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Sample records for hybrid sunflower species

  1. Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3, Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3, Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2, Helianthus annuus L. (4 were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such

  2. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

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    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  3. Some results of applied interspecific hybridization in sunflower breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the interspecific hybridization in sunflower, aimed at developing a diversified initial selection material, were carried out Wild species of the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid groups, varieties, hybrids, and selfed-lines of cultivated sunflower were used for crossings. To overcome incrossability between the species and sterility in the hybrids the method of f;cilitating of crossability by mutual gra'fting and gamma-rays treatment of seeds and pollen were applied. Results showed that: 1. By the method of interspecific hybridization forms might be produced resistant to more important diseases. 2. Interspecific hybridization in combination with other methods of selection might produce varieties and hybrids with a complex of valuable qualities. 3. Crossings between wild species and cultivated sunflower gave progenies with gene rale sterility. 4. The species H.tuberosus, H.scaberimus, H.arωphylus and H.lenticularis possess genes of full fertility restoration. (author)

  4. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

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    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    (cover crop × planting date on density and dry weight of russian thistle was meaningful at probability levels of 1% and 5% respectively. The best result on the reduced density and dry weight of russian thistle observed when rye cover crop was used. Elmore, (1980 in a study observed that rye stubble, has more potential in reducing the biomass of wide spectrum of weeds, particularly the annuals. Density and dry weight ofCommon reed (Phragmites australis L.: Density of common reed on main effect of cover crop and its dry weight on main effect of cover crop and planting date showed meaningful difference with probability level of 1%. Cover crop of rye, due to the increased biomass, initial growth vigor, high tillering and in fact because of high allelopathy showed better performance in reducing density of perennial weeds such as common reed when planted simultaneously with sunflower, compared to wheat and barley. Samedani et al., (2005 reported that rye and wheat can better control the weeds due to high biomass. Dry yield of sunflower seed: Regarding the results of data analysis, the yield of sunflower seed influenced by cover crop treatments (P≤0.05. Sunflower seed yield in treatments of rye and wheat cover crops with control 1 treatment (no cover crop, complete weeding showed no meaningful difference. Among cover crops, highest yield of seed related to wheat with 3916/7 kg.ha-1. Cover crop of barley showed poor yield compared to rye and wheat that was likely due to lower growth of barley and the lack of producing sufficient biomass and proper control of weeds. Cover crops can have positive or negative effects on grain crop yields, depending on environment, cover crop species and management (Miguez & Bollero, 2005. Conclusion: Results showed that cover crops, particularly rye, are very effective in reducing the density and dry weight of weeds so that the application of cover crops even resulted in increased yield of sunflower seed. Therefore, use of cover crops between

  5. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

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    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  6. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

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    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  7. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post-emergence wi......The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...

  8. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  9. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  10. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  11. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  12. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were established at Research Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, (BZU) Multan, Pakistan, during the spring season of 2009 to study the interactive effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of growth, fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), intercepted photo-synthetically active ...

  13. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

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    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  14. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

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    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  15. Irrigation method does not affect wild bee pollinators of hybrid sunflower

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    Hillary Sardiñas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation method has the potential to directly or indirectly influence populations of wild bee crop pollinators nesting and foraging in irrigated crop fields. The majority of wild bee species nest in the ground, and their nests may be susceptible to flooding. In addition, their pollination of crops can be influenced by nectar quality and quantity, which are related to water availability. To determine whether different irrigation methods affect crop pollinators, we compared the number of ground-nesting bees nesting and foraging in drip- and furrow-irrigated hybrid sunflower fields in the Sacramento Valley. We found that irrigation method did not impact wild bee nesting rates or foraging bee abundance or bee species richness. These findings suggest that changing from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation to conserve water likely will not alter hybrid sunflower crop pollination.

  16. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  17. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  18. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

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    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  19. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

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    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  20. Analysis the parameters of seed quality in ns sunflower hybrid after processing in gravity separator

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    Jokić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad before and after processing in gravity separator. The cultivars were Pegaz, Duško, NS Fantazija, Sumo 1 PR and NS Oskar. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed in 2015 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1.000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of sclerotinia per 1.000. The results showed that all the parameters of seed quality of sunflower hybrids were better after processing seeds in the gravity separator.

  1. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  2. Response of sunflower hybrids to different nitrogen levels for physiological and agronomical traits under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, D.; Abbasi, F.M.; Ahmed, H.; Qamar, M.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower occupies main position among oil seed crops in Pakistan. Mostly indigenous sunflower hybrids are cultivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 80 kgha , N3 = 120 kgha , N4 = 180 kgha and N5 = 240 kgha ) on two sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 to optimize the N levels for obtaining maximum yield on sustainable basis. Both hybrids were kept in the main plot while N levels in the sub plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. -1 The results showed that the number of achene head , 100-achene weight and achene yield increased with increased N application. The increased levels of N -1 also enhanced the achene yield. The maximum achene yield (3170.8 kg ha ) was -1 -1 recorded at 180 kg N ha followed by 240 kg N ha . Minimum achene yield (2115 kg -1 ha ) was observed in control treatment (N ). Polynomial regression line showed 0-1 that the rate of yield increase was higher up to 180 kg N ha and become slow-1 thereafter. The hybrid SMH-0907 produced more achene (2736 kg ha ) as compared -1 to the hybrid SMH-0917 (2694 kg ha ). Results revealed that economized application of different doses of N can boost up the yield in both sunflower hybrids SMH-0907 and SMH-0917. These findings could be helpful in rationalizing most valuable inputs

  3. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting ... be fairly stable (Monteith, 1977; Gallagher and Biscoe, ... oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental ... tically for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). ..... in this study confirm the findings of many scientists.

  4. Exogenous application of abscisic acid may improve the growth and yield of sunflower hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Iqbal, J.; Ibrahim, M.; Atta, S.; Ahmed, T.; Saleem, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower genotypes perform differently under different water regimes. Drought stress at various growth stages drastically reduces the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids. However, exogenous application of abscisic acid helps in mitigating drought stress by improving growth, development and yield of sunflower. In the present study, three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were exposed to varied irrigation regimes and abscisic acid application schedule i.e. T1: four irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud, flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray,T/sub 2/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 3/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu MABA spray at bud initiation, T/sub 4/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 5/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu M ABA spray at flower initiation. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Design with factorial arrangement having three replications. ABA application at bud or at flower initiation under drought stress helped in mitigating the detrimental effects by improving growth and yield of sunflower hybrids. Enhancement in drought tolerance of sunflower genotypes was better when ABA was applied at bud initiation stage than that of at flower initiation stage under drought. Improvements in head diameter, achenes per head, 1000-achene weight, achene yield, oil yield, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index and crop growth rate was recorded. Sunflower hybrid DK-4040 showed more improvement in drought tolerance byfoliar application of ABA under water deficit stress than that of the SF-187 and S-278. It is suggested that sunflower hybrid DK 4040

  5. Wild sunflower species as a genetic resource for resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a parasitic weed that causes economic damage in sunflower production in many countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Kazakhstan, and China. Genes for resistance to broomrape races A, B, C, D, and E are present in variet...

  6. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  7. Nitrogen effects on growth and development of sunflower hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of malonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, W.; Ahmad, A.; Wajid, A.; Muhammad, D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) on growth, development, yield and yield components of different sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids was evaluated under agro-climatic conditions of Multan during spring 2008 and 2009. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications, keeping cultivars in the main plots and N levels in the subplots. The net plot size was 4.2 m x 5 m. The results showed that, with increasing N rates, there was increment in the biomass, yield and yield components while the oil contents were adversely affected. However, there was high seed yield in 2008 as compared to 2009. Among sunflower hybrids, Hysun-38 gave more yield as compared to other sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Pioneer 64A93), while in case of N levels, 180 kg ha/sup -1/ provided higher yield than other N rates (0, 60, 120, 240 kg ha/sup -1/) in both years of study especially during 2008. (author)

  8. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

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    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  9. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  10. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  11. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Shah, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  12. Chemical composition of open pollinated and hybrid population of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, M.; Hussain, S.; Nausheen, A.; Siddique, F.

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower is the world fourth most important sources of edible oil. A lot of work has been done for varietal improvement through conventional breeding in Pakistan. Sunflower is the cash crop and is easily adapted to many region of Pakistan, genetic and agronomical improvement was needed so that economically valuable crop could be harvested. In the present work, 16 cultivars (open pollinated population 'OPP' and hybrid population 'HP' eight each) of sunflower was evaluated. The study was aimed at evaluating the mineral composition, estimation of moisture contents, measuring electrical conductivity and 100 seeds weight. The mineral composition was fractionated though Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, which indicate that Zn +2 was 8.54 and 9.35%; Cu/sup +2/ 0.5 and 0.02%; Mn/sup +2/ 3.48 and 9.72%; Co/sup +2/ 18.67 and 16.81%; Mg/sup +2/ 68.27 and 83.53%; Fe/sup +3/ 4.32 and 4.35% were estimated in HP and OPP respectively. Similarly, moisture contents 6.26 and 6.78%, and 1000-seeds weight 510.8 and 598 g were calculated in the HP and OPP respectively. In comparative picture the mineral concentration, moisture contents and 100 seeds weight in open pollinated population were high as compared to hybrid. A total of 11.7 % genetic diversity was observed in mineral composition of both the populations. The EC was high in HP ranging from 70. 85-137.8, while comparatively low in OPP ranged 46.81 - 120.18. (author)

  13. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  14. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

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    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  15. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

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    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  16. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

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    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  17. Heterotic effects in f/sub 1s/ and inbreeding depression in f/sub 2/ hybrids of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    genetically diverse female lines of sunflower were crossed with male testers to get heterotic hybrids. studies were carried-out during 2008-2010 at experiment filed of agriculture research institute, tandojam, sindh, pakistan. six female lines like t-4-0319, pac-0505, ho-i, hysun-33, peshawar-93 and cms-03 and three testers i.e., pac-0306, pac-64-a and sf-187 were crossed in a line * tester mating design, thus 18 f1 and f2 hybrids were developed for evaluation of heterosis and inbreeding depression for days to initial flowering, days to maturity, leaves/plant, plant height (cm), head diameter (cm), 1000-achene weight (g), seed yield kg/ha and oil yield kg/ha. the experiment was conducted in a randomised completeb lock design with four replications. the analysis of variance revealed significant differences among parents, f1s and f2 hybrids for all the traits studied. the existence of significant genetic variability among the plant traits is particularly useful because variations in these traits would allow further improvement in sunflower seed yield and oil traits. the f1 hybrids ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i pa * c-64-a exhibited desirable negative mid and better parent heterosis for days to initial flowering, days to maturity and plant height. these hybrids also manifested desirable positive heterotic effects for leaves/plant, head diameter, 1000-achene.s weight, seed yield and oil yield. inbreeding depression for phenological, seed yield and oil traits showed that desirable high inbreeding depression was observed in hybrids ho-i * p*ac-64-a, ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i * sf-187 for days to initial flowering, similarly t-4-0319 * pac-0306, pac-0505 ± sf-187 and ho-i * pac-64-a explicated maximum but rewarding inbreeding depression for days to maturity. the f2 hybrids hysun-33 * sf-187 and peshawer-93 * pac-64-a may be the most desirable ones in the sense that they recorded comparatively moderate inbreeding depression with enough number of leaves to be productive if f2

  18. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  19. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  20. Abscisic acid, a stress hormone helps in improving water relations and yield of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Saleem, M.F.; Cheema, M.A.; Ashraf, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genotypic variation in water relations under drought is an important index of studying drought tolerance of crops. Abscisic acid (ABA) application helped in mitigating drought stress by improving water relations and yield. Three sunflower hybrids viz., DK-4040 (tall stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation and ABA application regimes i.e., four irrigations (25 days after sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at flower initiation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and had three replications. Exogenous application of ABA under drought at either stage (bud or flower initiation) was helpful in ameliorating drought stress by improving water relations and yield of sunflower hybrids; however response was better when ABA was applied under drought at bud initiation than at flower initiation stage. Sunflower hybrid DK- 4040 showed better enhancement of drought tolerance by exogenous application of ABA under drought than SF-187 and S-278 because it showed more improvement in water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, relative leaf water contents and achene yield. (author)

  1. EVALUATION OF YEAR WEATHER CONDITIONS AND HYBRIDS IMPACT ON THE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. ACHENE YIELD AND FAT CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Černý

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field polyfactorial trials were carried out on experimental fields of the Plant Biology and Ecology Centre, the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA in Nitra Dolná Malanta in two experimental years 2010 and 2011. Experimental locality is situated in the corn production area (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region dry; climatic zone: warm, dry with mild winter and long sunshine, in altitude 250 m above sea level, with brown soil. On the trials was observed the influence of both temperature and moisture conditions of experimental area on sunflower yield of achenes and fat content. Fore crop of sunflower was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Technological system of sunflower cultivation was realized in accordance with conventional technology of cultivation. The basic fertilization was made by balance method on the base of agrochemical analysis of soil for expected yield 3 t ha-1. The meteorological data were got out from agro-meteorological station the Faculty of Horticulture and Land Engineering SUA in Nitra. The results show statistically high significant impact of the year weather conditions on the both achenes yield and fat content. In the range of weather conditions, year 2011 have better impact on the values of both indicators than year 2010. The effect of hybrids on monitored production parameters was statistically high significant. In the year 2010 and 2011, in terms of yield quantity but also fat content had hybrid NK Kondi the most stable production. In 2010 and 2011 were reported negative correlations of fat content from achenes yield except of hybrid NK Tristan, which reach positive addiction in 2010.

  2. Different histories of two highly variable LTR retrotransposons in sunflower species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Cavallini, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Natali, Lucia

    2017-11-15

    In the Helianthus genus, very large intra- and interspecific variability related to two specific retrotransposons of Helianthus annuus (Helicopia and SURE) exists. When comparing these two sequences to sunflower sequence databases recently produced by our lab, the Helicopia family was shown to belong to the Maximus/SIRE lineage of the Sirevirus genus of the Copia superfamily, whereas the SURE element (whose superfamily was not even previously identified) was classified as a Gypsy element of the Ogre/Tat lineage of the Metavirus genus. Bioinformatic analysis of the two retrotransposon families revealed their genomic abundance and relative proliferation timing. The genomic abundance of these families differed significantly among 12 Helianthus species. The ratio between the abundance of long terminal repeats and their reverse transcriptases suggested that the SURE family has relatively more solo long terminal repeats than does Helicopia. Pairwise comparisons of Illumina reads encoding the reverse transcriptase domain indicated that SURE amplification may have occurred more recently than that of Helicopia. Finally, the analysis of population structure based on the SURE and Helicopia polymorphisms of 32 Helianthus species evidenced two subpopulations, which roughly corresponded to species of the Helianthus and Divaricati/Ciliares sections. However, a number of species showed an admixed structure, confirming the importance of interspecific hybridisation in the evolution of this genus. In general, these two retrotransposon families differentially contributed to interspecific variability, emphasising the need to refer to specific families when studying genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature influence during seed filling on tocopherol concentration in a traditional sunflower hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, S.M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of night temperature during short periods in seed filling on oil tocopherol content and tocopherol/linoleic acid ratio was investigated in a traditional sunflower hybrid. Seeds were sown in the field at Balcarce on the 3rd and 22nd of November. In each experiment, treatments in which night temperature was increased at three consecutive periods of 200 °C day (base temperature: 6 °C were applied.Tocopherol concentration was reduced when night temperature was increased early in seed filling. Such an increase could be attributed to a correlative increase in the daily average temperature, as no differences in tocopherol concentration were found when plants were cultivated in growth chambers under different day/night temperature but at the same daily average temperature. Temperature affected tocopherol concentration mainly by affecting the oil weight per seed.The tocopherol/linoleic acid ratio was not affected by temperature.Se investigó el efecto de la temperatura durante períodos cortos en el llenado de las semillas sobre la concentración de tocoferoles y la relación tocoferoles/ácido linoleico en un híbrido tradicional de girasol. Se realizó una siembra en campo en Balcarce el 3 y el 22 de noviembre. En cada experimento, se aplicaron tratamientos donde se incrementó la temperatura de la noche en tres períodos consecutivos de 200 °C día (temperatura base: 6 °C. La concentración de tocoferoles disminuyó cuando se incrementó la temperatura de la noche temprano durante el llenado de las semillas. Dicho aumento puede ser atribuido a aumentos en la temperatura media diaria ya que no se observaron diferencias en la concentración de tocoferoles cuando se cultivaron plantas en cámaras de crecimiento con distinta temperatura nocturna y la misma temperatura media diaria. La temperatura afectó la concentración de tocoferoles principalmente al afectar el peso de aceite por semilla. La relación tocoferoles/

  4. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  5. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  6. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  7. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  8. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  9. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  10. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  11. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Hannah M.; Ungerer, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia. Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  12. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  13. Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is known to occur between cultivated and wild populations of numerous plant species. This represents a major mechanism by which a wild population’s genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics could be altered. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assess...

  14. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  15. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  16. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  17. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  18. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  19. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  20. Whole Plant Utilization of Sunflowers as a Renewable Source of Strategic Materials (Rubber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-14

    make an excellent hybrid. They are highly self-sterile, and are hybridized by hymenopterous pollinators, principally honey bees . The numerous species...composed largely of triglycerides) (Beard, 1981). There is currently considerable interest in the direct use of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel substitute ...to contain 11% crude protein , 33.5% crude fiber, 7% ether extract, and 9.5% ash, of which 0.83% was calcium and 0.32% phosphorus. In feeding trials

  1. Species collapse via hybridization in Darwin's tree finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; O'Connor, Jody A; Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Myers, Steven A; Robertson, Jeremy; Sulloway, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Species hybridization can lead to fitness costs, species collapse, and novel evolutionary trajectories in changing environments. Hybridization is predicted to be more common when environmental conditions change rapidly. Here, we test patterns of hybridization in three sympatric tree finch species (small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus, medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper, and large tree finch: Camarhynchus psittacula) that are currently recognized on Floreana Island, Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic analysis of microsatellite data from contemporary samples showed two genetic populations and one hybrid cluster in both 2005 and 2010; hybrid individuals were derived from genetic population 1 (small morph) and genetic population 2 (large morph). Females of the large and rare species were more likely to pair with males of the small common species. Finch populations differed in morphology in 1852-1906 compared with 2005/2010. An unsupervised clustering method showed (a) support for three morphological clusters in the historical tree finch sample (1852-1906), which is consistent with current species recognition; (b) support for two or three morphological clusters in 2005 with some (19%) hybridization; and (c) support for just two morphological clusters in 2010 with frequent (41%) hybridization. We discuss these findings in relation to species demarcations of Camarhynchus tree finches on Floreana Island.

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  3. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  4. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  5. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  6. Evidence of hybridization between two species of Melipona bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Vania Alves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of hybridization between two species of Meliponinae bees (Melipona scutellaris from the Diamantina plateau in the State of Bahia, and Melipona capixaba from around Domingos Martins, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. To demonstrate hybridization, electrophoretic profiles of esterase activity from three colonies were studied. Ten adult workers of M. scutellaris, M. capixaba and the hybrid colony were collected and processed individually. The pattern of esterase activity was constant for each species but differed between them, whereas hybrid bees had a pattern derived from both species. The fact that two ecologically different species of stingless bees separated by more than 300 km could still cross when placed in the same area suggests that there has not been any pressure to develop reproductive isolation.

  7. Some rare Indo-Pacific coral species are probable hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe T Richards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs worldwide face a variety of threats and many coral species are increasingly endangered. It is often assumed that rare coral species face higher risks of extinction because they have very small effective population sizes, a predicted consequence of which is decreased genetic diversity and adaptive potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that some Indo-Pacific members of the coral genus Acropora have very small global population sizes and are likely to be unidirectional hybrids. Whether this reflects hybrid origins or secondary hybridization following speciation is unclear. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The interspecific gene flow demonstrated here implies increased genetic diversity and adaptive potential in these coral species. Rare Acropora species may therefore be less vulnerable to extinction than has often been assumed because of their propensity for hybridization and introgression, which may increase their adaptive potential.

  8. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata, V. barbellata and V. dilloniana are distributed throughout the Caribbean islands and are all found in Puerto Rico. The vegetative parts of the species are similar; however, their conspicuous flowers easily distinguish them. Electrophoresis of seven polymorphic enzymes reveale...... coexist. This suggests that the species may hybridize....

