces of information required to develop and improve precipitation retrievals over land surfaces.

  5. Bayesian modeling of perceived surface slant from actively-generated and passively-observed optic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Caudek

    Full Text Available We measured perceived depth from the optic flow (a when showing a stationary physical or virtual object to observers who moved their head at a normal or slower speed, and (b when simulating the same optic flow on a computer and presenting it to stationary observers. Our results show that perceived surface slant is systematically distorted, for both the active and the passive viewing of physical or virtual surfaces. These distortions are modulated by head translation speed, with perceived slant increasing directly with the local velocity gradient of the optic flow. This empirical result allows us to determine the relative merits of two alternative approaches aimed at explaining perceived surface slant in active vision: an "inverse optics" model that takes head motion information into account, and a probabilistic model that ignores extra-retinal signals. We compare these two approaches within the framework of the bayesian theory. The "inverse optics" bayesian model produces veridical slant estimates if the optic flow and the head translation velocity are measured with no error; because of the influence of a "prior" for flatness, the slant estimates become systematically biased as the measurement errors increase. The bayesian model, which ignores the observer's motion, always produces distorted estimates of surface slant. Interestingly, the predictions of this second model, not those of the first one, are consistent with our empirical findings. The present results suggest that (a in active vision perceived surface slant may be the product of probabilistic processes which do not guarantee the correct solution, and (b extra-retinal signals may be mainly used for a better measurement of retinal information.

  6. Effect of surface passivation on corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Xu, Dake; Shahzad, M. Babar; Kang, Qiang; Sun, Ying; Sun, Ziqing; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ren, Ling; Yang, Chunguang; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    The resistance for pitting corrosion, passive film stability and antibacterial performance of 316L-Cu SS passivated by nitric acid solution containing certain concentration of copper sulfate, were studied by electrochemical cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and co-culture with bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the Cu2+ ions release from 316L-Cu SS surface. XPS analysis proved that the enrichment of CuO, Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 on the surface of specimen could simultaneously guarantee a better corrosion resistance and stable antibacterial properties. The biocompatibility evaluation determined by RTCA assay also indicated that the 316L-Cu SS after antibacterial passivation was completely biocompatible.

  7. Surface passivation of nano-textured fluorescent SiC by atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    Nano-textured surfaces have played a key role in optoelectronic materials to enhance the light extraction efficiency. In this work, morphology and optical properties of nano-textured SiC covered with atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 were investigated. In order to obtain a high quality surface...... for TiO2 deposition, a three-step cleaning procedure was introduced after RIE etching. The morphology of anatase TiO2 indicates that the nano-textured substrate has a much higher surface nucleated grain density than a flat substrate at the beginning of the deposition process. The corresponding...... reflectance increases with TiO2 thickness due to increased surface diffuse reflection. The passivation effect of ALD TiO2 thin film on the nano-textured fluorescent 6H-SiC sample was also investigated and a PL intensity improvement of 8.05% was obtained due to the surface passivation....

  8. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von, E-mail: guillaume.von.gastrow@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Li, Shuo [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Savin, Hele [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  9. Surface Engineering for Bone Implants: A Trend from Passive to Active Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and biological properties of bone implants need to be optimal to form a quick and firm connection with the surrounding environment in load bearing applications. Bone is a connective tissue composed of an organic collagenous matrix, a fine dispersion of reinforcing inorganic (calcium phosphate nanocrystals, and bone-forming and -degrading cells. These different components have a synergistic and hierarchical structure that renders bone tissue properties unique in terms of hardness, flexibility and regenerative capacity. Metallic and polymeric materials offer mechanical strength and/or resilience that are required to simulate bone tissue in load-bearing applications in terms of maximum load, bending and fatigue strength. Nevertheless, the interaction between devices and the surrounding tissue at the implant interface is essential for success or failure of implants. In that respect, coatings can be applied to facilitate the process of bone healing and obtain a continuous transition from living tissue to the synthetic implant. Compounds that are inspired by inorganic (e.g., hydroxyapatite crystals or organic (e.g., collagen, extracellular matrix components, enzymes components of bone tissue, are the most obvious candidates for application as implant coating to improve the performance of bone implants. This review provides an overview of recent trends and strategies in surface engineering that are currently investigated to improve the biological performance of bone implants in terms of functionality and biological efficacy.

  10. Preparation, characterization and dissolution of passive oxide film on the 400 series stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Rufus, A.L.; Chandramohan, P.; Subramanian, H.; Velmurugan, S., E-mail: svelu@igcar.gov.in

    2015-12-15

    Full system decontamination of Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) resulted in low decontamination factors (DF) on stainless steel (SS) surfaces. Hence, studies were carried out with 403 SS and 410 SS that are the material of construction of “End-Fitting body” and “End-Fitting Liner tubes”. Three formulations were evaluated for the dissolution of passive films formed over these alloys viz., i) Two-step process consisting of oxidation and reduction reactions, ii) Dilute Chemical Decontamination (DCD) and iii) High Temperature Process. The two-step and high temperature processes could dissolve the oxide completely while the DCD process could remove only 60%. Various techniques like XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX were used for assessing the dissolution process. The two-step process is time consuming, laborious while the high temperature process is less time consuming and is recommended for SS decontamination. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of the oxide film formed in an autoclave over the 403 SS and 410 SS surfaces, the “End-Fitting Body and End-Fitting Liner” materials of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). - Highlights: • The oxides formed over 403 and 410 SS are spinels similar to magnetite. • Oxide is duplex in nature with chromium rich inner layer. • Dilute Chemical Decontamination process could dissolve only 60% of the oxide. • Oxidation-Reduction process dissolves 100% oxide layer but time consuming. • High Temperature process is 100% efficient and less time consuming.

  11. Surface Passivation of Ti/4H-SiC Schottky Barrier Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Khalid; Saira Riaz; Shahzad Naseem

    2012-01-01

    Surface properties of SiC power devices mostly depend on the passivation layer (PL).This layer has direct influence on electrical characteristics of devices.2D numerical simulation of forward and reverse characteristics with and without different (PLs) (SiO2,HfO2 and Si3N4) has been performed.Simulation results show that the breakdown voltage increases with increasing PL thickness,and there is a lesser significant effect on forward characteristics.The maximum breakdown voltage with and without SiO2 PL is 1240 V and 276 V,respectively.SiO2 PL has compatibility with SiC surface providing high breakdown voltage,6 and 8% higher than that of HfO2 and Si3N4 respectively.Low leakage current is observed which then further decreases on reducing the thickness of PL.Furthermore,variation of forward current with dielectric constant and thickness of PLs was observed.Finally,it is suggested that matches of our results with published experimental results indicate that the Sentaurus TCAD simulator is a predictive tool for the SiC Schottky barrier diode simulation.

  12. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  13. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Surface Characteristics on the Greenland Ice Sheet as Derived from Passive Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Rowe, Clinton; Kuivinen, Karl; Mote, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The primary goals of this research were to identify and begin to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations in surface characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet using passive microwave observations, physically-based models of the snowpack and field observations of snowpack and firn properties.

  15. Influence of hydrogen surface passivation on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution in GeSn/Ge(001) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johll, Harman; Samuel, Milla; Koo, Ruey Yi; Kang, Hway Chuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-05-01

    Plane-wave density functional theory is used to investigate the impact of hydrogen passivation of the p(2×2) reconstructed Ge1-xSnx surface on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution. On a clean surface, Sn preferentially segregates to the surface layer, with surface coverages of 25%, 50%, and 100% for total Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. In contrast, a hydrogen passivated surface increases interlayer migration of Sn to subsurface layers, in particular, to the third layer from the surface, and results in surface coverages of 0%, 0%, and 50% corresponding to Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. Hydrogen transfer from a Ge-capped surface to the one enriched with increasing Sn surface coverage is also an unfavorable process. The presence of hydrogen therefore reduces the surface energy by passivating the reactive dangling bonds and enhancing Sn interlayer migration to the subsurface layers. For both clean and hydrogenated surfaces, aggregation of Sn at the surface layer is also not favored. We explain these results by considering bond enthalpies and the enthalpies of hydrogenation for various surface reactions. Our results thus point to reduced Sn segregation to the surface in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film if CVD growth, using hydride precursors in the hydrogen limited growth regime, is used. This would lead to a more abrupt interface and is consistent with recent experimental observation. Hydrogenation is therefore a promising method for controlling and manipulating elemental population of Sn in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film.

  16. An automated cross-correlation based event detection technique and its application to surface passive data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Behura, Jyoti; Haines, Seth S.; Batzle, Mike

    2013-01-01

    In studies on heavy oil, shale reservoirs, tight gas and enhanced geothermal systems, the use of surface passive seismic data to monitor induced microseismicity due to the fluid flow in the subsurface is becoming more common. However, in most studies passive seismic records contain days and months of data and manually analysing the data can be expensive and inaccurate. Moreover, in the presence of noise, detecting the arrival of weak microseismic events becomes challenging. Hence, the use of an automated, accurate and computationally fast technique for event detection in passive seismic data is essential. The conventional automatic event identification algorithm computes a running-window energy ratio of the short-term average to the long-term average of the passive seismic data for each trace. We show that for the common case of a low signal-to-noise ratio in surface passive records, the conventional method is not sufficiently effective at event identification. Here, we extend the conventional algorithm by introducing a technique that is based on the cross-correlation of the energy ratios computed by the conventional method. With our technique we can measure the similarities amongst the computed energy ratios at different traces. Our approach is successful at improving the detectability of events with a low signal-to-noise ratio that are not detectable with the conventional algorithm. Also, our algorithm has the advantage to identify if an event is common to all stations (a regional event) or to a limited number of stations (a local event). We provide examples of applying our technique to synthetic data and a field surface passive data set recorded at a geothermal site.

  17. Laser ablation and photostimulated passivation of the surface of Cd1–хZnхTe crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagoruiko Yu. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new physical method of Cd1–хZnхTe-detectors passivation is proposed — the treatment of crystal surface by a laser ablation (LA with subsequent photostimulated passivation (PhSP, during wich a high-resistance oxide layer is formed on it’s surface after the surface cleaning under intensive light irradiation effect. It is shown that the method of LA+PhSP is manufacturable and in comparison with PhSP and PhESP methods developed earlier provides a thick, homogeneous and high-oxide films, which significantly increases the surface resistivity of Cd1–хZnхTe samples and reduces leakage currents in them.

  18. Surface passivation of (100 GaSb using self-assembled monolayers of long-chain octadecanethiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Papis-Polakowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The passivation of (100 GaSb surface was investigated by means of the long-chain octadecanethiol (ODT self-assembled monolayer (SAM. The properties of ODT SAM on (100 GaSb were characterized by the atomic force microscopy using Kelvin probe force microscopy mode and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical treatment of 10mM ODT-C2H5OH has been applied to the passivation of a type-II superlattice InAs/GaSb photodetector. The electrical measurements indicate that the current density was reduced by one order of magnitude as compared to an unpassivated photodetector.

  19. Kinetics of hybridization on surface oligonucleotide microchips: theory, experiment, and comparison with hybridization on gel-based microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, N V; Chechetkin, V R; Pan'kov, S V; Somova, O G; Livshits, M A; Donnikov, M Y; Turygin, A Y; Barsky, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-08-01

    The optimal design of oligonucleotide microchips and efficient discrimination between perfect and mismatch duplexes strongly depend on the external transport of target DNA to the cells with immobilized probes as well as on respective association and dissociation rates at the duplex formation. In this paper we present the relevant theory for hybridization of DNA fragments with oligonucleotide probes immobilized in the cells on flat substrate. With minor modifications, our theory also is applicable to reaction-diffusion hybridization kinetics for the probes immobilized on the surface of microbeads immersed in hybridization solution. The main theoretical predictions are verified with control experiments. Besides that, we compared the characteristics of the surface and gel-based oligonucleotide microchips. The comparison was performed for the chips printed with the same pin robot, for the signals measured with the same devices and processed by the same technique, and for the same hybridization conditions. The sets of probe oligonucleotides and the concentrations of probes in respective solutions used for immobilization on each platform were identical as well. We found that, despite the slower hybridization kinetics, the fluorescence signals and mutation discrimination efficiency appeared to be higher for the gel-based microchips with respect to their surface counterparts even for the relatively short hybridization time about 0.5-1 hour. Both the divergence between signals for perfects and the difference in mutation discrimination efficiency for the counterpart platforms rapidly grow with incubation time. In particular, for hybridization during 3 h the signals for gel-based microchips surpassed their surface counterparts in 5-20 times, while the ratios of signals for perfect-mismatch pairs for gel microchips exceeded the corresponding ratios for surface microchips in 2-4 times. These effects may be attributed to the better immobilization efficiency and to the higher

  20. Surface passivation of phosphorus-diffused n(+)-type emitters by plasma-assisted atomic-layer deposited Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoex, B.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Schmidt, J.; Brendel, R.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years Al2O3 has received tremendous interest in the photovoltaic community for the application as surface passivation layer for crystalline silicon. Especially p-type c-Si surfaces are very effectively passivated by Al2O3, including p-type emitters, due to the high fixed negative charge in

  1. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-21

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces.

  2. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces.

  3. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermang, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Vermang@angstrom.uu.se [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); ESAT-KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf [Plasma & Coatings Physics, University of Linköping, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM/IMNC, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact with the Mo NP is passivated by [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) (GGI) grading. It is shown that photon scattering due to the Mo NP contributes to an absolute increase in short circuit current density of 3.4 mA/cm{sup 2}; as compared to equivalent CIGS solar cells with a standard back contact. - Highlights: • Proof-of-principle ultra-thin CIGS solar cells have been fabricated. • The cells have Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts. • An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film passivates the CIGS rear surface between these nano-particles. • [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) grading is used to reduce Mo-NP/CIGS interface recombination.

  4. Reduction of Fermi level pinning at Au-MoS2 interfaces by atomic passivation on Au surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jinwoo; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-03-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is a semiconducting material with direct band gap of ˜1.8 eV, has drawn much attention for application in field effect transistors (FETs). In this connection, it is very important to understand the Fermi level pinning (FLP) which occurs at metal-semiconductor interfaces. It is known that MoS2 has an n-type contact with Au, which is a high work function metal, representing the strong FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces. However, such FLP can obstruct the attainment of high performance of field effect devices. In this study, we investigate the reduction of FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces by atomic passivation on Au(111) using first-principles calculations. To reduce the FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces, we consider sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and hydrogen atoms that can passivate the surface of Au(111). Calculations show that passivating atoms prevent the direct contact between Au(111) and MoS2, and thus FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces is reduced by weak interaction between atom-passivated Au(111) and MoS2. Especially, FLP is greatly reduced at sulfur-passivated Au-MoS2 interfaces with the smallest binding energy. Furthermore, fluorine-passivated Au(111) can form ohmic contact with MoS2, representing almost zero Schottky barrier height (SBH). We suggest that SBH can be controlled depending on the passivating atoms on Au(111).

  5. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-10-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  6. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomaska, M., E-mail: m.pomaksa@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, IEK5-Photovoltaics, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Beyer, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstrasse 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neumann, E. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, PGI-8-PT, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Finger, F.; Ding, K. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, IEK5-Photovoltaics, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-11-30

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO{sub x}:H/intrinsic a-SiO{sub x}:H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO{sub x}:H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO{sub x}:H/a-SiO{sub x}:H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  7. Surface defect passivation of MoS2 by sulfur, selenium, and tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Qi, Long; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yihong

    2016-04-01

    Few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors often show an n-type conduction behavior due to the presence of high-density sulfur vacancies. Here, we investigated the possibility of surface defect passivation of MoS2 by sulfur treatment in (NH4)2S solution or coating with an ultrathin layer of selenium or tellurium. It was found that all three elements investigated are able to induce a p-doping effect through suppressing the residual electron concentration by an amount exceeding 0.5 × 1012 cm-2 in few-layer MoS2. Among them, the sulfur-treatment exhibits the most superior thermal stability that survives thermal annealing at temperatures ≥120 °C for at least 10 h. Tellurium exhibits the strongest p-doping effect due to electron trapping by physisorption-induced gap states near the valence band edge. On the other hand, selenium is highly volatile on MoS2; it evaporates and desorbs easily due to Joule heating during electrical measurements in vacuum. The results of first-principles calculations support the experimental observations.

  8. Passive prosthetic ankle-foot mechanism for automatic adaptation to sloped surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nickel, MS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a prototype prosthetic ankle-foot system that passively adapts to surface slopes on each step of walking. Engineering analyses were performed to design the cam clutch and clutch engagement and disengagement mechanism. The prototype was tested by a veteran with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded while the subject walked on a treadmill at slopes ranging from −10 to +10 degrees. After each slope condition, the subject rated his level of exertion and socket comfort. The subject reported increased comfort and reduced exertion for downhill slopes when using the prototype compared with his usual prosthesis. The subject also expressed that when walking downhill on the prototype, it was the most comfortable he had ever been in a prosthesis. The prosthetic ankle torque-angle relationship shifted toward dorsiflexion for uphill and toward plantar flexion for downhill slopes when using the prototype, indicating slope adaptation, but this effect did not occur when the subject walked with his usual prosthesis. The prototype also demonstrated late-stance plantar flexion, suggesting the potential for storing and returning more energy than standard lower-limb prostheses.

  9. Passive scalar transport to and from the surface of a Pocillopora coral colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Monir; Staples, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of flow through a single Pocillopora coral colony were performed to examine the interaction between the flow conditions and scalar transport near a coral colony. With corals currently undergoing a third global bleaching event, a fuller understanding of the transport of nutrients, weak temperature gradients, and other passive scalars to and from the coral polyp tissue is more important than ever. The complex geometry of a coral colony poses a significant challenge for numerical simulation. To simplify grid generation and minimize computational cost, the immersed boundary method was implemented. Large eddy simulation was chosen as the framework to capture the turbulent flow field in the range of realistic Reynolds numbers of 5,000 to 30,000 and turbulent Schmidt numbers of up to 1,000. Both uniform and oscillatory flows through the colony were investigated. Significant differences were found between the cases when the scalar originated at the edge of the flow domain and was transported into the colony, versus when the scalar originated on the surface of the colony and was transported away from the coral. The domain-to-colony transport rates were found to be orders of magnitude higher than the colony-to-domain rates.

  10. A surface acoustic wave passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature, and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an integrated single-chip surface acoustic wave sensor with the capability of measuring magnetic field, temperature, and humidity. The sensor is fabricated using a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate, a humidity sensitive hydrogel coating, and a magnetic field sensitive impedance load. The sensor response to individually and simultaneously changing magnetic field, temperature and humidity is characterized by connecting a network analyzer directly to the sensor. Analytical models for each measurand are derived and used to compensate noise due to cross sensitivities. The results show that all three measurands can be monitored in parallel with sensitivities of 75 ppm/°C, 0.13 dB/%R.H. (at 50%R.H.), 0.18 dB/Oe and resolutions of 0.1 °C, 0.4%R.H., 1 Oe for temperature, humidity and magnetic field, respectively. A passive wireless measurement is also conducted on a current line using, which shows the sensors capability to measure both temperature and current signals simultaneously.

  11. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Zhirong, E-mail: xinzhirong2012@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Yan, Shunjie [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PNVP and PHMG components were covalently immobilized on PP{sub NWF} surface. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG possessed bacterial adhesion-resistant and bactericidal capabilities. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG obviously suppressed platelet and red blood cell adhesion. - Abstract: A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PP{sub NWF} samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  12. Effect of Surface Passivation on Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance of WO3 Vertical Plate-Like Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available WO3 vertical plate-like arrays provide a direct pathway for charge transport, and thus hold great potential as working electrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting. However, surface recombination due to surface defects hinders the performance improvement. In this work, WO3 vertical plate-like arrays films with HfO2 passivation layer were fabricated via a simple dip-coating method. In the images of transmission electron microscope, a fluffy layer and some small sphere particles existed on the surface of WO3 plate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed a higher concentration of Hf element than the result of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, which means that HfO2 is rich on the surface of WO3 plates. A higher photocurrent under visible light irradiation was gained with surface passivation. Meanwhile, the results of intensity modulated photocurrent spectrum (IMPS and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE indicate that HfO2 passivation layer, acting as a barrier for the interfacial recombination, is responsible for the improved photoelectrochemical performance of WO3 vertical plate-like arrays film.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  14. Unintentional consequences of dual mode plasma reactors: Implications for upscaling lab-record silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jingnan; To, Alexander; Lennon, Alison; Hoex, Bram

    2017-08-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) synthesised by low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is the most extensively used antireflection coating for crystalline silicon solar cells because of its tunable refractive index in combination with excellent levels of surface and bulk passivation. This has attracted a significant amount of research on developing SiN x films towards an optimal electrical and optical performance. Typically, recipes are first optimised in lab-scale reactors and subsequently, the best settings are transferred to high-throughput reactors. In this paper, we show that for one particular, but widely used, PECVD reactor configuration this upscaling is severely hampered by an important experimental artefact. Specifically, we report on the unintentional deposition of a dual layer structure in a dual mode AK 400 plasma reactor from Roth & Rau which has a significant impact on its surface passivation performance. It is found that the radio frequency (RF) substrate bias ignites an unintentional depositing plasma before the ignition of the main microwave (MW) plasma. This RF plasma deposits a Si-rich intervening SiN x layer (refractive index = 2.4) while using a recipe for stoichiometric SiN x . This layer was found to be 18 nm thick in our case and had an extraordinary impact on the Si surface passivation, witnessed by a reduction in effective surface recombination velocity from 22.5 to 6.2 cm/s. This experimental result may explain some “out of the ordinary” excellent surface passivation results reported recently for nearly stoichiometric SiN x films and has significant consequences when transferring these results to high-throughput deposition systems.

  15. Delayed charge recovery discrimination of passivated surface alpha events in P-type point-contact detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszko, J.; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would demonstrate that lepton number is not a conserved quantity in nature, with implications for grand-unification and for explaining the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In the Majorana Demonstrator, events have been observed that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating on the passivated surface, leading to a potential background contribution in the region-of-interest for neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, charges drift through the bulk onto that surface, and then drift along it with greatly reduced mobility. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of these events and the development of a filter that can identify the occurrence of this delayed charge recovery, allowing for the efficient rejection of passivated surface alpha events in analysis.

  16. The effect of light soaking on crystalline silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochen; Stangl, Rolf; Mueller, Thomas; Lin, Fen; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Hoex, Bram

    2013-01-01

    The effect of light soaking of crystalline silicon wafer lifetime samples surface passivated by thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is investigated in this paper. Contrary to other passivation materials used in solar cell applications (i.e., SiO2, SiNx), using thermal ALD Al2O3, an increase in effective carrier lifetime after light soaking under standard testing conditions is observed for both p-type (˜45%) and n-type (˜60%) FZ c-Si lifetime samples. After light soaking and storing the samples in a dark and dry environment, the effective lifetime decreases again and practically returns to the value before light soaking. The rate of lifetime decrease after light soaking is significantly slower than the rate of lifetime increase by light soaking. To investigate the underlying mechanism, corona charge experiments are carried out on p-type c-Si samples before and after light soaking. The results indicate that the negative fixed charge density Qf present in the Al2O3 films increases due to the light soaking, which results in an improved field-effect passivation. Numerical calculations also confirm that the improved field-effect passivation is the main contributor for the increased effective lifetime after light soaking. To further understand the light soaking phenomenon, a kinetic model—a charge trapping/de-trapping model—is proposed to explain the time dependent behavior of the lifetime increase/decrease observed under/after light soaking. The trap model fits the experimental results very well. The observed light enhanced passivation for ALD Al2O3 passivated c-Si is of technological relevance, because solar cell devices operate under illumination, thus an increase in solar cell efficiency due to light soaking can be expected.

  17. Passive manipulation of free-surface instability by deformable solid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Shivam; Shankar, V

    2016-07-01

    the liquid-solid interface can be induced by wall deformability and inertia in the fluid and solid. Interestingly, the onset of these additional instabilities is sensitive to the relative placements of the two solid layers comprising the bilayer. We show that it is possible to delay the onset of these additional instabilities, while still suppressing the free-surface instability, by manipulating the ratio of the shear moduli and the thicknesses of the two solid layers in the bilayer. At moderate Reynolds number and finite wave number, we demonstrate that an exchange of modes occurs between the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfacial modes as the solid bilayer becomes more deformable. We demonstrate further that dissipative effects in the individual solid layers have an important bearing on the stability of the system, and they could also be exploited in suppressing the instability. This study thus shows that the ability to passively manipulate and control interfacial instabilities increases substantially with the use of solid bilayers.

  18. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar

  19. Self-assembled growth of nanostructural Ge islands on bromine-passivated Si(111) surfaces at room temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal K Das; B N Dev; B Sundaravel; E Z Luo; J B Xu; I H Wilson

    2002-07-01

    We have deposited relatively thick (∼ 60 nm) Ge layers on Br-passivated Si(111) substrates by thermal evaporation under high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Ge has grown in a layer-plus-island mode although it is different from the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode observed in epitaxial growth. Both the islands and the layer are nanocrystalline. This appears to be a consequence of reduction of surface free energy of the Si(111) substrate by Br-passivation. The size distribution of the Ge nanoislands has been determined. The Br–Si(111) substrates were prepared by a liquid treatment, which may not produce exactly reproducible surfaces. Nevertheless, some basic features of the nanostructural island growth are reasonably reproducible, while there are variations in the details of the island size distribution.

  20. Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity and Wind from The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Tang, W.; Hayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, the first Earth Science Decadal Survey mission, was launched January 31, 2015 to provide high-resolution, frequent-revisit global mapping of soil moisture. SMAP has two instruments, a polarimetric radiometer and a multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar. Both instruments operate at L-band frequencies (~ 1GHz) and share a single 6-m rotating mesh antenna, producing a fixed incidence angle conical scan at 40⁰ across a 1000-km swath and a 2-3 day global revisit. The SMAP SSS and ocean surface wind retrieval algorithm developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory leverages the QuikSCAT and Aquarius algorithms to account for the two-look geometry (fore and aft looks from the conical scan) and dual-polarization observations for simultaneous retrieval of SSS and wind speed. The retrieval algorithm has been applied to more than three months of SMAP radiometer data. Comparison with the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) wind speed suggests that the SMAP wind speed reaches an accuracy of about 0.7 ms-1. The preliminary assessment of the SMAP SSS products gridded at 50 km spatial resolution and weekly intervals is promising. The spatial patterns of the SSS agree well with climatological distributions, but exhibit several unique spatial and temporal features. The temporal evolutions of freshwater plumes from several major rivers, such as the Amazon, Niger, Congo, Ganges, and Mississippi, are all consistent with the timing of rainy and dry seasons, indicated in the SMAP's soil moisture products. Rigorous accuracy assessment will be performed by comparison with in situ SSS data from buoys and ARGO floats. The SMAP evaluation products will be released to the public prior to November 2015.

  1. Development of a passive and remote magnetic microsensor with thin-film giant magnetoimpedance element and surface acoustic wave transponder

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowais, Hommood

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a wireless magnetic field sensor consisting of a three-layer thin-film giant magnetoimpedance sensor and a surface acoustic wave device on one substrate. The goal of this integration is a passive and remotely interrogated sensor that can be easily mass fabricated using standard microfabrication tools. The design parameters, fabrication process, and a model of the integrated sensor are presented together with experimental results of the sensor. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOyNx-Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Chun-Lan; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Su; Wang, Wen-Jing

    2016-12-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiOyNx/SiNx stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiOyNx layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Dit and fixed charge Qf, and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance-voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiOyNx layer between the SiNx and the silicon wafer can suppress Qf in the film and Dit at the interface. The positive Qf and Dit and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiOyNx film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N2O/SiH4 flow rate, the SiOyNx/SiNx stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (Seff) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm-5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between Seff and Dit suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA050302) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306076).