  9. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  10. Seed yield and protein content in sunflower depending on stand density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of stand density on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. The field experiment was carried out at Rimski Šančevi location. Six NS sunflower hybrids were examined. Five hybrids are confectionery (NS Goliat, NS Slatki, NS Gricko, Vranac and Cepko, and one is used for bird food (NS-H-6485. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Sowing was done with six different densities (from 20,000 to 70,000 plants per hectare, with an increment of 10,000 plants per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the effect of hybrid, stand density and hybrid × stand density interation were highly significant for seed yield and protein content. The highest seed yield, on the basis of average for all densities, was found in NS-H-6485 (4.77 t ha-1 and in NS Gricko (4.43 t ha-1. Average seed yield of hybrids significantly increased up to 50,000 plants per ha-1, when it reached the value of 4.50 t ha-1, and then decreased. Significantly higher protein content, taking into account all stand densities, showed hybrid Cepko (16.94%. Protein content, above the overall average value, was achieved in hybrid Vranac (16.11%. The high­est protein content in the average for all six hybrids was at the lowest stand density (20,000 plants per ha-1, and then decreased up to higher densities. The results showed that stand density had significant effect on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025: The development of new cultivars and improving the technology of producing oil plant species for different purposes

  11. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  12. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  13. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  15. Molecular and morphological approaches for species delimitation and hybridization investigations of two Cichla species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. F. Mourão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The hybridization is a widely-discussed issue in several studies with fish species. For some authors, hybridization may be related with diversification and speciation of several groups, or also with the extinction of populations or species. Difficulties to differentiate species and hybrids may be a problem to correctly apply a management of wild species, because hybrid lineages, especially the advanced ones, may resemble the parental species. The genus Cichla Bloch & Schneider, 1801 constitutes an interesting experimental model, considering that hybridization and taxonomic uncertainties hinder a correct identification. Considering these problems, in this study, we developed genetic methodologies and applied meristic and morphometric approaches in wild samples in order to identify species and for test a possible hybridization between Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 and Cichla piquiti Kullander & Ferreira, 2006. For this, C. kelberi, C. piquiti and potential hybrid ( carijó individuals were collected in Paraná and Tietê rivers (SP, Brazil. For meristic and morphometric methods, the individuals were analyzed using the statistical software Pcord 5:31, while for molecular methods, primers for PCR-multiplex were designed and enzyme for PCR-RFLP were selected, under the species-specific nucleotide. All results indicated that the carijó is not an interspecific hybrid, because it presented identical genetic pattern and morphology closed to C. piquiti. Thus, we propose that carijó is a C. piquiti morphotype. In addition, this study promotes a new molecular tool that could be used in future research, monitoring and management programs of the genus Cichla.

  16. Hybridization of several Aerides species and in vitro germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wild species of Aerides namely Aerides odorata, A. odorata var.'Yellow', Aerides flabellata and Aerides quinquevulnera var. calayana are fragrant and distributed in Malaysia. Crosses among them attempted to produce primary hybrids which were used to investigate the effects of kinetin and BAP concentrations on seed ...

  17. Genetic Identification of Hyalodaphnia Species and Interspecific Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billiones, R.; Brehm, G.M.; Klee, J.; Schwenk, K.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the genus Daphnia, in particular the subgenus Hyalodaphnia, represent a taxonomically problematic group due to their phenotypic plasticity, local races and the formation of interspecific hybrids and backcrosses. In this study, we present a genetic approach utilising nuclear DNA to

  18. Cryptic Species Due to Hybridization: A Combined Approach to Describe a New Species (Carex: Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Disappearance of diagnostic morphological characters due to hybridization is considered to be one of the causes of the complex taxonomy of the species-rich (ca. 2000 described species) genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Carex furva s.l. belongs to section Glareosae. It is an endemic species from the high mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Previous studies suggested the existence of two different, cryptic taxa within C. furva s.l. Intermediate morphologies found in the southern Iberian Peninsula precluded the description of a new taxa. We aimed to determine whether C. furva s.l. should be split into two different species based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. We sampled ten populations across its full range and performed a morphological study based on measurements on herbarium specimens and silica-dried inflorescences. Both morphological and phylogenetic data support the existence of two different species within C. furva s.l. Nevertheless, intermediate morphologies and sterile specimens were found in one of the southern populations (Sierra Nevada) of C. furva s.l., suggesting the presence of hybrid populations in areas where both supposed species coexist. Hybridization between these two putative species has blurred morphological and genetic limits among them in this hybrid zone. We have proved the utility of combining molecular and morphological data to discover a new cryptic species in a scenario of hybridization. We now recognize a new species, C. lucennoiberica, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra Nevada, Central system and Cantabrian Mountains). On the other hand, C. furva s.s. is distributed only in Sierra Nevada, where it may be threatened by hybridization with C. lucennoiberica. The restricted distribution of both species and their specific habitat requirements are the main limiting factors for their conservation.

  19. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  1. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  2. Natural hybridization and reproductive isolation between two Primula speciesFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Xie; Xingfu Zhu; Yongpeng Ma; Jianli Zhao; Li Li; Qingjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Natural hybridization frequently occurs in plants and can facilitate gene flow between species,possibly resulting in species refusion.However,various reproductive barriers block the formation of hybrids and maintain species integrity.Here,we conducted a field survey to examine natural hybridization and reproductive isolation (RI) between sympatric populations of Primula secundiflora and P.poissonii using ten nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci.Although introgressive hybridization occurred,species boundaries between P.secundiflora and P.poissonii were maintained through nearly complete reproductive isolation.These interfertile species provide an excellent model for studying the RI mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries.

  3. Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Arias, Armando; Orlić, Sandi; Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  5. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Christensen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use...... in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube...

  6. Wide prevalence of hybridization in two sympatric grasshopper species may be shaped by their relative abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Hau, Yvonne; Weyer, Jessica; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-09-16

    Hybridization between species is of conservation concern as it might threaten the genetic integrity of species. Anthropogenic factors can alter hybridization dynamics by introducing new potentially hybridizing species or by diminishing barriers to hybridization. This may even affect sympatric species pairs through environmental change, which so far has received little attention. We studied hybridization prevalence and the underlying behavioral mechanisms in two sympatric grasshopper species, a rare specialist (Chorthippus montanus) and a common generalist (Chorthippus parallelus). We conducted a mate choice experiment with constant intraspecific density and varying heterospecific density, i.e. varying relative frequency of both species. Mate choice was frequency-dependent in both species with a higher risk of cross-mating with increasing heterospecific frequency, while conspecific mating increased linearly with increasing conspecific density. This illustrates that reproductive barriers could be altered by environmental change, if the relative frequency of species pairs is affected. Moreover, we performed a microsatellite analysis to detect hybridization in twelve syntopic populations (and four allotopic populations). Hybrids were detected in nearly all syntopic populations with hybridization rates reaching up to 8.9 %. Genetic diversity increased for both species when hybrids were included in the data set, but only in the common species a positive correlation between hybridization rate and genetic diversity was detected. Our study illustrates that the relative frequency of the two species strongly determines the effectiveness of reproductive barriers and that even the more choosy species (Ch. montanus) may face a higher risk of hybridization if population size decreases and its relative frequency becomes low compared to its sister species. The asymmetric mate preferences of both species may lead to quasi-unidirectional gene flow caused by unidirectional

  7. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  8. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  9. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  10. Hybrid-Lambda: simulation of multiple merger and Kingman gene genealogies in species networks and species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sha; Degnan, James H; Goldstien, Sharyn J; Eldon, Bjarki

    2015-09-15

    There has been increasing interest in coalescent models which admit multiple mergers of ancestral lineages; and to model hybridization and coalescence simultaneously. Hybrid-Lambda is a software package that simulates gene genealogies under multiple merger and Kingman's coalescent processes within species networks or species trees. Hybrid-Lambda allows different coalescent processes to be specified for different populations, and allows for time to be converted between generations and coalescent units, by specifying a population size for each population. In addition, Hybrid-Lambda can generate simulated datasets, assuming the infinitely many sites mutation model, and compute the F ST statistic. As an illustration, we apply Hybrid-Lambda to infer the time of subdivision of certain marine invertebrates under different coalescent processes. Hybrid-Lambda makes it possible to investigate biogeographic concordance among high fecundity species exhibiting skewed offspring distribution.

  11. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  13. Reproductive biology and natural hybridization between two endemic species of Pitcairnia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, T; Canela, M B; Gelli de Faria, A P; Rios, R I

    2001-10-01

    We investigated pollination biology and breeding systems in hybridizing populations of Pitcairnia albiflos and P. staminea; both species are endemic to rocky outcrops at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These species are morphologically distinct and easily recognized by floral color: white in P. albiflos and red in P. staminea. Putative hybrids show a large range of intermediate pink floral colors. The showy hermaphroditic flowers offer pollen and nectar that attract many visitors including bees, butterflies, hawk moths, and bats. Although the flowers of both parental species and hybrids open at night, only P. albiflos had other adaptations for nocturnal pollination. Flowering times overlapped during three consecutive years of observation. Bees visited both species and putative hybrids. Cross-pollinations were performed within and among parental species and hybrids in a greenhouse using plants transplanted from the field. Pitcairnia staminea and hybrids are self-compatible and could be spontaneously self-pollinated, whereas P. albiflos, though self-compatible, needs pollinators' services for self-pollination. Facultative agamospermy was found in the parental species. Prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers between these taxa were weak. Reciprocal hand-pollinations between parental species and with hybrids yielded high fruit sets with viable seeds. Evaluations of fruit set, seed set, seed germination, and pollen viability were undertaken to compare the fitness of the hybrids relative to their parents. The hybrids showed equivalent fitness, except for lower pollen viability. Some conservation implications are noted.

  14. Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Dan G; Kane, Nolan C; Ebert, Daniel P; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-02-01

    The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance of this tuber crop species, its origin is debated. Competing hypotheses implicate the occurrence of polyploidization with or without hybridization, and list the annual sunflower H. annuus and five distantly related perennial sunflower species as potential parents. Here, we test these scenarios by skimming the genomes of diverse populations of Jerusalem Artichoke and its putative progenitors. We identify relationships among Helianthus taxa using complete plastomes (151 551 bp), partial mitochondrial genomes (196 853 bp) and 35S (8196 bp) and 5S (514 bp) ribosomal DNA. Our results refute the possibility that Jerusalem Artichoke is of H. annuus ancestry. We provide the first genetic evidence that this species originated recursively from perennial sunflowers of central-eastern North America via hybridization between tetraploid Hairy Sunflower and diploid Sawtooth Sunflower. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Unidirectional hybrid male sterility from crosses between species A and species B of the taxon Anopheles (Cellia) culicifacies Giles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S J

    1981-02-01

    Crosses between species A females and species B males of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies give F1 males with undeveloped testes, reduced vasa deferentia, and apparently normal accessory glands. F1 males from the reciprocal cross, and F1 hybrid females from both reciprocal crosses are fertile, though their fertility is less than that of either parental species

  16. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Myers

    Full Text Available Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental and extrinsic (ecological selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  17. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erin M; Harwell, Tiffany I; Yale, Elizabeth L; Lamb, Abigail M; Frankino, W Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental) and extrinsic (ecological) selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  18. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-04-03

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F 1 s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2 n ) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F 1 s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2 n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  19. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  20. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  1. Species from within the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, P. erythroseptica and P. sansomeana, readily hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaiefarahani, Banafsheh; Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, Reza; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-08-01

    During a study on the phylogenetic relationships between species in the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, Phytophthora erythroseptica and Phytophthora sansomeana, 19 hybrid isolates with multiple polymorphisms in the nuclear sequences were observed. Molecular characterization of hybrids was achieved by sequencing three nuclear (internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin (TUB), heat shock protein 90) and two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NADH)) gene regions and cloning of the single-copy nuclear gene, TUB. Based on the molecular studies the hybrid isolates belonged to six distinct groups between P. cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, P. sansomeana, and Phytophthora sp. kelmania. In all cases, only a single coxI and NADH allele was detected and nuclear genes were biparentally inherited, suggesting that the hybrids arose from sexual recombination events. Colony morphology, growth rate, cardinal temperatures, breeding system, and morphology of sporangia, oogonia, oospores, and antheridia were also determined. Some morphological differences between the hybrids and the parental species were noted; however, they were not sufficient to reliably distinguish the taxa and DNA markers from nuclear and mitochondrial genes will to be necessary for their identification. The parental species are all important pathogens of agricultural fields that have been transported globally. With the apparent ease of hybridization within this group there is ample opportunity for virulent hybrids to form, perhaps with extended host ranges. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sunflower: A potential fructan-bearing crop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle eMartinez-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses and starch rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains. Sunflower is a close relative to Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L., which accumulates large amounts of fructan (inulin in tubers and true stems. The reason why sunflower does not accumulate fructans is obscure. Through a bioinformatics analysis of a sunflower transcriptome database, we found sequences that are homologous to dicotyledon and monocotyledon fructan synthesis genes. A HPLC analysis of stem sugar composition revealed the presence of low amounts of 1-kestose, while a drastic enhancement of endogenous sucrose levels by capitulum removal did not promote 1-kestose accumulation. This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis. Thus, sunflower might potentially constitute a fructan-bearing species, which could result in an improvement of its performance as a grain crop. However, a large effort is needed to elucidate how this up to now unsuspected potential could be effectively

  3. Species delineation and hybrid identification using diagnostic nuclear markers for Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2018-06-01

    Diagnostic molecular markers are an essential tool in the study of species’ ecology and evolution, particularly in closely related and sympatric species. Furthermore, the increasing awareness of wild-hybrids has led to a renewed interest in rapid diagnostic assays. Here, we test the ability of two mitochondrial (Cytb and COI) and two nuclear markers (ETS2 and TMO-4c4) to confidently discriminate purebred P. leopardus and P. maculatus and their first-generation hybrids. A sample of 48 purebred individuals and 91 interspecific hybrids were used in this study and their delineation confirmed using a set of microsatellite markers. Our results indicate mitochondrial markers could not distinguish even between species but both nuclear markers confidently identified species and first-generation hybrids. However, later-generation hybrids could not always be confidently identified due to on-going introgression between species. Our findings provide a robust tool to distinguish purebred individuals and interspecific hybrids in a pair of species with an unexpectedly high incidence of hybridization. The quick species discrimination abilities provided by these diagnostic markers are important for stock assessment and recruitment studies of these important fishery species.

  4. Species delineation and hybrid identification using diagnostic nuclear markers for Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Harrison, Hugo B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic molecular markers are an essential tool in the study of species’ ecology and evolution, particularly in closely related and sympatric species. Furthermore, the increasing awareness of wild-hybrids has led to a renewed interest in rapid diagnostic assays. Here, we test the ability of two mitochondrial (Cytb and COI) and two nuclear markers (ETS2 and TMO-4c4) to confidently discriminate purebred P. leopardus and P. maculatus and their first-generation hybrids. A sample of 48 purebred individuals and 91 interspecific hybrids were used in this study and their delineation confirmed using a set of microsatellite markers. Our results indicate mitochondrial markers could not distinguish even between species but both nuclear markers confidently identified species and first-generation hybrids. However, later-generation hybrids could not always be confidently identified due to on-going introgression between species. Our findings provide a robust tool to distinguish purebred individuals and interspecific hybrids in a pair of species with an unexpectedly high incidence of hybridization. The quick species discrimination abilities provided by these diagnostic markers are important for stock assessment and recruitment studies of these important fishery species.

  5. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Natural Hybrids Formed between Five Related Indigenous Clade 6 Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Treena I.

    2015-01-01

    Most Phytophthora hybrids characterized to date have emerged from nurseries and managed landscapes, most likely generated as a consequence of biological invasions associated with the movement of living plants and germplasm for ornamental, horticultural and agricultural purposes. Presented here is evidence for natural hybridization among a group of five closely related indigenous clade 6 Phytophthora species isolated from waterways and riparian ecosystems in Western Australia. Molecular characterization of hybrids consisted of cloning and sequencing two nuclear genes (ITS and ASF), sequencing of two further nuclear loci (BT and HSP) and of two mitochondrial loci (COI and NADH). Additionally, phenotypic traits including morphology of sporangia and optima and maxima temperatures for growth were also determined. In most cases the nuclear genes were biparentally and in all cases the mtDNA were uniparentally inherited, indicating hybrid formation through sexual crosses. Some isolates bear the molecular signature of three parents suggesting additional hybrid events, although it cannot be determined from the data if these were sequential or simultaneous. These species and their hybrids co-exist in riparian ecosystems and waterways where their ability for rapid asexual proliferation would enable them to rapidly colonize green plant litter. The apparent ease of hybridization could eventually lead to the merging of species through introgression. However, at this point in time, species integrity has been maintained and a more likely scenario is that the hybrids are not stable evolutionary lineages, but rather transient hybrid clones. PMID:26248187

  7. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  8. Research on resistance to sunflower broomrape: an integrated vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. parasitization on sunflower was first observed at the end of the 19th century and has continued since then jeopardizing sunflower cultivation in many areas of Europe and Asia. A distinctive characteristic of the O. cumana-sunflower parasitic system is that it is mainly governed by a gene-for-gene interaction. This determines complete resistance in the host controlled by dominant alleles at a single locus, which facilitates the management of the resistance for hybrid seed production. But on the other hand avirulence in the parasite is also controlled by dominant alleles at a single gene. Monogenic, dominant resistance exerts a strong selection pressure on the parasite that maximizes the probability of overcoming resistance mechanisms in a short period of time. This has in fact resulted in a number of physiological races that periodically surpass all the available resistance sources. The spread of populations to new areas and the subsequent hybridization between populations is another mechanism creating genetic diversity in sunflower broomrape and allegedly recombination of avirulences genes. After more than one century of coexistence, genetic resistance to broomrape in sunflower has to be focused under an integrated approach that considers not only the characterization of resistance mechanisms in the host, but also the genetic and physiological bases of avirulence in the parasite. From the perspective of genetic resistance in sunflower, most important is not relying only on single dominant genes, but following instead pyramiding strategies. These should give priority to combining complementary mechanisms of resistance under both qualitative (vertical and quantitative (horizontal genetic control. These aspects are discussed in the paper.

  9. Patterns of contemporary hybridization inferred from paternity analysis in a four-oak-species forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gailing Oliver

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies address the issue of hybridization in a more than two-species context. The species-rich Quercus complex is one of the systems which can offer such an opportunity. To investigate the contemporary pattern of hybridization we sampled and genotyped 320 offspring from a natural mixed forest comprising four species of the European white oak complex: Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto. Results A total of 165 offspring were assigned unambiguously to one of the pollen donors within the study plot. The minimum amount of effective pollen originating from outside the plot varied markedly among the seed parents, ranging from 0.18 to 0.87. The majority of the successful matings (64.1% occurred between conspecific individuals indicating the existence of reproductive barriers between oak species. However, the isolation was not complete since we found strong evidence for both first-generation (8.4% and later-generation hybrids (27.5%. Only two out of eight seed parents, belonging to Q. petraea and Q. robur, showed a high propensity to hybridize with Q. pubescens and Q. petraea, respectively. Significant structure of the effective pollen pools (Φpt = 0.069, P = 0.01 was detected in our sample. However, no support was found for the isolation by distance hypothesis. The proportion of hybrids was much higher (79% in the seed generation when compared to the adult tree generation. Conclusion First-generation hybrids were observed only between three out of six possible species combinations. Hybrids between one pair of species preferred to mate with one of their parental species. The observation of first and later-generation hybrids in higher frequency in acorns than in adults might be explained by selection against hybrid genotypes, the history of this uneven-aged forest or past introgression between species.

  10. Hybrid silica materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Vidal, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    The present PhD thesis entitled "Silica Hybrid Materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis" is focused on the design and synthesis of new hybrid materials, using different silica supports as inorganic scaffolds, with applications in recognition, sensing and diagnostic protocols. The first chapter of the PhD thesis is devoted to the definition and classification of hybrid materials, relying on concepts of Nanotechnology, Supramolecular and Materials Chemistry. State o...

  11. Genomic islands of differentiation in two songbird species reveal candidate genes for hybrid female sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mořkovský, Libor; Janoušek, Václav; Reif, Jiří; Rídl, Jakub; Pačes, Jan; Choleva, Lukáš; Janko, Karel; Nachman, Michael W; Reifová, Radka

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane's Rule, it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone and produce viable hybrid progeny. In accordance with Haldane's Rule, hybrid females are sterile, while hybrid males are fertile, allowing gene flow to occur between the species. Using transcriptomic data from multiple individuals of both nightingale species, we identified genomic islands of high differentiation (F ST ) and of high divergence (D xy ), and we analysed gene content and patterns of molecular evolution within these islands. Interestingly, we found that these islands were enriched for genes related to female meiosis and metabolism. The islands of high differentiation and divergence were also characterized by higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than the rest of the genome in both species indicating that they might be situated in genomic regions of low recombination. This study provides one of the first insights into genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experimental hybridization of species in the genus Rorippa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarolímová, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2005), s. 277-296 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Brassicaceae * interspecific hybridization * ploidy level Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2005

  13. Sunflower mega-environments in Serbia revealed by GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower mega-environment analysis was conducted for the grain yield data of 20 hybrids and 19 test locations during 2006, and 20 hybrids and 16 test locations during 2007. Combined data included 15 hybrids and 9 test locations common for both years and it was analyzed as balanced experiment. The analysis of variance components showed that hybrid by location interaction explained 2.74, 5.8, and 3.72 times more variation than hybrid, for grain yield, for 2006, 2007, combined data, respectively, and indicated potential mega-environment existence. Our results showed the existence of two mega-environments in Serbia sunflower growing region: (1 Kula Vitovnica, Aleksa Šantić, Sombor and (2 Rimski Šančevi, Kikinda. It has been concluded that if we want promising sunflower hybrids to be optimally used, they should be cropped differently for the two determined mega-environments.

  14. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Markus S; Martinez de San Vicente, Kontxi; Prandini, Tâmara H R; Hammel, Stephen; Higgins, Desmond G; Bagagli, Eduardo; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Butler, Geraldine

    2016-11-01

    Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions of the genome produces almost identical trees of the isolates with four major clades. However, the presence of two mutually exclusive genotype combinations at the mating type locus, and recombinant mitochondrial genomes diagnostic of inter-clade mating, shows that the species C. orthopsilosis does not have a single evolutionary origin but was created at least four times by separate interspecies hybridizations between parents A and B. Older hybrids have lost more heterozygosity. We also identify two isolates with homozygous genomes derived exclusively from parent A, which are pure non-hybrid strains. The parallel emergence of the same hybrid species from multiple independent hybridization events is common in plant evolution, but is much less documented in pathogenic fungi.

  15. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus S Schröder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions of the genome produces almost identical trees of the isolates with four major clades. However, the presence of two mutually exclusive genotype combinations at the mating type locus, and recombinant mitochondrial genomes diagnostic of inter-clade mating, shows that the species C. orthopsilosis does not have a single evolutionary origin but was created at least four times by separate interspecies hybridizations between parents A and B. Older hybrids have lost more heterozygosity. We also identify two isolates with homozygous genomes derived exclusively from parent A, which are pure non-hybrid strains. The parallel emergence of the same hybrid species from multiple independent hybridization events is common in plant evolution, but is much less documented in pathogenic fungi.

  16. Selection against recombinant hybrids maintains reproductive isolation in hybridizing Populus species despite F1 fertility and recurrent gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Camille; Stölting, Kai N; Bresadola, Luisa; Fussi, Barbara; Heinze, Berthold; Wegmann, Daniel; Lexer, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones have proven to be precious tools for understanding the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation (RI) and therefore species. Most available genomic studies of hybrid zones using whole- or partial-genome resequencing approaches have focused on comparisons of the parental source populations involved in genome admixture, rather than exploring fine-scale patterns of chromosomal ancestry across the full admixture gradient present between hybridizing species. We have studied three well-known European 'replicate' hybrid zones of Populus alba and P. tremula, two widespread, ecologically divergent forest trees, using up to 432 505 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Estimates of fine-scale chromosomal ancestry, genomic divergence and differentiation across all 19 poplar chromosomes revealed strikingly contrasting results, including an unexpected preponderance of F1 hybrids in the centre of genomic clines on the one hand, and genomically localized, spatially variable shared variants consistent with ancient introgression between the parental species on the other. Genetic ancestry had a significant effect on survivorship of hybrid seedlings in a common garden trial, pointing to selection against early-generation recombinants. Our results indicate a role for selection against recombinant genotypes in maintaining RI in the face of apparent F1 fertility, consistent with the intragenomic 'coadaptation' model of barriers to introgression upon secondary contact. Whole-genome resequencing of hybridizing populations will clarify the roles of specific genetic pathways in RI between these model forest trees and may reveal which loci are affected most strongly by its cyclic breakdown. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  18. Evidence for the robustness of protein complexes to inter-species hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leducq

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to the identification of genetic incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility and inviability, little is known about the effect of inter-species hybridization at the protein interactome level. Here, we develop a screening platform for the comparison of protein-protein interactions (PPIs among closely related species and their hybrids. We examine in vivo the architecture of protein complexes in two yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii that diverged 5-20 million years ago and in their F1 hybrids. We focus on 24 proteins of two large complexes: the RNA polymerase II and the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which show contrasting patterns of molecular evolution. We found that, with the exception of one PPI in the NPC sub-complex, PPIs were highly conserved between species, regardless of protein divergence. Unexpectedly, we found that the architecture of the complexes in F1 hybrids could not be distinguished from that of the parental species. Our results suggest that the conservation of PPIs in hybrids likely results from the slow evolution taking place on the very few protein residues involved in the interaction or that protein complexes are inherently robust and may accommodate protein divergence up to the level that is observed among closely related species.

  19. Hybridization, agency discretion, and implementation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Riehl, Jennifer F; Mayer, Audrey L; Wellstead, Adam M; Gailing, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that the "best available scientific and commercial data" be used to protect imperiled species from extinction and preserve biodiversity. However, it does not provide specific guidance on how to apply this mandate. Scientific data can be uncertain and controversial, particularly regarding species delineation and hybridization issues. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) had an evolving hybrid policy to guide protection decisions for individuals of hybrid origin. Currently, this policy is in limbo because it resulted in several controversial conservation decisions in the past. Biologists from FWS must interpret and apply the best available science to their recommendations and likely use considerable discretion in making recommendations for what species to list, how to define those species, and how to recover them. We used semistructured interviews to collect data on FWS biologists' use of discretion to make recommendations for listed species with hybridization issues. These biologists had a large amount of discretion to determine the best available science and how to interpret it but generally deferred to the scientific consensus on the taxonomic status of an organism. Respondents viewed hybridization primarily as a problem in the context of the ESA, although biologists who had experience with hybridization issues were more likely to describe it in more nuanced terms. Many interviewees expressed a desire to continue the current case-by-case approach for handling hybridization issues, but some wanted more guidance on procedures (i.e., a "flexible" hybrid policy). Field-level information can provide critical insight into which policies are working (or not working) and why. The FWS biologists' we interviewed had a high level of discretion, which greatly influenced ESA implementation, particularly in the context of hybridization. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  1. A genetic basis for the inviability of hybrids between sibling species of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, P.; Roote, J.; Ashburner, M.

    1990-01-01

    An X-ray induced mutation of Drosophila melanogaster whose only known effect is the rescue of otherwise lethal interspecific hybrids has been characterized. This mutation, Hmr, maps to 1-31.84 (9D1-9E4). Hmr may be the consequence of a P element insertion. It rescues hybrid males from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its three sibling species, D. simulans, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. This rescue is recessive, since hybrid males that carry both Hmr and a duplication expected to be Hmr + are not rescued. Hmr also rescues the otherwise inviable female hybrids from the cross of compound-X D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species. This rescue is also recessive, since a compound-X heterozygous for Hmr does not rescue. Another mutation, discovered on the In(1)AB chromosome of D. melanogaster, is also found to rescue normally inviable species hybrids: unlike Hmr, however, In(1)AB rescues hybrid females from the cross of In(1)AB/Y males to sibling females, as well as hybrid males from the cross of In(1)AB females to sibling males. These data are interpreted on the basis of a model for the genetic basis of hybrid inviability of complementary genes

  2. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, Jon Mark

    2013-12-24

    Comprising 50%-75% of the world's fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including "invasive species" in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. "Invasive genes" (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. "Genetic rescue" via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced "reshuffling" (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become

  3. Evidence for hybridization and introgression within a species-rich oak (Quercus spp. community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkeldey Reiner

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of interspecific gene flow is crucial for the understanding of speciation processes and maintenance of species integrity. Oaks (genus Quercus, Fagaceae are among the model species for the study of hybridization. Natural co-occurrence of four closely related oak species is a very rare case in the temperate forests of Europe. We used both morphological characters and genetic markers to characterize hybridization in a natural community situated in west-central Romania and which consists of Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto, respectively. Results On the basis of pubescence and leaf morphological characters ~94% of the sampled individuals were assigned to pure species. Only 16 (~6% individual trees exhibited intermediate morphologies or a combination of characters of different species. Four chloroplast DNA haplotypes were identified in the study area. The distribution of haplotypes within the white oak complex showed substantial differences among species. However, the most common haplotypes were present in all four species. Furthermore, based on a set of 7 isozyme and 6 microsatellite markers and using a Bayesian admixture analysis without any a priori information on morphology we found that four genetic clusters best fit the data. There was a very good correspondence of each species with one of the inferred genetic clusters. The estimated introgression level varied markedly between pairs of species ranging from 1.7% between Q. robur and Q. frainetto to 16.2% between Q. pubescens and Q. frainetto. Only nine individuals (3.4% appeared to be first-generation hybrids. Conclusion Our data indicate that natural hybridization has occurred at relatively low rates. The different levels of gene flow among species might be explained by differences in flowering time and spatial position within the stand. In addition, a partial congruence between phenotypically and genetically intermediate individuals was

  4. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  5. The existence of fertile hybrids of closely related model earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Plytycz

    Full Text Available Lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei (Ea and E. fetida (Ef are simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal insemination capable of self-fertilization while the existence of hybridization of these two species was still debatable. During the present investigation fertile hybrids of Ea and Ef were detected. Virgin specimens of Ea and Ef were laboratory crossed (Ea+Ef and their progeny was doubly identified. 1 -identified by species-specific maternally derived haploid mitochondrial DNA sequences of the COI gene being either 'a' for worms hatched from Ea ova or 'f' for worms hatched from Ef ova. 2 -identified by the diploid maternal/paternal nuclear DNA sequences of 28s rRNA gene being either 'AA' for Ea, 'FF' for Ef, or AF/FA for their hybrids derived either from the 'aA' or 'fF' ova, respectively. Among offspring of Ea+Ef pairs in F1 generation there were mainly aAA and fFF earthworms resulted from the facilitated self-fertilization and some aAF hybrids from aA ova but none fFA hybrids from fF ova. In F2 generation resulting from aAF hybrids mated with aAA a new generations of aAA and aAF hybrids were noticed, while aAF hybrids mated with fFF gave fFF and both aAF and fFA hybrids. Hybrids intercrossed together produced plenty of cocoons but no hatchlings independently whether aAF+aAF or aAF+fFA were mated. These results indicated that Ea and Ef species, easy to maintain in laboratory and commonly used as convenient models in biomedicine and ecotoxicology, may also serve in studies on molecular basis of interspecific barriers and mechanisms of introgression and speciation. Hypothetically, their asymmetrical hybridization can be modified by some external factors.

  6. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Kerwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1 and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2 in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs, we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus, providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1. This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction.

  7. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2017-11-06

    Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 ( hms1 ) and hybrid male sterility 2 ( hms2 ) in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs), we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus , providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1 This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Kerwin and Sweigart.

  8. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    hybridization may lead to the extinction of peripheral populations of P. minor where the two species grow sympatrically. Extinction could occur as a result of genetic assimilation where F1s are fertile, or via the removal of unidirectionally pollinated sterile F1s, or by a combination of these processes......Aim Introgressive hybridization between a locally rare species and a more abundant congener can drive population extinction via genetic assimilation, or the replacement of the rare species gene pool with that of the common species. To date, however, few studies have assessed the effects...... of such processes at the limits of species' distribution ranges. In this study, we have examined the potential for hybridization between range-edge populations of the wintergreen Pyrola minor and sympatric populations of Pyrola grandiflora. Location Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland and Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Methods...

  9. Diversifying Sunflower Germplasm by Integration and Mapping of a Novel Male Fertility Restoration Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Dexing; Feng, Jiuhuan; Seiler, Gerald J.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a single cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) PET-1 and the corresponding fertility restoration (Rf) gene Rf1 is used for commercial hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34) seed production worldwide. A new CMS line 514A was recently developed with H. tuberosus cytoplasm. However, 33 maintainers and restorers for CMS PET-1 and 20 additional tester lines failed to restore the fertility of CMS 514A. Here, we report the discovery, characterization, and molecular mapping of a novel Rf gene for CMS 514A derived from an amphiploid (Amp H. angustifolius/P 21, 2n = 68). Progeny analysis of the male-fertile (MF) plants (2n = 35) suggested that this gene, designated Rf6, was located on a single alien chromosome. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicated that Rf6 was on a chromosome with a small segment translocation on the long arm in the MF progenies (2n = 34). Rf6 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 3 of the sunflower SSR map. Eight markers were identified to be linked to this gene, covering a distance of 10.8 cM. Two markers, ORS13 and ORS1114, were only 1.6 cM away from the gene. Severe segregation distortions were observed for both the fertility trait and the linked marker loci, suggesting the possibility of a low frequency of recombination or gamete selection in this region. This study discovered a new CMS/Rf gene system derived from wild species and provided significant insight into the genetic basis of this system. This will diversify the germplasm for sunflower breeding and facilitate understanding of the interaction between the cytoplasm and nuclear genes. PMID:23307903

  10. Hybridization in the Ensatina Ring Species, Strong selection against hybrids at a hybrid zone in the ensatina ring species complex and its evolutionary implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrino, Joao; Baird, Stuart J.E.; Lawson, Lucinda; Macey, J. Robert; Moritz, Craig; Wake, David B.

    2005-04-22

    The analysis of interactions between lineages at varying levels of genetic divergence can provide insights into the process of speciation through the accumulation of incompatible mutations. Ring species, and especially the Ensatina eschscholtzii system exemplify this approach. The plethodontid salamanders Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica and Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis hybridize in the Central Sierran foothills of California. We compared the genetic structure across two transects (southern and northern Calaveras Co.), one of which was re-sampled over 20 years, and examined diagnostic molecular markers (eight allozyme loci and mitochondrial DNA) and a diagnostic quantitative trait (color pattern). Key results across all studies were: (i) cline centers for all markers were coincident and the zones were narrow, with width estimates of 730m to 2000m; (ii) cline centers at the northern Calaveras transect were coincident between 1981 and 2001, demonstrating repeatability over 5 generations; (iii) there are very few if any putative F1's, but a relatively high number of backcrossed individuals (57-86 percent) in the central portion of transects; (iv) we found substantial linkage disequilibrium in all three studies and strong heterozygote deficit both in northern Calaveras, in 2001, and southern Calaveras. Both linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote deficit show maximum values near the center of the zones (R and Fis, approx. equal to 0.5). Using estimates of cline width and dispersal, we infer strong selection against hybrids (s* approx. equal to 46-75 percent). This is sufficient to promote accumulation of differences at loci that are neutral or under divergent selection, but would still allow for introgression of adaptive alleles. The evidence for strong, but incomplete isolation across this centrally located contact is consistent with theory suggesting a gradual increase in postzygotic incompatibility between allopatric populations subject to divergent

  11. Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of neotropical wild cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Tatiane C; Schneider, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Tadeu G; Lehugeur, Livia M; Silveira, Leandro; Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discordance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, leading us to support their formal recognition as distinct species, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overcoming the species hybridization barrier by ploidy manipulation in the genus Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, Kaoru; Sekine, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Ono, Akemi; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Kurata, Nori; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2018-02-01

    In most eudicot and monocot species, interspecific and interploidy crosses generally display abnormalities in the endosperm that are the major cause of a post-zygotic hybridization barrier. In some eudicot species, however, this type of hybridization barrier can be overcome by the manipulation of ploidy levels of one parental species, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms underlying the species hybridization barrier can be circumvented by genome dosage. We previously demonstrated that endosperm barriers in interspecific and interploidy crosses in the genus Oryza involve overlapping but different mechanisms. This result contrasts with those in the genus Arabidopsis, which shows similar outcomes in both interploidy and interspecific crosses. Therefore, we postulated that an exploration of pathways for overcoming the species hybridization barrier in Oryza endosperm, by manipulating the ploidy levels in one parental species, might provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms. We showed that fertile hybrid seeds could be produced by an interspecific cross of female tetraploid Oryza sativa and male diploid Oryza longistaminata. Although the rate of nuclear divisions did not return to normal levels in the hybrid endosperm, the timing of cellularization, nucellus degeneration and the accumulation of storage products were close to normal levels. In addition, the expression patterns of the imprinted gene MADS87 and YUCCA11 were changed when the species barrier was overcome. These results suggest that the regulatory machinery for developmental transitions and imprinted gene expression are likely to play a central role in overcoming species hybridization barriers by genome dosage in the genus Oryza. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  14. Hybridization between the linear-leaved Potamogeton species in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aykurt, C.; Fehrer, Judith; Sari, D.; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Deniz, I. G.; Aydemir, E.; Imir, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 22-28 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-06825S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Potamogeton * hybridization * Turkey Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.714, year: 2016

  15. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mark Scriber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising 50%–75% of the world’s fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including “invasive species” in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. “Invasive genes” (into new species and populations need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. “Genetic rescue” via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes and recent (3-decade climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced “reshuffling” (recombinations of species composition, genotypes

  16. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  17. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  18. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  19. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus???jrtyschensis from two distantly related species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus???jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. Resu...

  20. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  1. Interspecific somatic hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild species L. virosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, E

    1991-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and a wild species L. virosa were produced by protoplast electrofusion. Hybrid selection was based on inactivation of L. sativa with 20mM iodoacetamide for 15 min, and the inability of L. virosa protoplasts to divide in the culture conditions used. Protoplasts were cultured in agarose beads in a revised MS media. In all 71 calli were formed and 21 of them differentiated shoots on LS medium containing 0.1mg/l NAA and 0.2mg/l BA. Most regenerated plants exhibited intermediate morphology. These plants were confirmed as hybrids by isoenzyme analysis. The majority of somatic hybrids had 2n=4x=36 chromosomes, and had more vigorous growth than either parent. Hybrids had normal flower morphology, but all were sterile.

  2. Chaos and Hopf bifurcation of a hybrid ratio-dependent three species food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyan; Pang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and study a model of a hybrid ratio-dependent three species food chain, which is constituted by a hybrid type subsystem of prey and middle-predator and a middle-top predators' subsystem with Holling type-II functional response. We investigate the persistence and Hopf bifurcation of the system. Computer simulations are carried out to explain the mathematical conclusions. The chaotic attractor is obtained for suitable choice of parametric values

  3. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  4. Natural hybridization in the sea urchin genus Pseudoboletia between species without apparent barriers to gamete recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Kirk S; Byrne, Maria; Raff, Elizabeth C; Lessios, H A; Raff, Rudolf A

    2012-06-01

    Marine species with high dispersal potential often have huge ranges and minimal population structure. Combined with the paucity of geographic barriers in the oceans, this pattern raises the question as to how speciation occurs in the sea. Over the past 20 years, evidence has accumulated that marine speciation is often linked to the evolution of gamete recognition proteins. Rapid evolution of gamete recognition proteins in gastropods, bivalves, and sea urchins is correlated with gamete incompatibility and contributes to the maintenance of species boundaries between sympatric congeners. Here, we present a counterexample to this general pattern. The sea urchins Pseudoboletia indiana and P. maculata have broad ranges that overlap in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Cytochrome oxidase I sequences indicated that these species are distinct, and their 7.3% divergence suggests that they diverged at least 2 mya. Despite this, we suspected hybridization between them based on the presence of morphologically intermediate individuals in sympatric populations at Sydney, Australia. We assessed the opportunity for hybridization between the two species and found that (1) individuals of the two species occur within a meter of each other in nature, (2) they have overlapping annual reproductive cycles, and (3) their gametes cross-fertilize readily in the laboratory and in the field. We genotyped individuals with intermediate morphology and confirmed that many were hybrids. Hybrids were fertile, and some female hybrids had egg sizes intermediate between the two parental species. Consistent with their high level of gamete compatibility, there is minimal divergence between P. indiana and P. maculata in the gamete recognition protein bindin, with a single fixed amino acid difference between the two species. Pseudoboletia thus provides a well-characterized exception to the idea that broadcast spawning marine species living in sympatry develop and maintain species boundaries through the

  5. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  6. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  7. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  8. Hybridization among distantly related species: Examples from the polyploid genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Šída, Otakar; Marhold, Karol; Leong-Škorničková, Jana

    2016-07-01

    Discerning relationships among species evolved by reticulate and/or polyploid evolution is not an easy task, although it is widely discussed. The economically important genus Curcuma (ca. 120 spp.; Zingiberaceae), broadly distributed in tropical SE Asia, is a particularly interesting example of a group of palaeopolyploid origin whose evolution is driven mainly by hybridization and polyploidization. Although a phylogeny and a new infrageneric classification of Curcuma, based on commonly used molecular markers (ITS and cpDNA), have recently been proposed, significant evolutionary questions remain unresolved. We applied a multilocus approach and a combination of modern analytical methods to this genus to distinguish causes of gene tree incongruence and to identify hybrids and their parental species. Five independent regions of nuclear DNA (DCS, GAPDH, GLOBOSA3, LEAFY, ITS) and four non-coding cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF, trnT-trnL, psbA-trnH and matK), analysed as a single locus, were employed to construct a species tree and hybrid species trees using (*)BEAST and STEM-hy. Detection of hybridogenous species in the dataset was also conducted using the posterior predictive checking approach as implemented in JML. The resulting species tree outlines the relationships among major evolutionary lineages within Curcuma, which were previously unresolved or which conflicted depending upon whether they were based on ITS or cpDNA markers. Moreover, by using the additional markers in tests of plausible topologies of hybrid species trees for C. vamana, C. candida, C. roscoeana and C. myanmarensis suggested by previous molecular and morphological evidence, we found strong evidence that all the species except C. candida are of subgeneric hybrid origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  10. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  11. Hybridization and adaptive evolution of diverse Saccharomyces species for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Moriarty, Ryan V; Alexander, William G; Baker, EmilyClare; Sylvester, Kayla; Sardi, Maria; Langdon, Quinn K; Libkind, Diego; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Landry, Christian R; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula; Hyma, Katie E; Fay, Justin C; Sato, Trey K; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a common resource across the globe, and its fermentation offers a promising option for generating renewable liquid transportation fuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass releases sugars that can be fermented by microbes, but these processes also produce fermentation inhibitors, such as aromatic acids and aldehydes. Several research projects have investigated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation by the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Most projects have taken synthetic biological approaches or have explored naturally occurring diversity in S. cerevisiae to enhance stress tolerance, xylose consumption, or ethanol production. Despite these efforts, improved strains with new properties are needed. In other industrial processes, such as wine and beer fermentation, interspecies hybrids have combined important traits from multiple species, suggesting that interspecies hybridization may also offer potential for biofuel research. To investigate the efficacy of this approach for traits relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production, we generated synthetic hybrids by crossing engineered xylose-fermenting strains of S. cerevisiae with wild strains from various Saccharomyces species. These interspecies hybrids retained important parental traits, such as xylose consumption and stress tolerance, while displaying intermediate kinetic parameters and, in some cases, heterosis (hybrid vigor). Next, we exposed them to adaptive evolution in ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate and recovered strains with improved fermentative traits. Genome sequencing showed that the genomes of these evolved synthetic hybrids underwent rearrangements, duplications, and deletions. To determine whether the genus Saccharomyces contains additional untapped potential, we screened a genetically diverse collection of more than 500 wild, non-engineered Saccharomyces isolates and uncovered a wide range of capabilities for traits relevant to

  12. Comparative genetics of hybrid incompatibility: sterility in two Solanum species crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-07-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on a modest number of loci, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number, and seed-infertility QTL act additively or recessively. These findings are remarkably consistent with our previous analysis in a different species pair, S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites. Data from both studies contrast strongly with data from Drosophila. Finally, QTL for pollen and seed sterility from the two Solanum studies were chromosomally colocalized, indicating a shared evolutionary history for these QTL, a nonrandom genomic distribution of loci causing sterility, and/or a proclivity of certain genes to be involved in hybrid sterility. We show that comparative mapping data can delimit the probable timing of evolution of detected QTL and discern which sterility loci likely evolved earliest among species.