  3. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Z. H., E-mail: zaffar.zaidi@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, The University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    In this work, we have compared SiN{sub x} passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 μA/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN{sub x} passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ∼215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D{sub it}) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN{sub x} passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D{sub it} and improves the surface related current collapse.

  4. Investigation of the surface passivation mechanism through an Ag-doped Al-rich film using a solution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-14

    Electronic recombination loss is an important issue for photovoltaic (PV) devices. While it can be reduced by using a passivating layer, most of the techniques used to prepare passivating layers are either not cost effective or not applicable for device applications. Previously, it was reported that a low cost sol-gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) film serves as an effective passivating layer for p-type silicon but is not effective for n-type silicon. Herein, we studied the elemental composition of the film and the interfacial structure of ZnO:Al:Ag/n-Si using TEM, XPS, FTIR, and SIMS analyses. The XPS analysis revealed that Ag-rich zones randomly formed in the film near the ZnO:Al:Ag//n-Si interface, which induced a positive charge at the interface. The maximal value of the effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff ≈ 1581 μs) is obtained for a wafer using the ZnO:Al:Ag passivating layer with RAg/Zn = 2%. The corresponding limiting surface recombination velocity is ∼16 cm s(-1). The FTIR absorption area of Si-H bonds is used to calculate the hydrogen content in the film. The hydrogen content is increased with increasing Ag content up to RAg/Zn = 2% to a maximal value of 3.89 × 10(22) atoms per cm(3) from 3.03 × 10(22) atoms per cm(3) for RAg/Zn = 0%. The positive charge induced at the interface may cause band bending, which would produce an electric field that repels the minority charge carriers from the interface to the bulk of n-Si. Two basic phenomena, chemical passivation due to Si-H bonding and field effect passivation due to the charge induced at the interface, have been observed for effective passivation of the n-Si surface. An implied Voc of 688.1 mV is obtained at an illumination intensity of 1 sun.

  5. Effective optimization of surface passivation on porous silicon carbide using atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    2017-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide (B–N co-doped SiC) produced by anodic oxidation showed strong photoluminescence (PL) at around 520 nm excited by a 375 nm laser. The porous SiC samples were passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films, resulting in a significant enhancement...... of the PL intensity (up to 689%). The effect of thickness, annealing temperature, annealing duration and precursor purge time on the PL intensity of ALD Al2O3 films was investigated. In order to investigate the penetration depth and passivation effect in porous SiC, the samples were characterized by X......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-resolved PL. The optimized passivation conditions (20 nm Al2O3 deposited at 160 °C with purge time of 20 s, followed by an annealing for 5 min at 350 °C) for porous SiC were achieved and the results indicate that surface passivation by ALD Al2O3 thin films is a very...

  6. Insulated gate and surface passivation structures for GaN-based power transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    structures as well as different characterization methods, including our own photo-assisted C-V technique, essential for understanding and developing successful surface passivation and interface control schemes, are given in the subsequent section. Finally we highlight the important progress in GaN MIS interfaces that have recently pushed the frontier of nitride-based device technology.

  7. 基于有/无源混合执行器的力觉交互装置%Haptic interaction device based on active/passive hybrid actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴金桥; 王爱民; 宋爱国; 张小瑞

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve such problems as big volume,poor safety and stability as well as inability to impose force on manipulator actively in haptic interaction devices singly driven by active or passive actuators in a virtual reality system,a haptic interaction device cooperatively driven by active/passive hybrid actuator was proposed.Through analyzing the structure,realization principle and performance of a passive rheological motor,the design method for the haptic interaction device based on the passive rheological motor/active motor was studied.The device has such structural characteristic that the output force is generated through the cooperative driving of both active motor and passive rheological motor.The control method of haptic interaction device based on the hybrid actuator was proposed.In addition,a haptic interaction platform was established and some experimental research was performed.The results verify that the haptic interaction device based on active/passive hybrid actuator not only overcomes the disadvantages of the haptic interaction device based on single active or passive actuators,but also has such advantages as high fidelity and big controllable range of output force.%针对虚拟现实系统中由有源或无源执行器单独驱动的力觉交互装置存在体积大、安全稳定性差和无法主动给操作者施加力等问题,提出了一种由有/无源混合执行器共同驱动的力觉交互装置.在分析无源流变电机结构、实现原理和性能的基础上,研究了基于无源流变电机/有源电机力觉交互装置的设计方法,其结构特点是输出力在有源电机和无源流变电机的共同驱动下产生.提出了基于混合执行器的力觉交互装置控制方法,构建了力觉交互平台并进行了实验研究.实验结果表明,基于有/无源混合执行器的力觉交互装置,不仅克服了基于有源或无源执行器力觉交互装置的缺点,还具有高保真性和输出力可控制范围大等优点.

  8. Very low surface recombination velocities on p-type silicon wafers passivated with a dielectric with fixed negative charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinelli, G.; Delabie, A.; Dekkers, H.F.W.; De Wolf, S.; Beaucarne, G. [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven (Belgium); Vitanov, P.; Alexieva, Z. [CL SENES, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-11-23

    Surface recombination velocities as low as 10cm/s have been obtained by treated atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on p-type CZ silicon wafers. Low surface recombination is achieved by means of field induced surface passivation due to a high density of negative charges stored at the interface. In comparison to a diffused back surface field, an external field source allows for higher band bending, that is, a better performance. While this process yields state of the art results, it is not suited for large-scale production. Preliminary results on an industrially viable, alternative process based on a pseudo-binary system containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are presented, too. With this process, surface recombination velocities of 500-1000cm/s have been attained on mc-Si wafers. (author)

  9. Verifying field-effect passivation of a SiNx layer on a silicon nanopillar array using surface photovoltage characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunah; Cho, Yunae; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    In silicon (Si) wafer based photovoltaic (PV) devices, light-trapping strategies to improve optical absorption are very important due to the indirect bandgap of Si. Surface nano-patterned Si enable omnidirectional broadband antireflection (AR) effects with the help of graded refractive index, multiple scattering, diffraction, and Mie resonance. In this work, the surface photovoltage (SPV) of periodic nanopillar (NP) arrays were investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The SPV characteristics clearly revealed that positive fixed charges in SiNx layers induced downward band bending at the Si surface and increased SPV at the NP top surface. The similar SPV value of NPs and planar counterpart suggests that field effect passivation by the dielectric layer coating could help improve PV performance of nanostructure-based Si solar cells and that KPFM measurements are useful tool for quantitative investigation of surface electrical properties of Si nanostructures.

  10. An atomistic-continuum hybrid simulation of fluid flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiang; He, Guo-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have found that slip length could be as large as on the order of 1 μm for fluid flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved by patterning roughness on hydrophobic surfaces. In the present paper, an atomistic-continuum hybrid approach is developed to simulate the Couette flows over superhydrophobic surfaces, in which a molecular dynamics simulation is used in a small region near the superhydrophobic surface where the continuum assumption i...

  11. Effect of surface passivating ligand on structural and optoelectronic properties of polymer : CdSe quantum dot composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Kusum; Vankar, V D [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Shailesh N; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Vikram [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kakkar, Rita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)], E-mail: kusumiitd@gmail.com

    2008-12-07

    We demonstrate the effect of surface passivation of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) ({approx}5-7 nm) by tri-n-octylphosphene-oxide (TOPO) and oleic acid (OA) on the structural and optoelectronic properties of their respective polymer : CdSe composites by dispersing them in poly(2-methoxy-5(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylinevinylene) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymers. It has been found that OA passivated-QDs ({approx}7 nm), as compared with TOPO passivated CdSe QDs ({approx}5 nm), are of (i) high quality that provide better steric stability against coagulation, homogeneity and photostability to their respective polymer : CdSe composites, (ii) show low value of Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}) calculated from photoluminescence quenching measurements. These effects have been attributed to (i) CdSe(OA) ({approx}7 nm) particles having relatively smaller surface energies compared with CdSe(TOPO) ({approx}5 nm) particles thus showing lesser quenching capabilities (ii) dominance of respective processes of photoinduced Foerster energy transfer between host polymer (donors) and guest CdSe nanocrystals (acceptors) in polymer : CdSe(OA) composites and charge transfer in polymer : CdSe(TOPO) composites.

  12. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  13. Increased carrier mobility and lifetime in CdSe quantum dot thin films through surface trap passivation and doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Daniel B; Goodwin, E D; Gaulding, E Ashley; Muramoto, Shin; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2015-11-19

    Passivating surface defects and controlling the carrier concentration and mobility in quantum dot (QD) thin films is prerequisite to designing electronic and optoelectronic devices. We investigate the effect of introducing indium in CdSe QD thin films on the dark mobility and the photogenerated carrier mobility and lifetime using field-effect transistor (FET) and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements. We evaporate indium films ranging from 1 to 11 nm in thickness on top of approximately 40 nm thick thiocyanate-capped CdSe QD thin films and anneal the QD films at 300 °C to densify and drive diffusion of indium through the films. As the amount of indium increases, the FET and TRMC mobilities and the TRMC lifetime increase. The increase in mobility and lifetime is consistent with increased indium passivating midgap and band-tail trap states and doping the films, shifting the Fermi energy closer to and into the conduction band.

  14. A "Green" Passivation of Zinc containing surfaces as an alternative to chromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    With view to a replacement for chromate passivation, Molyphos was developed under the Danish Materials Programme I (MUP I). In the Danish Materials Programme II(MUP II), the further development of Molyphos a molybdate phosphate conversion coating has been undertaken by application of a sealer to ...

  15. On the Control of the Fixed Charge Densities in Al2O3-Based Silicon Surface Passivation Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniel K; Jordan, Paul M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2015-12-30

    A controlled field-effect passivation by a well-defined density of fixed charges is crucial for modern solar cell surface passivation schemes. Al2O3 nanolayers grown by atomic layer deposition contain negative fixed charges. Electrical measurements on slant-etched layers reveal that these charges are located within a 1 nm distance to the interface with the Si substrate. When inserting additional interface layers, the fixed charge density can be continuously adjusted from 3.5 × 10(12) cm(-2) (negative polarity) to 0.0 and up to 4.0 × 10(12) cm(-2) (positive polarity). A HfO2 interface layer of one or more monolayers reduces the negative fixed charges in Al2O3 to zero. The role of HfO2 is described as an inert spacer controlling the distance between Al2O3 and the Si substrate. It is suggested that this spacer alters the nonstoichiometric initial Al2O3 growth regime, which is responsible for the charge formation. On the basis of this charge-free HfO2/Al2O3 stack, negative or positive fixed charges can be formed by introducing additional thin Al2O3 or SiO2 layers between the Si substrate and this HfO2/Al2O3 capping layer. All stacks provide very good passivation of the silicon surface. The measured effective carrier lifetimes are between 1 and 30 ms. This charge control in Al2O3 nanolayers allows the construction of zero-fixed-charge passivation layers as well as layers with tailored fixed charge densities for future solar cell concepts and other field-effect based devices.

  16. Effect of passivation and surface modification on the dissolution behavior and nano-surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V in Hank/EDTA solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of passivation treatment (34% nitric acid passivation, 400 ( composite function)C heated in air, and aged in 100 ( composite function)C de-ionized water) and surface modification (2 hr and 8 hr vacuum-brazed treatments) on the ion dissolution and nano-surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V exposed in Hank's solution with 8.0 mM ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) at 37 ( composite function)C. The results indicated that the original nano-surface characteristics and microstructure would influence the ion dissolution but not change the capability of the Ca and P adsorption upon immersion. Of the three passivated treatments, 400 ( composite function)C thermal treatment for both 2 hr brazed Ti-6Al-4V (B2) and 8 hr brazed Ti-6Al-4V (B8) exhibits a substantial reduction in the constituent release compared to the acid passivated and water aged treatment, because the thicker thickness and rutile structure of surface oxide could provide the better dissolution resistance for 400 ( composite function)C-treated specimens. Moreover, the reduced Ti(2)Cu and increased alpha -titanium structure in B8 specimen could also improve ion dissolution resistance in comparison with B2 specimen. After soaking in Hank/EDTA solution, the adsorbed non-elemental Ca and P for all groups of specimens were observed by XPS analysis, and the AES depth-profile analysis indicate that the oxide films of all groups of specimens thicken with the longer immersion periods. The increasing oxide thickness may be the factor in the improved dissolution resistance at the longer immersion periods. The relation between lower dissolution rate and thicker oxide films were observed for all groups of specimens. The results suggest that the dissolution kinetics was governed by the metal ion transport through the oxide film in this study.

  17. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Indranil [Materials Characterization and Instrumentation Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO nanorods was synthesized by solution method. • Surface defects were found in the nanorods. • The hybrid material exhibited an enhancement in visible light absorption. • A long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity of the material was found. • Advancement in the properties would be PANI hybridization and surface defects. - Abstract: We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV–vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors

  18. Low Cost, Low Power, Passive Muon Telescope for Interrogating Martian Sub-Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Tanaka, Hirukui; Naudet, Charles; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Webb, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated on Earth that a low power, passive muon detector can penetrate deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size providing high density images of their interiors. Muon tomography is an entirely new class of planetary instrumentation that is ideally suited to address key areas in Mars Science, such as: the search for life and habitable environments, the distribution and state of water and ice and the level of geologic activity on Mars today.

  19. Modelling the passive microwave signature from land surfaces: a review of recent results and application to the SMOS & SMAP soil moisture retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two passive microwave missions are currently operating at L-band to monitor surface soil moisture (SM) over continental surfaces. The SMOS sensor, based on an innovative interferometric technology enabling multi-angular signatures of surfaces to be measured, was launched in November 2009....

  20. Efficient and Anisotropic Fog Harvesting on a Hybrid and Directional Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2016-12-05

    A straight throughout superhydrophilic track that contains high contrast and directional wettability on a superhydrophobic surface is designed. Despite droplets that tend to slide more easily along a direction parallel to the track, it is found that such hybrid strip-pattern surfaces have higher fog harvesting efficiency along a direction perpendicular to the tracks due to the larger accumulation area for droplet removal.

  1. Delayed charge recovery discrimination of passivated surface alpha events in P-type point-contact detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gruszko, J; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fullmer, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Leon, J; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{76}$Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would demonstrate that lepton number is not a conserved quantity in nature, with implications for grand-unification and for explaining the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In the Majorana Demonstrator, events have been observed that are consistent with energy- degraded alphas originating on the passivated surface, leading to a potential background contribution in the region-of-interest for neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, charges drift through the bulk onto that surface, and then drift along it with greatly reduced mobility. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this c...

  2. Effects of Low Temperature Anneal on the Interface Properties of Thermal Silicon Oxide for Silicon Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Chung, Sungyoun; Ju, Minkyu; Raja, Jayapal; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for reducing the surface recombination and hence fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner wafers. The formation of good-quality SiO2 films and SiO2/Si interfaces at low processing temperatures is a prerequisite for improving the conversion efficiency of industrial solar cells with better passivation. High-temperature annealing in inert ambient is promising to improve the SiO2/Si interface. However, annealing treatments could cause negative effects on SiO2/Si interfaces due to its chemical at high temperatures. Low temperature post oxidation annealing has been carried out to investigate the structural and interface properties of Si-SiO2 system. Quasi Steady State Photo Conductance measurements shows a promising effective carrier lifetime of 420 μs, surface recombination velocity of 22 cm/s and a low interface trap density (D(it)) of 4 x 10(11) states/cm2/eV after annealing. The fixed oxide charge density was reduced to 1 x 10(11)/cm2 due to the annealing at 500 degrees C. The FWHM and the Si-O peak wavenumber corresponding to the samples annealed at 500 degrees C reveals that the Si dangling bonds in the SiO2 films due to the oxygen defects was reduced by the low temperature post oxidation annealing.

  3. Surface passivation of c-Si for silicon heterojunction solar cells using high-pressure hydrogen diluted plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Deligiannis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate excellent c-Si surface passivation by depositing a-Si:H in the high-pressure and high hydrogen dilution regime. By using high hydrogen dilution of the precursor gases during deposition the hydrogen content of the layers is sufficiently increased, while the void fraction is reduced, resulting in dense material. Results show a strong dependence of the lifetime on the substrate temperature and a weaker dependence on the hydrogen dilution. After applying a post-deposition annealing step on the samples equilibration of the lifetime occurs independent of the initial nanostructure.

  4. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  5. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  6. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  7. Field-testing of a Passive Surface Water Flux Meter for the Direct Measurement of Water and Solute Mass Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, E. C.; Jawitz, J. W.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of water and solute mass discharges in surface water flow systems is a fundamental hydrologic task for ecological and economic decision making. However, due to the extensive monetary, labor, and time costs of traditional monitoring devices and methods, many water quality monitoring programs lack the resources necessary to provide comprehensive descriptions of surface water impairments. The Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM) is a recently developed passive sampling device that measures water and solute fluxes within flowing surface water bodies. Devoid of mechanical components and power supply requirements, the relatively low-maintenance, low-cost design of the PSFM gives it considerable potential as a tool for extensive, large-scale surface water quality characterization and monitoring. The novelty of the PSFM extends to its direct mass-based approach to solute flux measurement, as compared to conventional, indirect concentration-based approaches. During this field-testing campaign, the PSFM was deployed in flowing surface water bodies of north- central Florida. The device contained a dual-packed porous media cartridge that performed simultaneous ion exchange to determine phosphate mass flux and equilibrium tracer desorption to determine water flux within the stream. The PSFM demonstrated accurate measurement of steady-state water and phosphate mass fluxes to within 15% over a range of stream velocities, solute concentrations, and deployment durations. The PSFM design described here was found to perform well in steady-flow conditions. The device was also shown to be effective under transient conditions of limited variability, but full transient testing remains for future work.

  8. Role of field-effect on c-Si surface passivation by ultrathin (2-20 nm) atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlinden, N. M.; Dingemans, G.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2010-03-01

    Al2O3 synthesized by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition yields excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) for films down to ˜5 nm in thickness. Optical second-harmonic generation was employed to distinguish between the influence of field-effect passivation and chemical passivation through the measurement of the electric field in the c-Si space-charge region. It is demonstrated that this electric field—and hence the negative fixed charge density—is virtually unaffected by the Al2O3 thickness between 2 and 20 nm indicating that a decrease in chemical passivation causes the reduced passivation performance for <5 nm thick Al2O3 films.

  9. Tunable hybridization of electronic states of graphene and a metal surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gruneis, Alexander; Vyalikh, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to monitor and control the strength of the hybridization between electronic states of graphene and metal surfaces. Inspecting the distribution of the $\\pi$ band in a high-quality graphene layer synthesized on Ni(111) by angle-resolved photoemission, we observe a new "kink" feature which indicates a strong hybridization between $\\pi$ and \\textit{d} states of graphene and nickel, respectively. Upon deposition and gradual intercalation of potassium atoms into the graphene/...

  10. Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency by Douglas M. Kroll B.S...Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase

  11. An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley–Read–Hall recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2015-07-24

    We present a detailed study on the effects of dangling bond passivation and the comparison of different sulfides passivation process on the properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-disk (Qdisk)-in-nanowire based light emitting diodes (NW-LEDs). Our results demonstrated the first organic sulfide passivation process for nitride nanowires (NWs). The results from Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed octadecylthiol (ODT) effectively passivated the surface states, and altered the surface dynamic charge, thereby recovered the band-edge emission. The effectiveness of the process with passivation duration was also studied. Moreover, we also compared the electro-optical performance of NW-LEDs emitting at green wavelength before and after ODT passivation. We have shown that the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) non-radiative recombination of NW-LEDs can be greatly reduced after passivation by ODT, which led to a much faster increasing trend of quantum efficiency, and higher peak efficiency. Our results highlighted the research opportunity in employing this technique for further design and realization of high performance NW-LEDs and NW-lasers.

  12. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  13. Development of a surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical biosensing hybrid platform for multiparametric reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Fariña, David; Escuela, Alfonso M.; Sendra, Jose Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid platform that combines two well-known biosensing technologies based on quite different transducer principles: surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical sensing. The new system allows the simultaneous and real-time detection of two independent parameters, refractive index change (Δn), and surface stress change (Δσ) when a biomolecular interaction takes place. Both parameters have a direct relation with the mass coverage of the sensor surface. The core of the platform is a common fluid cell, where the solution arrives to both sensor areas at the same time and under the same conditions (temperature, velocity, diffusion, etc.).The main objective of this integration is to achieve a better understanding of the physical behaviour of the transducers during sensing, increasing the information obtained in real time in one single experiment. The potential of the hybrid platform is demonstrated by the detection of DNA hybridization.

  14. Development of a surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical biosensing hybrid platform for multiparametric reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Fariña, David; Escuela, Alfonso M; Sendra, Jose Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid platform that combines two well-known biosensing technologies based on quite different transducer principles: surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical sensing. The new system allows the simultaneous and real-time detection of two independent parameters, refractive index change (Δn), and surface stress change (Δσ) when a biomolecular interaction takes place. Both parameters have a direct relation with the mass coverage of the sensor surface. The core of the platform is a common fluid cell, where the solution arrives to both sensor areas at the same time and under the same conditions (temperature, velocity, diffusion, etc.).The main objective of this integration is to achieve a better understanding of the physical behaviour of the transducers during sensing, increasing the information obtained in real time in one single experiment. The potential of the hybrid platform is demonstrated by the detection of DNA hybridization.

  15. Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gema; Ortega, Pablo R; Voz, Cristóbal; Martín, Isidro; Colina, Mónica; Morales, Anna B; Orpella, Albert; Alcubilla, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the surface passivation of aluminum oxide/amorphous silicon carbide (Al2O3/a-SiCx) stacks on both p-type and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates as well as the optical characterization of these stacks. Al2O3 films of different thicknesses were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 200 °C and were complemented with a layer of a-SiCx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form anti-reflection coating (ARC) stacks with a total thickness of 75 nm. A comparative study has been carried out on polished and randomly textured wafers. We have experimentally determined the optimum thickness of the stack for photovoltaic applications by minimizing the reflection losses over a wide wavelength range (300-1200 nm) without compromising the outstanding passivation properties of the Al2O3 films. The upper limit of the surface recombination velocity (S eff,max) was evaluated at a carrier injection level corresponding to 1-sun illumination, which led to values below 10 cm/s. Reflectance values below 2% were measured on textured samples over the wavelength range of 450-1000 nm.

  16. Large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow and passive scalar dispersion over idealized urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows and scalar transport inside and above urban canopies. In this study, LES is used to simulate the dispersion of passive scalar over idealized urban surfaces represented by uniform arrays of cubes. A modulated gradient subgird-scale (SGS) model is used to parametrize the SGS fluxes of momentum and scalar, and an immersed boundary method is used to model the presence of cubes. A similar LES framework for flow was validated in our previous studies in simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow past a 2D block and a uniform array of cubes. Here, the LES framework is further validated with wind tunnel experimental data of passive scalar dispersion within and above a staggered array of cubes with a localized scalar source at ground level. Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data are found in the vertical and horizontal profiles of scalar concentration in different streamwise locations. After the validation, the LES framework is used to simulate the scalar transport at rural-to-urban flow transition region and the results obtained are presented.

  17. Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema López

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the surface passivation of aluminum oxide/amorphous silicon carbide (Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on both p-type and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si substrates as well as the optical characterization of these stacks. Al2O3 films of different thicknesses were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD at 200 °C and were complemented with a layer of a-SiCx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD to form anti-reflection coating (ARC stacks with a total thickness of 75 nm. A comparative study has been carried out on polished and randomly textured wafers. We have experimentally determined the optimum thickness of the stack for photovoltaic applications by minimizing the reflection losses over a wide wavelength range (300–1200 nm without compromising the outstanding passivation properties of the Al2O3 films. The upper limit of the surface recombination velocity (Seff,max was evaluated at a carrier injection level corresponding to 1-sun illumination, which led to values below 10 cm/s. Reflectance values below 2% were measured on textured samples over the wavelength range of 450–1000 nm.

  18. Trapped charge densities in Al2O3-based silicon surface passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul M.; Simon, Daniel K.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    In Al2O3-based passivation layers, the formation of fixed charges and trap sites can be strongly influenced by small modifications in the stack layout. Fixed and trapped charge densities are characterized with capacitance voltage profiling and trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing, respectively. Al2O3 layers are grown by atomic layer deposition with very thin (˜1 nm) SiO2 or HfO2 interlayers or interface layers. In SiO2/Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, both fixed charges and trap sites are reduced by at least a factor of 5 compared with the value measured in pure Al2O3. In Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3 or Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, very high total charge densities of up to 9 × 1012 cm-2 are achieved. These charge densities are described as functions of electrical stress voltage, time, and the Al2O3 layer thickness between silicon and the HfO2 or the SiO2 interlayer. Despite the strong variation of trap sites, all stacks reach very good effective carrier lifetimes of up to 8 and 20 ms on p- and n-type silicon substrates, respectively. Controlling the trap sites in Al2O3 layers opens the possibility to engineer the field-effect passivation in the solar cells.

  19. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  20. Effect of Hybrid Surface Modifications on Tensile Properties of Polyacrylonitrile- and Pitch-Based Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Recent interest has emerged in techniques that modify the surfaces of carbon fibers, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) grafting or polymer coating. Hybridization of these surface modifications has the potential to generate highly tunable, high-performance materials. In this study, the mechanical properties of surface-modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based and pitch-based carbon fibers were investigated. Single-filament tensile tests were performed for fibers modified by CNT grafting, dipped polyimide coating, high-temperature vapor deposition polymerized polyimide coating, grafting-dipping hybridization, and grafting-vapor deposition hybridization. The Weibull statistical distributions of the tensile strengths of the surface-modified PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers were examined. All surface modifications, especially hybrid modifications, improved the tensile strengths and Weibull moduli of the carbon fibers. The results exhibited a linear relationship between the Weibull modulus and average tensile strength on a log-log scale for all surface-modified PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers.

  1. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  2. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M

    2012-03-26

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  3. Photoluminescence intensity enhancement of GaAs by vapor-deposited GaS - A rational approach to surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Power, Michael B.; Macinnes, Andrew N.; Barron, Andrew R.

    1993-01-01

    A two order-of-magnitude enhancement of photoluminescence intensity relative to untreated GaAs has been observed for GaAs surfaces coated with chemical vapor-deposited GaS. The increase in photoluminescence intensity can be viewed as an effective reduction in surface recombination velocity and/or band bending. The gallium cluster (/t-Bu/GaS)4 was used as a single-source precursor for the deposition of GaS thin films. The cubane core of the structurally-characterized precursor is retained in the deposited film producing a cubic phase. Furthermore, a near-epitaxial growth is observed for the GaS passivating layer. Films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopies.

  4. Passive oxide films on well-defined nickel surfaces: An examination of film growth on Ni(100) with ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitus, C.M.; Davenport, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The surface morphology and atomic structure of air-formed and passive oxide films on a Ni(100) single crystal is presented. The passive oxide film was formed in a 0.15N Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH = 2.8) anodized at 0.0 V vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reference.