  13. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  14. Hybrid sterility in crosses between two Brazilian sibling species of the Anopheles albitarsis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Nathalia Giglio; Araki, Alejandra Saori; Van Der Maas Azevedo, Renata; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2014-12-04

    Complexes of cryptic species are common in several taxa and this is also the case in the Anopheles genus, a group including all known human malaria vectors. The Anopheles albitarsis complex comprises at least nine cryptic species, some of which are implicated as vectors of human malaria. Several different types of data have been generated for this species complex such as cytogenetics, alloenzymes, morphological and feeding behavioral, hybridization experiments, RAPD-PCR and RFLP and mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Studies focused on its postzygotic isolation are still somewhat rare in the literature despite their importance to understand the speciation process and the level of gene flow potentially occurring among the different sibling species. Hybridization experiments between Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara, as well as backcrosses between hybrids and Anopheles albitarsis s.s., were performed using the induced mating technique. Results were compared to intraspecific crosses. Larva-to-adult viability and sex ratio were also assessed. Male hybrids show very low insemination rates and nearly complete sterility, apparently due to abnormalities in their reproductive organs. Evidence of partial sterility among the hybrid females was also observed. Our data indicated that Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara show a high level of postzygotic isolation with a strong hybrid male sterility. This result is consistent with the Haldane's rule which states that in interspecific crosses the heterogametic sex is the first to be affected. However, the fact that the females are not completely sterile raises the possibility of introgression between these two siblings species.

  15. Dispersal and selection mediate hybridization between a native and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Allendorf, Fred W.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between native and non-native species has serious biological consequences, but our understanding of how dispersal and selection interact to influence invasive hybridization is limited. Here, we document the spread of genetic introgression between a native (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and invasive (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout, and identify the mechanisms influencing genetic admixture. In two populations inhabiting contrasting environments, non-native admixture increased rapidly from 1984 to 2007 and was driven by surprisingly consistent processes. Individual admixture was related to two phenotypic traits associated with fitness: size at spawning and age of juvenile emigration. Fish with higher non-native admixture were larger and tended to emigrate at a younger age—relationships that are expected to confer fitness advantages to hybrid individuals. However, strong selection against non-native admixture was evident across streams and cohorts (mean selection coefficient against genotypes with non-native alleles (s) ¼ 0.60; s.e. ¼ 0.10). Nevertheless, hybridization was promoted in both streams by the continuous immigration of individuals with high levels of non-native admixture from other hybrid source populations. Thus, antagonistic relationships between dispersal and selection are mediating invasive hybridization between these fish, emphasizing that data on dispersal and natural selection are needed to fully understand the dynamics of introgression between native and non-native species. .

  16. Genetics of alternative splicing evolution during sunflower domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris C R; Tittes, Silas; Mendieta, J Paul; Collier-Zans, Erin; Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Kane, Nolan C

    2018-06-11

    Alternative splicing enables organisms to produce the diversity of proteins necessary for multicellular life by using relatively few protein-coding genes. Although differences in splicing have been identified among divergent taxa, the shorter-term evolution of splicing is understudied. The origins of novel splice forms, and the contributions of alternative splicing to major evolutionary transitions, are largely unknown. This study used transcriptomes of wild and domesticated sunflowers to examine splice differentiation and regulation during domestication. We identified substantial splicing divergence between wild and domesticated sunflowers, mainly in the form of intron retention. Transcripts with divergent splicing were enriched for seed-development functions, suggesting that artificial selection impacted splicing patterns. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with 144 differential splicing cases revealed primarily trans -acting variation affecting splicing patterns. A large proportion of identified QTLs contain known spliceosome proteins and are associated with splicing variation in multiple genes. Examining a broader set of wild and domesticated sunflower genotypes revealed that most differential splicing patterns in domesticated sunflowers likely arose from standing variation in wild Helianthus annuus and gained frequency during the domestication process. However, several domesticate-associated splicing patterns appear to be introgressed from other Helianthus species. These results suggest that sunflower domestication involved selection on pleiotropic regulatory alleles. More generally, our findings indicate that substantial differences in isoform abundances arose rapidly during a recent evolutionary transition and appear to contribute to adaptation and population divergence.

  17. The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, Jana; Petrusková, Tereza; Reifová, Radka; Kozman, Alexandra; Mořkovský, Libor; Kipper, Silke; Weiss, Michael; Reif, Jiří; Dolata, Paweł T.; Petrusek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the

  18. Whole-plant utilization of sunflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R P [Univ. of Texas, Austin; Seiler, G J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight accessions representing 39 taxa of the genus Helianthus (sunflower) were collected from a common garden and whole plants examined for yields of non-polar extractables. (hydrocarbons, rubber, etc.), polar extractables (resins, sugars, etc.) and crude protein. This study revealed several promising species for obtaining hydrocarbons: H. agrestis, H. annuus, H. argophyllus, and H. arizonensis. Species highest in methanol extractables were H. ciliaris, H. leavigtus, H. occidentalis ssp. plantagineus, H. paradoxus, H. petiolaris, and H. silphioides. Species with greater than 16% protein yields were H. arizonensis, H. grosseserratus, H. neglectus, H. petiolaris ssp. fallax, and H. simulans. Since this genus is well known agronomically, the development of one of the species for whole-plant utilization may be easier than the domestication of some lesser-known genera. 42 references, 3 tables

  19. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  20. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  1. Gene expression disruptions of organism versus organ in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Catron

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunctions, such as sterility, may result in part from disruptions in the regulation of gene expression. Studies of hybrids within the Drosophila simulans clade have reported genes expressed above or below the expression observed in their parent species, and such misexpression is associated with male sterility in multigenerational backcross hybrids. However, these studies often examined whole bodies rather than testes or had limited replication using less-sensitive but global techniques. Here, we use a new RNA isolation technique to re-examine hybrid gene expression disruptions in both testes and whole bodies from single Drosophila males by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We find two early-spermatogenesis transcripts are underexpressed in hybrid whole-bodies but not in assays of testes alone, while two late-spermatogenesis transcripts seem to be underexpressed in both whole-bodies and testes alone. Although the number of transcripts surveyed is limited, these results provide some support for a previous hypothesis that the spermatogenesis pathway in these sterile hybrids may be disrupted sometime after the expression of the early meiotic arrest genes.

  2. Estimates of hybridization between two species of catostomids in the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Extent of hybridization is described between two sympatric catostomids, Catostomus macrocheilus and C. columbianus, from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, southeastern Washington state. Estimated percentage of hybrids based on presence of intermediate meristic characters ranged from 12.4 to 14.6% of the total sucker population. Discriminant function analysis reduced subjective variability and lowered estimates of hybridization to 3.0 to 7.1%. Principal component analysis also provided evidence that the suspected hybrids were intermediate between populations of C. macrocheilus and C. columbianus. Meristic characters contributed most to all methods of treatment, with number of lateral line scales the best single criterion for species separation. Any analysis of closely related species would benefit from examination of offspring from artificial crosses and from knowledge of allopatric population characteristics. Breakdown of isolating mechanisms leading to C. macrocheilus X C. columbianus crosses may result from overlap in spawning time and incomplete habitat segregation. Morphological and coloration differences at spawning may provide a basis for species recognition, thus providing some degree of ethological isolation.

  3. Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in resistance gene clusters of two hybridizing European Populus species

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Céline; Stölting, Kai N.; Barbará, Thelma; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Lexer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Resistance genes (R-genes) are essential for long-lived organisms such as forest trees, which are exposed to diverse herbivores and pathogens. In short-lived model species, R-genes have been shown to be involved in species isolation. Here, we studied more than 400 trees from two natural hybrid zones of the European Populus species Populus alba and Populus tremula for microsatellite markers located in three R-gene clusters, including one cluster situated in the incipient sex chromosome region....

  4. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  5. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Incompatibility between X chromosome factor and pericentric heterochromatic region causes lethality in hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, M Victoria; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-06-01

    The Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that postzygotic reproductive isolation results from the evolution of incompatible epistatic interactions between species: alleles that function in the genetic background of one species can cause sterility or lethality in the genetic background of another species. Progress in identifying and characterizing factors involved in postzygotic isolation in Drosophila has remained slow, mainly because Drosophila melanogaster, with all of its genetic tools, forms dead or sterile hybrids when crossed to its sister species, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. To circumvent this problem, we used chromosome deletions and duplications from D. melanogaster to map two hybrid incompatibility loci in F(1) hybrids with its sister species. We mapped a recessive factor to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the X chromosome in D. simulans and D. mauritiana, which we call heterochromatin hybrid lethal (hhl), which causes lethality in F(1) hybrid females with D. melanogaster. As F(1) hybrid males hemizygous for a D. mauritiana (or D. simulans) X chromosome are viable, the lethality of deficiency hybrid females implies that a dominant incompatible partner locus exists on the D. melanogaster X. Using small segments of the D. melanogaster X chromosome duplicated onto the Y chromosome, we mapped a dominant factor that causes hybrid lethality to a small 24-gene region of the D. melanogaster X. We provide evidence suggesting that it interacts with hhl(mau). The location of hhl is consistent with the emerging theme that hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila involve heterochromatic regions and factors that interact with the heterochromatin.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  8. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  9. Interspecific somatic hybrids between Cyclamen persicum and C. coum, two sexually incompatible species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Anika Nadja Sabine; Bartsch, Melanie; Meiners, Julia; Serek, Margrethe; Winkelmann, Traud

    2012-04-01

    By applying polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast fusion, the first somatic hybrids were obtained between Cyclamen persicum (2n = 2x = 48) and C. coum (2n = 2x = 30)-two species that cannot be combined by cross breeding. Heterofusion was detected by double fluorescent staining with fluorescein diacetate and scopoletin. The highest heterofusion frequencies (of about 5%) resulted from a protocol using a protoplast density of 1 × 10(6)/mL and 40% PEG. The DNA content of C. coum was estimated for the first time by propidium iodide staining to be 14.7 pg/2C and was 4.6 times higher than that of C. persicum. Among 200 in vitro plantlets regenerated from fusion experiments, most resembled the C. coum parent, whereas only 5 plants showed typical C. persicum phenotypes and 46 had a deviating morphology. By flow cytometry, six putative somatic hybrids were identified. A species-specific DNA marker was developed based on the sequence of the 5.8S gene in the ribosomal nuclear DNA and its flanking internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2. The hybrid status of only one plant could be verified by the species-specific DNA marker as well as sequencing of the amplification product. RAPD markers turned out to be less informative and applicable for hybrid identification, as no clear additivity of the parental marker bands was observed. Chromosome counting in root tips of four hybrids revealed the presence of the 30 C. coum chromosomes and 2-41 additional ones indicating elimination of C. persicum chromosomes. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  10. Automated classification of tropical shrub species: a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Miraemiliana; Chang, Siow-Wee; Abu, Arpah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Yong, Kien-Thai

    2017-01-01

    Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Hu invariant moments (Hu) and Zernike moments (ZM). Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM). In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS) and Pearson's coefficient correlation (PCC). The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia dataset and 99

  11. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  12. Immediate Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in F1 Hybrids Parented by Species with Divergent Genomes in the Rice Genus (Oryza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    Full Text Available Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown.We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner.Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic instabilities at the molecular level. These novel hybrids might

  13. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2014-11-19

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  14. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Mork, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  15. Natural variation for a hybrid incompatibility between two species of Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Mason, Amanda R; Willis, John H

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which hybrid incompatibility alleles become established in natural populations remains a major challenge to evolutionary biology. Previously, we discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility that causes severe hybrid male sterility between two inbred lines of the incompletely isolated wildflower species, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. An interspecific cross between these two inbred lines revealed that the M. guttatus (IM62) allele at hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus (SF5) alleles at hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In this report, we extend these genetic analyses to investigate intraspecific variation for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility in natural populations of M. nasutus and M. guttatus, performing a series of interspecific crosses between individuals collected from a variety of geographic locales. Our results suggest that hms2 incompatibility alleles are common and geographically widespread within M. nasutus, but absent or rare in M. guttatus. In contrast, the hms1 locus is polymorphic within M. guttatus and the incompatibility allele appears to be extremely geographically restricted. We found evidence for the presence of the hms1 incompatibility allele in only two M. guttatus populations that exist within a few kilometers of each other. The restricted distribution of the hms1 incompatibility allele might currently limit the potential for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility to act as a species barrier between sympatric populations of M. guttatus and M. nasutus. Extensive sampling within a single M. guttatus population revealed that the hms1 locus is polymorphic and that the incompatibility allele appears to segregate at intermediate frequency, a pattern that is consistent with either genetic drift or natural selection.

  16. Discrimination of Species and Hybrid Detection in Myriophyllum Spp.: an Introduction to Biodiversity Conservation and Invasion Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ghahramanzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing economical loss through introduction of invasive alien species (IAS in local ecosystem is one of the most important issues in biosecurity. The hybridization potential between non-indigenous and native species has raised concerns due mainly to introgression, which can cause extirpation of native species through gene contamination. In the present study, 71 samples belonging to 12 species from Myriophyllum genus were assessed in Plant Breeding group of Wageningen University. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS was used for identification of invasive species from related native and possible hybrid plants. The result showed that based on universal application, high sequence divergence and species discrimination, ITS is a powerful sequence for the identification of invasive species from related non-invasive foreign and native species. In contrast to morphological data, ITS grouped suspected hybrid plants in to M. heterophyllum and demonstrated that they have not resulted from hybridization. These observations suggest that multiple introduction and genetic recombination among different introduced genotypes or genetic pools could be reasons of non-flowering in suspected hybrid plants. Results showed that molecular markers enable to distinguish invasive plant species from their most closely related congeners. This could be helpful with enforcing a ban on important of such invasive which can help to plant ecosystem and biodiversity stability.

  17. Genetic basis of aboveground productivity in two native Populus species and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Demonstration of genetic control over riparian tree productivity has major implications for responses of riparian systems to shifting environmental conditions and effects of genetics on ecosystems in general. We used field studies and common gardens, applying both molecular and quantitative techniques, to compare plot-level tree aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP(tree)) and individual tree growth rate constants in relation to plant genetic identity in two naturally occurring Populus tree species and their hybrids. In field comparisons of four cross types (Populus fremontii S. Wats., Populus angustifolia James, F(1) hybrids and backcross hybrids) across 11 natural stands, productivity was greatest for P. fremontii trees, followed by hybrids and lowest in P. angustifolia. A similar pattern was observed in four common gardens across a 290 m elevation and 100 km environmental gradient. Despite a doubling in productivity across the common gardens, the relative differences among the cross types remained constant. Using clonal replicates in a common garden, we found ANPP(tree) to be a heritable plant trait (i.e., broad-sense heritability), such that plant genetic factors explained between 38% and 82% of the variation in ANPP(tree). Furthermore, analysis of the genetic composition among individual tree genotypes using restriction fragment length polymorphism molecular markers showed that genetically similar trees also exhibited similar ANPP(tree). These findings indicate strong genetic contributions to natural variation in ANPP with important ecological implications.

  18. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus × jrtyschensis from two distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-18

    The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus × jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. We collected 566 individuals from 45 typical populations of P. × jrtyschensis, P. nigra and P. laurifolia. We genotyped them based on the sequence variations of one maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragment and genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci. We further sequenced eight nuclear genes for 168 individuals from 31 populations. Two groups of cpDNA haplotypes characteristic of P. nigra and P. laurifolia respectively were both recovered for P. × jrtyschensis. Genetic structures and coalescent tests of two sets of nuclear population genetic data suggested that P. × jrtyschensis originated from hybridizations between the two assumed parental species. All examined populations of P. × jrtyschensis comprise mainly F1 hybrids from interspecific hybridizations between P. nigra and P. laurifolia. In the habitats of P. × jrtyschensis, there are lower concentrations of soil nitrogen than in the habitats occupied by the other two species. Our extensive examination of the genetic composition of P. × jrtyschensis suggested that it is typical of F1-dominated hybrid zones. This finding plus the low concentration of soil nitrogen in the floodplain soils support the F1-dominated bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis of hybrid zone maintenance for this particular hybrid poplar.

  19. Species and hybrids in the genus Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Xu, Lei; Xu, Shao-Lin; Martínez, Alejandro; Chen, Hua; Cheng, Dan; Dumont, Henri J; Han, Bo-Ping; Fontaneto, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Cladocerans are well-studied planktonic crustaceans, especially those of the genus Daphnia in which interesting evolutionary questions have been addressed on speciation processes. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that other genera of cladocerans show similar levels of cryptic diversity, intraspecific gene flow, and thus become useful model systems for comparison. In order to do so, we chose the genus Diaphanosoma, widespread in tropical and temperate areas. We started with a survey of species diversity in the genus Diaphanosoma in Asia using a morphological approach, then obtained sequences from a mitochondrial and a nuclear marker from multiple individuals of different species, performed tests on DNA taxonomy and molecular phylogenies, and assessed the role of hybridization in explaining the cases of mitonuclear discordance. The results are that cryptic diversity occurs in Diaphanosoma, and mitonuclear discordance was found in about 6% of the sequenced animals. Past hybridization is supported as the most likely explanation for the discordance: no evidence was found of first generation hybrids with heterozygous sequences. Our analysis on patterns of genetic diversity in Diaphanosoma supports similarities and differences with what is known in Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  1. Species distribution and introgressive hybridization of two Avicennia species from the Western Hemisphere unveiled by phylogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M; Zucchi, Maria I; Sampaio, Iracilda; Souza, Anete P

    2015-04-10

    Mangrove plants grow in the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The global latitudinal distribution of the mangrove is mainly influenced by climatic and oceanographic features. Because of current climate changes, poleward range expansions have been reported for the major biogeographic regions of mangrove forests in the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. There is evidence that mangrove forests also responded similarly after the last glaciation by expanding their ranges. In this context, the use of genetic tools is an informative approach for understanding how historical processes and factors impact the distribution of mangrove species. We investigated the phylogeographic patterns of two Avicennia species, A. germinans and A. schaueriana, from the Western Hemisphere using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers. Our results indicate that, although Avicennia bicolor, A. germinans and A. schaueriana are independent lineages, hybridization between A. schaueriana and A. germinans is a relevant evolutionary process. Our findings also reinforce the role of long-distance dispersal in widespread mangrove species such as A. germinans, for which we observed signs of transatlantic dispersal, a process that has, most likely, contributed to the breadth of the distribution of A. germinans. However, along the southern coast of South America, A. schaueriana is the only representative of the genus. The distribution patterns of A. germinans and A. schaueriana are explained by their different responses to past climate changes and by the unequal historical effectiveness of relative gene flow by propagules and pollen. We observed that A. bicolor, A. germinans and A. schaueriana are three evolutionary lineages that present historical and ongoing hybridization on the American continent. We also inferred a new evidence of transatlantic dispersal for A. germinans, which may have contributed to its widespread distribution. Despite the generally wider distribution of A

  2. Extension of a hybrid particle-continuum method for a mixture of chemical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, Ashley M.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2012-11-01

    Due to the physical accuracy and numerical efficiency achieved by analyzing transitional, hypersonic flow fields with hybrid particle-continuum methods, this paper describes a Modular Particle-Continuum (MPC) method and its extension to include multiple chemical species. Considerations that are specific to a hybrid approach for simulating gas mixtures are addressed, including a discussion of the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function (VDF) for near-equilibrium flows, and consistent viscosity models for the individual CFD and DSMC modules of the MPC method. Representative results for a hypersonic blunt-body flow are then presented, where the flow field properties, surface properties, and computational performance are compared for simulations employing full CFD, full DSMC, and the MPC method.