  5. Hybridization of poly(rI) with poly(rC) adsorbed to the carbon nanotube surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtsev, Maksym V; Gladchenko, Galyna O; Leontiev, Victor S; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2014-04-01

    Hybridization of homopolynucleotide poly(rC) adsorbed to the carbon nanotube surface with poly(rI) free in solution has been studied by absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics method. It was found that hybridization on the nanotube surface has a slow kinetics, the behavior of which differs essentially from fast hybridization of free polymers. The duplex obtained is characterized with the reduced thermostability and a lower hyperchromic coefficient than it was observed when the duplex was formed in the absence of the nanotube. These features point to the imperfectness in the structure of the duplex hybridized on the nanotube surface. Computer simulation showed that the strong interaction of nitrogen bases with the nanotube surface weakens significantly hybridization of two complementary oligomers, as the surface prevents the necessary conformational mobility of the polymer to be hybridized.

  6. Hybridization of poly(rI) with poly(rC) adsorbed to the carbon nanotube surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtsev, Maksym V.; Gladchenko, Galyna O.; Leontiev, Victor S.; Karachevtsev, Victor A.

    2014-04-01

    Hybridization of homopolynucleotide poly(rC) adsorbed to the carbon nanotube surface with poly(rI) free in solution has been studied by absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics method. It was found that hybridization on the nanotube surface has a slow kinetics, the behavior of which differs essentially from fast hybridization of free polymers. The duplex obtained is characterized with the reduced thermostability and a lower hyperchromic coefficient than it was observed when the duplex was formed in the absence of the nanotube. These features point to the imperfectness in the structure of the duplex hybridized on the nanotube surface. Computer simulation showed that the strong interaction of nitrogen bases with the nanotube surface weakens significantly hybridization of two complementary oligomers, as the surface prevents the necessary conformational mobility of the polymer to be hybridized.

  7. Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in sub-wavelength microdisk lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Perahia, R; Safavi-Naeini, A; Painter, O

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization of surface-plasmon and dielectric waveguide whispering-gallery modes are demonstrated in a semiconductor microdisk laser cavity of sub-wavelength proportions. A metal layer is deposited on top of the semiconductor microdisk, the radius of which is systematically varied to enable mode hybridization between surface-plasmon and dielectric modes. The anti-crossing behavior of the two cavity mode types is experimentally observed via photoluminescence spectroscopy and optically pumped lasing action at a wavelength of 1.3 micron is achieved at room temperature.

  8. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Wang, Christine A.; Connors, Michael K.; Turner, George W.; Dashiell, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The "hybrid" back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant short-circuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  9. Modeling, control and experimental testing of a supercapacitor/battery hybrid system : passive and semi-active topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Seim, Lars Hagvaag

    2012-01-01

    Supercapacitors possess unique properties that can complement other energy storage technologies in hybrid electric energy systems. Due to its performance characteristics - such as fast charge and discharge capability, high power density and high recycleability - a supercapacitor can relieve the battery of narrow and repeated transient charging and discharging, ensuring longer battery life, enabling higher system peak power performance and improve system efficiency. An equivalent super...

  10. Hybrid Structures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: DNA Origami/Gold Nanoparticle Dimer/Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Julia; Matković, Aleksandar; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Bald, Ilko

    2016-10-01

    A combination of three innovative materials within one hybrid structure to explore the synergistic interaction of their individual properties is presented. The unique electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene are combined with the plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) dimers, which are assembled using DNA origami nanostructures. This novel hybrid structure is characterized by means of correlated atomic force microscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It is demonstrated that strong interactions between graphene and AuNPs result in superior SERS performance of the hybrid structure compared to their individual components. This is particularly evident in efficient fluorescence quenching, reduced background, and a decrease of the photobleaching rate up to one order of magnitude. The versatility of DNA origami structures to serve as interface for complex and precise arrangements of nanoparticles and other functional entities provides the basis to further exploit the potential of the here presented DNA origami-AuNP dimer-graphene hybrid structures.

  11. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhirong; Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PPNWF) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PPNWF samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  12. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  13. Dyes as bifunctional markers of DNA hybridization on surfaces and mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mendiola, Tania; Cerro, María Ramos; López-Moreno, José María; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of small molecules with DNA has found diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this work, we propose the use of two different dyes, in particular Azure A and Safranine, as bifunctional markers of on-surface DNA hybridization and potent tools for screening of specific gene mutations directly in real DNA PCR amplicons extracted from blood cells. By combining spectroscopic and electrochemical methods we demonstrate that both dyes can interact with single and double stranded DNA to a different extent, allowing reliable hybridization detection. From these data, we have also elucidated the nature of the interaction. We conclude that the binding mode is fundamentally intercalative with an electrostatic component. The dye fluorescence allows their use as nucleic acid stains for the detection of on-surfaces DNA hybridization. Its redox activity is exploited in the development of selective electrochemical DNA biosensors.

  14. Effect of nitride chemical passivation of the surface of GaAs photodiodes on their characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrosh, E. V.; Lebedeva, N. M.; Kalinovskiy, V. S.; Soldatenkov, F. Yu; Ulin, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    Characteristics of GaAs photodiodes have been studied before and after the chemical nitridation of their surface in hydrazine sulfide solutions, which leads to substitution of surface As atoms with N atoms to give a GaN monolayer. The resulting nitride coatings hinder the oxidation of GaAs in air and provide a decrease in the density of surface states involved in recombination processes. The device characteristics improved by nitridation are preserved during a long time.

  15. Passive Optical Technique to Measure Physical Properties of a Vibrating Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    was 25 megapascals, but the brief time produced only a small surface wave that propagated away from the point of impact. Sequence left to right are...optics treatise on reflectance, and defined relevant essentials of reflectance, first introducing the term bidirectional reflectance distribution...chosen to match the spatial extent of the data, ω=2π/λ is the frequency of the surface wave , λ is the wavelength of the surface wave , and ft is the time

  16. Retardation mechanism of ultrathin Al2O3 interlayer on Y2O3 passivated gallium nitride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2014-05-28

    A systematic investigation was carried out by incorporating an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as an interlayer between yttrium oxide (Y2O3) passivation layer and GaN substrate. The sandwiched samples were then subjected to postdeposition annealing in oxygen ambient from 400 to 800 °C. The Al2O3 interlayer was discovered to play a significant role in slowing down inward diffusion of oxygen through the Y2O3 passivation layer as well as in impeding outward diffusion of Ga(3+) and N(3-) from the decomposed GaN surface. These beneficial effects have suppressed subsequent formation of interfacial layer. A mechanism in association with the function of Al2O3 as an interlayer was suggested and discussed. The mechanism was explicitly described on the basis of the obtained results from X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, and electron energy loss spectroscopy line scan. A correlation between the proposed mechanism and metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of Y2O3/Al2O3/GaN structure has been proposed.

  17. The Innovative Directions In Development And Implementations Of Hybrid Technologies In Surface Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the development of modern technology depends, to a great extent, on the possibilities of producing the innovative materials with high functionality parameters, which could be used in modern, highly advanced technological processes. Surface engineering plays a very important role in this area. This is mainly due to the fact that, for many structural materials, the possibilities of classical formation of their properties (e.g., by heat treatment or the selection of the microstructure, chemical and phase composition have been practically used up. The material and technological achievements in the surface engineering area allow the modification of the properties of the surface layer of tool and machine components. As a result, they may be better suited to work in increasingly difficult and more demanding conditions. The hybrid technologies, combining several different methods of surface treatment in one complex technological process, are the most advanced solutions compared to already known surface engineering methods. In the article, the authors present the possibilities of shaping the functional properties of the surface layer. The authors describe problems associated with the development of the hybrid technology and provide the examples of physical modelling, design, technological development, and the practical application of a hybrid technology. In this work, the authors also identify the areas whose development is needed for more effective transfer of surface engineering innovations to business applications.

  18. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum transport in a hybrid metal nanoparticle array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lin; Nan, Yali; Xu, Shang; Zhang, Sishi; Han, Min, E-mail: sjhanmin@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-18

    Hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle arrays composed of randomly distributed Pd nanoparticles in dense packing and a small number of dispersed Ag nanoparticles were fabricated with controlled coverage. Photo-enhanced conductance was observed in the nanoparticle arrays. Largest enhancement, which can be higher than 20 folds, was obtained with 450 nm light illumination. This wavelength was found to correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. Electron transport measurements showed there were significant Coulomb blockade in the nanoparticle arrays and the blockade could be overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field of Ag nanoparticles induced by light illumination. - Highlights: • We study photo-enhanced electron conductance of a hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle array. • The light-induced conductance enhancement is as high as 20 folds at 10 K. • The enhancement is correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. • Coulomb blockades is overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field.

  19. Fabrication of Nanopillar Micropatterns by Hybrid Mask Lithography for Surface-Directed Liquid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Arai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for fabricating nanopillar micropatterns for surface-directed liquid flows. It employs hybrid mask lithography, which uses a mask consisting of a combination of a photoresist and nanoparticles in the photolithography process. The nanopillar density is controlled by varying the weight ratio of nanoparticles in the composite mask. Hybrid mask lithography was used to fabricate a surface-directed liquid flow. The effect of the surface-directed liquid flow, which was formed by the air-liquid interface due to nanopillar micropatterns, was evaluated, and the results show that the oscillation of microparticles, when the micro-tool was actuated, was dramatically reduced by using a surface-directed liquid flow. Moreover, the target particle was manipulated individually without non-oscillating ambient particles.

  20. Pool-Boiling Heat-Transfer Enhancement on Cylindrical Surfaces with Hybrid Wettable Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar C S, Sujith; Chang, Yao Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2017-04-10

    In this study, pool-boiling heat-transfer experiments were performed to investigate the effect of the number of interlines and the orientation of the hybrid wettable pattern. Hybrid wettable patterns were produced by coating superhydrophilic SiO2 on a masked, hydrophobic, cylindrical copper surface. Using de-ionized (DI) water as the working fluid, pool-boiling heat-transfer studies were conducted on the different surface-treated copper cylinders of a 25-mm diameter and a 40-mm length. The experimental results showed that the number of interlines and the orientation of the hybrid wettable pattern influenced the wall superheat and the HTC. By increasing the number of interlines, the HTC was enhanced when compared to the plain surface. Images obtained from the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera indicated that more bubbles formed on the interlines as compared to other parts. The hybrid wettable pattern with the lowermost section being hydrophobic gave the best heat-transfer coefficient (HTC). The experimental results indicated that the bubble dynamics of the surface is an important factor that determines the nucleate boiling.

  1. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  2. Germanium detector test-stands at the Max Planck Institute for Physics and alpha interactions on passivated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, C.; Garbini, L.; Abt, I.; Schulz, O.; Palermo, M.; Majorovits, B.; Liao, H.-Y.; Liu, X.; Seitz, H.

    2015-05-01

    The GeDetgroup at the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich, Germany, operates a number of test stands in order to conduct research on novel germanium detectors. The test stands are of a unique design and construction that provide the ability to probe the properties of new detector types. The GALATEA test stand was especially designed for surface scans, specifically a-induced surface events, a problem faced in low background experiments due to unavoidable surface contamination of detectors. A special 19-fold segmented coaxial prototype detector has already been investigated inside GALATEA with an a-source. A top surface scan provided insight into the physics underneath the passivation layer. Detector segmentation provides a direct path towards background identification and characterisation. With this in mind, a 4-fold segmentation scheme was implemented on a broad-energy point-contact detector and is being investigated inside the groups K1 test stand. A cryogenic test-stand where detectors can be submerged directly in liquid nitrogen or argon is also available. The goal is to establish segmentation as a viable option to reduce background in future large scale experiments.

  3. CARACTERISATION ELECTROCHIMIQUE DE COUCHES PASSIVES A LA SURFACE DU FER. ROLE DES IMPURETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ROUINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Des études électrochimiques de films passifs de trois types de fer (Fe pur (99,9999%, Fe (99%, et Fe0.97-Si0.03, réalisées en milieu alcalin KOH 1M, sont présentées. Les propriétés électroniques de ces films ont été corrélées avec leur réactivité vis-à-vis du système rédox [Fe(CN6]4-/ [Fe(CN6]3-. On a montré qu’il était possible d’insérer de l’or dans l’épaisseur de la couche passive. Cette insertion se fait au cours des cycles de polarisation dans le domaine (-1,15; 0 V/ECS. L’or inséré dans la couche d’oxyde de fer augmente la stabilité de cette couche et provoque des phénomènes électrocatalytiques au début du domaine transpassif, conduisant à l’apparition de ferrates (VI.

  4. Electrochemical and surface studies on the passivity of a dental Pd-based casting alloy in alkaline sulphide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki; Matsuda, Koichi; Asakura, Shukuji

    2003-07-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behavior of a dental casting Pd-25Ag-18Cu-12Au alloy in 0.1% Na{sub 2}S solution at 37 deg. C was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and spectrocolorimetric techniques. The surface film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This alloy exhibited markedly higher resistance to corrosion and tarnish than did the Ag-20Pd-18Cu-12Au alloy in current clinical use. XPS spectra indicated the presence of a thin sulphide film composed of PdS. It was found that the PdS film is very protective and is responsible for the passivity of the Pd-25Ag-18Cu-12Au alloy in 0.1% Na{sub 2}S solution.

  5. Analysis of Surface Integrity in Drilling Metal Matrix and Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Rajmohan; K. Palanikumar; J. Paulo Davim

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid metal matrix composites consist of at least three constituents-a metal or an alloy matrix and two reinforcements in various forms, bonded together at the atomic level in the composite. Despite their higher specific properties of strength and stiffness, the non homogeneous and anisotropic nature combined with the abrasive reinforcements render their machining difficult. In this paper, the surface integrity of machining in drilling hybrid composites has been discussed. Drilling tests are carried out at different spindle speed, feed rates, and different drill tool materials to investigate the effect of the various cutting parameters on the surface quality and the extent of the deformation of drilled surface due to drilling. Materials used for the present investigation are A1356/IOSIC (wt%) metal matrix and A1356/10SiC-3mica (wt%) hybrid composites. The composites are fabricated using stir casting route. The drilling tests are conducted on vertical computer numeric control (CNC) machining center using carbide, coated carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drills. The surface roughness decreases with increasing spindle speed and increases with increasing feed rate. The machined surface is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the machined surfaces indicate the presence of grooves and pits. Microhardness depth profiles indicate that the subsurface damage is limited to the top of 100-250 μm.

  6. Designing icephobic surfaces by passively sustaining liquid film at ice-substrate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tom; Jones, Paul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2016-11-01

    Ice formation poses a significant barrier to transportation, energy generation and transport, gas extraction, etc. We propose to design icephobic surfaces that reduce ice formation and lower ice adhesion by sustaining a film of liquid water at the interface between bulk ice and the substrate. The liquid layer is in phase equilibrium with the surrounding bulk ice, and thus exists without constant energy input. Using molecular dynamic simulations, we show this liquid film can be maintained indefinitely by exploiting the phenomena of interfacial premelting and the freezing point depression of ice confined in surface texture due to the Gibbs Thomson effect. We demonstrate the reduction of both the work and strength of ice adhesion as a function of surface wettability and geometric parameters of the surface texture.

  7. Sulfur passivation of surface electrons in highly Mg-doped InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, W. M.; Veal, T. D. [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 4ZF (United Kingdom); Chai, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); McConville, C. F. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Durbin, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 (United States)

    2013-09-14

    Electron accumulation with a sheet density greater than 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} usually occurs at InN surfaces. Here, the effects of treatment with ammonium sulfide ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub x}) on the surface electronic properties of highly Mg-doped InN (>4×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}) have been investigated with high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The valence band photoemission spectra show that the surface Fermi level decreases by approximately 0.08 eV with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub x} treatment, resulting in a decrease of the downward band bending and up to a 70% reduction in the surface electron sheet density.

  8. Surface plasmon-assisted optical bistability in the quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengjun; Qi, Yihong; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigated optical bistability (OB) of a coupled excition-plasmon hybrid system in a unidirectional ring cavity. It is found that the threshold and the region of OB can be tuned by adjusting the center-center distance between the quantum dot and metal nanoparticle (MNP), the Rabi frequency of the control field and the radius of the MNP. Due to the significantly enhanced optical nonlinearity by the surface plasmon effect, the threshold of OB can be decreased greatly when the probe field is parallel to the major axis of the hybrid system. The enhanced OB may have promising applications in optical switching and optical storage.

  9. A physically-based hybrid framework to estimate daily-mean surface fluxes over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2016-06-01

    In this study we developed and examined a hybrid modeling approach integrating physically-based equations and statistical downscaling to estimate fine-scale daily-mean surface turbulent fluxes (i.e., sensible and latent heat fluxes) for a region of southern California that is extensively covered by varied vegetation types over a complex terrain. The selection of model predictors is guided by physical parameterizations of surface flux used in land surface models and analysis showing net shortwave radiation that is a major source of variability in the surface energy budget. Through a structure of multivariable regression processes with an application of near-surface wind estimates from a previous study, we successfully reproduce dynamically-downscaled 3 km resolution surface flux data. The overall error in our estimates is less than 20 % for both sensible and latent heat fluxes, while slightly larger errors are seen in high-altitude regions. The major sources of error in estimates include the limited information provided in coarse reanalysis data, the accuracy of near-surface wind estimates, and an ignorance of the nonlinear diurnal cycle of surface fluxes when using daily-mean data. However, with reasonable and acceptable errors, this hybrid modeling approach provides promising, fine-scale products of surface fluxes that are much more accurate than reanalysis data, without performing intensive dynamical simulations.

  10. Lowest surface recombination velocity on n-type crystalline silicon using PECVD a-Si:H/SiNx bi-layer passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Dmitri S.; Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2011-08-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells manufactured on thin substrates is strongly influenced by the recombination losses of photo-generated charge carriers at the surface and in its proximity. Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) deposited using DC saddle-field plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at a low temperature of ~200°C reduces recombination losses of photo-generated carriers through passivation of defects at the surface. This study reports on high quality surface passivation achieved using a dual layer approach wherein a 70nm amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx) capping layer is deposited on a less than 10nm thin i-a-Si:H layer. While the a-Si:H layer is effective in passivating the interface recombination sites, SiNx is deemed to incorporate field-effect passivation, thus providing a minority carrier mirror. Additionally, SiNx layer acts as an anti-reflection coating with a low absorption coefficient in the optical frequency range of interest. The SiNx deposition conditions, known to strongly influence the passivating quality of the dual layer structure, were systematically investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal deposition parameters obtained from the RSM study were experimentally verified to yield the lowest surface recombination velocity of 3.5 cm/s on 1-2 Ω-cm n-type FZ c-Si using a PECVD a-Si:H/SiNx bi-layer passivation stack.

  11. Highly specific and sensitive electrochemical genotyping via gap ligation reaction and surface hybridization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Li; Xu, Xiangmin; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-02-25

    This paper developed a novel electrochemical genotyping strategy based on gap ligation reaction with surface hybridization detection. This strategy utilized homogeneous enzymatic reactions to generate molecular beacon-structured allele-specific products that could be cooperatively annealed to capture probes stably immobilized on the surface via disulfide anchors, thus allowing ultrasensitive surface hybridization detection of the allele-specific products through redox tags in close proximity to the electrode. Such a unique biphasic architecture provided a universal methodology for incorporating enzymatic discrimination reactions in electrochemical genotyping with desirable reproducibility, high efficiency and no interferences from interficial steric hindrance. The developed technique was demonstrated to show intrinsic high sensitivity for direct genomic analysis, and excellent specificity with discriminativity of single nucleotide variations.

  12. A Hybrid Low Temperature Surface Alloying Process for Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, hybrid process developed to engineer the surfaces of austenitic stainless steels at temperatures below 450℃ for the improvement in wear and corrosion resistance. The process is carried out in the plasma of a glow discharge containing both nitrogen and carbon reactive species, and facilitates the incorporation of both nitrogen and carbon into the austenite surface to form a dual-layer structure comprising a nitrogen-rich layer on top of a carbon-rich layer.Both layers can be precipitation-free at sufficiently low processing temperatures, and contain nitrogen and carbon respectively in supersaturated fcc austenite solid solutions. The resultant hybrid structure offers several advantages over the conventional low temperature nitriding and the newly developed carburizing processes in terms of mechanical and chemical properties, including higher surface hardness, a hardness gradient from the surface towards the layer-core interface, uniform layer thickness, and much enhanced corrosion resistance. This paper discusses the main features of this hybrid process and the various structural and properties characteristics of the resultant engineered surfaces.

  13. Single and multiple molecular beacon probes for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiaojing; Tan, Weihong

    1999-05-01

    Surface immobilizable molecular beacons have been developed for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass plate. Molecular beacons are a new class of oligonucleotide probes that have a loop-and-stem structure with a fluorophore and a quencher attached to the two ends of the stem. They only emit intense fluorescence when hybridize to their target molecules. This provides an excellent selectivity for the detection of DNA molecules. We have designed biotinylated molecular beacons which can be immobilized onto a solid surface. The molecular beacon is synthesized using DABCYL as the quencher and an optical stable dye, tetramethylrhodamine, as the fluorophore. Mass spectrometry is used to confirm the synthesized molecular beacon. The molecular beacons have been immobilized onto a silica surface through biotin-avidin binding. The surface immobilized molecular beacons have been used for the detection of target DNA with subnanomolar analytical sensitivity. have also immobilized two different molecular beacons on a silica surface in spatially resolved microscopic regions. The hybridization study of these two different molecular beacon probes has shown excellent selectivity for their target sequences. The newly designed molecular beacons are intended for DNA molecular interaction studies at an interface and for the development of ultrasensitive DNA sensors for a variety of applications including disease diagnosis, disease mechanism studies, new drug development, and in the investigation of molecular interactions between DNA molecules and other interesting biomolecules.

  14. Effective surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon with silicon oxides formed by light-induced anodisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jie, E-mail: j.cui@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Grant, Nicholas [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 0200 (Australia); Lennon, Alison [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • The surface passivation by anodic SiO{sub 2} formed by light-induced anodisation is investigated. • The anodic SiO{sub 2} grows lower temperatures with shorter growth times. After annealing in oxygen and then forming gas the effective minority carrier lifetime is increased to 150 μs. • It shows a very low positive Q{sub eff} of 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, a moderate D{sub it} of 6 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. • It has a very low leakage current density suggesting its application in solar cell as a functional dielectric. - Abstract: Electronic surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon by anodic silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated. The anodic SiO{sub 2} was grown by light-induced anodisation (LIA) in diluted sulphuric acid at room temperature, a process that is significantly less-expensive than thermal oxidation which is widely-used in silicon solar cell fabrication. After annealing in oxygen and then forming gas at 400 °C for 30 min, the effective minority carrier lifetime of 3–5 Ω cm, boron-doped Czochralski silicon wafers with a phosphorus-doped 80 Ω/□ emitter and a LIA anodic SiO{sub 2} formed on the p-type surface was increased by two orders of magnitude to 150 μs. Capacitance–voltage measurements demonstrated a very low positive charge density of 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} and a moderate density of interface states of 6 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. This corresponded to a silicon surface recombination velocity of 62 cm s{sup −1}, which is comparable with values reported for other anodic SiO{sub 2} films, which required higher temperatures and longer growth times, and significantly lower than oxides grown by chemical vapour deposition techniques. Additionally, a very low leakage current density of 3.5 × 10{sup −10} and 1.6 × 10{sup −9} A cm{sup −2} at 1 and −1 V, respectively, was measured for LIA SiO{sub 2} suggesting its potential application as insulation layer in

  15. Radicals and ions controlling by adjusting the antenna-substrate distance in a-Si:H deposition using a planar ICP for c-Si surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, S.; Xu, M.; Xu, L. X.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiang, Y.; Xiao, S. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Being a key issue in the research and fabrication of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation is theoretically and technologically intricate due to its complicate dependence on plasma characteristics, material properties, and plasma-material interactions. Here amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by a planar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor working under different antenna-substrate distances of d was used for the surface passivation of low-resistivity p-type c-Si. It is found that the microstructures (i.e., the crystallinity, Si-H bonding configuration etc.) and passivation function on c-Si of the deposited a-Si:H were profoundly influenced by the parameter of d, which primarily determines the types of growing precursors of SiHn/H contributing to the film growth and the interaction between the plasma and growing surface. c-Si surface passivation is analyzed in terms of the d-dependent a-Si:H properties and plasma characteristics. The controlling of radical types and ion bombardment on the growing surface through adjusting parameter d is emphasized.

  16. Snowmelt and Surface Freeze/Thaw Timings over Alaska derived from Passive Microwave Observations using a Wavelet Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic permafrost soils contain a vast amount of organic carbon that will be released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide or methane when thawed. Surface to air greenhouse gas fluxes are largely dependent on such surface controls as the frozen/thawed state of the snow and soil. Satellite remote sensing is an important means to create continuous mapping of surface properties. Advances in the ability to determine soil and snow freeze/thaw timings from microwave frequency observations improves upon our ability to predict the response of carbon gas emission to warming through synthesis with in-situ observation, such as the 2012-2015 Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Surface freeze/thaw or snowmelt timings are often derived using a constant or spatially/temporally variable threshold applied to time-series observations. Alternately, time-series singularity classifiers aim to detect discontinuous changes, or "edges", in time-series data similar to those that occur from the large contrast in dielectric constant during the freezing or thaw of soil or snow. We use multi-scale analysis of continuous wavelet transform spectral gradient brightness temperatures from various channel combinations of passive microwave radiometers, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, AMSR2) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I F17) gridded at a 10 km posting with resolution proportional to the observational footprint. Channel combinations presented here aim to illustrate and differentiate timings of "edges" from transitions in surface water related to various landscape components (e.g. snow-melt, soil-thaw). To support an understanding of the physical basis of observed "edges" we compare satellite measurements with simple radiative transfer microwave-emission modeling of the snow, soil and vegetation using in-situ observations from the SNOw TELemetry (SNOTEL) automated weather stations. Results of freeze/thaw and snow-melt timings and trends are

  17. Surface passivation of silicon nanowires based metal nano-particle assisted chemical etching for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Khezami, Lotfi; Jemai, Abdelbasset Bessadok; Alhathlool, Raed; Ajbar, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    Metal Nano-particle Assisted Chemical Etching (MNpACE) is an extraordinary developed wet etching method for producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (silicon nanowires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs).The creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. The combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties especially a PL response at 640 nm are presented. As a results, the effective lifetime (τeff) and surface recombination velocity (Seff) evolution of SiNWs after stain etching treatment showed significant improvements and less than 1% reflectance was achieved over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm and more than 36% reduction was observed compared to untreated surface. It has, thus, been demonstrated that all these factors may lead to improved energy efficiency from 8% to nearly 14.2% for a cell with SiNWs treated in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution.

  18. Fabrication of Nano-Micro Hybrid Structures by Replication and Surface Treatment of Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Jeong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire structures have attracted attention in various fields, since new characteristics could be acquired in minute regions. Especially, Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO is widely used in the fabrication of nanostructures, which has many nanosized pores and well-organized nano pattern. Using AAO as a template for replication, nanowires with a very high aspect ratio can be fabricated. Herein, we propose a facile method to fabricate a nano-micro hybrid structure using nanowires replicated from AAO, and surface treatment. A polymer resin was coated between Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and the AAO filter, roller pressed, and UV-cured. After the removal of aluminum by using NaOH solution, the nanowires aggregated to form a micropattern. The resulting structure was subjected to various surface treatments to investigate the surface behavior and wettability. As opposed to reported data, UV-ozone treatment can enhance surface hydrophobicity because the UV energy affects the nanowire surface, thus altering the shape of the aggregated nanowires. The hydrophobicity of the surface could be further improved by octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS coating immediately after UV-ozone treatment. We thus demonstrated that the nano-micro hybrid structure could be formed in the middle of nanowire replication, and then, the shape and surface characteristics could be controlled by surface treatment.

  19. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future.

  20. Effects of different saliva pH on hybrid composite resin surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirawati Pribadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, hybrid composite resin is the mostly used filling material to restore esthetic and function. During function, this material is in contact with various pH from food consumption, which is acidic and alkali which may effect the physical properties of composite resin, including surface roughness. Purpose: The research was conducted to determine the effect of pH in saliva on surface roughness of hybrid composite resin. Methods: This research used artificial saliva and composite resin samples divided into 3 groups based on different pH of immersion (pH 4, pH 7 and pH 10 for 30 days. Results: There were significant differences (p > 0.05 among those three treatment groups of hybrid composites soaked in artificial saliva with different pH for 30 days. And, with LSD test it is also known that there were significant differences between the artificial saliva with pH 4 and pH 7, whereas there was no significant difference between pH 4 and pH 10 and between pH 7 and pH 10. Conclusion: It can concluded that the changes of salivary pH affect the surface roughness of the hybrid composite resin. Acidic pH has increase the surface roughness of hybrid composite resin, whereas alkaline pH has no effects on the surface roughness of hybrid composite resin.Latar belakang: Saat ini tumpatan komposit merupakan bahan tumpatan yang paling sering digunakan untuk memperbaiki estetik dan fungsi. Dalam rongga mulut, bahan ini kontak dengan berbagai macam pH dari konsumsi makanan, baik asam maupun basa yang dapat mempengaruhi perubahan sifat fisik resin komposit, diantaranya yaitu kekasaran permukaan. Tujuan: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui tentang efek pH saliva terhadap kekasaran permukaan tumpatan resin komposit hybrid. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan saliva buatan yang dibagi dalam 3 kelompok sampel yaitu masing-masing dengan perendaman pH yang berbeda (pH 4, pH 7 dan pH 10selama 30 hari. Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (p > 0

  1. Correlation between Photoluminescence and Carrier Transport and a Simple In Situ Passivation Method for High-Bandgap Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Ryan J; Eickemeyer, Felix T; Katahara, John K; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2017-07-20

    High-bandgap mixed-halide hybrid perovskites have higher open-circuit voltage deficits and lower carrier diffusion lengths than their lower-bandgap counterparts. We have developed a ligand-assisted crystallization (LAC) technique that introduces additives in situ during the solvent wash and developed a new method to dynamically measure the absolute intensity steady-state photoluminescence and the mean carrier diffusion length simultaneously. The measurements reveal four distinct regimes of material changes and show that photoluminescence brightening often coincides with losses in carrier transport, such as in degradation or phase segregation. Further, the measurements enabled optimization of LAC on the 1.75 eV bandgap FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.66Br0.34)3, resulting in an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of over an order of magnitude, an increase of 80 meV in the quasi-Fermi level splitting (to 1.29 eV), an increase in diffusion length by a factor of 3.5 (to over 1 μm), and enhanced open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current from photovoltaics fabricated from the LAC-treated films.

  2. Electromagnetic Scattering from Randomly Rough Surfaces with Hybrid FEM/BIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; GUO Li-Xin; HE Qiong; WEI Bing

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid finite element method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface.The BIE is used as the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounled half space,whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary.Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called “edge effect”.A hybrid FEM/BIE form ulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented,as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments.The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are calculated for transverse-magnetic wave incidence.Conclusions are reached after analyzing the scattering patterns of rough surfaces with different rms heights and correlation lengths Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface[1-3] is a very important issue in various areas of electromagnetic wave theory.Methods used to study rough surface scattering can be categorized into two groups:(1) analytical and approximate methods[4,5] and (2) numerical methods.[6,7] including method of moment (MoM)[8-10] and the finite difference in time domain method (FDTD).%The hybrid finite element, method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) in firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface. The BIE is used an the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounded half space, whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary. Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called "edge effect". A hybrid FEM/BIE formulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented, as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments, The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are

  3. Hybrid surface waves in semi-infinite metal-dielectric lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Miret, Juan J; Jaksic, Zoran; Vukovic, Slobodan; Belic, Milivoj R

    2012-01-01

    We investigate surface waves at the boundary between a semi-infinite layered metal-dielectric nanostructure cut normally to the layers and a semi-infinite dielectric. Spatial dispersion properties of such a nanostructure can be dramatically affected by coupling of surface plasmons polaritons at different metal-dielectric interfaces. As a consequence, the effective medium approach is not applicable in general. It is demonstrated that Dyakonov-like surface waves with hybrid polarization can propagate in an angular range substantially enlarged compared to conventional birefringent materials. Our numerical simulations for an Ag-GaAs stack in contact with glass show a low to moderate influence of losses.

  4. Optimization of hybrid antireflection structure integrating surface texturing and multi-layer interference coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shigeru; Kanomata, Kensaku; Suzuki, Takahiko; Hirose, Fumihiko

    2014-10-01

    The antireflection structure (ARS) for solar cells is categorized to mainly two different techniques, i.e., the surface texturing and the single or multi-layer antireflection interference coating. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid ARS, which integrates moth eye texturing and multi-layer coat, for application to organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Using optical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we conduct nearly global optimization of the geometric parameters characterizing the hybrid ARS. The proposed optimization algorithm consists of two steps: in the first step, we optimize the period and height of moth eye array, in the absence of multi-layer coating. In the second step, we optimize the whole structure of hybrid ARS by using the solution obtained by the first step as the starting search point. The methods of the simple grid search and the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search are used for global and local searches, respectively. In addition, we study the effects of deviations in the geometric parameters of hybrid ARS from their optimized values. The design concept of hybrid ARS is highly beneficial for broadband light trapping in OPVs.

  5. An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Christopher R.; Crow, Wade T.; Mecikalski, John R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Holmes, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture studies have mainly focused on retrievals using active and passive microwave (MW) sensors, which provide measurements that are directly related to soil moisture (SM). MW sensors have obvious advantages such as the ability to retrieve through nonprecipitating cloud cover which provides shorter repeat cycles. However, MW sensors offer coarse spatial resolution and suffer from reduced retrieval skill over moderate to dense vegetation. A unique avenue for filling these information gaps is to exploit the retrieval of SM from thermal infrared (TIR) observations, which can provide SM information under vegetation cover and at significantly higher resolutions than MW. Previously, an intercomparison of TIR-based and MW-based SM has not been investigated in the literature. Here a series of analyses are proposed to study relationships between SM products during a multiyear period (2003-2008) from a passive MW retrieval (AMSR-E), a TIR based model (ALEXI), and a land surface model (Noah) over the continental United States. The three analyses used in this study include (1) a spatial anomaly correlation analysis, (2) a temporal correlation analysis, and (3) a triple collocation error estimation technique. In general, the intercomparison shows that the TIR and MW methods provide complementary information about the current SM state. TIR can provide SM information over moderate to dense vegetation, a large information gap in current MW methods, while serving as an additional independent source of SM information over low to moderate vegetation. The complementary nature of SM information from MW and TIR sensors implies a potential for integration within an advanced SM data assimilation system.

  6. Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition Towards High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2015-06-03

    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in Lithium (Li) ion batteries at high rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g, on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li–ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex–situ HRTEM, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and X–ray diffraction was carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

  7. Surface Passivation of MoO₃ Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition toward High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B; Shahid, Muhammad; Nagaraju, D H; Anjum, D H; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Alshareef, H N

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in lithium (Li) ion batteries at high-rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than that of bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g; on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li-ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

  8. Long-lasting FR-4 surface hydrophilisation towards commercial PCB passive microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Moschou, Despina; Carta, Daniela; Morgan, Hywel; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-04-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCB) technologies are an attractive system for simple sensing and microfluidic systems. Controlling the surface properties of PCB material is an important part of this technology and to date there has been no study on long-term hydrophilisation stability of these materials. In this work, the effect of different oxygen plasma input power and treatment duration times on the wetting properties of FR-4 surfaces was investigated by sessile droplet contact angle measurements. Super and weakly hydrophilic behaviour was achieved and the retention time of these properties was studied, with the hydrophilic nature being retained for at least 26 days. To demonstrate the applicability of this treatment method, a commercially manufactured microfluidic structure made from a multilayer PCB (3-layer FR-4 stack) was exposed to oxygen plasma at the optimum conditions. The structures could be filled with deionised (DI) water under capillary flow unlike the virgin devices.

  9. Snow melt on sea ice surfaces as determined from passive microwave satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    SMMR data for the year 1979, 1980 and 1984 have been analyzed to determine the variability in the onset of melt for the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone. The results show melt commencing in either the Kara/Barents Seas or Chukchi Sea and progressing zonally towards the central Asian coast (Laptev Sea). Individual regions had interannual variations in melt onset in the 10-20 day range. To determine whether daily changes occur in the sea ice surface melt, the SMMR 18 and 37 GHz brightness temperature data are analyzed at day/night/twilight periods. Brightness temperatures illustrate diurnal variations in most regions during melt. In the East Siberian Sea, however, daily variations are observed in 1979, throughout the analysis period, well before any melt would usually have commenced. Understanding microwave responses to changing surface conditions during melt will perhaps give additional information about energy budgets during the winter to summer transition of sea ice.

  10. Thermoresponsive polymer induced sweating surfaces as an efficient way to passively cool buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotzetter, A.C.C.; Schumacher, C.M.; Bubenhofer, S.B.; Grass, R.N.; Gerber, L.C.; Zeltner, M.; Stark, W.J. [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-09

    Buildings can be effectively cooled by a bioinspired sweating-like action based on thermoresponsive hydrogels (PNIPAM), which press out their stored water when exceeding the lower critical solution temperature. The surface temperature is reduced by 15 C compared to that of a conventional hydrogel (pHEMA) and by 25 C compared to the bare ground. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Passive remote sensing of the atmospheric water vapour content above land surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, B.; Bakan, S.; Fischer, J.

    The global distribution of the atmospheric water vapour content plays an important role in the weather forecast and climate research. Nowadays there exist various methods dealing with remote sensing of the atmospheric water vapour content. Unfortunately, most of them are restricted to ocean areas, since, in general, the emission of land surfaces is not known well enough. Therefore, a new method is developed which allows the detection of the atmospheric total water vapour content from aircraft or satellite with the aid of backscattered solar radiation in the near infrared above land surfaces. The Matrix-Operator-Method has been used to simulate backscattered solar radiances, including various atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapour, and aerosols of various types, several sun zenith angles, and different types of land surfaces. From these calculations it can be concluded, that the detection of water vapour content in cloudless atmospheres is possible with an error of < 10 % even for higher aerosol contents. In addition to the theoretical results first comparisons with aircraft measurements of the backscattered solar radiances are shown. These measurements have been carried out with the aid of OVID (Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector), a new multichannel array spectrometer, in 1993.

  12. Shear-bond-strength of orthodontic brackets to aged nano-hybrid composite-resin surfaces using different surface preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Hatice Kubra; Akin, Mehmet; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface preparation methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to aged nano-hybrid resin composite surfaces in vitro. A total of 100 restorative composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were obtained and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the samples were randomly divided as follows according to surface preparation methods: (1)Control, (2)37% phosphoric acid gel, (3)Sandblasting, (4)Diamond bur, (5)Air-flow and 20 central incisor teeth were used for the control etched group. SBS test were applied on bonded metal brackets to all samples. SBS values and residual adhesives were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (phybrid composite resin surfaces.

  13. Hybridization Efficiency of Molecular Beacons Bound to Gold Nanowires: Effect of Surface Coverage and Target Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bound nucleic acid probes designed to adopt specific secondary structures are becoming increasingly important in a range of biosensing applications but remain less well characterized than traditional single-stranded probes, which are typically designed to avoid secondary structure. We report the hybridization efficiency for surface-immobilized hairpin DNA probes. Our probes are molecular beacons, carrying a 3′ dye moiety and a 5′ thiol for attachment to gold nanowires, which serve as both scaffolds for probe attachment and quenchers. Hybridization efficiency was dependent on probe surface coverage, reaching a maximum of ∼90% at intermediate coverages of (1−2) × 1012 probes/cm2 and dropping to ≤20% at higher or lower coverages. Fluorescence intensity did not track with the number of target molecules bound, and was highest for high probe coverage despite the lower bound targets per square centimeter. Backfilling with short thiolated oligoethylene glycol spacers increased hybridization efficiency at low hairpin probe coverages (∼(3−4) × 1011 probes/cm2), but not at higher probe coverages (1 × 1012/cm2). We also evaluated the effect of target length by adding up to 50 nonhybridizing nucleotides to the 3′ or 5′ end of the complementary target sequence. Additional nucleotides on the 3′ end of the complementary target sequence (i.e., the end near the nanowire surface) had a much greater impact on hybridization efficiency as compared to nucleotides added to the 5′ end. This work provides guidance in designing sensors in which surface-bound probes designed to adopt secondary structures are used to detect target sequences from solution. PMID:21038880

  14. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat; Biswas, Indranil; Jana, Sunirmal

    2016-10-01

    We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV-vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors towards enhancing PEC activity of the hybrid materials.

  15. Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Birkelund, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Optically induced oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces using a scanning near-field optical microscope was achieved with both uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes. Line scans on amorphous silicon using uncoated fiber probes display a three-peak profile after etching in potassium...

  16. Surface Passivation of CdSe Quantum Dots in All Inorganic Amorphous Solid by Forming Cd1‑xZnxSe Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengling; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Jing; Lin, Changgui; Xu, Yinsheng; Heo, Jong; Dai, Shixun; Han, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-02-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) doped glasses have been widely investigated for optical filters, LED color converter and other optical emitters. Unlike CdSe QDs in solution, it is difficult to passivate the surface defects of CdSe QDs in glass matrix, which strongly suppress its intrinsic emission. In this study, surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Cd1‑xZnxSe shell in silicate glass was reported. An increase in the Se/Cd ratio can lead to the partial passivation of the surface states and appearance of the intrinsic emission of CdSe QDs. Optimizing the heat-treatment condition promotes the incorporation of Zn into CdSe QDs and results in the quenching of the defect emission. Formation of CdSe/Cd1‑xZnxSe core/graded shell QDs is evidenced by the experimental results of TEM and Raman spectroscopy. Realization of the surface passivation and intrinsic emission of II-VI QDs may facilitate the wide applications of QDs doped all inorganic amorphous materials.

  17. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Joon [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hee Eun, E-mail: hsong@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyo Sik, E-mail: hschang@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation.

  18. Surface composition of Ru containing duplex stainless steel after passivation in non-oxidizing media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburg, G

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available by an acceleration voltage of 15 keV and an emission current of 20 mA. Two different .angles 20 and 708 between the sample surface and the position of the analyser were used to measure the photoelectrons. At low angles, the analyser only detects the photoelectrons...?ersity of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa b Department of Radiochemistry, Uni?ersity of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, Hungary?? c Department of Physical Chemistry, Uni?ersity of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, Hungary?? d PPC Technical Ser?ices, P.O. Box 40073...

  19. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-03-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 1012 to 1 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1, the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 1012 cm-2 for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  20. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-05-11

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  1. Monitoring of CO2 geological storage based on the passive surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Kaoshan; Li Xiaofeng; Song Xuehang; Chen Gen; Pan Yongdong; Huang Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and geological storage (CCS) is one of promising technologies for greenhouse gas effect mitigation. Many geotechnical challenges remain during carbon dioxide storage field practices, among which effectively detecting CO2 from deep underground is one of engineering problems. This paper reviews monitoring techniques currently used during CO2 injection and storage. A method developed based on measuring seismic microtremors is of main interest. This method was first successfully used to characterize a site in this paper. To explore its feasibility in CO2 storage monitoring, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate detectable changes in elastic wave signatures due to injection and geological storage of CO2. It is found that, although it is effective for shallow earth profile estimation, the surface wave velocity is not sensitive to the CO2 layer physical parameter variations, especially for a thin CO2 geological storage layer in a deep underground reservoir.

  2. Passive Frequency Selective Surface Array as a Diffuser for Destroying Millimeter Wave Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Islam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction, and testing of grounded frequency selective surface (FSS array as a diffuser for destroying millimeter wave coherence which is used to eliminate speckle in active millimeter wave imaging. To create stochastically independent illumination patterns, we proposed a diffuser based on random-phase distributions obtained by changing the incident frequency. The random-phase diffuser was obtained by mixing up the phase relations between the cells of a deterministic function (e.g., beam splitter. The slot length of FSS is the main design parameter used to optimize the phase shifting properties of the array. The critical parameters of the diffuser array design, such as phase relation with slot lengths, losses, and bandwidth, are discussed. We designed the FSS arrays with finite integral technique (FIT, fabricated by etching technique, and characterized the S-parameters with a free-space MVNA, and measured the radiation patterns with a BWO in motorized setup.

  3. Temperature-Induced Switchable Adhesion using Nickel–Titanium–Polydimethylsiloxane Hybrid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensemeier, Mareike; Kaiser, Jessica S; Frick, Carl P; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Fertig, Ray S; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    A switchable dry adhesive based on a nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloy with an adhesive silicone rubber surface has been developed. Although several studies investigate micropatterned, bioinspired adhesive surfaces, very few focus on reversible adhesion. The system here is based on the indentation-induced two-way shape-memory effect in NiTi alloys. NiTi is trained by mechanical deformation through indentation and grinding to elicit a temperature-induced switchable topography with protrusions at high temperature and a flat surface at low temperature. The trained surfaces are coated with either a smooth or a patterned adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in a temperature-induced switchable surface, used for dry adhesion. Adhesion tests show that the temperature-induced topographical change of the NiTi influences the adhesive performance of the hybrid system. For samples with a smooth PDMS layer the transition from flat to structured state reduces adhesion by 56%, and for samples with a micropatterned PDMS layer adhesion is switchable by nearly 100%. Both hybrid systems reveal strong reversibility related to the NiTi martensitic phase transformation, allowing repeated switching between an adhesive and a nonadhesive state. These effects have been discussed in terms of reversible changes in contact area and varying tilt angles of the pillars with respect to the substrate surface. PMID:26120295

  4. Antibacterial performance of polydopamine-modified polymer surfaces containing passive and active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileika, Tadas S; Kim, Hyung-Do; Maniak, Piotr; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of device-related nosocomial infections, elevated hospitalization costs, and patient morbidity necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies for clinical devices. We have previously demonstrated a simple, aqueous polydopamine dip-coating method to functionalize surfaces for a wide variety of uses. Here, we extend this strategy with the goal of imparting antifouling and antimicrobial properties to substrates, exploiting the ability of polydopamine to immobilize polymers and induce metal nanoparticle formation. Polydopamine was deposited as a thin adherent film of 4 nm thickness from alkaline aqueous solution onto polycarbonate substrates, followed by grafting of antifouling polymer polyethylene glycol and in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles onto the polydopamine coated polycarbonate substrates. Elemental and morphological surface analyses confirmed successful grafting of polyethylene glycol brushes onto polydopamine-coated substrates, as well as spontaneous silver nanoparticle formation for polydopamine-coated substrates incubated in silver-nitrate solutions. Sustained silver release was observed over at least 7 days from silver-coated substrates, and the release kinetics could be modulated via additional polydopamine overlayers. In vitro functional assays employing gram negative and positive strains demonstrated dual fouling resistance and antibacterial properties of the coatings due to the fouling resistance of grafted polyethylene glycol and antibacterial effect of silver, respectively. Polycarbonate substrates coated only with silver using a method similar to existing commercial coatings provided an antibacterial effect but failed to inhibit bacterial attachment. Taking into account the previously demonstrated substrate versatility of polydopamine coatings, our findings suggest that this strategy could be implemented on a variety of substrate materials to simultaneously improve antifouling and antimicrobial performance.

  5. Morphologies and Superhydrophobicity of Hybrid Film Surfaces Based on Silica and Fluoropolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailan QU; Xiufang WEN; Pihui PI; Jiang CHENG; Zhuoru YANG

    2008-01-01

    Fluoropolymer and different kinds of silica particles were used for controlling surface chemistry and morphology,respectively. A superhydrophobic surface originated from strawberry-like or quincunx-shaped composite silica particles was obtained. The dual size particles are obtained by utilizing the graft of different modified silica particles with epoxy functional group and amine functional group. This makes the surface of film form a composite interface to have irregular binary structure which plays an essential role in trapping air between the substrate surface and the liquid droplets to be necessary for high contact angle and low contact anglehysteresis. The maximum contact angle for water on the hybrid film is about 174±2° and the contact angle hysteresis is less than 2°. The surface morphologies, roughness and the wettability on the surface of films containing different structural silica particles were compared. It was shown that the hierarchical irregularly structure with a low roughness factor and high air-trapped ratio is indispensable for superhydrophobic surface.Although this structural surfaces based on composite silica particles play a vital role in governing the surface wettability, it is necessary to combine with a low surface energy to make the surface superhydrophobic.

  6. Low temperature surface passivation of crystalline silicon and its application to interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (ibc-shj) solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan

    With the absence of shading loss together with improved quality of surface passivation introduced by low temperature processed amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction, the interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell exhibits a potential for higher conversion efficiency and lower cost than a traditional front contact diffused junction solar cell. In such solar cells, the front surface passivation is of great importance to achieve both high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc). Therefore, the motivation of this work is to develop a low temperature processed structure for the front surface passivation of IBC-SHJ solar cells, which must have an excellent and stable passivation quality as well as a good anti-reflection property. Four different thin film materials/structures were studied and evaluated for this purpose, namely: amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H), thick amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon/silicon nitride/silicon carbide (a-Si:H/a-SiN x:H/a-SiC:H) stack structure with an ultra-thin a-Si:H layer, and zinc sulfide (ZnS). It was demonstrated that the a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack surpasses other candidates due to both of its excellent surface passivation quality (SRVsolar cells using the stack structure for front surface passivation. Direct comparison shows that such low temperature deposited stack structure developed in this work achieves comparable device performance to the high temperature processed front surface passivation structure used in other high efficiency IBC solar cells. However, the lower fill factor (FF) of IBC-SHJ solar cell as compared with traditional front a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction cell (HIT cell) greatly limits the overall performance of these devices. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations were used to comparatively model the HIT and IBC-SHJ solar cells to understand the underlying device physics which controls cell performance. The effects of a wide

  7. Self-assembled hybrid films of phosphotungstic acid and aminoalkoxysilanes on SiO{sub 2}/Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adriano L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 780, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marques, Lygia A.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Instituto de Quimica, Laboratorio Thomson de Espectrometria de Massas, 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nascente, Pedro A.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Herrmann, Paulo S.P. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio, 13560-970, P.O.Box 741, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Campus de Sorocaba, P. O. Box 3031, 18052-780, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P., E-mail: uprf@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 780, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-29

    The present paper describes the influence of the chemical structure of two aminoalkoxysilanes: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl)-ethylenediamine (TSPEN) on the morphology of thin layer hybrid films with phosphotungstic acid (HPW), a Keggin heteropolyanion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicated that both silane films showed protonated amine species interacting with the heteropolyanion by electrostatic forces as well as the presence of secondary carbamate anions. The hybrid films have different surface morphology according to atomic force microscopy analyses. The hybrid film with TSPEN forms flatter surfaces than the hybrid film with APTS. This effect is ascribed to higher flexibility and chelating ability of the TSPEN on adsorbed molecules. Ultrasonication effect on surface morphology of the hybrid film with APTS plays a fundamental role on surface roughness delivering enough energy to promote surface diffusion of the HPW heteropolyanions. This diffusion results in agglomerate formation, which corroborates with the assumption of electrostatic bonding between the HPW heteropolyanions and the protonated amine surface. These hybrid films could be used for electrochemical sensor design or to build photochromic and electrochromic multilayers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of phosphotungstate-aminosilylated surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of the surface roughness on the aminosilane structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphotungstic acid chelation by N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl)-ethylenediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic promotion of clustering of phosphotungstic acid.

  8. Determination of atrazine in surface waters by combination of POCIS passive sampling and ELISA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernoch, Ivo; Fránek, Milan; Diblíková, Iva; Hilscherová, Klára; Randák, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-09-01

    Polar organic compound integrative samplers (POCIS) in combination with instrumental techniques such as LC-MS-MS were previously used to monitor environmental pollutants but the performance of alternative immunochemical methods such as ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) has been explored less. In the present study, POCIS technology was applied to surface water sampling in the Czech Republic, and ELISA was used as a detection technique for the herbicide atrazine. In the first study, 28 samples from streams around small municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) were collected using two different devices (POCISpest and POCISpharm) over the course of 21 days. Elevated atrazine concentrations (up to 25 ng per POCIS) were found in samples down-stream of WWTPs. This observation was also confirmed in another two year study (4 sampling periods) investigating 7 river sites around a major city of Brno as well as the inlet and outlet of the city's WWTP. High atrazine levels were systematically determined at the outlet from the WWTPs (120-605 ng per POCIS). A decreasing trend in the atrazine concentrations in rivers around the city of Brno has been observed, with the highest levels observed within the first sampling period in spring 2007 (100-600 ng per POCIS, with an extreme value of 2760 ng per POCIS). Results of the atrazine ELISA were closely correlated with LC-MS/MS, which confirmed good applicability of ELISA as a cost-effective screening tool.

  9. A hybrid state vector approach to aeroelastic analysis with application to composite lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A computational technique has been developed for performing preliminary design aeroelastic analyses of large aspect ratio lifting surfaces. This technique, applicable to both fixed and rotating wing configurations, is based upon a formulation of the structural equilibrium equations in terms of a hybrid state vector containing generalized force and displacement variables. An integrating matrix is employed to solve these equations for divergence and flutter eigenvalues and steady aeroelastic deformation. Results are presented for simple examples which verify the technique and demonstrate how it can be applied to analyze lifting surfaces, including those constructed from composite materials.

  10. Hybrid micro/nano-structure formation by angular laser texturing of Si surface for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaichen; Zhang, Chentao; Zhou, Rui; Ji, Rong; Hong, Minghui

    2016-05-16

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has drawn much research interest in the past decades as an efficient technique to detect low-concentration molecules. Among many technologies, which can be used to fabricate SERS substrates, laser ablation is a simple and high-speed method to produce large-area SERS substrates. This work investigates the angular texturing effect by dynamic laser ablation and its influence on SERS signals. By tuning the angle between the Si surface and laser irradiation, the distributions and sizes of laser induced hybrid micro/nano-structures are studied. By decorating with a silver film, plenty of hot spots can be created among these structures for SERS. It is found that when the incident laser angle is 15° at the laser fluence of 16.0 J/cm2, the SERS performance is well optimized. This work realizes antisymmetric distribution of nanoparticles deposited on Si surface, which provides a flexible tuning of the hybrid micro/nano-structures' fabrication with high controllability for practical applications.

  11. Novel Surface Passivation Technique for Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Perovskite PV Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Neeti; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Karen, Akiya; Miyano, Kenjiro

    2016-02-01

    Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells are attracting immense interest due to their ease of fabrication and potential for mass production on flexible substrates. However, the unfavorable surface properties of planar substrates often lead to large variations in perovskite crystal size and weak charge extractions at interfaces, resulting in inferior performance. Here, we report the improved performance, reproducibility, and high stability of "p-i-n" planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The key fabrication process is the addition of the amine-polymer poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN-P1) to a simple spin-coating process. The PFN-P1 works as a surfactant and helps promote uniform crystallization. As a result, perovskite films with PFN-P1 have a uniform distribution of grain sizes and improved open circuit voltage. Devices with PFN-P1 showed the best efficiency (13.2%), with a small standard deviation (0.40), out of 60 cells. Moreover, ∼90% of the initial efficiency was retained over more than 6 months. Additionally, devices fabricated from PFN-P1 mixed perovskite films showed higher stability under continuous operation at maximum power point over 150 h. Our results show that this approach is simple and effective for improving device performance, reproducibility, and stability by modifying perovskite properties with PFN-P1. Because of the simplicity of the fabrication process and reliable performance increase, this approach marks important progress in low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells.