  3. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  4. Molecular and physiological responses of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to pgpr and sa under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 micro M) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress. (author)

  5. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Stahl

    Full Text Available Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual, and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  6. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  7. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence. PMID:24833511

  8. Hybridization relics complicate barcode-based identification of species in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, L; Porco, D; Symondson, W O C; Roy, V

    2016-07-01

    Introgressive hybridization results in mito-nuclear discordance which could obscure the delimitation of closely related taxa. Although such events are increasingly reported, they have been poorly studied in earthworms. Here, we propose a method for investigating the degree of introgressive hybridization between three taxa of the Allolobophora chlorotica aggregate within two field populations (N = 67 and N = 105) using a reference data set including published DNA barcoding and microsatellite data of all known A. chlorotica lineages (N = 85). For this, we used both molecular phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. The test of correspondence between mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) lineages and clusters of nuclear microsatellite genotypes allowed individuals to be sorted in three categories (matching, admixed and nonmatching) and additional markers (mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, nuclear Histone 3 and Internal transcribed Spacer Region 2) were used for phylogenetic reconstructions in order to check assignments. Although 15 admixed individuals were observed, no early-generation hybrids were detected within the two populations. Interestingly, 14 nonmatching individuals (i.e. with a mtDNA haplotype that did not correspond to their nuclear cluster) were detected, a pattern that would result after multiple generations of unidirectional hybridization of female from one taxon to male of the other taxon. Because earthworms are simultaneous hermaphrodites, these events of unidirectional hybridization suggest sterility of the male function in several crosses and highlight that some individuals can be misidentified if reliance is placed on COI barcodes alone. These findings could improve the use of these barcodes in earthworms for species delineation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  10. Breeding sunflower for drought tolerance: genetic variability for drought torrance in sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.K.; Ilyas, M.; Rehman, O.U.

    1994-01-01

    Five inbred lines and their all possible crosses excluding reciprocals were evaluated for tolerance to drought and effect of drought adversely influenced the traits of leaf area, days to maturity, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant, whereas number of leaves per plant and plant height were comparatively less affected. Average performance of sunflower cross/hybrids was far more better than parental lines. Inbred lines GIMSUN-420x-431 and GIMSUN-498x-477 produced higher achene yield under drought conditions and showed less loses than other. Effect of drought on various growth stages showed that button (R1 stage) was the most critical as compared to 50% flowering (R5 stage) and seed formation (R6 stage) which reduced leaf area, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant by 40-59, 32-14 and 31-07 percent respectively. (author)

  11. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  12. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra N Trier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97% and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

  14. Characterization of some sunflower genotypes using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrani, L.; Nabulsi, I.; MirAli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mostly as a source of vegetable oil of high quality and is especially used in food industry. It is generally produced by multinationals and sold as hybrids. Our research, based on two techniques (ISSR and RAPD), is considered as the first one to be interested in molecular characterization of sunflower genotypes in Syria. We used 25 ISSR primers and 13 RAPD primers to study 29 sunflower genotypes and two reference controls belonging to the same family (Calendula officinalis L. and Targets erecta L.). ISSR results revealed a low polymorphism when compared to other studies. We noticed also 11 genotypes genetically related where percent disagreement values (PDV) didn't exceed 1%, they are 7189 - 7191 - 7184 - 7183 - 443 - 441 - Ghab1 -Ghab2 - Ghab3 - Ghab4 - Ghab5 - Madakh halab - Sarghaya4 -Tarkibi knitra. Sarghaya4 and Tarkibi knitra have indeed the lowest yield and some common morphological characters. At the opposite, the genotype Hysum33 has the highest yield and is genetically distant from the other genotypes. All the genotypes could be used in QTL detection as we didn't notice any similarity between them. (author)

  15. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  16. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  17. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  18. Automated classification of tropical shrub species: a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraemiliana Murat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM, Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG, Hu invariant moments (Hu and Zernike moments (ZM. Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN, random forest (RF, support vector machine (SVM, k-nearest neighbour (k-NN, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM. In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS and Pearson’s coefficient correlation (PCC. The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia

  19. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  20. CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PREMEIOTIC VERSUS POSTMEIOTIC DEFECTS PRODUCING HYBRID MALE STERILITY AMONG SIBLING SPECIES OF THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Rob; Singh, Rama S

    1998-08-01

    In accordance with Haldane's rule, hybridizations between species of the Drosophila simulans clade produce fertile females but sterile males. In this study, a comprehensive characterization was undertaken on the six types of F 1 males that were the result of the crosses between D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. With the use of light and electron microscopy, it was shown that while each particular hybrid genotype exhibited a specific sterility phenotype, these phenotypes fell into two distinct classes. The two hybrid genotypes that possessed D. mauritiana X-chromosomes contained spermatogenic defects that caused arrests in premeiotic spermatogenic stages. The other four F 1 hybrids possessed postmeiotic spermatogenic defects. Nonsynchronous cell divisions, underdeveloped mitochondrial derivative-axonemal associations, and microtubule abnormalities were common to all of these hybrids. Each particular postmeiotically defective hybrid genotype demonstrated characteristically distinct profiles in sperm bundle number in addition to characteristic spermiogenic arrests in the furthest developed spermatids. These results in species hybrids contrast with the absence of significant differences in spermatogenic characters between species of this clade. In addition, by utilizing an attached-X cross, we investigated the influence of maternal effects and cytoplasmic factors on the sterility of D. simulans F 1 hybrids and found none. However, we discovered a strain of D. simulans (2119) that caused a large shift in sterility from postmeiotic to premeiotic when crossed to D. sechellia. This suggests that D. simulans is polymorphic for genes involving premeiotic and postmeiotic sterility and that the two types of sterilities between species may have a simple genetic basis. © 1998 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Experimental Crossing of Two Distinct Species of Leopard Geckos, Eublepharis angramainyu and E. macularius: Viability, Fertility and Phenotypic Variation of the Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančúchová-Lásková, Jitka; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between distinct species of animals and subsequent genetic introgression plays a considerable role in the speciation process and the emergence of adaptive characters. Fitness of between-species hybrids usually sharply decreases with the divergence time of the concerned species and the divergence depth, which still allows for a successful crossing differs among principal clades of vertebrates. Recently, a review of hybridization events among distinct lizard species revealed that lizards belong to vertebrates with a highly developed ability to hybridize. In spite of this, reliable reports of experimental hybridizations between genetically fairly divergent species are only exceptional. Here, we show the results of the crossing of two distinct allopatric species of eyelid geckos possessing temperature sex determination and lacking sex chromosomes: Eublepharis macularius distributed in Pakistan/Afghanistan area and E. angramainyu, which inhabits Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. We demonstrated that F1 hybrids were viable and fertile, and the introgression of E. angramainyu genes into the E. macularius genome can be enabled via a backcrossing. The examined hybrids (except those of the F2 generation) displayed neither malformations nor a reduced survival. Analyses of morphometric and coloration traits confirmed phenotypic distinctness of both parental species and their F1 hybrids. These findings contrast with long-term geographic and an evolutionary separation of the studied species. Thus, the occurrence of fertile hybrids of comparably divergent species, such as E. angramainyu and E. macularius, may also be expected in other taxa of squamates. This would violate the current estimates of species diversity in lizards.

  2. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  3. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  4. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletta, Martina Soledad; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Guillemi, Eliana Carolina; Luciani, Carlos; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Mosqueda, Juan; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB. High diversity of parasites, such as Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and three different Trypanosoma species, was found. High rates of coinfections were also detected, and significant differences were observed not only in the prevalence of parasites but also in the level of coinfections between the two analyzed areas. Regarding the Trypanosoma genus, we provide molecular evidence of the presence of T. vivax and T. theileri for the first time in Argentina. Besides, since the RLB is a prospective tool, it allowed the identification of a yet unknown bovine trypanosome which could not be assigned to any of the bovine species known so far. In the present study we provide new insights on the prevalence of several pathogens that directly impact on livestock production in Argentina. The RLB assay developed here allows to identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of all vector-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural hybridization and asymmetric introgression at the distribution margin of two Buddleja species with a large overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rong-Li; Ma, Yong-Peng; Gong, Wei-Chang; Chen, Gao; Sun, Wei-Bang; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Marczewski, Tobias

    2015-06-18

    Natural hybridization in plants is universal and plays an important role in evolution. Based on morphology it has been presumed that hybridization occurred in the genus Buddleja, though genetic studies confirming this assumption have not been conducted to date. The two species B. crispa and B. officinalis overlap in their distributions over a wide range in South-West China, and we aimed to provide genetic evidence for ongoing hybridization in this study. We investigated the occurrence of hybrids between the two species at the southern-most edge of the distribution of B. crispa using five nuclear loci and pollination experiments. The genetic data suggest substantial differentiation between the two species as species-specific alleles are separated by at least 7-28 mutations. The natural hybrids found were nearly all F1s (21 of 23), but backcrosses were detected, and some individuals, morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, showed introgression. Pollen viability test shows that the percentage of viable pollen grains was 50 ± 4% for B. crispa, and 81 ± 2% for B. officinalis. This difference is highly significant (t = 7.382, p < 0.0001). Hand cross-pollination experiments showed that B. crispa is not successful as pollen-parent, but B. officinalis is able to pollinate B. crispa to produce viable hybrid seed. Inter-specific seed-set is low (8 seeds per fruit, as opposed to about 65 for intra-specific pollinations), suggesting post-zygotic reproductive barriers. In addition, one of the reference populations also suggests a history of introgression at other localities. The occurrence of morphologically intermediate individuals between B. crispa and B. officinalis at Xishan Mountain is unequivocally linked to hybridization and almost all examined individuals of the putative hybrids were likely F1s. Despite pollination experiments indicating higher chances for introgression into B. officinalis (hybrids only produced viable seed when

  6. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N = 141) and A. nigricans (N = 412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N = 54) and A. japonicus (N = 49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000 to 2.25 million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr ≈ 0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST = 0.6533, P < 0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mt

  7. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rocha, Luiz A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-08-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N=141) and A. nigricans (N=412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N=54) and A. japonicus (N=49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000-2.25million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr≈0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST=0.6533, P<0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mtDNA lineage and

  8. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2016-04-30

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N = 141) and A. nigricans (N = 412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N = 54) and A. japonicus (N = 49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000 to 2.25 million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr ≈ 0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST = 0.6533, P < 0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mt

  9. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirong Tang; Xiaochang Wang

    2002-01-01

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134 Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134 Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134 Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134 Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  10. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    .5% of P. xylostella. Despite sympatric distributions and the capacity to hybridize, strong genomic and phenotypic divergence exists between these Plutella species that is consistent with contrasting colonization histories and reproductive isolation after secondary contact. Although P. australiana is a potential pest of brassicaceous crops, it is of secondary importance to P. xylostella.

  11. Impact of abiotic stress on photosynthetic efficiency and leaf temperature in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Markulj Kulundžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the variability of photosynthetic performance index (PIABS and leaf temperature values measured in V6 development phase on 13 sunflower hybrids, grown in stressful conditions. The pot trial was made up of two treatments, one (T1 with 60% Field Water Capacity (FWC, and the other one (T2 with 80% FWC. Significant differences between T1 and T2 treatments were established for both of these parameters which prove their dependence on the water content in the soil, while the influence of hybrid was evident only in the case of PIABS. Although in T1, as opposed to T2, all sunflower hybrids reacted by increasing leaf temperature, reaction to stress conditions measured with PIABS parameter was not uniform. Some of the hybrids reacted by decreasing PIABS values, while others reacted by increasing their PIABS values. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in parameters were independent of each other, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. Investigated parameters are suitable for determining the existence of undesirable environmental conditions that cause stress in plants and can be used in breeding of sunflower to withstand abiotic stress conditions, i.e. in selection of stress tolerant hybrids.

  12. Species distribution models contribute to determine the effect of climate and interspecific interactions in moving hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, J O; Rödder, D; Elle, O; Hochkirch, A; Secondi, J

    2013-11-01

    Climate is a major factor delimiting species' distributions. However, biotic interactions may also be prominent in shaping geographical ranges, especially for parapatric species forming hybrid zones. Determining the relative effect of each factor and their interaction of the contact zone location has been difficult due to the lack of broad scale environmental data. Recent developments in species distribution modelling (SDM) now allow disentangling the relative contributions of climate and species' interactions in hybrid zones and their responses to future climate change. We investigated the moving hybrid zone between the breeding ranges of two parapatric passerines in Europe. We conducted SDMs representing the climatic conditions during the breeding season. Our results show a large mismatch between the realized and potential distributions of the two species, suggesting that interspecific interactions, not climate, account for the present location of the contact zone. The SDM scenarios show that the southerly distributed species, Hippolais polyglotta, might lose large parts of its southern distribution under climate change, but a similar gain of novel habitat along the hybrid zone seems unlikely, because interactions with the other species (H. icterina) constrain its range expansion. Thus, whenever biotic interactions limit range expansion, species may become 'trapped' if range loss due to climate change is faster than the movement of the contact zone. An increasing number of moving hybrid zones are being reported, but the proximate causes of movement often remain unclear. In a global context of climate change, we call for more interest in their interactions with climate change. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  14. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  15. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  16. Cytotaxonomy of some species and of interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum (Poaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum showed metaphases with 2n = 54 chromosomes, while those characterized as P. nervosum had cells with 2n = 36 chromosomes. The wild accession 15 was different from the others for the morphological characters, with 2n = 36 chromosomes, and was classified as P. orientale. Two statistical procedures were used (canonical variables and cluster analysis on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance, and the results confirmed the conclusions obtained from the cytogenetic and morphologic analysis.

  17. Genetic analysis of post-mating reproductive barriers in hybridizing European Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Sanz, D; Suter, L; Joseph, J; Barbará, T; Alba, N; González-Martínez, S C; Widmer, A; Lexer, C

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic analyses of experimental crosses provide important information on the strength and nature of post-mating barriers to gene exchange between divergent populations, which are topics of great interest to evolutionary geneticists and breeders. Although not a trivial task in long-lived organisms such as trees, experimental interspecific recombinants can sometimes be created through controlled crosses involving natural F(1)'s. Here, we used this approach to understand the genetics of post-mating isolation and barriers to introgression in Populus alba and Populus tremula, two ecologically divergent, hybridizing forest trees. We studied 86 interspecific backcross (BC(1)) progeny and >350 individuals from natural populations of these species for up to 98 nuclear genetic markers, including microsatellites, indels and single nucleotide polymorphisms, and inferred the origin of the cytoplasm of the cross with plastid DNA. Genetic analysis of the BC(1) revealed extensive segregation distortions on six chromosomes, and >90% of these (12 out of 13) favored P. tremula donor alleles in the heterospecific genomic background. Since selection was documented during early diploid stages of the progeny, this surprising result was attributed to epistasis, cyto-nuclear coadaptation, heterozygote advantage at nuclear loci experiencing introgression or a combination of these. Our results indicate that gene flow across 'porous' species barriers affects these poplars and aspens beyond neutral, Mendelian expectations and suggests the mechanisms responsible. Contrary to expectations, the Populus sex determination region is not protected from introgression. Understanding the population dynamics of the Populus sex determination region will require tests based on natural interspecific hybrid zones.

  18. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.; Feldheim, K.A.; Jones, G.P.; Ma, K.; Mansour, H.; Perumal, S.; Williamson, D.H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  1. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  2. Response of sunflower to different planting dates in cotton based cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.; Shakoor, A.; Rana, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A field study on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) was conducted for three. years (1991-1993) on different planting dates. Two hybrids (Hysun-33 and PI-6480) were sown on five different dates with 15 days interval from January 15 to March 15 at Cotton Research Station, Multan. Significant higher seed yield of 1880 and 2097 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was planted on February 1 and 15 than other treatments. The yield significantly decreased when sunflower was planted on January 15 (1264 kg ha-l), March 1 (1382 kg ha-l) and March 15 (927 kg hall. Maturity period was longest (128 days) of early sown (January 15) and shortest of late sown (March 15) sunflower hybrids. Therefore, it can be concluded that sunflower planted on February 1 to 15 gave higher seed yield as well as allowed enough time for land preparation and thereby, planting of cotton crop in the same field during its regular planting time. (author)

  3. Hybrid male sterility between Drosophila willistoni species is caused by male failure to transfer sperm during copulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Gaudreau, Chelsea

    2015-05-01

    The biological concept of species stresses the importance of understanding what mechanisms maintain species reproductively isolated from each other. Often such mechanisms are divided into premating and postmating, with the latest being the result of either prezygotic or postzygotic isolation barriers. Drosophila willistoni quechua and Drosophila willistoni willistoni are two subspecies that experience reproductive isolation. When a D. w. quechua female is crossed with a D. w. willistoni male, the hybrid males (F1QW) are unable to father progeny; however, the reciprocal cross produces fertile hybrids. Thus, the mechanism of isolation is unidirectional hybrid male sterility. However, the sterile F1QW males contain large amounts of motile sperm. Here we explore whether pre-copulatory or post-copulatory pre-zygotic mechanisms serve as major deterrents in the ability of F1QW males to father progeny. Comparisons of parental and hybrid males copulation durations showed no significant reduction in copulation duration of F1QW males. Interrupted copulations of the parental species confirmed that sperm transfer occurs before the minimum copulation duration registered for F1QW males. However, we found that when females mate with F1QW males, sperm is not present inside the female storage organs and that the lack of sperm in storage is due to failure to transfer sperm rather than spillage or active sperm dumping by females. Sterility of F1QW hybrid males is primarily driven by their inability to transfer sperm during copulation.

  4. Effect of two different plant growth regulators on production traits of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid ERNST

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth regulators (PGR are an organic compounds that modify plant physiological processes. PGR applied to the field crops promotes photosynthesis, stimulates plant growth, improves flowering and protects plants against unfavourable year weather conditions. Listed is an assumption to the yield of high quality. The effects of year weather conditions, biological material (hybrids and foliar application of two different PGR (Terra-Sorb® Foliar – containing free amino acids and Unicum® – containing Abiestins® on the yield-forming parameters, seed yield and the oil content in seeds of three selected hybrids of sunflower (NK Brio, NK Neoma, NK Ferti were studied in this paper. The field poly-factorial experiments were realized during two growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experimental area is situated in the maize-growing region (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region: mild dry or dry; climatic zone: warm and dry, with mild winter and long sunshine and soil is silt loam Haplic Luvisol. The climatic conditions in chosen experimental years were different in quantities and distribution of precipitation at main growth period of sunflower plants (June to August and allows evaluating the yield stability between used hybrids and foliar treatments. The results showed that the application of selected PGR has contributed to an increase of sunflower seed yield, mainly through increase the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761; P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in seeds was significantly higher in treatments with PGR, especially with preparation Terra-Sorb® Foliar containing free amino acids. The study describes the relationship between quality (oil content in seeds and quantity (seed yield of sunflower production (rp = ‒0.41; P < 0.01. Results showed that PGR can be an important rationalization tool of the sunflower cultivation technology.

  5. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  6. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia × T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snow, A. A.; Travis, S. E.; Wildová, Radka; Fér, T.; Sweeney, P. M.; Marburger, J. E.; Windels, S.; Kubátová, B.; Goldberg, D. E.; Mutegi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 12 (2010), s. 2061-2067 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : gene flow * hybrid * introgression * invasive species * molecular markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  7. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Berumen, Michael L.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Salas, Eva; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2017-01-01

    interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary

  8. Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Ikeda, Hajime; Yi, Ting-shuang; Takabe-Ito, Eriko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-06-01

    The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. II. Biomass components and harvest index of hybrid and parental species clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy); Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium); Heilman, P. E. [Washington State Univ., Olympia, WA (United States); Isebrands, J. G.; Stettler, R. F.; Hinckley, T. M. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-03-01

    Growth and biomass components of four poplar clones were studied during four consecutive years of short-rotation culture in western Washington, U.S.A. Results confirmed previous observations indicating the high productive potential of hybrid clones. In two of the hybrid clones tested, large differences in biomass distribution among tree components and in the pattern of growth were evident, as indicated by harvest index and root/shoot ratios. Results suggest that the clonal differences shown in total biomass, in allocation to different tree components, and in harvest index, have important implications for future poplar breeding programs. 39 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseys, Celine; Stritt, Christoph; Glauser, Gaetan; Blanchard, Thierry; Lexer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen) and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  11. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Caseys

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar and P. tremula (European aspen and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS. We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  12. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.: hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology, hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology, hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (Smetolachlor + terbuthylazine – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

  13. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  14. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  15. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  16. Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouventin Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in high-throughput methods of analyzing transcriptomic profiles are promising for many areas of biology, including ecophysiology. However, although commercial microarrays are available for most common laboratory models, transcriptome analysis in non-traditional model species still remains a challenge. Indeed, the signal resulting from heterologous hybridization is low and difficult to interpret because of the weak complementarity between probe and target sequences, especially when no microarray dedicated to a genetically close species is available. Results We show here that transcriptome analysis in a species genetically distant from laboratory models is made possible by using MAXRS, a new method of analyzing heterologous hybridization on microarrays. This method takes advantage of the design of several commercial microarrays, with different probes targeting the same transcript. To illustrate and test this method, we analyzed the transcriptome of king penguin pectoralis muscle hybridized to Affymetrix chicken microarrays, two organisms separated by an evolutionary distance of approximately 100 million years. The differential gene expression observed between different physiological situations computed by MAXRS was confirmed by real-time PCR on 10 genes out of 11 tested. Conclusions MAXRS appears to be an appropriate method for gene expression analysis under heterologous hybridization conditions.

  17. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frédéric; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities), 47 I. iguana (12 localities) and 27 hybrids (5 localities), who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest), in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through introgression, as

  18. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frédéric; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities), 47 I. iguana (12 localities) and 27 hybrids (5 localities), who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest), in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through introgression, as

  19. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vuillaume

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities, 47 I. iguana (12 localities and 27 hybrids (5 localities, who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest, in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through

  20. Collection of wild Helianthus anomalus and deserticola sunflower from the desert southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Collection and preservation of wild relatives of important crop species such as sunflower provide the basic foundation to improve and sustain the crop. Acquisition through exploration is the initial step in the germplasm conservatio...

  1. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  2. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  3. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  4. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, K.; Pačes, J.; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, Jan; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, N.; Rídl, J.; Hroudová, M.; Kočí, J.; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, V.; Choleva, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : pairwise nucleotide differences * mitochondrial-dna variation * multilocus genotype data * reproductive isolation * maximum-likelihood * loaches cobitis * migration model * gene flow * phylogenetic constraints * coalescence time * balance hypothesis * coalescence * evolution of asexuality * hybridization * phylogeography * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  5. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  6. TLC determination of some flavanones in the buds of different genus Populus species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobłocka-Olech Loretta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in the buds of eight Populus species and hybrids were detected and compared with the aid of an optimized TLC method. Separation of 17 flavonoid aglycones belonging to different groups, namely, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols, previously described as constituents of poplar buds, was performed on silica gel plates using a hexane/ethyl acetate/formic acid (60:40:1.3, V/V/V mixture as the mobile phase. Pinocembrin and pinostrobin were found in the majority of analyzed poplar buds. For quantitative analysis of both compounds, two TLC evaluation modes, densitometric and videodensitometric, were compared and the established methods were validated. Concentrations of flavanones in some extracts differed slightly or significantly due to the analyzed plant matrix complexity and the TLC evaluation mode applied. Poplar buds rich in flavanones originated from P. × canadensis ‘Robusta’ (1.82 and 2.23 g per 100 g, resp. and P. balsamifera (1.17 and 2.24 g per 100 g, resp..

  7. Response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Karar, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    To study the response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, an experiment was conducted in pots at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 1997. Four nitrogen levels 0, 80, 120, 160 kg/ha and three phosphorous levels 0,60,90 kg/ha were included in the experiment. Increase in nitrogen levels significantly increased head diameter, grain yield per head and thousand-grain weight. Maximum head diameter (25.71), grain yield per head (114.84g) and thousand-grain weight (75.67g) was recorded at nitrogen level of 160 kg/ha. Increased in phosphorus level increased plant height and thousand grains weight. Tallest plants (198.92cm) were observed at 6Okg P/ha while heavy grains (70.67g) were recorded at P level of 9Okg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha. It is concluded that l60kg N/ha and 9Okg P/ha is proper dose of N and P for sunflower hybrid. (author)

  8. Experimental Crossing of Two Distinct Species of Leopard Geckos, Eublepharis angramainyu and E. macularius: Viability, Fertility and Phenotypic Variation of the Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančúchová-Lásková

    Full Text Available Hybridization between distinct species of animals and subsequent genetic introgression plays a considerable role in the speciation process and the emergence of adaptive characters. Fitness of between-species hybrids usually sharply decreases with the divergence time of the concerned species and the divergence depth, which still allows for a successful crossing differs among principal clades of vertebrates. Recently, a review of hybridization events among distinct lizard species revealed that lizards belong to vertebrates with a highly developed ability to hybridize. In spite of this, reliable reports of experimental hybridizations between genetically fairly divergent species are only exceptional. Here, we show the results of the crossing of two distinct allopatric species of eyelid geckos possessing temperature sex determination and lacking sex chromosomes: Eublepharis macularius distributed in Pakistan/Afghanistan area and E. angramainyu, which inhabits Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. We demonstrated that F1 hybrids were viable and fertile, and the introgression of E. angramainyu genes into the E. macularius genome can be enabled via a backcrossing. The examined hybrids (except those of the F2 generation displayed neither malformations nor a reduced survival. Analyses of morphometric and coloration traits confirmed phenotypic distinctness of both parental species and their F1 hybrids. These findings contrast with long-term geographic and an evolutionary separation of the studied species. Thus, the occurrence of fertile hybrids of comparably divergent species, such as E. angramainyu and E. macularius, may also be expected in other taxa of squamates. This would violate the current estimates of species diversity in lizards.

  9. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: On the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Pačes, Jan; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, Jan; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, Nataliia; Rídl, J.; Hroudová, M.; Kočí, Jan; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, Věra; Choleva, Lukáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460; GA ČR GA13-12580S; GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GJ15-19947Y Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : balance hypothesis * coalescence * ecolution of asexuality * hybridization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  10. SNP Discovery and Development of a High-Density Genotyping Array for Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A.; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E.; Mandel, Jennifer R.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible. PMID:22238659

  11. Detection of a variable number of ribosomal DNA loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, E A; Faivre-Rampant, P; Schneider, C; Darmency, M A

    1996-10-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to related Populus species (2n = 19) in order to detect rDNA loci. An interspecific variability in the number of hybridization sites was revealed using as probe an homologous 25S clone from Populus deltoides. The application of image analysis methods to measure fluorescence intensity of the hybridization signals has enabled us to characterize major and minor loci in the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA. We identified one pair of such rDNA clusters in Populus alba; two pairs, one major and one minor, in both Populus nigra and P. deltoides; and three pairs in Populus balsamifera, (two major and one minor) and Populus euroamericana (one major and two minor). FISH results are in agreement with those based on RFLP analysis. The pBG13 probe containing 5S sequence from flax detected two separate clusters corresponding to the two size classes of units that coexist within 5S rDNA of most Populus species. Key words : Populus spp., fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, rDNA variability, image analysis.

  12. Unexpected ancestry of Populus seedlings from a hybrid zone implies a large role for postzygotic selection in the maintenance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtke, Dorothea; Gompert, Zachariah; Lexer, Christian; Buerkle, C Alex

    2014-09-01

    In the context of potential interspecific gene flow, the integrity of species will be maintained by reproductive barriers that reduce genetic exchange, including traits associated with prezygotic isolation or poor performance of hybrids. Hybrid zones can be used to study the importance of different reproductive barriers, particularly when both parental species and hybrids occur in close spatial proximity. We investigated the importance of barriers to gene flow that act early vs. late in the life cycle of European Populus by quantifying the prevalence of homospecific and hybrid matings within a mosaic hybrid zone. We obtained genotypic data for 11 976 loci from progeny and their maternal parents and constructed a Bayesian model to estimate individual admixture proportions and hybrid classes for sampled trees and for the unsampled pollen parent. Matings that included one or two hybrid parents were common, resulting in admixture proportions of progeny that spanned the whole range of potential ancestries between the two parental species. This result contrasts strongly with the distribution of admixture proportions in adult trees, where intermediate hybrids and each of the parental species are separated into three discrete ancestry clusters. The existence of the full range of hybrids in seedlings is consistent with weak reproductive isolation early in the life cycle of Populus. Instead, a considerable amount of selection must take place between the seedling stage and maturity to remove many hybrid seedlings. Our results highlight that high hybridization rates and appreciable hybrid fitness do not necessarily conflict with the maintenance of species integrity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  14. Genetics of hybrid male sterility between drosophila sibling species: a complex web of epistasis is revealed in interspecific studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, M F; Wu, C I

    1994-10-01

    To study the genetic differences responsible for the sterility of their male hybrids, we introgressed small segments of an X chromosome from Drosophila simulans into a pure Drosophila mauritiana genetic background, then assessed the fertility of males carrying heterospecific introgressions of varying size. Although this analysis examined less than 20% of the X chromosome (roughly 5% of the euchromatic portion of the D. simulans genome), and the segments were introgressed in only one direction, a minimum of four factors that contribute to hybrid male sterility were revealed. At least two of the factors exhibited strong epistasis: males carrying either factor alone were consistently fertile, whereas males carrying both factors together were always sterile. Distinct spermatogenic phenotypes were observed for sterile introgressions of different lengths, and it appeared that an interaction between introgressed segments also influenced the stage of spermatogenic defect. Males with one category of introgression often produced large quantities of motile sperm and were observed copulating, but never inseminated females. Evidently these two species have diverged at a large number of loci which have varied effects on hybrid male fertility. By extrapolation, we estimate that there are at least 40 such loci on the X chromosome alone. Because these species exhibit little DNA-sequence divergence at arbitrarily chosen loci, it seems unlikely that the extensive functional divergence observed could be due mainly to random genetic drift. Significant epistasis between conspecific genes appears to be a common component of hybrid sterility between recently diverged species of Drosophila. The linkage relationships of interacting factors could shed light on the role played by epistatic selection in the dynamics of the allele substitutions responsible for reproductive barriers between species.

  15. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries

  16. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spill, Fabian, E-mail: fspill@bu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Alarcon, Tomas [Centre de Recerca Matematica, Campus de Bellaterra, Edifici C, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Maini, Philip K. [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Byrne, Helen [Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Computational Biology Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries.

  17. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  18. Molybdenum distribution and sensitivity in tomatoes, sunflowers and beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht-Buchholz, C

    1973-01-01

    The influence of increasing levels of molybdenum on the growth, molybdenum uptake and distribution in individual plant organs was investigated in tomatoes, beans and sunflowers in a 9 day trial. With tomatoes, which showed marked damage with high molybdenum levels, the molybdenum content of dry matter was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem. On the other hand, beans, insensitive towards the high molybdenum level, dry matter molybdenum content was appreciably higher in the stem than in the leaf. It is supposed that in plant species, insensitive to high molybdenum levels, molybdenum is held less firmly in this tissue and can attain damaging levels in the cytoplasm of the youngest leaf tissue cells. It is supposed, on the basis of the reactions which were carried out with expressed root juice and on the basis of the yellow coloration attainable in vitro in the tissue caused by the addition of molybdate solution, that the yellow coloration appearing in the cells and plant organs of various plant species, here tomatoes and sunflowers, with high molybdenum levels is due to a reaction between molybdenum and polyvalent phenols in cellsap.

  19. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: On the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, K.; Pačes, Jan; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, J.; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, N.; Rídl, Jakub; Hroudová, Miluše; Kočí, J.; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, V.; Choleva, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047; GA ČR GA13-12580S; GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GJ15-19947Y; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : balance hypothesis * coalescence * evolution of asexuality * hybridization * phylogeography * speciation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  20. The use of alternative fertilizers to increase soil fertility and yield of sunflower in North-Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulzhanova S.M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available the article contains data from studies conducted in 2015–2016 in the North-Еastern part of Kazakhstan. In the experiments the effect of various doses of non-traditional fertilizer together with mineral fertilizer on the yield of sunflower was investigated. Various doses and ratios of mineral fertilizers have been applied, which can affect the yield of sunflower. As a source material, varieties of sunflower of Russian breeding Zarya and a hybrid of Fortimi USA breeding and non-traditional fertilizers – zeolite are taken. In order to determine the effect on the fertility of soils, the agrochemical characteristics of soils in land areas and the content of mobile forms of nutrients were studied. The main agrochemical characteristics and content of mobile forms of nutrients for soil of land plots are investigated in the article.

  1. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  2. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  3. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  4. Assessing the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2007-07-01

    Interspecific F1 hybrid males of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex are sterile, while females are fertile, following Haldane's rule. A backcross scheme involving a single recessive visible marker on the X chromosome has been used to assess the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility in the D. bipectinata species complex. The results suggest that X-Y interactions are playing the major role in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. bipectinata x D. parabipectinata and D. bipectinata x D. pseudoananassae, while X-autosome interactions are largely involved in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. malerkotliana x D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana x D. parabipectinata. However, by using this single marker it is not possible to rule out the involvement of autosome-autosome interactions in hybrid male sterility. These findings also lend further support to the phylogenetic relationships among 4 species of the D. bipectinata complex.

  5. Results of presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1985 under non-irrigation, on calcareous chernozem a trial was carried out with the Start hybrid through single-, double-and triple irradiation of the seeds being stored for 1.8 and 16 days prior to sowing. It is found that the presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of the sunflower seeds of the Start hybrid exerts a negative effect on the seed yield. Laser use does not stimulate the following: emerged seeds and percentage of the plants being in blossom in the beginning of the phase and after 7 days, seed moisture in harvesting and oil content in them

  6. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  7. A safer, urea-based in situ hybridization method improves detection of gene expression in diverse animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Thiel, Daniel; Hejnol, Andreas; Houliston, Evelyn; Leclère, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical. When applied to the soft-bodied hydrozoan medusa Clytia hemisphaerica, we found that this traditional hybridization approach was not fully satisfactory, causing extensive deterioration of morphology and tissue texture which compromised our observation and interpretation of results. We thus tested alternative solutions for in situ detection of gene expression and, inspired by optimized protocols for Northern and Southern blot analysis, we substituted the 50% formamide with an equal volume of 8M urea solution in the hybridization buffer. Our new protocol not only yielded better morphologies and tissue consistency, but also notably improved the resolution of the signal, allowing more precise localization of gene expression and reducing aspecific staining associated with problematic areas. Given the improved results and reduced manipulation risks, we tested the urea protocol on other metazoans, two brachiopod species (Novocrania anomala and Terebratalia transversa) and the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus, obtaining a similar reduction of aspecific probe binding. Overall, substitution of formamide by urea during in situ hybridization offers a safer alternative, potentially of widespread use in research, medical and teaching contexts. We encourage other workers to test this approach on their study organisms, and hope that they will also

  8. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  9. Records of two species of Parrots (Psittacidae and hybrid in urban and rural areas of Armenia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Guerrero-Peláez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturalization of non-native species has been well documented in temperate zones, but little is known about tropical regions. Understanding the process of expanding geographic range of species generated management and conservation strategies. In this note is documented the presence of Ara macao and Amazona ochrocephala, and the first record of a hybrid in the wild in urban and rural areas of the department of Quindío, Central Andes of Colombia. Through direct observation it was possible to identify a high adaptability of the species A. macao and hybrid to the rural and urban conditions of low-lying areas of the department between the municipalities of Armenia and Tebaida. Several individuals of A. ochrocephala which were categorized as wandering birds were observed. A total 17 species of parrots in the department of Quindío are reported. The importance of the presence of these non-native birds in ecosystems where naturally inhabit its possible implications to changing the composition of the native avifauna is emphasized, as well as monitoring for future conservation and management plans are encouraged.

  10. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  11. Comparison of germination and seed vigor of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Jaemaro; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Phytoremediation as an emerging low-cost and ecologically friendly alternative to the conventional soil remediation technologies has gained a great deal of attention and into lots of research. As a kind of the methods that use of green plants to remediate heavy metals contaminated soils, the early growth status of plant seeds in the contaminated environmental directly affects the effect of phytoremediation. Germination test in the water (aqueous solution of heavy metal) is generally used for assessing heavy metal phytotoxicity and possibility of plant growth, but there is a limit. Because soil is commonly main target of phytoremediation, not the water. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil also depends on the texture. So soil texture is an important factor of phytoremediation effect. Sunflower is the representative species which have good tolerance to various heavy metals; furthermore, the seeds of sunflower can be used as the raw-material for producing bio-diesel. The objectives of this research were to investigate germination rate of sunflowers in various heavy metal contaminated soils and to compare the seedling vigor index (SVI) of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture. Sunflower (Helianthusannuus L.) seeds were obtained from a commercial market. In order to prove the soil texture effect on heavy metal contaminated soil, germination tests in soil were conducted with two different types of soil texture (i.e., loam soil and sandy loam soil) classified by soil textural triangle (defined by USDA) including representative soil texture of Korea. Germination tests in soil were conducted using KS I ISO 11260-1 (2005) for reference that sunflower seeds were incubated for 7 days in dark at 25 ± 1 Celsius degree. The target heavy metals are Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The Ni and Zn concentrations were 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 mg-Ni/kg-dry soil, and 0, 10, 50, 100, 300, 500, 900 mg-Zn/kg-dry soil, respectively. After germination test for 7

  12. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frederic; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact ...

  13. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats.

  14. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at candidate genes involved in abiotic stress in two Prosopis species of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Pomponio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Identify and compare SNPs on candidate genes related to abiotic stress in Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa and interspecific hybridsArea of the study: Chaco árido, Argentina. Material and Methods: Fragments from 6 candidate genes were sequenced in 60 genotypes. DNA polymorphisms were analyzed.Main Results: The analysis revealed that the hybrids had the highest rate of polymorphism, followed by P. flexuosa and P. chilensis, the values found are comparable to other forest tree species.Research highlights: This approach will help to study genetic diversity variation on natural populations for assessing the effects of environmental changes.Keywords: SNPs; abiotic stress; interspecific variation; molecular markers. 

  15. Response of sunflower to various pre-germination techniques for breaking seed dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, S.; Khan, M.A.; Uddin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy is considered to be a serious constraint in sunflower seed production. Viable seeds sometimes do not germinate even in the presence of favorable environmental conditions. Such seeds are suspected to be dormant. The study was conducted under controlled/laboratory conditions during spring 2010 at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The objective of the study was to evaluate some techniques to convert a seed from dormant to non-dormant germinable state. Dormant seeds of 21 sunflower hybrids were treated with three hot water treatments (100/80 degree C) and four chemicals potassium nitrate, 0.2%, thiourea, 0.5%, ethanol, 25%, acetone, 25% for breaking seed dormancy .The untreated seed was taken as control. Soaking seeds in hot water (80 degree C) for 15 minutes followed by one day dry and seed treatment with acetone were found to be the most effective and successful techniques in converting the seed from dormant to non-dormant state. (author)

  16. Exploitation of genetic resources for improvement of unsaturated fatty acid in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, U.A.; Mehmood, K.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five inbred lines (Cytoplasmic male sterile and 12 fertility restorer) annuus synthesized at the oilseeds research institute Faisalabad. Pakistan were analyzed on gas chromatograph for their fatty acid status. The palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid ranged form 5.62-11.02% 1.09-3.08%, 21.40-50.70% and 40.60-69.10% respectively. The saturate fatty acid may increase the cholesterol level in the blood. This deposition of cholestrol in the blood vesels is a major cause of heart attack. By screening our germplasm on the basis of fatty acid profile, we can use their inbred lines having low percentage of saturated high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids which may benefit sunflower industry through increased consumer performance for a low saturated fatty acid sunflower products. RL-58, RL-52, ORI-85 and ORI-2 are recommended for the development of commercial hybrids with quality edible oil. (author)

  17. Y-chromosome evidence supports widespread signatures of three-species Canis hybridization in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Wheeldon, Tyler J; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2012-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion on the origin of the red wolf and eastern wolf and their evolution independent of the gray wolf. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and a Y-chromosome intron sequence in combination with Y-chromosome microsatellites from wolves and coyotes within the range of extensive wolf-coyote hybridization, that is, eastern North America. The detection of divergent Y-chromosome haplotypes in the historic range of the eastern wolf is concordant with earlier mtDNA findings, and the absence of these haplotypes in western coyotes supports the existence of the North American evolved eastern wolf (Canis lycaon). Having haplotypes observed exclusively in eastern North America as a result of insufficient sampling in the historic range of the coyote or that these lineages subsequently went extinct in western geographies is unlikely given that eastern-specific mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes represent lineages divergent from those observed in extant western coyotes. By combining Y-chromosome and mtDNA distributional patterns, we identified hybrid genomes of eastern wolf, coyote, gray wolf, and potentially dog origin in Canis populations of central and eastern North America. The natural contemporary eastern Canis populations represent an important example of widespread introgression resulting in hybrid genomes across the original C. lycaon range that appears to be facilitated by the eastern wolf acting as a conduit for hybridization. Applying conventional taxonomic nomenclature and species-based conservation initiatives, particularly in human-modified landscapes, may be counterproductive to the effective management of these hybrids and fails to consider their evolutionary potential.