  12. Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Advanced Antireflection and Back Surface Field Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Yang, Xi; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is one of most suitable antireflection (AR) layers for silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Si/PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cells due to its well-matched refractive index (2.1). A simulation model was employed to predict the optical characteristics of Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with the MoO3 layers as antireflection coatings (ARCs), as well as to analyze the loss in current density. By adding an optimum thickness of a 34-nm-thick ARC of MoO3 on the front side and an effective rear back surface field (BSF) of phosphorus-diffused N + layer at the rear side, the hybrid cells displayed higher light response in the visible and near infrared regions, boosting a short-circuit current density ( J sc) up to 28.7 mA/cm2. The average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells was thus increased up to 11.90 %, greater than the value of 9.23 % for the reference devices.

  13. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Based in Situ Hybridization Strategy for Telomere Length Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Yizhi; Cui, Yiping

    2016-02-23

    Assessing telomere length is of vital importance since telomere length is closely related with several fatal diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Here, we present a strategy to assess/measure telomere length, that is, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based in situ hybridization (SISH). The SISH method uses two kinds of SERS nanoprobes to hybridize in situ with telomeres and centromeres, respectively. The telomere specific SERS nanoprobe is called the Telo-probe, while the centromere specific SERS nanoprobe is called the Centro-probe. They are composed of metal nanoparticles (NPs), Raman reporter molecules and specially designed DNA strands. With longer telomeres, more Telo-probes will hybridize with them, resulting in a stronger SERS signal. To exclude possible influence of the SERS intensity by external factors (such as the nanoprobe concentration, the cell number or different batches of nanoprobes), centromeres are used as the inner control, which can be recognized by Centro-probes. Telomere length is evaluated using a redefined telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C ratio). The calculation method for T/C ratio in SISH method is more reliable than that in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, unlike FISH method, the SISH method is insensitive to autofluorescence. Moreover, SISH method can be used to analyze single telomeres. These features make SISH an excellent alternative strategy for telomere length measurement.

  14. Hybrid silicon honeycomb/organic solar cells with enhanced efficiency using surface etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Sun, Teng; Liu, Jiawei; Wu, Shan; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-06-01

    Silicon (Si) nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices are attractive for their excellent optical and electrical performance, but show lower efficiency than their planar counterparts due to the increased surface recombination associated with the high surface area and roughness. Here, we demonstrate an efficiency enhancement for hybrid nanostructured Si/polymer solar cells based on a novel Si honeycomb (SiHC) structure using a simple etching method. SiHC structures are fabricated using a combination of nanosphere lithography and plasma treatment followed by a wet chemical post-etching. SiHC has shown superior light-trapping ability in comparison with the other Si nanostructures, along with a robust structure. Anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide etching not only tunes the final surface morphologies of the nanostructures, but also reduces the surface roughness leading to a lower recombination rate in the hybrid solar cells. The suppressed recombination loss, benefiting from the reduced surface-to-volume ratio and roughness, has resulted in a high open-circuit voltage of 600 mV, a short-circuit current of 31.46 mA cm-2 due to the light-trapping ability of the SiHCs, and yields a power conversion efficiency of 12.79% without any other device structure optimization.

  15. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to investigate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composite resins. Background: Different shapes of polishing systems are available according to the site of work. To minimize variability, a new system with single shape is developed that can be utilized in both anterior as well as posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy composite discs were fabricated using Teflon well (10 mm × 3 mm. Two main group of nano-hybrid composite Group I - Filtek Z350 and Group II - Tetric N-Ceram were used (n = 35 for each group. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups. Subgroup a - OneGloss (n = 10, Subgroup b - PoGo (n = 10, Subgroup c - Sof-Lex spiral (n = 10, Subgroup d - Mylar strip (control, n = 5. Samples were polished according to the manufacturer′s recommendations. Surface roughness test was performed using contact profilometer. The obtained data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test. Result: Tetric N-Ceram produced smoother surfaces than Filtek Z350 (P < 0.05. Mylar strip and "PoGo" created equally smooth surfaces, while significantly rougher surfaces were obtained after applications of "Sof-Lex spiral" and "OneGloss" (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Polishing ability of Tetric N-Ceram is better than Filtek Z350 XT. "PoGo" seems to be a better polishing system than "OneGloss" and "Sof-Lex Spiral."

  16. Hybrid silicon honeycomb/organic solar cells with enhanced efficiency using surface etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Sun, Teng; Liu, Jiawei; Wu, Shan; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-06-24

    Silicon (Si) nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices are attractive for their excellent optical and electrical performance, but show lower efficiency than their planar counterparts due to the increased surface recombination associated with the high surface area and roughness. Here, we demonstrate an efficiency enhancement for hybrid nanostructured Si/polymer solar cells based on a novel Si honeycomb (SiHC) structure using a simple etching method. SiHC structures are fabricated using a combination of nanosphere lithography and plasma treatment followed by a wet chemical post-etching. SiHC has shown superior light-trapping ability in comparison with the other Si nanostructures, along with a robust structure. Anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide etching not only tunes the final surface morphologies of the nanostructures, but also reduces the surface roughness leading to a lower recombination rate in the hybrid solar cells. The suppressed recombination loss, benefiting from the reduced surface-to-volume ratio and roughness, has resulted in a high open-circuit voltage of 600 mV, a short-circuit current of 31.46 mA cm(-2) due to the light-trapping ability of the SiHCs, and yields a power conversion efficiency of 12.79% without any other device structure optimization.

  17. Passivation of Si and a-Si:H surfaces by thin oxide and oxy-nitride layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincik, E. [Institute of Physics of SAS, Dubravska Cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: emil.pincik@savba.sk; Kobayashi, H. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Organizarion, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Rusnak, J. [Institute of Physics of SAS, Dubravska Cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takahashi, M. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Organizarion, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Brunner, R. [Institute of Physics of SAS, Dubravska Cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jergel, M. [Institute of Physics of SAS, Dubravska Cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Morales-Acevedo, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Electrical Engineering Departmant, Avenida IPN No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortega, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie du CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Kakos, J. [Department of Ceramics, Glass and Cement of FCFT of SUT, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-08-31

    An aim of the contribution is focused predominantly on investigation of electrical interface properties of MIS structures consisting of silicon-based substrates, which were passivated by 1.5-12 nm silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and/or silicon oxy-nitride layers. Substrates of different structural properties were used-crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H), and silicon layer deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). A stress was laid upon structures prepared on n moderately doped c-Si. The paper presents also changes of structural properties of a-Si:H surface after Ar low energy beam impact. For the first time we are presenting important results concerning utilization of X-ray diffraction with {beta} filter in investigation of a-Si:H cluster structure. Considerable part of the contribution is devoted to investigation of electrical properties of Al/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si (2-3 nm)/GaAs structures with aim to clarify the particular effect of the ultrathin Si interlayer in the structure. Our observations indicate that the silicon interlayer can act as delta doping of GaAs and/or as quantum well. Therefore, the experimental results are compared and discussed with calculated ones obtained by application of our theoretical description of electron emission of quantum well.

  18. Multiple-Scattering of Near-Edge x-ray Absorption Fine Structure of Sulphur-Passivated InP(100) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹松; 唐景昌; 沈少来; 陈更生; 马丹

    2003-01-01

    We use the multiple-scattering cluster method to calculate the sulphur 1s near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of S-passivated InP(100) surface. The physical origins of the resonances in the NEXAFS have been unveiled. It is shown that the most important resonance is attributed to the photoelectron scattering between the central sulphur and the nearest indium atoms. The studies show that two S-S dimers with the bond lengths of 2.05 A and 3.05 A coexist in the surface, meanwhile the bridge and antibridge site adsorption of single S could not be ruled out. We support the scanning tunnelling microscopy result that the S-passivated InP(100) surface exhibits significant disorder.

  19. Field effect surface passivation of SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces by heat treatment with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, K.; Asada, K.; Sameshima, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, 184-8588 Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a simple field effect passivation of the silicon surfaces using the high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor heating. Heat treatment with 2.1x10{sup 6}Pa H{sub 2}O vapor at 260C for 3h reduced the surface recombination velocity from 405cm/s (before the heat treatment) to 38cm/s for the thermally evaporated SiO{sub x} film/Si. Additional deposition of 140nm-SiO{sub x} films (x<2) with a high density of fixed positive charges on the SiO{sub 2}/Si samples further decreased the surface recombination velocity to 22cm/s. We also demonstrated the field effect passivation for n-type silicon wafer coated with thermally grown SiO{sub 2}. Additional deposition of 210nm SiO{sub x} films on both the front and rear surfaces increased the effective lifetime from 1.4 to 4.6ms. Combination of thermal evaporation of SiO{sub x} film and the heat treatment with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor is effective for low-temperature passivation of the silicon surface.

  20. DNA Polymer Brush Patterning through Photocontrollable Surface-Initiated DNA Hybridization Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fujian; Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Dongbao; Xiao, Shiyan; Liang, Haojun

    2015-11-18

    The fabrication of DNA polymer brushes with spatial resolution onto a solid surface is a crucial step for biochip research and related applications, cell-free gene expression study, and even artificial cell fabrication. Here, for the first time, a DNA polymer brush patterning method is reported based on the photoactivation of an ortho-nitrobenzyl linker-embedded DNA hairpin structure and a subsequent surface-initiated DNA hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Inert DNA hairpins are exposed to ultraviolet light irradiation to generate DNA duplexes with two active sticky ends (toeholds) in a programmable manner. These activated DNA duplexes can initiate DNA HCR to generate multifunctional patterned DNA polymer brushes with complex geometrical shapes. Different multifunctional DNA polymer brush patterns can be fabricated on certain areas of the same solid surface using this method. Moreover, the patterned DNA brush surface can be used to capture target molecules in a desired manner.

  1. Quantum electrostatic surface waves in a hybrid plasma waveguide: Effect of nano-sized slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, M.; Mahmodi Moghadam, M.

    2017-10-01

    The propagation properties of surface plasmon (SP) waves are studied in a hybrid plasma waveguide (consisting of plasma-gap-dielectric layers) with quantum effects including the Fermi-pressure, the Bohm potential and the exchange-correlation interaction. By using a quantum hydrodynamic model and Maxwell's equations, the dispersion relation of SP waves is derived, which describes the quantum corrected features of the dispersion properties of such surface waves. Previous results in this context are recovered. It is found that the exchange-correlation interactions and the presence of the second dielectric layer drastically modify the behaviors of the surface plasmon waves. The implications of our finding are discussed in some particular cases of interest. Our finding is applicable for understanding the surface wave behaviors in nano-scale systems.

  2. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  3. Immobilization and Hybridization of cDNA Arrays on the Glass Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文章; 孙宝全; 周玉祥; 程京

    2002-01-01

    DNA microarray is a powerful tool allowing simultaneous detection of many different target molecules in one sample. The efficiency of the array mainly depends on the sequence of the capture probes and the way in which they are attached to the support. Coupling process needs to be quick, reproducible and compatible with automatic spotting devices dispensing tiny drops of liquid on the glass surface. Coupling strategies were evaluated in light of grafting DNA onto the glass surface. The results indicate that attaching unmodified DNA to a poly-L-lysine coated glass surface is a preferred method in fabricating DNA microarrays. In this paper, both the coupling procedure and the hybridization efficiency have been optimized. The unmodified double-stranded DNA in high salt solution being spotted onto the poly-L-lysine coated glass surface enhances the adsorption of DNA onto the poly-L-lysine layer.

  4. Some recent developments in surface and interface design for photocatalytic and electrocatalytic hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Xiong, Yujie

    2015-06-28

    The surface and interface are considered as the crucial features that can be engineered to improve the performance of catalysts. The great advancements in both controlled syntheses and catalytic mechanism studies have paved the way for the rational surface and interface design of catalysts. In this feature article, we overview our recent progress in surface and interface design for well-defined hybrid structures mainly toward the photocatalytic and electrocatalytic applications in which charge carriers play an important role. First, we outline the surface parameters of components including exposed facets, compositions, surface areas and crystal phases that have been tailored toward higher surface activation abilities for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic reactions. Second, we summarize the designing rules for the interface between two components to favor the charge transfer for photocatalytic reactions on the surface. Furthermore, we outline the synergistic effects on photocatalysis and electrocatalysis through the simultaneous control of the surface and the interface, which can also be extended to enhance other catalytic reactions (e.g., CO oxidation). Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for further development of surface and interface design toward catalytic performance tuning.

  5. Exotic surface states in hybrid structures of topological insulators and Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Stefan; Trauzettel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) and Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are two realizations of topological matter usually appearing separately in nature. However, they are directly related to each other via a topological phase transition. In this paper, we investigate the question whether these two topological phases can exist together at the same time, with a combined, hybrid surface state at the joint boundaries. We analyze effective models of a three-dimensional TI and an inversion symmetric WSM and couple them in a way that certain symmetries, like inversion, are preserved. A tunnel coupling approach enables us to obtain the hybrid surface state Hamiltonian analytically. This offers the possibility of a detailed study of its dispersion relation depending on the investigated couplings. For spin-symmetric coupling, we find that two Dirac nodes can emerge out of the combination of a single Dirac node and a Fermi arc. For spin-asymmetric coupling, the dispersion relation is gapped and the former Dirac node gets spin-polarized. We propose different experimental realization of the hybrid system, including compressively strained HgTe as well as heterostructures of TI and WSM materials.

  6. Superhydrophobic, Hybrid, Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Nanofibrous Mats for Oil/Water Separation by Tailored Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Osman; Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-08-03

    Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers (CA-NF) have been modified with perfluoro alkoxysilanes (FS/CA-NF) for tailoring their chemical and physical features aiming oil-water separation purposes. Strikingly, hybrid FS/CA-NF showed that perfluoro groups are rigidly positioned on the outer surface of the nanofibers providing superhydrophobic characteristic with a water contact angle of ∼155°. Detailed analysis showed that hydrolysis/condensation reactions led to the modification of the acetylated β(1 → 4) linked d-glucose chains of CA transforming it into a superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat. Analytical data have revealed that CA-NF surfaces can be selectively controlled for fabricating the durable, robust and water resistant hybrid electrospun nanofibrous mat. The -OH groups available on the CA structure allowed the basic sol-gel reactions started by the reactive FS hybrid precursor system which can be monitored by spectroscopic analysis. Since alkoxysilane groups on the perfluoro silane compound are capable of reacting for condensation together with the CA, superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat is obtained via electrospinning. This structural modification led to the facile fabrication of the novel oil/water nanofibrous separator which functions effectively demonstrated by hexane/oil and water separation experiments. Perfluoro groups consequently modified the hydrophilic CA nanofibers into superhydrophobic character and therefore FS/CA-NF could be quite practical for future applications like water/oil separators, as well as self-cleaning or water resistant nanofibrous structures.

  7. Charge transfer and surface defect healing within ZnO nanoparticle decorated graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Repp, Sergej; Thomann, Ralf; Krueger, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre

    2016-05-01

    To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) investigations on bare ZnO NPs, GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO hybrid materials, we found that several physical phenomena were occurring when ZnO NPs were hybridized with GO and TrGO. The electrons trapped in Zn vacancy defects (VZn-) within the core of ZnO NPs vanished by transfer to GO and TrGO in the hybrid materials, thus leading to the disappearance of the core signals in the EPR spectra of ZnO NPs. The thiol groups of TrGO and sulfur can effectively ``heal'' the oxygen vacancy (VO+) related surface defects of ZnO NPs while oxygen-containing functionalities have low healing ability at a synthesis temperature of 100 °C. Photoexcited electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO NPs to graphene leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of near band gap emission (NBE) of both GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO. Simultaneously, electron transfer from graphene to defect states of ZnO NPs is the origin of enhanced green defect emission from GO-ZnO. This observation is consistent with the energy level diagram model of hybrid materials.To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL

  8. Air-Stable Surface-Passivated Perovskite Quantum Dots for Ultra-Robust, Single- and Two-Photon-Induced Amplified Spontaneous Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate ultra-air- and photostable CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) by using an inorganic–organic hybrid ion pair as the capping ligand. This passivation approach to perovskite QDs yields high photoluminescence quantum yield with unprecedented operational stability in ambient conditions (60 ± 5% lab humidity) and high pump fluences, thus overcoming one of the greatest challenges impeding the development of perovskite-based applications. Due to the robustness of passivated perovskite QDs, we were able to induce ultrastable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in solution processed QD films not only through one photon but also through two-photon absorption processes. The latter has not been observed before in the family of perovskite materials. More importantly, passivated perovskite QD films showed remarkable photostability under continuous pulsed laser excitation in ambient conditions for at least 34 h (corresponds to 1.2 × 108 laser shots), substantially exceeding the stability of other colloidal QD systems in which ASE has been observed.

  9. Influence of a-Si:H deposition power on surface passivation property and thermal stability of a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H layers for passivating crystalline silicon surfaces has been well documented in the literature for well over a decade. One limitation of such layers however has arisen from their inability to withstand temperatures much above their deposition temperature without significant degradation. This limitation is of importance particularly with multicrystalline silicon materials where temperatures of at least 400°C are needed for effective hydrogenation of the crystallographic defects such as grain boundaries. To address this limitation, in this work the surface passivation quality and thermal stability of a stack passivating system, combining a layer of intrinsic a-Si:H and a capping layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H, on p-type crystalline silicon wafers is studied and optimized. In particular the sensitivity of different microwave (MW power levels for underlying a-Si:H layer deposition are examined. Both effective minority carrier lifetime (ζeff measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry were employed to study the bonding configurations, passivating quality and thermal stability of the a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks. It is established that the higher MW power could result in increased as-deposited ζeff and implied Voc (iVoc values, indicating likely improved surface passivation quality, but that this combination degrades more quickly when exposed to prolonged thermal treatments. The more dihydride-rich film composition corresponding to the higher MW power appears to be beneficial for bond restructuring by hydrogen interchanges when exposed to short term annealing, however it also appears more susceptible to providing channels for hydrogen out-effusion which is the likely cause of the poorer thermal stability for prolonged high temperature exposure compared with stacks with underlying a-Si:H deposited with lower MW power.

  10. Initial position estimation strategy for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor used in hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing TIAN; Qun-tao AN; Li SUN‡; Dong-yang SUN; Jian-dong DUAN

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonlinear model for surface permanent magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) is adopted to estimate the initial rotor position for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Usually, the accuracy of initial rotor position estimation for SPMSMs relies on magnetic saturation. To verify the saturation effect, the transient finite element analysis (FEA) model is presented first. Hybrid injection of a static voltage vector (SVV) superimposed with a high-frequency rotating voltage is proposed. The magnetic polarity is roughly identified with the aid of the saturation evaluation function, based on which an estimation of the position is performed. During this procedure, a special demodulation is suggested to extract signals of iron core saturation and rotor position. A Simulink/MATLAB platform for SPMSMs at standstill is constituted, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified. The proposed method is also validated by experimental results of an SPMSM drive.

  11. Graphene coated fiber optic surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the DNA hybridization detection: Simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushama, Kamrun Nahar; Rana, Md. Masud; Inum, Reefat; Hossain, Md. Biplob

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a graphene coated optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is presented for the detection of DNA Hybridization. For the proposed sensor, a four layer model (fiber core /metal /sensing layer /sample) where a sheet of graphene (biomolecular recognition elements (BRE)) acting as a sensing layer is coated around the gold film because graphene enhances the sensitivity of fiber optic SPR biosensor. Numerical analysis shows the variation of resonance wavelength and spectrum of transmitted power for mismatched DNA strands and for complementary DNA strands. For mismatched DNA strands variation is negligible whereas for complementary DNA strands is considerably countable. Proposed sensor successfully distinguishes hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by observing the variation level of resonance wavelength and spectrum of transmitted power.

  12. Multi-hybrid method for investigation of EM scattering from inhomogeneous object above a dielectric rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Guo, LiXin; He, Qiong; Wei, Bing

    2012-10-01

    An iterative strategy combining Kirchhoff approximation^(KA) with the hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) method is presented in this paper to study the interactions between the inhomogeneous object and the underlying rough surface. KA is applied to study scattering from underlying rough surfaces, whereas FE-BI deals with scattering from the above target. Both two methods use updated excitation sources. Huygens equivalence principle and an iterative strategy are employed to consider the multi-scattering effects. This hybrid FE-BI-KA scheme is an improved and generalized version of previous hybrid Kirchhoff approximation-method of moments (KA-MoM). This newly presented hybrid method has the following advantages: (1) the feasibility of modeling multi-scale scattering problems (large scale underlying surface and small scale target); (2) low memory requirement as in hybrid KA-MoM; (3) the ability to deal with scattering from inhomogeneous (including coated or layered) scatterers above rough surfaces. The numerical results are given to evaluate the accuracy of the multi-hybrid technique; the computing time and memory requirements consumed in specific numerical simulation of FE-BI-KA are compared with those of MoM. The convergence performance is analyzed by studying the iteration number variation caused by related parameters. Then bistatic scattering from inhomogeneous object of different configurations above dielectric Gaussian rough surface is calculated and the influences of dielectric compositions and surface roughness on the scattering pattern are discussed.

  13. Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Jang, Sung Min; Kim, Sung June [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Min [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun [Program of Nanomedical Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Kyungjae; Oh, Youngjin [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Guk [College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shuler, Michael L, E-mail: kmbyun@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    We demonstrated enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing based on subwavelength gold nanoarrays built on a thin gold film. Arrays of nanogratings (1D) and nanoholes (2D) with a period of 200 nm were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the detection of avian influenza DNA hybridization. Experimental results showed that both nanoarrays provided significant sensitivity improvement and, especially, 1D nanogratings exhibited higher SPR signal amplification compared with 2D nanohole arrays. The sensitivity enhancement is associated with changes in surface-limited reaction area and strong interactions between bound molecules and localized plasmon fields. Our approach is expected to improve both the sensitivity and sensing resolution and can be applicable to label-free detection of DNA without amplification by polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanbu H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  15. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  16. Dispersion states and surface characteristics of physically blended polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polymer hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rahul

    Control of dispersion and segregation states of nanostructured additives is one of the biggest challenges in realizing the optimum potential of high performance hybrid polymer nanocomposites. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals, with their hybrid organic-inorganic nature and flexible functionalization with a variety of organic substituents, yield possibilities to control dispersion and tune compatibility in a wide range of polymer systems. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the fundamental parameters that influence the dispersion and segregation states of POSS nanostructured chemicals, and to understand chain dynamics and conformations in physically blended POSS hybrid polymer nanocomposites (HPNC's). Multiple structural and mechanical factors influencing macro to nano scale surface and bulk properties were successfully investigated and correlated. A strategy based on thermodynamic principles for selective control of POSS dispersion states in a given polymer matrix is developed and discussed. This dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides a detailed introduction about the development and current research interest in POSS/polymer nanocomposites. This chapter also discusses limitations of current advanced nanoprobe techniques. Chapter 2 establishes the overall goal of this research and specific research ii objectives. Chapter 3 establishes the preferential surface migration behavior of physically dispersed, non-reactive, closed cage octaisobutyl POSS (Oib-POSS) in a non-polar polypropylene matrix. Furthermore, influence of POSS surface segregation on the surface properties, especially nano-tribomechanical behavior is also discussed. Chapter 4 expands the studies by melt blending two different types of POSS molecules, a non-reactive, closed cage Oib-POSS and an open cage trisilanolphenyl POSS (Tsp-POSS), in a nylon 6 matrix. This chapter discusses the morphology, nano-dispersion and macro- to

  17. Fermi Surface Topology of Na0.5CoO2 from the Hybrid Density Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-Ying; XIANG Hong-Jun; YANG Jin-Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Fermi surface topology of Na0.5CoO2 is studied using the hybrid density functional theory. We first study a single (CoO2)0.5- layer model with the percentage of the nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange changing from 0% to 20%. The results show that only when the mixed nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange is between 1% and 5%, the Fermi surface topology is similar to the experimental one. With 3% HF exchange in the hybrid density functional,considering the effects of Na ions in the Na0.sCoO2 system, we find that the Fermi surface is split to double holes and small gaps open near the intersections between the Brillouin zone and the Fermi surface. Our results show that both the amounts of the nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange in the hybrid density functional and the Na ions have much influence on the Fermi surface topology.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale hybrid upper surface blown flap model having four engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.

  19. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Martin, H; Jiang, X

    2016-06-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  20. Blasting and Passivation Treatments for ASTM F139 Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications: Effects on Surface Roughness, Hardening, and Localized Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Adriana L. Lemos; Kang, Kyung Won; Bonetto, Rita D.; Llorente, Carlos L.; Bilmes, Pablo D.; Gervasi, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the combination of good biofunctionality and biocompatibility at low cost, AISI 316 low carbon vacuum melting (LVM) stainless steel, as considered in ASTM F139 standard, is often the first choice for medical implants, particularly for use in orthopedic surgery. Proper surface finish must be provided to ensure adequate interactions of the alloy with human body tissues that in turn allows the material to deliver the desired performance. Preliminary studies performed in our laboratory on AISI 316LVM stainless steel surfaces modified by glass bead blasting (from industrial supplier) followed by different nitric acid passivation conditions disclosed the necessity to extend parameters of the surface treatments and to further consider roughness, pitting corrosion resistance, and surface and subsurface hardening measurements, all in one, as the most effective characterization strategy. This was the approach adopted in the present work. Roughness assessment was performed by means of amplitude parameters, functional parameters, and an estimator of the fractal dimension that characterizes surface topography. We clearly demonstrate that the blasting treatment should be carried out under controlled conditions in order to obtain similar surface and subsurface properties. Otherwise, a variation in one of the parameters could modify the surface properties, exerting a profound impact on its application as biomaterial. A passivation step is necessary to offset the detrimental effect of blasting on pitting corrosion resistance.

  1. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoli; Du, ChunLei; Fu, Yongqi

    2009-09-01

    A triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles array was proposed for the purpose of biosensing in this paper. Constructing the hybrid nanoparticles, an Au thin film is capped on the Ag nanoparticles which are attached on glass substrate. The hybrid nanoparticles array was designed by means of finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD) algorithm-based computational numerical calculation and optimization. Sensitivity of refractive index of the hybrid nanoparticles array was obtained by the computational calculation and experimental detection. Moreover, the hybrid nanoparticles array can prevent oxidation of the pure Ag nanoparticles from atmosphere environment because the Au protective layer was deposited on top of the Ag nanoparticles so as to isolate the Ag particles from the atmosphere. We presented a novel surface covalent link method between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect-based biosensors with hybrid nanoparticles array and the detected target molecules. The generated surface plasmon wave from the array carries the biological interaction message into the corresponding spectra. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), a small protein toxin was directly detected at nanogramme per milliliter level using the triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles. Hence one more option for the SEB detection is provided by this way.

  2. A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror for large aperture laser applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Haiqing Chen; Hongbin Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror array is described. This device is capable of scaling to large apertures for correcting time-varying aberrations in laser applications. Each mirror is composed of bottom electrode, support part, and mirror plate, in which a T-shaped beam structure is used to support the mirror plate. It can provide mirror with vertical movement and rotation around two horizontal axes. The test results show that the maximum deflection along the vertical direction of the mirror plate is 2μm, while the rotation angles around x and y axes are ±2.3° and ±1.45°, respectively.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for 2-D WSesub>2sub> hybridized with functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Jeongyong; Joo, Jinsoo

    2016-11-28

    Two-dimensional (2-D) transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoSsub>2sub>, WSesub>2sub>, and WSsub>2sub>, are promising materials for application in field effect transistors, optoelectronics, and sensing devices. In this study, 2-D WSesub>2sub> samples with various numbers of layers were hybridized with functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to achieve surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The nanoscale Raman and photoluminescence spectra of the WSesub>2sub> layers and WSesub>2sub>/Au-NP hybrids were measured using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. The WSesub>2sub> exhibited distinct optical characteristics depending on the number of WSesub>2sub> layers. The intensities of the Raman characteristic modes of the WSesub>2sub> layers were significantly enhanced after hybridization with functionalized Au-NPs, indicating the SERS effect. The SERS effect weakened with increasing the number of WSesub>2sub> layers. The SERS effect was more pronounced for mono- and bi-layer WSesub>2sub> systems compared with the multi-layer WSesub>2sub> systems.

  4. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  5. A hybrid method for computing forces on curved dislocations threading to free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Cai, W; Xu, G; Bulatov, V V

    2005-06-06

    Dislocations threading to free surfaces present a challenge for numerical implementation of traction-free boundary conditions. The difficulty arises when canonical (singular) solutions of dislocation mechanics are used in combination with the Finite Element or Boundary Element (Green's function) methods. A new hybrid method is developed here in which the singular part and the non-singular (regular) part of the image stress are dealt with separately. A special analytical solution for a semi-infinite straight dislocation intersecting the surface of a half-space is used to account for the singular part of the image stress, while the remaining regular part of the image stress field is treated using the standard Finite Element Method. The numerical advantages of such regularization are demonstrated with examples.

  6. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...... the clock frequency as well as the parallelismof the system. This paper focuses on the back-end graphics pipeline,which is responsible for rasterizing triangles.%with a practically linear increase in performance. A pure software implementation of the proposed architecture iscurrently able to process 300...

  7. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  8. Control of surface defects on plasma-MIG hybrid welds in cryogenic aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hee-Keun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, high production rate welding processes for Al alloys, which are used as LNG FPSO cargo containment system material, have been developed to overcome the limit of installation and high rework rates. In particular, plasma-metal inert gas (MIG hybrid (PMH welding can be used to obtain a higher deposition rate and lower porosity, while facilitating a cleaning effect by preheating and post heating the wire and the base metal. However, an asymmetric undercut and a black-colored deposit are created on the surface of PMH weld in Al alloys. For controlling the surface defect formation, the wire feeding speed and nozzle diameter in the PMH weld was investigated through arc phenomena with high-speed imaging and metallurgical analysis.

  9. 3D Ag/ZnO hybrids for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenyue; Xu, Chunxiang; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Zhengshan

    2016-03-01

    To combine the surface plasma resonance of metal and local field enhancement in metal/semiconductor interface, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on a ZnO nanorod array which was grown by hydrothermally on carbon fibers. The construction of dimensional (3D) Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate is used for the sensitive detection of organic pollutants with the advantages such as facile synthesis, short detection time and low cost. The hybrid substrate was manifested a high sensitivity to phenol red at a lower concentration of 1 × 10-9 M and a higher enhancement factor of 3.18 × 109. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures decorated with Ag NPs were demonstrated self-cleaning function under UV irradiation via photocatalytic degradation of the analytic molecules. The fabrication process of the materials and sensors, optimization of the SERS behaviors for different sized Ag NPs, the mechanism of SERS and recovery were presented with a detailed discussion.

  10. Utilization of hybrid plasmonic modes to investigate surface interactions between nanocubes and polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Michael; Bottomley, Adam; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanocube monolayers deposited on polymer films were heated past the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Surface interactions between the cubes and substrate dictate the depth and rate of incorporation into the polymer. Silver nanocubes support hybrid plasmonic modes that are spatially separated when there is anisotropy in the local refractive index. Using this measure, it becomes possible to monitor the position of the cubes relative to the surface and tune spectral features in the visible spectrum. These spatially resolved plasmonic modes were used to probe the local glass transition temperature of polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the glass transition temperature of PS, PMMA, PVC were 103 ± 2, 122 ± 12, 81 ± 2 °C, respectively.

  11. [Preparation, characterization and surface-enhanced Raman properties of agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-yuan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zhou-ping

    2014-08-01

    Agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid was prepared by adding gold nanoparticles to preformed agarose gel. Naniocomposite structures and properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles adsorbed on agarose gel network And the excellent optical absorption properties were shown. Based on the swelling-contraction characteristics of agarose gel and the adjustable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold nanoparticles, the nano-composites were used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect the Raman signal molecules Nile blue A. Results revealed that the porous structure of the agarose gel provided a good carrier for the enrichment of the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles dynamic hot-spot effect arising from the agarose gel contraction loss of water in the air greatly enhanced the Raman signal.

  12. Vibrational spectrum at a water surface: a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hideaki; Morita, Akihiro

    2012-03-28

    A hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is applied to the calculation of surface orientational structure and vibrational spectrum (second-order nonlinear susceptibility) at the vapor/water interface for the first time. The surface orientational structure of the QM water molecules is consistent with the previous MD studies, and the calculated susceptibility reproduces the experimentally reported one, supporting the previous results using the classical force field MD simulation. The present QM/MM MD simulation also demonstrates that the positive sign of the imaginary part of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility at the lower hydrogen bonding OH frequency region originates not from individual molecular orientational structure, but from cooperative electronic structure through the hydrogen bonding network.

  13. A hybrid approach to the surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, Miguel Manso; Ruiz, Josefa Predestinacion Garcia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Bioingenieria Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Gonzalez, Ruy Sanz [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Manuel Hernandez [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The application of nanostructured porous alumina templates as a solid support in biomedical assays requires a surface biofunctionalization process that has been addressed in this work by an hybrid aminopropyl-triethoxysilane/tetraisopropyl-orthotitanate (APTS/ TIPT) self assembled film. The nanostructured porous alumina templates are activated in a peroxide solution before immersion in the biofunctionalizing APTS/TIPT solution. The biofunctionalization process was followed up by UV-vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the modification of the dielectric structure of the alumina surface. The influence of the biofunctionalization step in an immunological assay was carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Results confirm the gain in activity after the immobilization of an FITC labelled mouse Igg. Specific biological recognition in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-antiBSA assay is proved afterwards by shifts observed in the reflectance interferograms thus providing a fast biosensing transducer platform. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Tamm-plasmon and surface-plasmon hybrid-mode based refractometry in photonic bandgap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Srivastava, Triranjita; Jha, Rajan

    2014-02-15

    The transverse magnetic (TM) polarized hybrid modes formed as a consequence of coupling between Tamm plasmon polariton (TM-TPP) mode and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode exhibit interesting dispersive features for realizing a highly sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We found that the TM-TPP modes, formed at the interface of distributed Bragg reflector and metal, are strongly dispersive as compared to SPP modes at optical frequencies. This causes an appreciably narrow interaction bandwidth between TM-TPP and SPP modes, which leads to highly accurate sensing. In addition, appropriate tailoring of dispersion characteristics of TM-TPP as well as SPP modes could ensure high sensitivity of a novel SPR platform. By suitably designing the Au/TiO₂/SiO₂-based geometry, we propose a TM-TPP/SPP hybrid-mode sensor and achieve a sensitivity ≥900  nm/RIU with high detection accuracy (≥30  μm⁻¹) for analyte refractive indices varying between 1.330 and 1.345 in 600-700 nm wavelength range. The possibility to achieve desired dispersive behavior in any spectral band makes the sensing configuration an extremely attractive candidate to design sensors depending on the availability of optical sources.

  15. 3D Ag/ZnO hybrids for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chenyue, E-mail: 493958623@qq.com; Xu, Chunxiang, E-mail: xcxseu@seu.edu.cn; Lu, Junfeng, E-mail: ljf870813@126.com; Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhhuilee@sohu.com; Tian, Zhengshan, E-mail: tianzhengshan@163.com

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/ZnO hybrids are fabricated and optimized as SERS substrates. • The enhancement contribution of each component in the substrates is discussed. • The substrates have high reproducibility and sensitivity. • The substrates show good photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: To combine the surface plasma resonance of metal and local field enhancement in metal/semiconductor interface, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on a ZnO nanorod array which was grown by hydrothermally on carbon fibers. The construction of dimensional (3D) Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate is used for the sensitive detection of organic pollutants with the advantages such as facile synthesis, short detection time and low cost. The hybrid substrate was manifested a high sensitivity to phenol red at a lower concentration of 1 × 10{sup –9} M and a higher enhancement factor of 3.18 × 10{sup 9}. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures decorated with Ag NPs were demonstrated self-cleaning function under UV irradiation via photocatalytic degradation of the analytic molecules. The fabrication process of the materials and sensors, optimization of the SERS behaviors for different sized Ag NPs, the mechanism of SERS and recovery were presented with a detailed discussion.

  16. Assembly fabrication of linkers on glass surface and their effect on DNA synthesis and hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenJiayao; XiaoPengfeng; HouPeng; JiMeiju; SunXiao; HeNongyue

    2003-01-01

    Linkers were assembled on a glass surface based on the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane (GPS). After the assembly of GPS, four approaches were tried to open the ending epoxide group of GPS or to further elongate the linkers. The effect of these approaches on DNA in situ synthesis and hybridization was investigated. For the spacing of the synthesis initiation sites, the wettability of the support and the length of the linking group that attaches the initiation site to the surface have direct influences on the yield of coupling reactions and the subsequent hybridization events. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and mean contact angles of deionized water of the above slides were measured to assess the linker's characteristics in each procedure. It was proved that the glass slides were successfully modified and became excellent supports for the oligonucleotides synthesis. In addition, it proved best for the in situ oligonueleotides synthesis that a glass slide was in turn treated with ethylenediamine, glutaradehyde, ethanolamine and sodium borohydride solution at ambient temperature after silanized with GPS.

  17. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. Electronic supplementary

  18. High-efficiency si/polymer hybrid solar cells based on synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires on pyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Lai, Donny; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2012-06-11

    An efficient Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell using synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires (SiNWs) on pyramids is demonstrated. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.9% is achieved from the cells using the SiNW/pyramid binary structure, which is much higher than similar cells based on planar Si, pyramid-textured Si, and SiNWs. The PCE is the highest reported to-date for hybrid cells based on Si nanostructures and PEDOT.

  19. Characterizing Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance via assimilation of spaceborne surface temperature, albedo, and passive microwave data into a physically-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Bateni, S.; Margulis, S. A.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its significant impact on sea level rise and Arctic climate. Accurate estimates of space-time maps of surface mass balance (SMB) components including precipitation, runoff, and evaporation over the GrIS would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent unprecedented changes (e.g., increase in melt amount and duration, thickening of ice sheet interior, and thinning at the margins) and forecasting its changes in the future. In situ measurement of the SMB components across the GrIS is difficult and costly, and thus there are only a limited number of sparse measurements. Remote sensing retrievals are capable of providing some estimates of SMB terms and/or SMB indicators (i.e. melt onset), but generally provide an incomplete picture of the SMB. Additional efforts have focused on the use of regional climate models coupled to surface models in an effort to obtain spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the SMB. However, these estimates are prone to model errors and are generally unconstrained by the remote sensing record. To overcome these uncertainties and consequently improve estimates of the GrIS SMB, an ensemble data assimilation approach is developed for characterizing the SMB and its uncertainty. The EnBS consists of two steps: forecast and update. In the forecast step, an unconditional estimate of SMB using the MAR regional climate model and an ensemble implementation of the CROCUS snow is obtained that includes appropriate uncertainty in key SMB forcings. In the update step, the estimate is conditioned on remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST), albedo, and passive microwave (1.4, 6.9, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz) measurements to provide a posterior estimate of the GrIS SMB components. The end result is an estimate that benefits from the regional atmospheric and snow models, but is also constrained by remote sensing data streams. The assimilation approach is tested for

  20. Experimental protocols for and studies of the effects of surface passivation and water isotopes on the gliding speed of microtubules propelled by kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Roger Andrew

    This dissertation explores how the kinesin-1 and microtubule system is affected by surface passivation and water isotopes. Surface passivation was found to affect the gliding speed that microtubules exhibit in the gliding motility assay and the lengths of microtubules supported by the passivation. It was also found that gliding speeds of microtubules are very sensitive to temperature changes. Studies changing the water isotope were a first attempt to investigate if changing the solvent changed the osmotic pressure of the solution kinesin and microtubules were in. No osmotic pressure changes were observed, however, the experiments using different isotopes of water did illuminate the possibility that kinesin may be sensitive to viscosity changes in the solvent. This experiment also suggests further experiments that can be specifically designed to probe osmotic pressure changes. This thesis was also the first thesis ever, to the best of the author's knowledge, to be done in a completely open format. All information and notebook entries that are related to it, as well as the thesis itself, can be found on the website OpenWetWare. The thesis can also be found there including all the different versions that went into its editing. The philosophy and process of making data open and accessible to every one is also discussed.

  1. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, M; Büttner, P; Sarau, G; Höflich, K; Heilmann, M; Chen, W; Wen, X; Conibeer, G; Christiansen, S H

    2017-02-03

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device's active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 [Formula: see text] alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments-chemical etching and alumina deposition-reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  2. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, M.; Büttner, P.; Sarau, G.; Höflich, K.; Heilmann, M.; Chen, W.; Wen, X.; Conibeer, G.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device’s active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 {nm} alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments—chemical etching and alumina deposition—reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  3. Performance enhancement of sub-nanosecond diode-pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG microchip laser with diamond surface cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, W Z; Chen, Yi-Fan; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2012-09-24

    We experimentally confirm that diamond surface cooling can significantly enhance the output performance of a sub-nanosecond diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser. It is found that the pulse energy obtained with diamond cooling is approximately 1.5 times greater than that obtained without diamond cooling, where a Cr(4+):YAG absorber with the initial transmission of 84% is employed. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the pulse amplitude peak-to-peak fluctuation is found to be approximately 3 times lower than that measured without diamond cooling. Under a pump power of 3.9 W, the passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser can generate a pulse train of 3.3 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 287 μJ and with a pulse width of 650 ps.

  4. Transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with SiN passivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪峰; 张进成; 郝跃; 范爽; 陈永和; 康迪; 张建坤; 王冲; 默江辉; 李亮; 马晓华

    2015-01-01

    The transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) becomes one of the most important reliability issues with the downscaling of feature size. In this paper, the research results show that the reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with SiN passivation increases with the enhancement of temperature in a range from 298 K to 423 K. Three possible transport mechanisms are proposed and examined to explain the generation of reverse surface leakage current. By comparing the experimental data with the numerical transport models, it is found that neither Fowler–Nordheim tunneling nor Frenkel–Poole emission can describe the transport of reverse surface leakage current. However, good agreement is found between the experimental data and the two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH) model. Therefore, it is concluded that the reverse surface leakage current is dominated by the electron hopping through the surface states at barrier layer. Moreover, the activation energy of surface leakage current is extracted, which is around 0.083 eV. Finally, the SiN passivated HEMT with high Al composition and thin AlGaN barrier layer is also studied. It is observed that 2D-VRH still dominates the reverse surface leakage current and the activation energy is around 0.10 eV, which demonstrates that the alteration of AlGaN barrier layer does not affect the transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in this paper.

  5. Decamber Morphing Concepts by Using a Hybrid Trailing Edge Control Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yaman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of morphing is drawing extensive attention in aerospace technologies. Several different approaches like span, camber, twist, and sweep are finding applications. In this work, the concept of a trailing edge control surface which is capable of performing decamber morphing is explained. The upper and lower parts of the control surface undergo different chordwise elongations and the difference between these displacements gives rise to either camber or decamber morphing. The necessary force is achieved by the help of servo actuators. During the design, the structural analyses were done to determine the best viable options for the number of servo actuators, the location of the servo actuators, and the material properties used in the control surface. The control surface was designed of aluminum, composite and compliant materials hence was called a hybrid one. The structural analyses were conducted by using ANSYS® Workbench v14.0 package program. After finding the best viable design, which was made for in vacuo condition, the proposed design was also verified under the simulated aerodynamic loading. The aerodynamic loads were obtained from CFD analyses which were done with SU2 V3.2.3 open-source flow solver.

  6. Superhydrophobic and oleophobic surface from fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liang, Junyan; He, Ling

    2014-12-01

    The fluoropolymer-SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite consisting of core-corona fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and poly(dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate) (PDFHM) was obtained by radical solution polymerization of the vinyl trimethoxy silane (VTMS)-treated SiO2 NP with DFHM in this work. In H2O/tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, PDFHM self-assembles into dendritic micelle and the increase in H2O volume is favorable for fluoropolymer-grafted SiO2 NPs to create dense fluoropolymer corona layer. It also shows that the addition of H2O to the THF suspension of fluoropolymer-SiO2 nanocomposite could cause a transfer for surface morphology of cast film from smooth film-covered aggregation to bare-exposed flaky aggregation and microsphere aggregation, which results in an increase in surface RMS roughness of cast film and induces a superhydrophobicity. Oleophobicity of cast film can be improved by thermal annealing, because strong surface self-segregation of PDFHM chains during thermal annealing process arouses a marked increase in surface fluorine content.

  7. Diversiform hybrid-polarization surface plasmon polaritons in a dielectric–metal metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid-polarization surface plasmon polaritons (HSPPs at the interface between an isotropic medium and a one-dimensional metal–dielectric metamaterial (MM were discussed, where the metal-layer permittivity was described with the improved Drude model. From the obtained dispersion equations, we predicated five types of HSPPs. One type is the Dyakonov-like surface polariton and another type is the tradition-like surface polarton. The others are new types of HSPPs. We establish a numerical simulation method of the attenuated total reflection (ATR measurement to examine these HSPPs. The results from the ATR spectra are consistent with those from the dispersion equations and indicate the different polarization features of these HSPPs. The numerical results also demonstrate that the observation of each type of HSPPs requires different conditions dictated by the material parameters and the polarization direction of incident light used in the ATR spectra. These results may further widen the space of potential applications of surface plasmon polaritons.

  8. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed.Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub

  9. Residual stress and electromagnetic characteristics in loop type frequency selective surface embedded hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Mi; Seo, Yun Seok; Chun, Heoung Jae [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ik Pyo [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Bae [Ajoo University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jae [Agency for defense development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Residual stresses occur in frequency-selective surface (FSS)-embedded composite structures after co-curing due to differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion between composite skins and FSSs. Furthermore, the electromagnetic characteristics may be affected by the deformation of the FSS pattern by residual stresses. Therefore, we studied the changes in electromagnetic characteristics due to the deformation of FSS, using residual stresses to deform loop-type FSS-embedded hybrid composites. We considered the effects of loop-type FSS patterns of equal dimension as well as the stacking sequences of composite laminates on the electromagnetic characteristics of FSSs: Square loop, triangular loop and circular loop. The stacking sequences of composite laminates considered in this study were [0]{sub 8}, [0/90]{sub 4}, [+-45]{sub 4} and [0/+-45/90]{sub 2}. The FSS was located between composite laminates in the middle plane. To determine the residual stresses and deformations in the FSS embedded laminate structures, the thermal loading condition in the finite element analysis was induced by cooling the hybrid structures from 125 .deg. C to 20 .deg. C based on the cure cycle of the composite. Also, the electromagnetic reflection characteristics of the hybrid structures were predicted using deformed models by residual stresses, considering the effects of stacking sequence of composite laminates. The results showed that the maximum residual stresses and deformations were produced in the [0]{sub 8} composites with all three loop-types of FSS pattern. However, the maximum resonance frequency shifts occurred in the square and triangle loop-types with stacking sequence of [0]{sub 8} , while the maximum resonance frequency shift occurred in the circular loop-type with stacking sequence of [0/+-45/90]{sub 2}.

  10. Competitive effects of metal dissolution and passivation modulated by surface structure: An AFM and EBSD study of the corrosion of alloy 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. J.; El Dasher, B. S.; Orme, C. A.

    2006-06-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to correlate crystallographic grain orientation with corrosion rates of polycrystalline alloy 22 following immersion in 1 and 3 molar (M) hydrochloric acid. For each acid concentration, relative corrosion rates are simultaneously characterized for approximately 50 unique grain orientations. The results demonstrate that the corrosion rate anisotropies are markedly different in the two acid concentrations. In very aggressive acidic environments (3M HCl), where electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry data demonstrate that the passive oxide film of alloy 22 is completely dissolved, alloy dissolution rates scale inversely with the average coordination number of surface atoms for a given grain orientation, where highly correlated surfaces dissolve the slowest. Thus, similar to simple metallic systems, the corrosion rates scale with the surface plane-normal crystallographic orientations as {1 1 1} < {1 0 0} < {1 1 0}. Less intuitively, in milder corrosive environments (1M HCl), where the passive film of the alloy is still intact, the dissolution does not scale inversely with surface atomic density. Rather, corrosion rates scale with crystallographic orientations as {1 1 1} < {1 1 0} < {1 0 0}. This is attributed to the fact that facets most susceptible to corrosion (least coordinated) are also the most able to form protective oxides, so that the dissolution anisotropy is a result of the delicate balance between metal dissolution and oxide growth.

  11. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-21

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed.

  12. Smoothing potential energy surface of proteins by hybrid coarse grained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yukun; Zhou, Xin; OuYang, ZhongCan

    2017-05-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) simulations can more efficiently study large conformational changes of biological polymers but usually lose accuracies in the details. Lots of different hybrid models involving multiple different resolutions have been developed to overcome the difficulty. Here we propose a novel effective hybrid CG (hyCG) approach which mixes the fine-grained interaction and its average in CG space to form a more smoothing potential energy surface. The hyCG approximately reproduces the potential of mean force in the CG space, and multiple mixed potentials can be further combined together to form a single effective force field for achieving both high efficiency and high accuracy. We illustrate the hyCG method in Trp-cage and Villin headpiece proteins to exhibit the folding of proteins. The topology of the folding landscape and thus the folding paths are preserved, while the folding is boosted nearly one order of magnitude faster. It indicates that the hyCG approach could be applied as an efficient force field in proteins. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB932803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574310), and the Joint NSFC-ISF Research Program, jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 51561145002).

  13. Observation of microarray DNA hybridization using surface plasmon resonance phase-shift interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shean-Jen; Tsou, C.-Y.; Chen, Y.-K.; Su, Y.-T.

    2004-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance phase-shift interferometry (SPR-PSI) is a novel technique which combines SPR and modified Mach-Zehnder phase-shifting interferometry to measure the spatial phase variation caused by biomolecular interactions upon a sensing chip. The SPR-PSI imaging system offers high resolution and high-throughout screening capabilities for microarray DNA hybridization without the need for additional labeling, and provides valuable real-time quantitative information. Current SPR-PSI imaging systems measure the spatial phase variation caused by tiny biomolecular changes on the sensing interface by means of a five-step phase reconstruction algorithm and a novel multichannel least mean squares (MLMS) phase unwrapping algorithm. The SPR-PSI imaging system has an enhanced detection limit of 2.5 × 10-7 refraction index change, a long-term phase stability of π/100 in 30 minutes, and a spatial phase resolution of π/500 with a lateral resolution of 10μm. This study successfully demonstrates the kinetic and label-free observation of 5-mer DNA microarray hybridization.

  14. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, ElŻbieta K.; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek; Brewer, Jonathan; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in organic/dielectric/metal systems. We have transferred the organic p-6P nanofibers onto a thin silver film covered with a dielectric (silicon dioxide) spacer layer with varying thicknesses. Coupling is investigated by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and leakage radiation spectroscopy (LRS). Two-photon excitation allows us to excite the ONFs with near-infrared light and simultaneously avoids direct SPP excitation on the metal layer. We observe a strong dependence of fluorescence lifetime on the type of underlying substrate and on the morphology of the fibers. The experimental findings are complemented via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The presented results lead to a better understanding and control of hybrid-mode systems, which are crucial elements in future low-loss energy transfer devices.

  15. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  16. Properties of competitively adsorbed BSA and fibrinogen from their mixture on mixed and hybrid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Lalit M.; Pattanayek, Sudip K.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption of BSA and fibrinogen from their mixture onto surfaces with mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of amine and octyl (ratio 1:1) and hybrid SAM. The properties of adsorbed proteins obtained from individual protein solution differ considerably from the properties of the adsorbed proteins obtained from mixture of proteins at same total concentration. The adsorbed amount of proteins is lesser and the adsorbed protein is more elastic if it is adsorbing from mixture of proteins. It is found that with increasing total protein concentration, adsorbed amount increases and elasticity of the adsorbed proteins decreases. The apparent displacements of BSA with Fb are observed on the graphs of change in frequency with time, which are obtained from quartz crystal microbalance.

  17. A passive wireless hydrogen surface acoustic wave sensor based on Pt-coated ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Shan; Chen, Yung-Yu; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2010-03-05

    Using a passive wireless sensor to detect hydrogen can reach the goals of reducing cost and increasing the lifetime since the sensor can work without batteries. In this paper, a passive wireless hydrogen SAW sensor operating at room temperature has been achieved by combining a SAW tag and a resistive hydrogen sensor. The SAW tag is fabricated on a 128 degrees YX-LiNbO(3) substrate and its central frequency is 433 MHz. The resistive hydrogen sensor with the Pt-coated ZnO nanorods as the sensing film has the advantages of high stability, good repeatability and simple fabrication. The ZnO nanorods are synthesized by using the aqueous solution method and the Pt coating is employed as a catalyst for the hydrogen detection. The property of the resistive hydrogen sensor is examined before combining with the SAW tag. Results show that the resistance changes caused by the variations of relative humidity and temperature are negligible. Finally, the hydrogen SAW sensor is configured and measured wirelessly for various hydrogen concentrations at room temperature. The difference of the relative return loss caused by the hydrogen concentration variation is obvious and recognizable. All responses show that the proposed hydrogen sensor not only has good repeatability and high sensitivity but is capable of passive wireless detection.

  18. Synthesis and surface immobilization of antibacterial hybrid silver-poly(l-lactide) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Shima; Baier, Grit; Majewski, Peter; Barton, Mary; Förch, Renate; Landfester, Katharina; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2014-08-01

    Infections associated with medical devices are a substantial healthcare problem. Consequently, there has been increasing research and technological efforts directed toward the development of coatings that are capable of preventing bacterial colonization of the device surface. Herein, we report on novel hybrid silver loaded poly(L-lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLLA-AgNPs) with narrowly distributed sizes (17 ± 3 nm) prepared using a combination of solvent evaporation and mini-emulsion technology. These particles were then immobilized onto solid surfaces premodified with a thin layer of allylamine plasma polymer (AApp). The antibacterial efficacy of the PLLA-AgNPs nanoparticles was studied in vitro against both gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli were 0.610 and 1.156 μg · mL-1, respectively. The capacity of the prepared coatings to prevent bacterial surface colonization was assessed in the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a strong biofilm former that causes substantial problems with medical device associated infections. The level of inhibition of bacterial growth was 98%. The substrate independent nature and the high antibacterial efficacy of coatings presented in this study may offer new alternatives for antibacterial coatings for medical devices.