  18. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  20. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  1. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  2. Evaluation of the courtship and of the hybrid male sterility among Drosophila buzzatii cluster species (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO L. P. de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila repleta group the establishment of subgroups and complexes made on the basis of morphological and cytological evidences is supported by tests of reproductive isolation. Among species in the repleta group, the buzzatii cluster, due to its polymorphism and polytipism, is an excellent material for ecological and speciation studies. Some interspecific crosses involving Drosophila seriema, Drosophila sp. B, D. koepferae and D. buzzatii strains were completely sterile while others involving strains from these species produced F1 hybrids that did not yield F2. In the present work, data on courtship duration and copula occurrence obtained in the analysis of flies from parental sterile crosses and on spermatozoon mobility observed in F1 hybrids that did not yield F2 are presented. Copula did not occur during one hour of observation and the spermatozoon also did not show mobility at any of the analyzed stages (3, 7, 9 and 10 days old. There was a high variation in courtship average duration and in the percentage of males that courted the females. The reproductive isolation mechanisms indicated by these observations were pre and post-zygotic, as supported by the absence of copula and male sterility. Data obtained also showed the occurrence of different degrees of reproductive compatibility among the strains classified as the same species but from distinct geographic localities.

  3. Evaluation of the courtship and of the hybrid male sterility among Drosophila buzzatii cluster species (Diptera, Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L P; Castro, J P; Madi-Ravazzi, L

    2002-11-01

    In the Drosophila repleta group the establishment of subgroups and complexes made on the basis of morphological and cytological evidences is supported by tests of reproductive isolation. Among species in the repleta group, the buzzatii cluster, due to its polymorphism and polytipism, is an excellent material for ecological and speciation studies. Some interspecific crosses involving Drosophila seriema, Drosophila sp. B, D. koepferae and D. buzzatii strains were completely sterile while others involving strains from these species produced F1 hybrids that did not yield F2. In the present work, data on courtship duration and copula occurrence obtained in the analysis of flies from parental sterile crosses and on spermatozoon mobility observed in F1 hybrids that did not yield F2 are presented. Copula did not occur during one hour of observation and the spermatozoon also did not show mobility at any of the analyzed stages (3, 7, 9 and 10 days old). There was a high variation in courtship average duration and in the percentage of males that courted the females. The reproductive isolation mechanisms indicated by these observations were pre and post-zygotic, as supported by the absence of copula and male sterility. Data obtained also showed the occurrence of different degrees of reproductive compatibility among the strains classified as the same species but from distinct geographic localities.

  4. Dehydrocostus lactone is exuded from sunflower roots and stimulates germination of the root parasite Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daniel M; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Steffens, John C

    2011-05-01

    The germination of the obligate root parasites of the Orobanchaceae depends on the perception of chemical stimuli from host roots. Several compounds, collectively termed strigolactones, stimulate the germination of the various Orobanche species, but do not significantly elicit germination of Orobanche cumana, a specific parasite of sunflower. Phosphate starvation markedly decreased the stimulatory activity of sunflower root exudates toward O. cumana, and fluridone - an inhibitor of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway - did not inhibit the production of the germination stimulant in both shoots and roots of young sunflower plants, indicating that the stimulant is not a strigolactone. We identified the natural germination stimulant from sunflower root exudates by bioassay-driven purification. Its chemical structure was elucidated as the guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL). Low DCL concentrations effectively stimulate the germination of O. cumana seeds but not of Phelipanche aegyptiaca (syn. Orobanche aegyptiaca). DCL and other sesquiterpene lactones were found in various plant organs, but were previously not known to be exuded to the rhizosphere where they can interact with other organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérôme; Grassa, Christopher J; Murat, Florent; Staton, S Evan; Cottret, Ludovic; Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Owens, Gregory L; Carrère, Sébastien; Mayjonade, Baptiste; Legrand, Ludovic; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Bowers, John E; Hubner, Sariel; Bellec, Arnaud; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Blanchet, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Catrice, Olivier; Chaidir, Nadia; Claudel, Clotilde; Donnadieu, Cécile; Faraut, Thomas; Fievet, Ghislain; Helmstetter, Nicolas; King, Matthew; Knapp, Steven J; Lai, Zhao; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lippi, Yannick; Lorenzon, Lolita; Mandel, Jennifer R; Marage, Gwenola; Marchand, Gwenaëlle; Marquand, Elodie; Bret-Mestries, Emmanuelle; Morien, Evan; Nambeesan, Savithri; Nguyen, Thuy; Pegot-Espagnet, Prune; Pouilly, Nicolas; Raftis, Frances; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Thomas, Justine; Vandecasteele, Céline; Varès, Didier; Vear, Felicity; Vautrin, Sonia; Crespi, Martin; Mangin, Brigitte; Burke, John M; Salse, Jérôme; Muños, Stéphane; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H; Langlade, Nicolas B

    2017-06-01

    The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

  6. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Monoterpene composition of pine species and hybrids...some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1967-01-01

    Xylem resin samples, obtained from 72 freshly cut pine stumps at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif., were analyzed for monoterpenes by gasliquid chromatography. Very little or no qualitative or quantitative variation could be attributed to annual ring, time of securing sample, and period of storage of sample up to 1 year. The 34 hybrids sampled...

  8. Risk analysis of exotic fish species included in the Dutch Fisheries Act and their hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphouwer, M.E.; Kessel, van N.; Matthews, J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Koppel, S.; Kranenbarg, J.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Velde, van der G.; Crombaghs, B.; Zollinger, R.

    2014-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de risico’s geanalyseerd van exotische vissoorten die zijn opgenomen in de Visserijwet en hun hybriden. De volgende soorten en één specifieke hybride zijn in de analyse meegenomen: beekridder (Salvelinus alpinus); roofblei (Leuciscus aspius); karper (Cyprinus carpio);

  9. Influence of micronutrients and their method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraich, A.A.K.; Gandahi, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62. (author)

  10. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  11. Interspecific and intraspecific hybrid Epichloë species symbiotic with the North American native grass Poa alsodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Charlton, Nikki D; Musso, Ashleigh M; Scheerer, Jonathan; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H; Young, Carolyn A

    2017-01-01

    The endophyte presence and diversity in natural populations of Poa alsodes were evaluated along a latitudinal transect from the southern distribution range in North Carolina to New York. Two distinct Epichloë hybrid taxa were identified from 23 populations. Each taxon could easily be distinguished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping with primers designed to mating type genes and alkaloid biosynthesis genes that encode key pathway steps for ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine. The most commonly found Epichloë taxon, Poa alsodes Taxonomic Group-1 (PalTG-1), was detected in 22 populations at high infection frequencies (72-100%), with the exception of one population at high elevation (26% infection). The second taxon, PalTG-2, was observed only in five populations in Pennsylvania constituting 12% of infected samples. Phylogenetic analyses placed PalTG-1 as an interspecific hybrid of E. amarillans and E. typhina subsp. poae ancestors, and it is considered a new hybrid species, which the authors name Epichloë alsodes. PalTG-2 is an intraspecific hybrid of two E. typhina subsp. poae ancestors, similar to E. schardlii from the host Cinna arundinacea, which the authors propose as a new variety, Epichloë schardlii var. pennsylvanica. Epichloë alsodes isolates were all mating type MTA MTB and tested positive for dmaW, easC, perA, and some LOL genes, but only the alkaloid N-acetylnorloline was detected in E. alsodes-infected plant material. Epichloë schardlii var. pennsylvanica isolates were all mating type MTB MTB and tested positive for perA, but peramine was not produced. Both E. alsodes and E. schardlii var. pennsylvanica appeared to have complete perA genes, but point mutations were identified in E. alsodes that would render the encoded perA gene nonfunctional.

  12. Relative resistance or susceptibility of maple (Acer) species, hybrids and cultivars to six arthropod pests of production nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, Bonny L; Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Maples (Acer spp.) in production nurseries are vulnerable to numerous arthropod pests that can stunt or even kill the young trees. Seventeen cultivars representing various Acer species and hybrids were evaluated for extent of infestation or injury by shoot and trunk borers (Proteoteras aesculana, Chrysobothris femorata), potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris) and calico scale (Eulecanium cerasorum). Evaluations were done in replicated field plots in central and western Kentucky. All of the maples were susceptible, to varying degrees, to one or more key pest(s). Red maples (A. rubrum) were relatively vulnerable to potato leafhopper injury and borers but nearly free of Japanese beetle feeding and spider mites. Sugar maples sustained conspicuous Japanese beetle damage but had very low mite populations, whereas the opposite was true for Freeman maples (A. × freemanii). A. campestre was heavily infested by calico scale. Within each species or hybrid there were cultivar differences in degree of infestation or damage by particular pests. The results should help growers to focus pest management efforts on those plantings at greatest risk from particular pests, and to choose cultivars requiring fewer insecticide inputs to produce a quality tree. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  15. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  16. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  17. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  18. Crop water productivity for sunflower under different irrigation regimes and plant spacing in Gezira Scheme, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Rahamtalla Ahmed Elsheikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments with Sunflower on deep cracking soil with heavy clay (vertisol were conducted at Gezira Research Station Farm during two executive winter seasons, in WadMedani, Sudan. The crop was sown in the third week of November and in the first week of December for seasons 2012 and 2013 respectively. The experimental design was split plot design with three replicates. The Sunflower hybrid tested in the study was Hysun 33. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three different irrigation intervals of 10, 15 and 20 days and two intra-row plant spacings of 30 cm and 40 cm on yield and yield components of Sunflower. The seed yields obtained from the different treatments were in the ranges of 1890-3300 kg/ha and 1590-3290 kg/ha for the first and second season respectively. The corresponding computed on average crop water productivity was in the range of 0.31-0.43 kg/m3. The study clearly indicated that the highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown at 40 cm plant spacing and irrigated every 10 days. The highest crop water productivity was achieved from irrigation every15 days in both planting spacings

  19. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  20. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Young, Kyle; Sanzana, Jose; Orellana, Gabriel; Fowler, Daniel; Howes, Paul; Monzon-Arguello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b) and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  1. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  2. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  3. Mapping of rDNA on the chromosomes of Eleusine species by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, M S; Mukai, Y

    2000-12-01

    Mapping of rDNA sites on the chromosomes of four diploid and two tetraploid species of Eleusine has provided valuable information on genome relationship between the species. Presence of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA on the largest pair of the chromosomes, location of 5S rDNA at four sites on two pairs of chromosomes and presence of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S rDNA at same location on one pair of chromosomes have clearly differentiated E. multiflora from rest of the species of Eleusine. The two tetraploid species, E. coracana and E. africana have the same number of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S rDNA sites and located at similar position on the chromosomes. Diploid species, E. indica, E. floccifolia and E. tristachya have the same 18S-5.8S-26S sites and location on the chromosomes which also resembled with the two pairs of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA locations in tetraploid species, E. coracana and E. africana. The 5S rDNA sites on chromosomes of E. indica and E. floccifolia were also comparable to the 5S rDNA sites of E. africana and E. coracana. The similarity of the rDNA sites and their location on chromosomes in the three diploid and two polyploid species also supports the view that genome donors to tetraploid species may be from these diploid species.

  4. Foliar nitrogen and potassium applications improve photosynthetic activities and water relations in sunflower under moisture deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.A.; Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of foliar supplementation of nitrogen (N) potassium (K) and their combination on photosynthetic activities, physiological indices and water relations of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids Hysen-33 and LG-5551 under water deficit condition. Studies were conducted in a wire-house at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Treatments were two water stress levels [100 (control) and 60% field capacity (water deficit)], six levels of foliar spray (no spray, water spray, 1% N, 1% K, 0.5% N + 0.5% K and 1% N + 1% K) and each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed that water stress reduced the photosynthetic activities: Pn (photosynthetic rate), E (rate of tanspiration) and gs (stomatal conductance) and water relations i.e., pie w (water potential), pie s (osmotic potential) and pie p (turgor potential) . Soil moisture deficit also significantly reduced the plant height, root length, fresh and dry matter which consequently affected the plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and dry matter stress tolerance index (DMSI) in both sunflower hybrids. However, foliar supplementation with N and K or N+K improved the photosynthetic activities, water relations and physiological indices of both the sunflower hybrids. The findings of present study suggest that application of N+K is necessary to have high plant productivity. (author)

  5. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  6. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  8. An Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System with a Species-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Nonlinear System Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ta Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a species-based hybrid of the electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM and back-propagation algorithms (SEMBP for an interval type-2 fuzzy neural system with asymmetric membership functions (AIT2FNS design. The interval type-2 asymmetric fuzzy membership functions (IT2 AFMFs and the TSK-type consequent part are adopted to implement the network structure in AIT2FNS. In addition, the type reduction procedure is integrated into an adaptive network structure to reduce computational complexity. Hence, the AIT2FNS can enhance the approximation accuracy effectively by using less fuzzy rules. The AIT2FNS is trained by the SEMBP algorithm, which contains the steps of uniform initialization, species determination, local search, total force calculation, movement, and evaluation. It combines the advantages of EM and back-propagation (BP algorithms to attain a faster convergence and a lower computational complexity. The proposed SEMBP algorithm adopts the uniform method (which evenly scatters solution agents over the feasible solution region and the species technique to improve the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimum. Finally, two illustrative examples of nonlinear systems control are presented to demonstrate the performance and the effectiveness of the proposed AIT2FNS with the SEMBP algorithm.

  9. A complex genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility between two species of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-08-01

    The X chromosome plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies have examined the genetic basis of X-linked incompatibilities during the early stages of speciation. We report the results of a large experiment focused on the reciprocal introgression of the X chromosome between two species of house mice, Mus musculus and M. domesticus. Introgression of the M. musculus X chromosome into a wild-derived M. domesticus genetic background produced male-limited sterility, qualitatively consistent with previous experiments using classic inbred strains to represent M. domesticus. The genetic basis of sterility involved a minimum of four X-linked factors. The phenotypic effects of major sterility QTL were largely additive and resulted in complete sterility when combined. No sterility factors were uncovered on the M. domesticus X chromosome. Overall, these results revealed a complex and asymmetric genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in mice. Combined with data from previous studies, we identify one relatively narrow interval on the M. musculus X chromosome involved in hybrid male sterility. Only a handful of spermatogenic genes are within this region, including one of the most rapidly evolving genes on the mouse X chromosome.

  10. Genetic basis for spontaneous hybrid genome doubling during allopolyploid speciation of common wheat shown by natural variation analyses of the paternal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsuoka

    Full Text Available The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome, namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome. An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis showed that (1 production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2 first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3 six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated

  11. Transcriptome analysis of artificial hybrid pufferfish Jiyan-1 and its parental species: implications for pufferfish heterosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    Full Text Available Jiyan-1 puffer, the F1 hybrid of Takifugu rubripes and Takifugu flavidus, displays obvious heterosis in the growth performance, flavor and stress tolerance. In the present study, comparative analysis for the transcriptomes of T. rubripes, T. flavidus and Jiyan-1 was performed aiming to reveal the possible mechanisms of heterosis in pufferfish. Whole transcriptomes were sequenced using the SOLiD4 platform, and a total of 44,305 transcripts corresponding to 18,164 genes were identified collectively. A total of 14,148 transcripts were differentially expressed. By comparing the gene expression patterns of the three samples, the coexistence of overdominance, dominance, underdominance and additivity was observed in the gene action modes of Jiyan-1. There were 2,237 transcripts in the intersection of the differentially expressed transcripts from Jiyan-1 versus T. rubripes and Jiyan-1 versus T. flavidus, among which 213 transcripts were also in the T. rubripes versus T. flavidus. The potential functions of the remaining 2,024 transcripts were mainly associated with metabolic process, nucleotide binding and catalytic activity. The enrichment results indicated metabolism was the most activated biological function in the heterosis. In addition, 35 KEGG pathways were retrieved as affiliated with more than three differentially expressed transcripts and 8,579 potentially novel transcript isoforms were identified for Jiyan-1. The present study revealed the coexistence of multiple gene actions in the hybrid puffer, indicated the importance of metabolism, ion binding function and kinase activity, as well as provided a list of candidate genes and pathways for heterosis. It could be helpful for the better understanding of the determination and regulation mechanisms of heterosis.

  12. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: A comparison with sunflower feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Coppola, Fazio; Tiezzi, Enzo [Department of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Colacevich, Andrea; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The diversification of different types and sources of biofuels has become an important energy issue in recent times. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of two kinds of renewable feedstocks in order to produce biodiesel. We have analyzed the potential production of oil from two species of macroalgae considered as waste coming out from a lagoon system involved in eutrophication and from sunflower seeds. We have tested oil extraction yields of both feedstock. Furthermore, a comparison has been carried out based on the emergy approach, in order to evaluate the sustainability and environmental performance of both processes. The results show that, under present conditions, considering oil extraction yields, the production of oil from sunflower seeds is feasible, because of the lower value of transformity of the final product with respect to macroalgae. On the other hand, the results demonstrate that with improvements of oil extraction methodology, macroalgae could be considered a good residual biomass usable for biofuel production. (author)

  14. Composição química, digestibilidade e cinética de degradação ruminal das silagens de híbridos de girassol em diferentes épocas de semeadura Effects of sowing dates on chemical composition, digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of silages from sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar o valor nutritivo das silagens de quatro híbridos de girassol - Rumbosol-91 (forrageiro, M-734 (duplo-propósito, C-11 (duplo-propósito e BRS-191 (granífero - semeados em três épocas: outubro (antecipada, novembro (normal e dezembro (tardia - por meio de análises químicas, da digestibilidade e da cinética de degradação ruminal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 4 x 3 (quatro híbridos x três épocas de semeadura e três repetições. Os teores de MS variaram de 23,2 a 43,0%; o pH, de 4,0 a 5,1; e o N-NH3%/NT, de 5,3 a 16,8%. Os teores de CZ oscilaram de 6,8 a 8,8% e aumentaram da semeadura em outubro para dezembro. O Rumbosol-91 apresentou teores menores de EE e maiores de N na parede celular, de N indisponível e de carboidratos totais (CHOT. Os teores de PB aumentaram e os de CHOT diminuíram de outubro para dezembro. A semeadura de novembro e o C-11 apresentaram menores teores de FDN, FDNcp e FDA. O C-11 semeado em novembro apresentou menor teor de LDA. A semeadura de outubro e o Rumbosol-91 tiveram maior proporção de LDA%/FDN. O Rumbosol-91 apresentou maior DIVMS e DIVFDN. A semeadura de novembro e os híbridos C-11 e M-734 apresentaram maior teor de NDT. O desaparecimento da MS pode ser representado por um único perfil de degradação. A proporção de FDN indegradável (I aumentou da semeadura em outubro para dezembro, com maiores valores para o BRS-191 semeado em dezembro. A extensão (Vf1 e a taxa (k1 de degradação da fração solúvel de rápida digestão diminuíram da semeadura em outubro para dezembro, com maiores valores para o Rumbosol-91 semeado em outubro. A relação entre análise química, digestibilidade, NDT e cinética de degradação ruminal foi melhor para os híbridos M-734 e C-11 semeados em novembro.The objective of this trial was to estimate chemical composition, digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of silages from four sunflower

  15. Multichromophoric hybrid species made of perylene bisimide derivatives and Ru(ii) and Os(ii) polypyridine subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Francesco; La Ganga, Giuseppina; Campagna, Sebastiano; Syrgiannis, Zois; Rigodanza, Francesco; Vitale, Stefania; Licciardello, Antonino; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-05-31

    Herein, the synthesis and the photophysical and redox properties of a new perylene bisimide (PBI) species (L), bearing two 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands at the two imide positions of the PBI, and its dinuclear Ru(ii) and Os(ii) complexes, [(bpy) 2 Ru(μ-L)Ru(bpy) 2 ](PF 6 ) 4 (Ru2; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [(Me 2 -bpy) 2 Os(μ-L)Os(Me 2 -bpy) 2 ](PF 6 ) 4 (Os2; Me 2 -bpy = (4,4'-dimethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine), are reported. The absorption spectra of the compounds are dominated by the structured bands of the PBI subunit due to the lowest-energy spin-allowed π-π* transition. The spin-allowed MLCT transitions in Ru2 and Os2 are inferred by the absorption at 350-470 nm, where the PBI absorption is negligible. The absorption band extends towards the red region for Os2 due to the spin-forbidden MLCT transitions, intensified by the heavy osmium center. The reduction processes of the compounds are dominated by two successive mono-electronic PBI-based processes, which in the metal complexes are slightly shifted compared to the free ligand. On oxidation, both metal complexes undergo an apparent bi-electronic process (at 1.31 V vs. SCE for Ru2 and 0.77 V for Os2), attributed to the simultaneous one-electron oxidation of the two weakly-interacting metal centers. In Ru2 and Os2, the intense fluorescence of L subunit (λ max , 535 nm; τ, 4.3 ns; Φ, 0.91) is fully quenched, mainly by photoinduced electron transfer from the metal centers, on the ps timescale (time constant, 11 ps in Ru2 and 3 ps in Os2). Such photoinduced electron transfer leads to the formation of a charge-separated state, which directly decays to the ground state in about 70 ps in Os2, but produces the triplet π-π* state of the PBI subunit in 35 ps in Ru2. The results provide information on the excited-state processes of the hybrid species combining two dominant classes of chromophore/luminophore species, the PBI and the metal polypyridine complexes, and can be used for future design on new hybrid

  16. The genetics of hybrid male sterility between the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: dominant sterility alleles in collinear autosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-05-01

    F(1) hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male sterility in the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana. Using these results, we tested predictions of reduced recombination models of speciation. Consistent with these models, three of the four QTL associated with hybrid male sterility occur in collinear (uninverted) regions of these genomes. Furthermore, these QTL do not contribute significantly to hybrid male sterility in crosses between the sympatric species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura pseudoobscura. The autosomal loci identified in this study provide the basis for introgression mapping and, ultimately, for molecular cloning of interacting genes that contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility.