  19. Hybrid method for investigation of electromagnetic scattering from conducting target above the randomly rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rui; Guo Li-Xin; Ma Jun; Wu Zhen-Sen

    2009-01-01

    A current based hybrid method(HM)is proposed which combines the method of moment(MOM)with the Kirchhoff approximation(KA)for the analysis of scattering interaction between a two-dimensional(2D)infinitely long conducting target with arbitrary cross section and a one-dimensional(1D)Ganssian rough surface.The electromagnetic scattering region in the HM is split into KA region and MOM region.The electric field integral equation(EFIE)in MOM region(target)is derived,the computational time of the HM depends mainly on the number of unknowns of the target.The bistatic scattering coefficient for the infinitely long cylinder above the rough surface with Gaussian roughness spectrum is calculated,and the numerical results are compared and verified with those obtained by the conventional MOM,which shows the high efficiency of the HM.Finally,the influence of the size,location of the target,the rms height and correlation length of the rough surface on the bistatic scattering coefficient with different polarizations is discussed in detail.

  20. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  1. Sol-gel network silica/modified montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites for hydrophobic surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, Kamal Mohamed Seeni; Sankar, Rajavelu Murali; Murali, Adhigan; Jaisankar, Sellamuthu N; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-02-01

    Sol-gel silica/nanoclay composites were prepared through sol-gel polymerization technique using tetraethylorthosilicate precursor and montmorillonite (MMT) clay in aqueous media. In this study, both montmorillonite-K(+) and organically modified MMT (OMMT) clays were used. The prepared composites were coated on glass substrate by making 1 wt% solution in ethyltrichlorosilane. The incorporation of nanoclay does not alter the intensity of characteristic Si-O-Si peak of silica network. Thermogravimetric studies show that increasing clay content increased the degradation temperature of the composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of organically modified MMT nanoclay incorporated composite show a shift in the melting behavior up to 38°C. From DSC thermograms, we observed that the ΔH value decreased with increasing clay loading. X-ray diffraction patterns prove the presence of nanoclay in the composite and increase in the concentration of organically modified nanoclay from 3 to 5 wt% increases the intensity of the peak at 2θ=8° corresponds to OMMT. Morphology of the control silica gel composite was greatly influenced by the incorporation of OMMT. The presence of nanoclay changed the surface of control silica gel composite into cleaved surface with brittle in nature. Contact angle measurements were done for the coatings to study their surface behavior. These hybrid coatings on glass substrate may have applications for hydrophobic coatings on leather substrate.

  2. A hybrid damping method for LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter with a digital filter and an RC parallel passive damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Lin, Zhe; Sun, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Grid-tied inverters have been widely used to inject the renewable energies into the distributed power generation systems. However, a large variation of the grid impedance challenges the stability of the high-order power filter based grid-tied inverter. Many passive and active damping methods have...... been proposed to overcome this issue. Recently, a composite passive damping method for a high-order power filter based grid-tied inverter with an RC parallel damper and an RL series damper was presented to eliminate this problem, but at the cost of more material and power losses. In this paper...

  3. Adsorption of poly(rA) on the carbon nanotube surface and its hybridization with poly(rU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtsev, Victor A; Gladchenko, Galyna O; Karachevtsev, Maksym V; Valeev, Vladimir A; Leontiev, Victor S; Lytvyn, Oksana S

    2008-10-06

    Adsorption of poly(rA) on a single-walled carbon nanotube surface in aqueous suspension and the subsequent hybridization of this polymer with free poly(rU) is studied. A comparison of the temperature dependence of the absorbance of free poly(rA) and poly(rA) adsorbed on the nanotube surface [poly(rA)(NT)] at nu(max)= 38,500 cm(-1) shows that the thermostability of the adsorbed polymer is higher. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that more than half of the adenines are not stacked on the tube surface and some of them undergo self-stacking. After addition of a complementary poly(rU) to the poly(rA)(NT) suspension, a double-stranded polymer is formed as confirmed by the characteristic S-like form of its melting curve. However, the melting temperature of this polymer is lower than that of the free poly(rA)poly(rU) duplex. This result indicates that poly(rU) hybridization with poly(rA)(NT) occurs with defects along the whole length of the polymer because of pi-pi stacking between nitrogen bases and the nanotube surface, which hinders the usual hybridization process. Computer modeling demonstrates different possible structures of hybridized polymers on the nanotube surface.

  4. Effective surface treatment for GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using HF plus N2 plasma prior to SiN passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chien; Trinh, Hai-Dang; Dai, Gu-Ming; Huang, Chung-Kai; Dee, Chang-Fu; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Biswas, Dhrubes; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-01-01

    An effective surface cleaning technique is demonstrated for the GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) passivation process. In this study, dilute HF solution and in situ N2 plasma treatments were adopted to remove the native oxide and recover the nitrogen-vacancy defects at the GaN surface before device passivation. To investigate the correlation between the properties of the SiN/GaN interface and the device performance, the GaN MIS-HEMTs were characterized using current-voltage (I-V) measurement, capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. With the application of this surface treatment technique, the device exhibits improved I-V characteristics with low leakage current, low dynamic ON-resistance, and good C-V response with a steep slope. Overall, the results reveal that the oxide-related bonds and nitrogen-vacancy defects at the SiN/GaN interface are the root cause of the GaN MIS-HEMTs performance degradation.

  5. Effective surface passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by using PH{sub 3} plasma treatment and HfO{sub 2} dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Hao, Yue; Feng, Qian [Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Technology Disciplines State Key Laboratory, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, 710071 Xi' an (China)

    2012-03-15

    Different surface passivation methods of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were investigated in this work. C-V measurement shows that very high trap density (D{sub it}) of 1.51 x 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} exists at the AlGaN/GaN surface, which has activation energy of 0.765 eV. The surface treatment by using O{sub 2} plasma treatment and HfO{sub 2} dielectric can efficiently lower D{sub it} to 3.57 x 10{sup 12}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} and 1.06 x 10{sup 12}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}, repectively. To reduce these deep trap states further, a more effective passivation method is presented here. By using the PH{sub 3} plasma treatment before the HfO{sub 2} deposition, D{sub it} was further greatly reduced and reached a very low value of 1.37 x 10{sup 11}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Evidence of surface states for AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs passivated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by CDLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassoumi, M., E-mail: malek.gassoumi@univ-lille.fr [Faculte des Sciences de Monastir Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures (Tunisia); Grimbert, B.; Gaquiere, C. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie IEMN, Departement hyperfrequences et Semiconducteurs (France); Maaref, H. [Faculte des Sciences de Monastir Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures (Tunisia)

    2012-03-15

    In AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HEMTs) structures, the surface defects and dislocations may serve as trapping centers and affect the device performance via leakage current and low frequency noise. This work demonstrates the effect of surface passivation on the current-voltage characteristics and we report results of our investigation of the trapping characteristics of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-passivated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC substrates using the conductance deep levels transient spectroscopy (CDLTS) technique. From the measured of CDLTS we identified one electron trap had an activation energy of 0.31 eV it has been located in the AlGaN layer and two hole-likes traps H{sub 1}, H{sub 2}. It has been pointed out that the two hole-likes traps signals did not originate from changes in hole trap population in the channel, but reflected the changes in the electron population in the surface states of the HEMT access regions.

  7. Deposition and Properties of the Pseudobinary Alloy (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x and Its Application for Silicon Surface Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Alexieva, Z.; Agostinelli, G.

    2006-07-01

    The electrical properties of (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x thin films, obtained from sol solution by spin coating on Si substrates (c-Si or mc-Si), have been studied. By varying the ratios between Al2O3 and TiO2 components, the optical and dielectric characteristics can be changed. This deposition method can be used for effective engineering of physical properties of the dielectric layer. Surface recombination velocities as low as 150 cm/s have been obtained using (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x layers on 1 Ω\\cdotcm Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. Low surface recombination is achieved by field induced surface passivation due to a high density of negative fixed charges.

  8. Passive education

    OpenAIRE

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way ‘better’ or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive education is instead described and outlined as an education which occurs whether we attempt it or not. As such, the object of critique for this essay are fo...

  9. [Passive gymnastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazi, L

    1990-01-01

    There is at the moment a continuous proliferation of gymnasium centres, among which the so-called "Centres of passive or activated gymnastic" have recently assumed a particular importance. The Swedish Doctor Zander, in the XIX century, was a promoter of this kind of gymnastics, utilizing instruments invented by him. These instruments were able to perform fundamental movements without needing the active participation of the person involved. Today's machinery for passive gymnastics no longer have the therapy or rehabilitation as their main purpose, but their present first purpose is more aesthetic than scientific. The ancient and modern machinery for passive gymnastics, is sometimes an imitation of the action of a massager.

  10. A hybrid atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical approach for simulating surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, John L; Morton, Seth M; Moore, Justin E; Jensen, Lasse

    2014-01-21

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a technique that has broad implications for biological and chemical sensing applications by providing the ability to simultaneously detect and identify a single molecule. The Raman scattering of molecules adsorbed on metal nanoparticles can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. These enhancements stem from a twofold mechanism: an electromagnetic mechanism (EM), which is due to the enhanced local field near the metal surface, and a chemical mechanism (CM), which is due to the adsorbate specific interactions between the metal surface and the molecules. The local field near the metal surface can be significantly enhanced due to the plasmon excitation, and therefore chemists generally accept that the EM provides the majority of the enhancements. While classical electrodynamics simulations can accurately simulate the local electric field around metal nanoparticles, they offer few insights into the spectral changes that occur in SERS. First-principles simulations can directly predict the Raman spectrum but are limited to small metal clusters and therefore are often used for understanding the CM. Thus, there is a need for developing new methods that bridge the electrodynamics simulations of the metal nanoparticle and the first-principles simulations of the molecule to facilitate direct simulations of SERS spectra. In this Account, we discuss our recent work on developing a hybrid atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical approach to simulate SERS. This hybrid method is called the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanics (DIM/QM) method and consists of an atomistic electrodynamics model of the metal nanoparticle and a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) description of the molecule. In contrast to most previous work, the DIM/QM method enables us to retain a detailed atomistic structure of the nanoparticle and provides a natural bridge between the electronic structure methods and the macroscopic

  11. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  12. Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Allsop; Raz Arif; Ron Neal; Kyriacos Kalli; Vojtěch Kundrát; Aleksey Rozhin; Phil Culverhouse

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the modification of the optical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) resulting from a chemical reaction triggered by the presence of a specific compound (gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2)) and show this mechanism has important consequences for chemical sensing.CNTs have attracted significant research interest because they can be functionalized for a particular chemical,yielding a specific physical response which suggests many potential applications in the fields of nanotechnology and sensing.So far,however,utilizing their optical properties for this purpose has proven to be challenging.We demonstrate the use of localized surface plasmons generated on a nanostructured thin film,resembling a large array of nano-wires,to detect changes in the optical properties of the CNTs.Chemical selectivity is demonstrated using CO2 in gaseous form at room temperature.The demonstrated methodology results additionally in a new,electrically passive,optical sensing configuration that opens up the possibilities of using CNTs as sensors in hazardous/explosive environments.

  13. Passive Euthanasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. Garrard; S. Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    The idea of passive euthanasia has recently been attacked in a particularly clear and explicit way by an "Ethics Task Force" established by the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) in February 2001...

  14. Static stability analysis of a passive-active hybrid vibration isolator%磁悬浮主被动混合隔振器静稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪圆; 何琳; 帅长庚; 李彦

    2015-01-01

    Passive-active vibration isolator using maglev actuator is a elastic structure combining positive and negative stiffness. Stiffness model of the hybrid vibration isolator is established to solve the stability problem of the structure. According to virtual work principle, the stiffness principle determining the static stability of a elastic system is derived. This stiffness principle combining the stiffness model is used to ana-lyze the static stability of the hybrid vibration isolator. Theory and experimental results show that the stiff-ness of the hybrid vibration isolator is positive for working displace, and the isolator is stable.%磁悬浮主被动混合隔振器是一种正负刚度并联的弹性结构.针对该结构存在的稳定性问题,建立了某型磁悬浮主被动混合隔振器的刚度模型. 基于虚功原理,推导出判定弹性系统静稳定性的刚度准则. 运用该准则,结合混合隔振器的刚度模型分析了该主被动混合隔振器的静稳定性. 理论和实验结果表明,该混合隔振器在工作位移内,系统刚度为正,混合隔振器是静稳定的.

  15. Glacier surface melt characterization and trend analysis (1992-2011) in the Russian High Arctic from combined resolution-enhanced scatterometer and passive microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Ramage, J. M.; Semmens, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global warming has been pronounced in the remote glacierized archipelagoes (Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land) of the Russian High Arctic (RHA) and its effect on the low altitude, high latitude small ice caps needs examination. The timing and spatial variability of snow melt onset, duration and intensity are key factors influencing mass balance and the ice marginal hydrological system as well as important indicators of glacial response to anthropogenic and natural forcings. Characterization and trend analysis of RHA glacier melt behaviors provide insight about assessing the mass loss rate under recent Arctic climate change. However, due to the harsh environment, long term records of glaciological data for RHA are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to accomplish the research. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to penetrate non-precipitating clouds enables microwave remote sensing to detect glacier surface melt. The appearance of melt water in snow dramatically decreases the returned scatterometer radar signal from active microwave sensors and sharply augments passive microwave emission. Based on this feature, we combined resolution-enhanced ERS-1/2 C-band (1992-2000), QuickSCAT Ku-band (2000-2009), ASCAT C-band (2009-2011) scatterometer data and SSMI 37 GHz (1995-2007) vertically polarized passive microwave products from Brigham Young University and analyzed glacier surface melt trends from 1992 to 2011 with a spatial resolution downscaled to 4.45km. We concatenated scatterometer derived melt behaviors by overlapping years and refined the results based on passive microwave data. Cross-validation shows that melt timing to be consistent between the active and passive sensors. Trend analysis (α < 0.005) reveals that the average glacier surface melt onset date occurs earlier by approximately 0.85 days/year in Severnaya Zemlya which outpaced the mean advancing rate in the pan-Arctic. Surrounded by ocean

  16. TiO2 micro-nano-hybrid surface to alleviate biological aging of UV-photofunctionalized titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasa F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuminori Iwasa1, Naoki Tsukimura1, Yoshihiko Sugita1, Rajita Kodali Kanuru1, Katsutoshi Kubo1, Hafiz Hasnain1, Wael Att1,2, Takahiro Ogawa11Laboratory of Bone and Implant Sciences (LBIS, The Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Prosthodontics, Dental School, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, GermanyAbstract: Bioactivity and osteoconductivity of titanium degrade over time after surface processing. This time-dependent degradation is substantial and defined as the biological aging of titanium. UV treatment has shown to reactivate the aged surfaces, a process known as photofunctionalization. This study determined whether there is a difference in the behavior of biological aging for titanium with micro-nano-hybrid topography and titanium with microtopography alone, following functionalization. Titanium disks were acid etched to create micropits on the surface. Micro-nano-hybrid surfaces were created by depositioning 300-nm diameter TiO2 nodules onto the micropits using a previously established self-assembly protocol. These disks were stored for 8 weeks in the dark to allow sufficient aging, then treated with UV light for 48 hours. Rat bone marrow–derived osteoblasts were cultured on fresh disks (immediately after UV treatment, 3-day-old disks (disks stored for 3 days after UV treatment, and 7-day-old disks. The rates of cell attachment, spread, proliferation, and levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition were reduced by 30%–50% on micropit surfaces, depending on the age of the titanium. In contrast, 7-day-old hybrid surfaces maintained equivalent levels of bioactivity compared with the fresh surfaces. Both micropit and micro-nano-hybrid surfaces were superhydrophilic immediately after UV treatment. However, after 7 days, the micro-nano-hybrid surfaces became hydrorepellent

  17. Passive euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, E; Wilkinson, S

    2005-01-01

    The idea of passive euthanasia has recently been attacked in a particularly clear and explicit way by an "Ethics Task Force" established by the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) in February 2001. It claims that the expression "passive euthanasia" is a contradiction in terms and hence that there can be no such thing. This paper critically assesses the main arguments for the Task Force's view. Three arguments are considered. Firstly, an argument based on the (supposed) wrongness of euthanasia and the (supposed) permissibility of what is often called passive euthanasia. Secondly, the claim that passive euthanasia (so-called) cannot really be euthanasia because it does not cause death. And finally, a consequence based argument which appeals to the (alleged) bad consequences of accepting the category of passive euthanasia. We conclude that although healthcare professionals' nervousness about the concept of passive euthanasia is understandable, there is really no reason to abandon the category provided that it is properly and narrowly understand and provided that "euthanasia reasons" for withdrawing or withholding life-prolonging treatment are carefully distinguished from other reasons. PMID:15681666

  18. Probing nanoscale chemical segregation and surface properties of antifouling hybrid xerogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destino, Joel F; Gatley, Caitlyn M; Craft, Andrew K; Detty, Michael R; Bright, Frank V

    2015-03-24

    Over the past decade there has been significant development in hybrid polymer coatings exhibiting tunable surface morphology, surface charge, and chemical segregation-all believed to be key properties in antifouling (AF) coating performance. While a large body of research exists on these materials, there have yet to be studies on all the aforementioned properties in a colocalized manner with nanoscale spatial resolution. Here, we report colocalized atomic force microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy on a model AF xerogel film composed of 1:9:9 (mol:mol:mol) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) formed on Al2O3. This AF film is found to consist of three regions that are chemically and physically unique in 2D and 3D across multiple length scales: (i) a 1.5 μm thick base layer derived from all three precursors; (ii) 2-4 μm diameter mesa-like features that are enriched in free amine (from APTES), depleted in the other species and that extend 150-400 nm above the base layer; and (iii) 1-2 μm diameter subsurface inclusions within the base layer that are enriched in hydrogen-bonded amine (from APTES) and depleted in the other species.

  19. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-02-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of `design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications.

  20. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-01-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of ‘design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications. PMID:28146147

  1. Study on the Detectability of the Sky-Surface Wave Hybrid Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Chengyu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Working in the HF (high-frequency band and the transmitter and receiver locating separately, the sky-surface wave hybrid radar both has the capabilities of the OTHR (over-the-horizon radar and the advantage of the bistatic radar. As the electromagnetic wave will be disturbed by the ionosphere, interfered by the sea clutter and attenuated by the sea surface, the detectability of this radar system is more complex. So, in this paper, we will discuss the problem detailedly. First of all, the radar equation is deduced based on the propagation of the electromagnetic wave. Then, how to calculate the effect of the ionosphere and the propagation loss is discussed. And an example based on the radar equation is given. At last, the ambiguity function is used to analyze the range and velocity resolution. From the result, we find that the resolution has relation with the location of the target and the height of reflection point of the ionosphere. But compared with the location, the effect of the ionospheric height can be ignored.

  2. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordihn, Stefan, E-mail: s.bordihn2@q-cells.com [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W. [Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200 °C and 500 °C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H] = 3 at. % at 200 °C to [H] < 0.5 at. % at 400 °C and 500 °C. The surface passivation performance was investigated after annealing at 300 °C–450 °C and also after firing steps in the typical temperature range of 800 °C–925 °C. A similar high level of the surface passivation performance, i.e., surface recombination velocity values <10 cm/s, was obtained after annealing and firing. Investigations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks complemented the work and revealed similar levels of surface passivation as single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} to 3·10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} when T{sub Dep} was increased from 300 °C to 500 °C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T{sub Dep}. When firing films prepared at of low T{sub Dep}, blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  3. Estrogen-, androgen- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in passive and composite samples from municipal waste and surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jálová, V; Jarošová, B; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Ocelka, T; Grabic, R; Jurčíková, J; Vrana, B; Hilscherová, K

    2013-09-01

    Passive and composite sampling in combination with in vitro bioassays and identification and quantification of individual chemicals were applied to characterize pollution by compounds with several specific modes of action in urban area in the basin of two rivers, with 400,000 inhabitants and a variety of industrial activities. Two types of passive samplers, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) for hydrophobic contaminants and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) for polar compounds such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, were used to sample wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and effluent as well as rivers upstream and downstream of the urban complex and the WWTP. Compounds with endocrine disruptive potency were detected in river water and WWTP influent and effluent. Year-round, monthly assessment of waste waters by bioassays documented estrogenic, androgenic and dioxin-like potency as well as cytotoxicity in influent waters of the WWTP and allowed characterization of seasonal variability of these biological potentials in waste waters. The WWTP effectively removed cytotoxic compounds, xenoestrogens and xenoandrogens. There was significant variability in treatment efficiency of dioxin-like potency. The study indicates that the WWTP, despite its up-to-date technology, can contribute endocrine disrupting compounds to the river. Riverine samples exhibited dioxin-like, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic potencies. The study design enabled characterization of effects of the urban complex and the WWTP on the river. Concentrations of PAHs and contaminants and specific biological potencies sampled by POCIS decreased as a function of distance from the city. © 2013.

  4. Surface passivation and protection of Pt loaded multicrystalline pn+ silicon photocathodes by atmospheric plasma oxidation for improved solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ronglei; Tang, Chengshuang; Xin, Yu; Su, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Mingrong

    2016-12-01

    In the traditional methods such as atomic layer deposition and sputtering, a thin metal oxide layer was usually deposited before the loading of catalysts to protect Si photoelectrodes from oxidation during solar water splitting, and this often results in the transfer of photogenerated carriers from Si to electrolyte more or less inhibited. We here use an atmospheric plasma oxidation method to improve this. A SiO2 protective layer, also an effective passivation layer of Si to increase the life time of carriers, is fabricated on Pt loaded multicrystalline pn+-Si photocathodes. Compared with the un-protected one, the energy conversion efficiency of the plasma-treated Pt/pn+-Si photocathode increases from 6.2% to 8.9% under 100 mW/cm2 Xe lamp, and its stability improves from less than 1-22 h under continuous H2 production. This research provides a conceptual strategy to ensure the direct contact among the Si/Pt/electrolyte and protect and passivate the other part of Si simultaneously.

  5. Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-01-01

    We report a new class of molecular insulators that electronically passivate the surface of nanocrystalline titania films for high performance dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Using electrical impedance measurements we demonstrate that co-adsorption of dineohexyl bis-(3,3-dimethyl-butyl)-phosphinic acid (DINHOP), along with the amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer Z907Na increased substantially the power output of the cells mainly due to a retardation of interfacial recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. The use of phosphinates as anchoring groups opens up new avenues for modification of the surface by molecular insulators, sensitizers and other electro-active molecules to realize the desired optoelectronic performance of devices based on oxide junctions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Al2O3/SiON stack layers for effective surface passivation and anti-reflection of high efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thanh Nguyen, Huong; Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Triet, Nguyen Minh; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Lee, Seunghwan; Jeon, Minhan; Oh, Donhyun; Dao, Vinh Ai; Yi, Junsin

    2017-02-01

    Excellent surface passivation and anti-reflection properties of double-stack layers is a prerequisite for high efficiency of n-type c-Si solar cells. The high positive fixed charge (Q f) density of N-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films plays a poor role in boron emitter passivation. The more the refractive index ( n ) of a-SiNx:H is decreased, the more the positive Q f of a-SiNx:H is increased. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride (SiON) films possess the properties of amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) and a-SiNx:H with variable n and less positive Q f compared with a-SiNx:H. In this study, we investigated the passivation and anti-reflection properties of Al2O3/SiON stacks. Initially, a SiON layer was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with variable n and its chemical composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the SiON layer was deposited as a capping layer on a 10 nm thick Al2O3 layer, and the electrical and optical properties were analyzed. The SiON capping layer with n = 1.47 and a thickness of 70 nm resulted in an interface trap density of 4.74 = 1010 cm-2 eV-1 and Q f of -2.59 = 1012 cm-2 with a substantial improvement in lifetime of 1.52 ms after industrial firing. The incorporation of an Al2O3/SiON stack on the front side of the n-type solar cells results in an energy conversion efficiency of 18.34% compared to the one with Al2O3/a-SiNx:H showing 17.55% efficiency. The short circuit current density and open circuit voltage increase by up to 0.83 mA cm-2 and 12 mV, respectively, compared to the Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stack on the front side of the n-type solar cells due to the good anti-reflection and front side surface passivation.

  7. Monolithic III-V and hybrid polysilicon-III-V microelectromechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Edward M.; Lott, James A.; Nelson, Thomas R., Jr.; Harvey, M. C.; Raley, J. A.; Stintz, Andreas; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2003-04-01

    We report our progress on the design and fabrication of electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical (MEM) tunable wavelength filters and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We investigate both an all-semiconductor monolithic approach and a hybrid approach based on the combination of conventional polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and III-V semiconductor thin-film distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and VCSEL structures. In the tunable hybrid structures the III-V semiconductor layers are flip-bonded onto specially designed polysilicon foundry MEMS structures and separated from their lattice-matched parent substrates by a novel post-bonding lift-off process.

  8. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels, high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  9. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic mechanical properties of Roystonea regia/glass–epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2012-12-01

    The paper evaluates effect of fibre surface modification and hybridization on dynamic mechanical properties of Roystonea regia/epoxy composites. Surface modification involved alkali and silane treatments. Alkali treatment proved to be more effective on dynamic mechanical properties as compared to silane treatment. Storage and loss modulus values increased after treatments with simultaneous decrease in tan values. Roystonea regia and glass fibres were used together with varying proportions as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to study the hybridization effect on dynamic mechanical properties. Storage and loss modulus values increased with increase in glass fibre content whereas tan values were found to decrease. Scanning electron microscopy of tensile fractured surfaces was carried out to study the interface adhesion of different composites.

  10. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  11. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  12. High-temperature degradation in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation layers on crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühnhold, Saskia [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Freiburg Materials Research Center FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21 (Germany); Saint-Cast, Pierre; Kafle, Bishal; Hofmann, Marc [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Colonna, Francesco [Freiburg Materials Research Center FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21 (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Wöhlerstraße 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Zacharias, Margit [Department of Microsystems Engineering IMTEK, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-08-07

    In this publication, the activation and degradation of the passivation quality of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) layers with different thicknesses (10 nm, 20 nm, and 110 nm) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) during long and high temperature treatments are investigated. As indicated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the concentration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites within the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer changes during temperature treatments and correlates with the amount of negative fixed charges at the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, which was detected by Corona Oxide Characterization of Semiconductors. Furthermore, during a temperature treatment at 820 °C for 30 min, the initial amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer crystallize into the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure and was enhanced by additional oxygen as was proven by x-ray diffraction measurements and underlined by Density Functional Theory simulations. The crystallization correlates with the increase of the optical density up to 20% while the final Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer thickness decreases at the same time up to 26%. All observations described above were detected to be Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer thickness dependent. These observations reveal novel aspects to explain the temperature induced passivation and degradation mechanisms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers at a molecular level like the origin of the negative fixe charges at the Si/SiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface or the phenomena of blistering. Moreover, the crystal phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} does not deliver good surface passivation due to a high concentration of octahedral sites leading to a lower concentration of negative fixed charges at the interface.

  13. Trapped charge densities in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based silicon surface passivation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Paul M., E-mail: Paul.Jordan@namlab.com; Simon, Daniel K.; Dirnstorfer, Ingo [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Chair of Nanoelectronic Materials, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-06-07

    In Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based passivation layers, the formation of fixed charges and trap sites can be strongly influenced by small modifications in the stack layout. Fixed and trapped charge densities are characterized with capacitance voltage profiling and trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing, respectively. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers are grown by atomic layer deposition with very thin (∼1 nm) SiO{sub 2} or HfO{sub 2} interlayers or interface layers. In SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks, both fixed charges and trap sites are reduced by at least a factor of 5 compared with the value measured in pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks, very high total charge densities of up to 9 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} are achieved. These charge densities are described as functions of electrical stress voltage, time, and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer thickness between silicon and the HfO{sub 2} or the SiO{sub 2} interlayer. Despite the strong variation of trap sites, all stacks reach very good effective carrier lifetimes of up to 8 and 20 ms on p- and n-type silicon substrates, respectively. Controlling the trap sites in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers opens the possibility to engineer the field-effect passivation in the solar cells.

  14. A hybrid surface modification method on copper wire braids for enhancing thermal performance of ultra-thin heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, W. K.; Lin, H. T.; Wu, C. H.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

    2017-02-01

    Copper is the most widely used material in heat pipe manufacturing. Since the capability of wick structures inside a heat pipe will dominate its thermal performance, in this study, we introduce a hybrid surface modification method on the copper wire braids being inserted as wick structure into an ultra-thin heat pipe. The hybrid method is the combination of a chemical-oxidation-based method and a sol-gel method with nanoparticles being dip-coated onto the braid. The experimental data show that braids under hybrid treatment perform higher water rising speed than the oxidized braids while owning higher water net weight than those braids being only dip-coated with nanoparticle.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  17. Unusual dynamic dewetting behavior of smooth perfluorinated hybrid films: potential advantages over conventional textured and liquid-infused perfluorinated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-10-08

    From a viewpoint of reducing the burden on the environment and human health, an alternative method for preparing liquid-repellent surfaces without relying on the long perfluorocarbons (C((X-1)/2)F(X), X ≥ 17) has been strongly demanded lately. In this study, we have successfully demonstrated that dynamic dewettability toward various probe liquids (polar and nonpolar liquids with high or low surface tension) can be tuned by not only controlling surface chemistries (surface energies) but also the physical (solid-like or liquid-like) nature of the surface. We prepared smooth and transparent organic-inorganic hybrid films exhibiting unusual dynamic dewetting behavior toward various probe liquids using a simple sol-gel reaction based on the co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture including a range of perfluoroalkylsilanes (FASX, C((X-1)/2)F(X)CH2CH2Si(OR)3, where X = 3, 9, 13, and 17) and tetramethoxysilane (Si(OCH3)4, TMOS). Dynamic contact angle (CA) and substrate tilt angle (TA) measurements confirmed that our FASX-hybrid films exhibited excellent dynamic dewetting properties and were mostly independent of the length of perfluoroalkyl (Rf) groups. For example, 10 μL droplets of ultralow surface tension liquids (e.g., diethyl ether (γ = 16.26 dyn/cm) and n-pentane (γ = 15.51 dyn/cm)) could move easily on our FAS9-, FAS13-, and FAS17-hybrid film surfaces at low substrate TAs (dynamic dewetting behavior appeared only when TMOS molecules were added to the precursor solutions; we assume this is due to co-condensed TMOS-derived silica species working as spacers between the neighboring Rf chains, enabling them to rotate freely and in doing so provide a surface with liquid-like properties. This led to the distinguished dynamic dewettability of our hybrid films, regardless of the small static CAs. Our FASX-hybrid films also displayed excellent chemical and physical durability against thermal stress (~250 °C), high-temperature (150 °C) oil vapor, and various

  18. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO KeBiao; SHI JianCheng; LI ZhaoLiang; QIN ZhiHao; LI ManChun; XU Bin

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface temperature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM, the difference of different frequencies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere, and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately, the land surface should be at least classified into three types: water covered surface, snow covered surface, and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm, we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature error is about 2-3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  19. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface tem-perature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM,the difference of different frequen-cies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere,and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately,the land surface should be at least classified into three types:water covered surface,snow covered surface,and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm,we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature er-ror is about 2―3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  20. Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishifuji, Miki; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2006-07-01

    Effective utilization of coupled surface plasmon resonance from gold nanoparticles was demonstrated experimentally for optoelectronic applications based on second-order nonlinear optics. Hybrid polymer nanoassemblies were constructed by manipulating gold nanoparticle arrays with nonlinear optical active polymer nanosheets to investigate the second harmonic generation. The gold nanoparticle arrays were assembled on heterodeposited polymer nanosheets. The second harmonic light intensity was enhanced by a factor of 8. The observed enhancement was attributed to coupling of surface plasmons between two adjacent gold nanoparticles, thereby enhancing the surface electromagnetic field around the nanoparticles at the fundamental light wavelength (1064nm).

  1. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P

    2013-08-28

    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  2. A Dual-Chamber Hybrid Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) for Planetary Surfaces or Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Kennedy, Kriss; Guirgis, Peggy; Boyle, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project in conjunction with the NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) team has identified a need for a hybrid inflatable and hard shell suitlock that can be used for planetary surface and deep space human exploration missions. Through ongoing analog studies at NASA Desert Research and Technologies Studies (D-RATS) and in NASA's Prototyping Testbed Facility, it has been determined that a compactly stowed, deployable suitlock unit is needed to accommodate advanced EVA egress and ingress operations for various environments with only minor modification.The Dual-Chamber Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard in-line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. A dual-compartment suitlock will allow for dust and contaminant control, suit maintenance, and efficient egress / ingress; and the inflatable aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. This paper describes the DCIS functionality, subsystems, and operational scenarios.The novel concepts included in the DCIS are the triple bulkhead, dual-chamber that has one compartment that is continuously pressurized (either at cabin pressure, or may be used for transitional pressure from high-pressure habitats), and a nominal unpressurized second compartment where the suits will be kept for normal operations. The advantages include quicker egress / ingress, capacity for 'shirt sleeve' suit maintenance, and portability of the entire unit.

  3. Active control of surface plasmon resonance in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Shuai; Gong, Yongji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers have attracted much attention for their novel optical properties and efficient light-matter interactions. When excited by incident laser, the optical response of MoS2 monolayers was effectively modified by elementary photo-excited excitons owing to their large exciton binding energy, which can be facilitated for the optical-controllable exciton-plasmon interactions. Inspired by this concept, we experimentally investigated active light control of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures. The white light spectra of SPR were gradually red-shifted by increasing laser power, which was distinctly different from the one of bare Ag nanostructure. This spectroscopic tunability can be further controlled by near-field coupling strength and polarization state of light, and selectively applied to the control of plasmonic dark mode. An analytical Lorentz model for photo-excited excitons induced modulation of MoS2 dielectric function was developed to explain the...

  4. EFFECT OF SURFACE SEALING ON STAIN RESISTANCE OF A NANO-HYBRID RESIN COMPOSITE*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günçe SAYGI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigated the influence of sealant application on stain resistance of a nanohybrid resin composite compared to the efficacy of a bonding agent used as a surface sealant on prolonging color stability of the resin composite. Materials and Methods: 28 disc-shaped materials were prepared from a nano-hybrid resin composite Filtek Z550 and assigned to four groups: G1K: nonsealed; G2:Adper Single Bond; G3: Fortify ; G4: Biscover LV. After 24 h storage in distilled water at 37˚C, all specimens were subjected to thermocycling and immersed into coffee solution. Color measurements were performed using spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade; Vident according to CIEL*a*b* system. Results: Color change values were significantly different among the groups in each evaluation period except for after thermocycling (p<0.05. For 7 days evaluation period, the difference between G3 and G4 group was statistically significant while G4 exhibited statistically significant differences (p<0.05 and p<0.0001 respectively compared to control (G1 in 14 day whereas no significant difference was found between GI and GII in 28-day evaluation period. However, ΔE values of sealed specimens (GIII, GIV differed significantly from non-sealed (GI specimens after 28 days of immersion in coffee solution (p<0.05 and p<0.0001 respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that using a bonding agent as a surface sealant does not increase stain resistance of resin composites of the sealants evaluated. Biscover LV showed the highest efficacy to prolong color stability of the resin composite.

  5. MLAA-based RF surface coil attenuation estimation in hybrid PET/MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Rank, Christopher M.; Freitag, Martin T.; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) for both patient and hardware attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation photons is required for accurate PET quantification. In hybrid PET/MR imaging, AC for stationary hardware components such as patient table and MR head coil is performed using CT{derived attenuation templates. AC for flexible hardware components such as MR radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is more challenging. Registration{based approaches, aligning scaled CT{derived attenuation templates with the current patient position, have been proposed but are not used in clinical routine. Ignoring RF coil attenuation has been shown to result in regional activity underestimation values of up to 18 %. We propose to employ a modified version of the maximum{ likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm to obtain an estimate of the RF coil attenuation. Starting with an initial attenuation map not including the RF coil, the attenuation update of MLAA is applied outside the body outline only, allowing to estimate RF coil attenuation without changing the patient attenuation map. Hence, the proposed method is referred to as external MLAA (xMLAA). In this work, xMLAA for RF surface coil attenuation estimation is investigated using phantom and patient data acquired with a Siemens Biograph mMR. For the phantom data, average activity errors compared to the ground truth was reduced from -8:1% to +0:8% when using the proposed method. Patient data revealed an average activity underestimation of -6:1% for the abdominal region and -5:3% for the thoracic region when ignoring RF coil attenuation.

  6. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  7. Defect reduction and surface passivation of SiO{sub 2}/Si by heat treatment with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Asada, K. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technol. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Heat treatment with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor was applied to improve interface properties of SiO{sub 2}/Si and passivate the silicon surface. Heat treatment at 180-420 C with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor changed SiO{sub x} films, 150 nm thick formed at room temperature by thermal evaporation in vacuum, into SiO{sub 2} films with a Si-O-Si bonding network similar to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} films. Heat treatment at 130 C with 2.8 x 10{sup 5} Pa H{sub 2}O for 3 h reduced the recombination velocity for the electron minority carriers from 405 cm/s (as-fabricated 150-nm-thick SiO{sub x}/Si) to 5 cm/s. Field-effect passivation was demonstrated by an additional deposition of defective SiO{sub x} films on the SiO{sub 2} films formed by heat treatment at 340 C with high-pressure H{sub 2}O vapor. The SiO{sub x} deposition reduced the recombination velocity from 100 cm/s to 48 cm/s. (orig.) With 3 figs., 15 refs.

  8. Defect reduction and surface passivation of SiO2/Si by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Asada, K.

    Heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor was applied to improve interface properties of SiO2/Si and passivate the silicon surface. Heat treatment at 180-420 °C with high-pressure H2O vapor changed SiOx films, 150 nm thick formed at room temperature by thermal evaporation in vacuum, into SiO2 films with a Si-O-Si bonding network similar to that of thermally grown SiO2 films. Heat treatment at 130 °C with 2.8×105 Pa H2O for 3 h reduced the recombination velocity for the electron minority carriers from 405 cm/s (as-fabricated 150-nm-thick SiOx/Si) to 5 cm/s. Field-effect passivation was demonstrated by an additional deposition of defective SiOx films on the SiO2 films formed by heat treatment at 340 °C with high-pressure H2O vapor. The SiOx deposition reduced the recombination velocity from 100 cm/s to 48 cm/s.

  9. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  10. Preparation of Graphene/Gold Nano-Hybrid Using Diamine Linker as Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Su; Lee, Wonoh; Byun, Joon Hyung; Lee, Jea Uk

    2015-11-01

    Development of simple and efficient method for the large-scale production of gaphene/metal nanoparticle hybrids is highly desirable for practical applications, such as catalyst, energy generation and storage, optoelectronics, and sensors. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of graphene/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrids by simply mixing the functionalized graphene oxide and AuNPs in aqueous media. Among various functionalized graphene sheets, amine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH2) is used as the hybrid platform due to its synthetic convenience, good dispersity, scalable production with low cost, and positive charge on the surfacce, which could immobilize the AuNPs on the graphene sheets via electrostatic interaction. The synthesized graphene/AgNP hybrids show high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitivity due to the combined effects of the high contents of amine functional groups on the GO-NH2 surface to adsorb more AgNPs and the electromagnetic enhancement of AgNPs.

  11. Surface density dependence of PCR amplicon hybridization on PNA/DNA probe layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Danfeng; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Fang

    2005-01-01

    at an intermediate sodium concentration (approximately 100 mM). These effects were mainly ascribed to the electrostatic cross talk among the hybridized DNA molecules and the secondary structure of PCR amplicons. For the negatively charged DNA probes, the hybridization reaction was subjected additionally to the DNA...

  12. Charge-transfer induced surface conductivity for a copper based inorganic-organic hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkenbout, Anne H.; Uemura, Takafumi; Takeya, Jun; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrids are receiving increasing attention as they offer the opportunity to combine the robust properties of inorganic materials with the versatility of organic compounds. We have studied the electric properties of an inorganic-organic hybrid with the chemical formula:

  13. The Tunable Hybrid Surface Phonon and Plasmon Polariton Modes in Boron Nitride Nanotube and Graphene Monolayer Heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yu; Cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid modes incorporating surface phonon polariton (SPhP) modes in boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes in graphene monolayers are theoretically studied. The combination of the 1D BNNTs and 2D graphene monolayer further improves the modal characteristics with electrical tunability. Superior to the graphene monolayers, the proposed heterostructures supports single mode transmission with lateral optical confinement. The modal characteristics can be shifted from SPP-like toward SPhP-like. Both the figure of merit and field enhancement of hybrid modes are improved over 3 times than those of BNNT SPhP modes, which may further enable sub-wavelength mid-infrared applications.

  14. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO{sub 2} of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassoumi, Malek, E-mail: malek.gassoumi@fsm.rnu.tn; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Gaquiere, Christophe [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie IEMN, Departement hyperfrequences et Semiconducteurs (France); Maaref, Hassen [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-07-15

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO{sub 2} passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO{sub 2} film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device.

  15. In-situ IR reflexion spectroscopy characterization of the passivation layer developed on the surface of lithium electrodes in organic medium; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barusseau, S. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Perton, F. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Rakotondrainibe, A.; Lamy, C. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie 1, ``Electrochimie et Interactions``

    1996-12-31

    the development of lithium metal batteries is hindered by the bad reversibility of the Li{sup +}/Li pair, due to dendrites formation which limits the amount of active matter and can generate short-circuits. The chemical and electrochemical phenomena which take place at the electrode/organic electrolyte interface lead to the formation of a complex passivation film which is of prime importance for the functioning of this type of batteries. The in-situ infrared reflection spectroscopy is well adapted to the chemical study of the passivation layer. Two different techniques were used: the substraction normalized interfacial transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) and the electro-chemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy. These methods have shown that the passivation layer that develops on the surface of the lithium electrode in contact with organic solutions (propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane) is mainly made of lithium alkyl carbonates (ROCO{sub 2}Li) and lithium carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). (J.S.) 14 refs.

  16. Parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton add-drop filters for hybrid silicon/plasmonic optical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereux, A.; Hassan, K.; Weeber, J.-C.; Djellali, N.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Kriezis, E.; Papaioannou, S.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Baus, M.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2011-01-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating along the surface of a conductor. Surface plasmons photonics is a promising candidate to satisfy the constraints of miniaturization of optical interconnects. This contribution reviews an experimental parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides ring resonators and add-drop filters within the perspective of the recently suggested hybrid technology merging plasmonic and silicon photonics on a single board (European FP7 project PLATON "Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects"). Conclusions relevant for dielectric loaded surface plasmon switches to be integrated in silicon photonic circuitry will be drawn. They rely on the opportunity offered by plasmonic circuitry to carry optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal circuitry. The heating of the dielectric loading by the electric current enables to design low foot-print thermo-optical switches driving the optical signal flow.

  17. Synthesis of TiO2-poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid particles through surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Florian; Moerman, David; Laurencin, Danielle; Richeter, Sébastien; Guari, Yannick; Mehdi, Ahmad; Dubois, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Clément, Sébastien

    2014-09-30

    TiO2/conjugated polymers are promising materials in solar energy conversion where efficient photoinduced charge transfers are required. Here, a "grafting-from" approach for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles supported with conjugated polymer brushes is presented. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), a benchmark material for organic electronics, was selectively grown from TiO2 nanoparticles by surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation. The grafting of the polymer onto the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles by this method was demonstrated by (1)H and (13)C solid-state NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Sedimentation tests in tetrahydrofuran revealed improved dispersion stability for the TiO2@P3HT hybrid material. Films were produced by solvent casting, and the quality of the dispersion of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The dispersion of the P3HT-coated TiO2 NPs in the P3HT matrix was found to be homogeneous, and the fibrillar structure of the P3HT matrix was maintained which is favorable for charge transport. Fluorescence quenching measurements on these hybrid materials in CHCl3 indicated improved photoinduced electron-transfer efficiency. All in all, better physicochemical properties for P3HT/TiO2 hybrid material were reached via the surface-initiated "grafted-from" approach compared to the "grafting-onto" approach.

  18. Enhancement of Natural Convection by Carbon Nanotube Films Covered Microchannel-Surface for Passive Electronic Cooling Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Jiang, Shaohui; Yao, Wei; Liu, Changhong

    2016-11-16

    Owing to the outstanding properties of thermal conduction, lightweight, and chemical durability, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have revealed promising applications in thermal management materials. Meanwhile, the increasingly popular portable electronics and the rapid development of space technology need lighter weight, smaller size, and more effective thermal management devices. Here, a novel kind of heat dissipation devices based on the superaligned CNT films and underlying microchannels is proposed, and the heat dissipation properties are measured at the natural condition. Distinctive from previous studies, by combining the advantages of microchannels and CNTs, such a novel heat dissipation device enables superior natural convection heat transfer properties. Our findings prove that the novel CNT-based devices could show an 86.6% larger total natural heat dissipation properties than bare copper plate. Further calculations of the radiation and natural convection heat transfer properties demonstrate that the excellent passive cooling properties of these CNT-based devices are primarily caused by the reinforcement of the natural convection heat transfer properties. Furthermore, the heat dissipation mechanisms are briefly discussed, and we propose that the very high heat transfer coefficients and the porous structures of superaligned CNT films play critical roles in reinforcing the natural convection. The novel CNT-based heat dissipation devices also have advantages of energy-saving, free-noise, and without additional accessories. So we believe that the CNT-based heat dissipation devices would replace the traditional metal-finned heat dissipation devices and have promising applications in electronic devices, such as photovoltaic devices, portable electronic devices, and electronic displays.

  19. Novel transparent zirconium-based hybrid material with multilayered nanostructures: studies of surface dewettability toward alkane liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheder, Benjamin; Urata, Chihiro; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared unique inorganic-organic hybrid materials that demonstrate excellent transparency and dewettability toward various alkane liquids (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane and n-decane) without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. Such coatings were made using a novel family of hybrid materials generated by substituting carboxylic acids, with a range of alkyl chain lengths (CH(3)(CH(2))(x-2)COOH where x = total carbon number, i.e., 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22, or 24, into zirconium (Zr) tetra-propoxide complexes. This precursor was then mixed with acetic acid and spincast to produce transparent thin Zr-carboxylic acid (ZrCA(x)) hybrid films using a nonhydrolytic sol-gel process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided proof of Zr-O-Zr network formation in the films upon casting and also followed changes to the physical nature (liquid-like or solid-like) of the alkyl chain assemblies depending upon alkyl chain length. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the hybrid films prepared using the longer chain carboxylic acids (ZrCA(x≥18)) spontaneously self-assembled into lamella structures with d-spacings ranging from 29.5 to 32.7 Angstroms, depending on the length of the alkyl chain. On the other hand the remaining films (ZrCA(xoleophobicity among the seven hybrid films. In particular, small volume alkane droplets (5 μL) could be easily set in motion to move across and off ZrCA(14) film surfaces without pinning at low tilt angles (~6°).

  20. Mitigation of plasma–material interactions via passive Li efflux from the surface of a flowing liquid lithium limiter in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Maingi, R.; Ren, J.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Chen, Z. X.; Xu, H.; Tritz, K.; Zakharov, L. E.; Gentile, C.; Meng, X. C.; Huang, M.; Xu, W.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Yan, N.; Mao, S. T.; Yang, Z. D.; Li, J. G.; EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    A new flowing liquid Li limiter (FLiLi) based on the concept of a thin flowing film has been successfully designed and tested in the EAST device in 2014. A bright Li radiative mantle at the plasma edge was observed during discharges using FLiLi, resulting from passive Li injection and transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma. Li particle efflux from the FLiLi surface into the plasma was estimated at  >5  ×  1020 atom s‑1, due to surface evaporation and sputtering, and accompanied with a few small Li droplets ~1 mm diameter that were ejected from FLiLi. The Li efflux from FLiLi was ionized by the SOL plasma and formed a Li radiation band that originated from the FLiLi surface, and then spread toroidally by SOL plasma flow. The Li radiative mantle appeared to partly isolate the plasma from the wall, reducing impurity release from the wall materials, and possibly leading to a modest improvement in confinement. In addition, strong Li radiation reduced the particle and heat fluxes impacting onto the divertor plate, with certain similarities to heat flux reduction and detachment onset via low-Z impurity injection.

  1. Surface passivation: a new way to reduce self-output in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li lithium ion rechargeable batteries; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigala, C.; Blyr, A.; Tarascon, J.M. [Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides; Amatucci, G. [Bellcore, (United States); Alphonse, P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques

    1996-12-31

    The new generation of performing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (``rocking-chair``-type) are penalized by important self-output phenomena linked with the use of highly oxidizing positive electrodes. In order to limit this problem in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C batteries, two different passivation techniques were used in order to limit the surface contact between the positive electrode and the electrolyte. Thanks to these treatments, a significant reduction of the percentage of irreversible capacity losses is effectively observed. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  2. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  3. Adsorption and diffusion of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface: Fluorine-induced initial corrosion of non-passivated Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cui-Lan; Han, Han; Gong, Wen-Bin; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cheng; Huai, Ping; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption and diffusion behaviors of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface are investigated by using first-principles simulation. It shows that the Cr in the Cr-doped Ni(111) surface serve a trap site for fluorine with adsorption energy 3.52 eV, which is 1.04 eV higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Moreover, the Cr atom is pulled out the surface for 0.41 Å after the fluorine adsorption, much higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Further diffusion behaviors analysis confirms the conclusion because the fluorine diffusion from neighbored sites onto the Cr top site is an energy barrierless process. Detailed electronic structure analysis shows that a deeper hybrid state of F 2 p-Cr 3 d indicates a strong Fsbnd Cr interaction. The Nisbnd Cr bond is elongated and weakened due to the new formed Fsbnd Cr bonding. Our results help to understanding the basic fluorine-induced initial corrosion mechanism for Ni-based alloy in molten salt environment.

  4. Hybrid surface structures for efficiency enhancement of fluorescent SiC for white LED application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Xiong, Meng; Lu, Weifang

    Hybrid structures contain structures in both micro- and nano-meter scale have been fabricated on fluorescent SiC by applying a fast fabrication method. Luminescence efficiency of f-SiC was enhanced significantly compared with normal nanostructures....

  5. Depth-dependent magnetism in epitaxial MnSb thin films: effects of surface passivation and cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldous J. D.; Sanchez-Hanke C.; Burrows, C.W.; Maskery, I.; Brewer, M.S.; Hase, T.P.A.; Duffy, J.A.; Lees, M. Rs; Decoster, T.; Theis, W.; Quesada, A.; Schmid, A.K.; Bell, G.R.

    2012-03-15

    Depth-dependent magnetism in MnSb(0001) epitaxial films has been studied by combining experimental methods with different surface specificities: polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM). A native oxide {approx}4.5 nm thick covers air-exposed samples which increases the film's coercivity. HCl etching efficiently removes this oxide and in situ surface treatment of etched samples enables surface magnetic contrast to be observed in SPLEEM. A thin Sb capping layer prevents oxidation and preserves ferromagnetism throughout the MnSb film. The interpretation of Mn L{sub 3,2} edge XMCD data is discussed.

  6. On evaluation of ShARP passive rainfall retrievals over snow-covered land surfaces and coastal zones

    CERN Document Server

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-01-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed ove...

  7. The Influences of Surface Passivation on Luminescence Properties of Porous Silicon%多孔硅表面钝化对其发光性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 瞿述; 剪之渐; 彭景翠; 向建南

    2000-01-01

    By using n-butylamine as carbon resource,a layer of carbon film is covered on the parous silicon(PS)surface by means of radio frequency glow discharge.Raman spectra and IR spectra of the carbon film indicate that there are amino-groups and hydrogen atoms in the carbon film.IR spectra exhibits that the surface of the treated sample is mainly covered with Si-C,Si-N and Si-O.The influences of surface passivation of photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of porous silicon have been presented.PL and EL spectra indicate that PL and EL intensity of the treated samples increase greatly and the blueshift of PL and EL peak compared with the samples without treatment and stable while storing in atmosphere.I~V characteristics reveal that the treated devices have a lower onset voltage.We present that the enhancement of the PL and EL intensity、stability and lower onset voltage of the treated sample is due to the existence of Si-C,Si-N and Si-O on the PS surface simultaneously,and blueshift of the PL and El peak are attributed to amino-groups and hydrogen atmos in the carbon film,As a result,carbon film passivation is a good way to enhance PS luminescent intensity and stability and improve the properties of PS devices.%报道多孔硅(PS)的表面钝化对其光致发光(PL)和电致发光(EL)的影响。PL和EL谱表明,经钝化处理的PS的PL和EL强度明显增强,且发光峰位较大蓝移;存放实验表明,经钝化处理的PS的PL和EL发光强度和发光峰位具有较好的稳定性;I~V曲线显示,经钝化处理的PS发光器件具有较低的启动电压。这些结果表明:用钝化处理的方法是提高PS的PL和EL强度和稳定性及改善其器件性能的有效途径。

  8. Modelling the Passive Microwave Signature from Land Surfaces: A Review of Recent Results and Application to the L-Band SMOS SMAP Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigneron, J.-P.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P.; De Lannoy, G.; De Rosnay, P.; Walker, J. P.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Mironov, V.; Bircher, S.; Grant, J. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Two passive microwave missions are currently operating at L-band to monitor surface soil moisture (SM) over continental surfaces. The SMOS sensor, based on an innovative interferometric technology enabling multi-angular signatures of surfaces to be measured, was launched in November 2009. The SMAP sensor, based on a large mesh reflector 6 m in diameter providing a conically scanning antenna beam with a surface incidence angle of 40deg, was launched in January of 2015. Over the last decade, an intense scientific activity has focused on the development of the SM retrieval algorithms for the two missions. This activity has relied on many field (mainly tower-based) and airborne experimental campaigns, and since 2010-2011, on the SMOS and Aquarius space-borne L-band observations. It has relied too on the use of numerical, physical and semi-empirical models to simulate the microwave brightness temperature of natural scenes for a variety of scenarios in terms of system configurations (polarization, incidence angle) and soil, vegetation and climate conditions. Key components of the inversion models have been evaluated and new parameterizations of the effects of the surface temperature, soil roughness, soil permittivity, and vegetation extinction and scattering have been developed. Among others, global maps of select radiative transfer parameters have been estimated very recently. Based on this intense activity, improvements of the SMOS and SMAP SM inversion algorithms have been proposed. Some of them have already been implemented, whereas others are currently being investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the significant progress which has been made over the last decade in this field of research with a focus on L-band, and a discussion on possible applications to the SMOS and SMAP soil moisture retrieval approaches.

  9. Search for a metallic dangling-bond wire on n-doped H-passivated semiconductor surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandimarte, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electronic properties of neutral and n-doped dangling bond (DB) quasi-one-dimensional structures (lines) in the Si(001):H and Ge(001):H substrates with the aim of identifying atomic-scale interconnects exhibiting metallic conduction for use in on-surface cir...