  17. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  19. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  20. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments ...

  1. Evidence of Natural Hybridization and Introgression between Vasconcellea Species (Caricaceae) from Southern Ecuador Revealed by Chloroplast, Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DROOGENBROECK, B.; KYNDT, T.; ROMEIJN-PEETERS, E.; VAN THUYNE, W.; GOETGHEBEUR, P.; ROMERO-MOTOCHI, J. P.; GHEYSEN, G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vasconcellea × heilbornii is believed to be of natural hybrid origin between V. cundinamarcensis and V. stipulata, and is often difficult to discriminate from V. stipulata on morphological grounds. The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador. • Methods Molecular data from mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear DNA from 61 individuals were analysed. • Key Results Molecular analysis confirmed occasional contemporary hybridization between V. stipulata, V. cundinamarcensis and V. × heilbornii and suggested the possible involvement of V. weberbaueri in the origin of V. × heilbornii. In addition, the molecular data indicated unidirectional introgression of the V. cundinamarcensis nuclear genome into that of V. stipulata. Several of the individuals examined with morphology similar to that of V. stipulata had genetic traces of hybridization with V. cundinamarcensis, which only seems to act as pollen donor in interspecific hybridization events. Molecular analyses also strongly suggested that most of the V. × heilbornii individuals are not F1 hybrids but instead are progeny of repeated backcrosses with V. stipulata. • Conclusions The results of the present study point to the need for re-evaluation of natural populations of V. stipulata and V. × heilbornii. In general, this analysis demonstrates the complex patterns of genetic and morphological diversity found in natural plant hybrid zones. PMID:16500954

  2. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  3. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

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    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  4. Cross-species hybridization of woodchuck hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma using human oligonucleotide microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul W Anderson; Bud C Tennant; Zhenghong Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility of using woodchuck samples on human microarrays, to provide insight into pathways involving positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers and to identify genes that could be potential molecular imaging targets for woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Labeled cRNA from woodchuck tissue samples were hybridized to Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChips(R). Ten genes were selected for validation using quantitative RT-PCR and literature review was made.RESULTS: Testis enhanced gene transcript (BAX Inhibitor 1), alpha-fetoprotein, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) beta, acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and N-myc2 were up-regulated and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase was down-regulated in the woodchuck HCC. We also found previously published results supporting 8 of the 10 most up-regulated genes and all 10 of the 10 most downregulated genes.CONCLUSION: Many of our microarray results were validated using RT-PCR or literature search. Hence, we believe that woodchuck HCC and non-cancerous liver samples can be used on human microarrays to yield meaningful results.

  5. Qualitative variation in proanthocyanidin composition of Populus species and hybrids: genetics is the key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioneaux, Ashley N; Schmidt, Michael A; Moore, Melissa A; Lindroth, Richard L; Wooley, Stuart C; Hagerman, Ann E

    2011-01-01

    The literature on proanthocyanidins (tannins) in ecological systems is dominated by quantitative studies. Despite evidence that the qualitative characteristics (subunit type, polymer chain length) of these complex polyphenolics are important determinants of biological activity, little is known about genetic and environmental controls on the type of proanthocyanidins produced by plants. We tested the hypothesis that genetics, season, developmental stage, and environment determine proanthocyanidin qualitative characteristics by using four Populus "cross types" (narrowleaf [P. angustifolia], Fremont [P. fremontii], F1 hybrids, and backcrosses to narrowleaf). We used thiolysis and HPLC analysis to characterize the proanthocyanidins, and found that genetics strongly control composition. The narrowleaf plants accumulate mixed procyanidin/prodelphinidins with average composition epicatechin(11)-epigallocatechin(8)-catechin(2)-catechin((terminal)). Backcross genotypes produce mixed procyanidin/prodelphinidins similar to narrowleaf, while Fremont makes procyanidin dimers, and the F1 plants contain procyanidin heptamers. Less striking effects were noted for genotype × environment, while season and developmental zone had little effect on proanthocyanidin composition or chain length. We discuss the metabolic and ecological consequences of differences in condensed tannin qualitative traits.

  6. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  7. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  8. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The result of sunflower and flax breeding in the Agricultural and Technological Research Center Zaječar

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    Stanković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Agricultural & Technological Research Centar in Zajecar the work on improvement of sunflower were initiated in 1980s. Besides improvement, in relation to the main components of yield and high genetic potential for yield in improvement programmes of consuming genotypes of sunflower, there are some specific aims, such as: increasing the of 1000 seeds, reducing the portion of a shell, uniformity of the seed color and size. The latest achievements of the sunflower improvement carried out in the Centre in Zajecar are: obtaining the consuming-type hybrid PROTEINAC 94 (released in 1998, the hybrid JUNIOR (released in 2001, and the synthetic protein cultivar ZENIT (released in 2003. At the start of the 1990s, it was initiated the work on researching the agronomic characteristics of the existing assortment of oil-flax, as well as on preparation for plant improvement is to obtain high-yielding cultivars of brown and yellow seed color that can be used both for oil extraction and for consummation. During the research, a certain number of lines of oil-flax with positive characteristics were created. In 2003 the flax cultivar with the yellow color of seed, ZLATKO, was released. .

  10. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

  11. Rapid differentiation of Francisella species and subspecies by fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting the 23S rRNA

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    Trebesius Karlheinz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella (F. tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of dissemination and high case fatality rate, F. tularensis was the subject in diverse biological weapons programs and is among the top six agents with high potential if misused in bioterrorism. Microbiological diagnosis is cumbersome and time-consuming. Methods for the direct detection of the pathogen (immunofluorescence, PCR have been developed but are restricted to reference laboratories. Results The complete 23S rRNA genes of representative strains of F. philomiragia and all subspecies of F. tularensis were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphisms on species and subspecies level were confirmed by partial amplification and sequencing of 24 additional strains. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assays were established using species- and subspecies-specific probes. Different FISH protocols allowed the positive identification of all 4 F. philomiragia strains, and more than 40 F. tularensis strains tested. By combination of different probes, it was possible to differentiate the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica, tularensis, mediasiatica and novicida. No cross reactivity with strains of 71 clinically relevant bacterial species was observed. FISH was also successfully applied to detect different F. tularensis strains in infected cells or tissue samples. In blood culture systems spiked with F. tularensis, bacterial cells of different subspecies could be separated within single samples. Conclusion We could show that FISH targeting the 23S rRNA gene is a rapid and versatile method for the identification and differentiation of F. tularensis isolates from both laboratory cultures and clinical samples.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  13. Assessment of RAPD Markers to Analyse the Genetic Diversity among Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Raza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity estimation among different species is an important tool for genetic improvement to maximize the yield, desirable quality, wider adaptation, pest and insect resistance that ultimately boosting traditional plant breeding methods. The most efficient way of diversity estimation is application of molecular markers. In this study, twenty random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers were utilized to estimate the genetic diversity between ten sunflower genotypes. Overall 227 bands were amplified by 20 primers with an average of 11.35 bands per primer. RAPD data showed 86.34% polymorophic bands and 13.65% of monomorophic bands. Genetic similarity was ranged from 50.22% to 87.22%. The lowest similarity (50.22% was observed between FH-352 and FH-359 and the maximum similarity 87.22% was observed between A-23 and G-46. Polymorphic information content (PIC values were varying from 0.05 to 0.12 with a mean of 0.09. Cluster analysis based on RAPD results displayed two major distinct groups 1 and 2. Group-2 contains FH-352 which was the most diverse genotype, while group-1 consists of few sub groups with all other genotypes. Ample diversity was found in all the genotypes. Present study reveals novel information about sunflower genome which can be used in future studies for sunflower improvement.

  14. Screening of sunflower cultivars for metal phytoextraction in a contaminated field prior to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower can be used for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Its high biomass production makes this plant species interestingfor phytoextraction and using sunflower oil for a technical purpose may improve the economic balance of phytoremediation. The aim of the present field study was to screen 15 commercial cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. grown on metal-contaminated soil, to find out the variety with the highest metal extraction, which can be further improved by mutation or in vitro breeding procedures. Two different fertilizers (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) were also used to enhance the bioavailability of metals in soil Highly significant differences were observed within tested varieties for metal accumulation and extraction efficiency. Furthermore, ammonium nitrate increased cadmium extraction, whereas ammonium sulphate enhanced zinc and lead uptake in most tested cultivars. In this field-based sunflower screening, we found enhanced cumulative Cd, Zn, and Pb extraction efficiency by a factor 4.4 for Salut cultivar. We therefore emphasize that prior to any classical breeding or genetic engineering enhancing metal uptake potential, a careful screening of various genotypes should be done to select the cultivar with the naturally highest metal uptake and to start the genetic improvement with the best available plant material.

  15. The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish potato famine pathogen, P. infestans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Goss

    Full Text Available Emerging plant pathogens have largely been a consequence of the movement of pathogens to new geographic regions. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathogens is hybridization between individuals of different species or subspecies, which may allow rapid evolution and adaptation to new hosts or environments. Hybrid plant pathogens have traditionally been difficult to detect or confirm, but the increasing ease of cloning and sequencing PCR products now makes the identification of species that consistently have genes or alleles with phylogenetically divergent origins relatively straightforward. We investigated the genetic origin of Phytophthora andina, an increasingly common pathogen of Andean crops Solanum betaceum, S. muricatum, S. quitoense, and several wild Solanum spp. It has been hypothesized that P. andina is a hybrid between the potato late blight pathogen P. infestans and another Phytophthora species. We tested this hypothesis by cloning four nuclear loci to obtain haplotypes and using these loci to infer the phylogenetic relationships of P. andina to P. infestans and other related species. Sequencing of cloned PCR products in every case revealed two distinct haplotypes for each locus in P. andina, such that each isolate had one allele derived from a P. infestans parent and a second divergent allele derived from an unknown species that is closely related but distinct from P. infestans, P. mirabilis, and P. ipomoeae. To the best of our knowledge, the unknown parent has not yet been collected. We also observed sequence polymorphism among P. andina isolates at three of the four loci, many of which segregate between previously described P. andina clonal lineages. These results provide strong support that P. andina emerged via hybridization between P. infestans and another unknown Phytophthora species also belonging to Phytophthora clade 1c.

  16. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO 2 nanoparticle afforded TiO 2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO 2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO 2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO 2 at 160 mmHg. TiO 2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO 2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO 2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing facilitates molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene, R 15 , in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G J; Song, Q J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2018-03-21

    A novel rust resistance gene, R 15 , derived from the cultivated sunflower HA-R8 was assigned to linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. SNP markers closely linked to R 15 were identified, facilitating marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. The rust virulence gene is co-evolving with the resistance gene in sunflower, leading to the emergence of new physiologic pathotypes. This presents a continuous threat to the sunflower crop necessitating the development of resistant sunflower hybrids providing a more efficient, durable, and environmentally friendly host plant resistance. The inbred line HA-R8 carries a gene conferring resistance to all known races of the rust pathogen in North America and can be used as a broad-spectrum resistance resource. Based on phenotypic assessments of 140 F 2 individuals derived from a cross of HA 89 with HA-R8, rust resistance in the population was found to be conferred by a single dominant gene (R 15 ) originating from HA-R8. Genotypic analysis with the currently available SSR markers failed to find any association between rust resistance and any markers. Therefore, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis to achieve better genomic coverage. The GBS data showed that R 15 was located at the top end of linkage group (LG) 8. Saturation with 71 previously mapped SNP markers selected within this region further showed that it was located in a resistance gene cluster on LG8, and mapped to a 1.0-cM region between three co-segregating SNP makers SFW01920, SFW00128, and SFW05824 as well as the NSA_008457 SNP marker. These closely linked markers will facilitate marker-assisted selection and breeding in sunflower.

  20. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  1. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  2. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  3. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  4. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  5. Polyketide synthases of Diaporthe helianthi and involvement of DhPKS1 in virulence on sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Michelina; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Catello; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Firrao, Giuseppe; Vergara, Mariarosaria; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano; Vannacci, Giovanni; Scala, Felice

    2018-01-06

    The early phases of Diaporthe helianthi pathogenesis on sunflower are characterized by the production of phytotoxins that may play a role in host colonisation. In previous studies, phytotoxins of a polyketidic nature were isolated and purified from culture filtrates of virulent strains of D. helianthi isolated from sunflower. A highly aggressive isolate (7/96) from France contained a gene fragment of a putative nonaketide synthase (lovB) which was conserved in a virulent D. helianthi population. In order to investigate the role of polyketide synthases in D. helianthi 7/96, a draft genome of this isolate was examined. We were able to find and phylogenetically analyse 40 genes putatively coding for polyketide synthases (PKSs). Analysis of their domains revealed that most PKS genes of D. helianthi are reducing PKSs, whereas only eight lacked reducing domains. Most of the identified PKSs have orthologs shown to be virulence factors or genetic determinants for toxin production in other pathogenic fungi. One of the genes (DhPKS1) corresponded to the previously cloned D. helianthi lovB gene fragment and clustered with a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) -PKS hybrid/lovastatin nonaketide like A. nidulans LovB. We used DhPKS1 as a case study and carried out its disruption through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the isolate 7/96. D. helianthi DhPKS1 deleted mutants were less virulent to sunflower compared to the wild type, indicating a role for this gene in the pathogenesis of the fungus. The PKS sequences analysed and reported here constitute a new genomic resource that will be useful for further research on the biology, ecology and evolution of D. helianthi and generally of fungal plant pathogens.

  6. Molecular and biochemical characterization of an induced mutation conferring imidazolinone resistance in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano; Echarte, Mariel; Whitt, Sherry R; Ascenzi, Robert

    2008-12-01

    A partially dominant nuclear gene conferring resistance to the imidazolinone herbicides was previously identified in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line CLHA-Plus developed by seed mutagenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize this resistant gene at the phenotypic, biochemical and molecular levels. CLHA-Plus showed a complete susceptibility to sulfonylureas (metsulfuron, tribenuron and chlorsulfuron) but, on the other hand, it showed a complete resistance to imidazolinones (imazamox, imazapyr and imazapic) at two rates of herbicide application. This pattern was in close association with the AHAS-inhibition kinetics of protein extracts of CLHA-Plus challenged with different doses of imazamox and chlorsulfuron. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence comparisons between resistant and susceptible lines indicated that the imidazolinone-resistant AHAS of CLHA-Plus has a threonine codon (ACG) at position 122 (relative to the Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS sequence), whereas the herbicide-susceptible enzyme from BTK47 has an alanine residue (GCG) at this position. Since the resistance genes to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides so far characterized in sunflower code for the catalytic (large) subunit of AHAS, we propose to redesignate the wild type allele as ahasl1 and the incomplete dominant resistant alleles as Ahasl1-1 (previously Imr1 or Ar ( pur )), Ahasl1-2 (previously Ar ( kan )) and Ahasl1-3 (for the allele present in CLHA-Plus). The higher tolerance level to imidazolinones and the lack of cross-resistance to other AHAS-inhibiting herbicides of Ahasl1-3 indicate that this induced mutation can be used to develop commercial hybrids with superior levels of tolerance and, at the same time, to assist weed management where control of weedy common sunflower is necessary.

  7. Rapid radiations of both kiwifruit hybrid lineages and their parents shed light on a two-layer mode of species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Chi; Zhong, Caihong; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ying; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Zupeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yangtao; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Xinwei; Li, Li; Liu, Chunyan; McCann, Honour C; He, Weiming; Niu, Yan; Chen, Min; Du, Liuwen; Gong, Junjie; Datson, Paul M; Hilario, Elena; Huang, Hongwen

    2017-07-01

    Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus. Furthermore, at least two separate parental species pairs were involved in the repeated origin of the hybrid lineages, in some of which a further phase of syngameon was triggered. On the basis of the elucidated hybridization relationships, we obtained a highly resolved backbone phylogeny consisting of taxa exhibiting no evidence of hybrid origin. The backbone taxa have distinct demographic histories and are the product of recent rounds of rapid radiations via sorting of ancestral variation under variable climatic and ecological conditions. Our results suggest a mode for consecutive plant diversification through two layers of radiations, consisting of the rapid evolution of backbone lineages and the formation of hybrid swarms derived from these lineages. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. System for combustion of sunflower shells in industrial steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriev, Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an economically efficient solution for reconstruction of steam generators with steam production over 5 t/h using foregoing cyclone chamber for sunflower shells combustion. For average fuel caloricity 9 445 ccal/kg and sunflower shells caloricity between 3 485 and 3 750 ccal/kg, the petroleum saving is 68.78% for an average boiler efficiency 4.6 t/h steam

  9. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  10. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  11. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  12. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  13. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  14. Transferring of Sclerotinia resistance from wild into cultivated sunflower: Combining of conventional and laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five populations of each H. molis, H. maximiliani, H. rigidus and H. tuberosus were screened for resistance to stem form of Sclerotinia. On the basis of the results obtained by screening, nine crosses of resistant populations with either other wild species populations or with cultivated sunflower were made. As in some crosses a small quantity of seed was produced and the seeds germinated poorly, modified tissue culture methods were used to enhance germination and produce clones of interesting plants. These methods were found to be efficient both for seed germination and plant production and multiplication.

  15. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Mori

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.

  16. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  18. Estimation of leaf area index in the sunflower as a function of thermal time1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioneia Daiane Pitol Lucas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a mathematical model for estimating the leaf area index (LAI of a sunflower crop as a function of accumulated thermal time. Generating the models and testing their coefficients was carried out using data obtained from experiments carried out for different sowing dates in the crop years of 2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 with two sunflower hybrids, Aguará 03 and Hélio 358. Linear leaf dimensions were used for the non-destructive measurement of the leaf area, and thermal time was used to quantify the biological time. With the data for accumulated thermal time (TTa and LAI known for any one day after emergence, mathematical models were generated for estimating the LAI. The following models were obtained, as they presented the best fit (lowest rootmean- square error, RMSE: gaussian peak, cubic polynomial, sigmoidal and an adjusted compound model, the modified sigmoidal. The modified sigmoidal model had the best fit to the generation data and the highest value for the coefficient of determination (R2. In testing the models, the lowest values for root-mean-square error, and the highest R2 between the observed and estimated values were obtained with the modified sigmoidal model.

  19. Role of np fertilizer under different application methods on seed yield of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, R.A.; Khan, R.A.; Muendal, H.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different application methods of nitrogen and phophorus fertilizers were studied on the sunflower hybrid NK-212 during spring and kharif seasons at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at the rate 90 and 60 kg P 2 degree 5 ha-1 in a different proportions i.e. all broadcast and disked, 3/4 broadcast disked + 1/4 side banded, 1/2 broadcast disked + 1/2 side banded, 1/4 broadcast disked + 3/4 side banded and all side banded. Fertilizer applied in equal proportions of side banded and broadcast at the time of planting gave maximum (1525 and 1348 kg ha-1) seed yield and largest (14.3 cm and 10.15 cm) head diameter of sunflower in spring seasons during (1987 and 1988), and seed yield of 1206 kg ha-1 and 11.0 cm head diameter during kharif 1987. A significant increase in the 1000 seed weight was also observed in all the treatments receiving different split applications of N and P over all broadcast applied fertilizer. Plant height was not increased by split applications, with lowest height to be associated with most side banding of fertilizers. (author)

  20. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  1. Sunflower seed for human consumption as a substrate for the growth of mycopopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available These mycological investigations are implicating samples of protein sunflower seed from regular cultivation in the Vojvodina Province. Samples are examined in different stages of production: reception in the silo, separation of massive fraction on peeler and then peeling, kernel after peeling, hull, final product, i.e. kernels separated from visible impurities on conveyor bel, that are later manually divided in two fractions - a seemingly whole, undamaged kernels, without change of colour, and b seemingly damaged kernels, broken, with change of colour. For the determination of viable count of moulds and their isolation, two different media are used in parallel: Sabouraud maltose agar (SMA and malt/yeast extract with 50% of glucose (MY50G, favourable for growth of xerophilic moulds. All samples tested were contaminated with fungi. Total viable mould count per seed varied from 1.6 (SMA respecting 1.3 (MY50G on reception, to 5.6 (SMA and 7.5 (MY50G cfu/seed in visually damaged sunflower kernels (final product. From seeds, kernels and hull, numerous moulds were isolated, belonging to 8 genera and 13 species (Alternaria alternata, Arthrinium phaeospermum, Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma harzianum. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A.ochraceus, A. versicolor and Eurotium herbariorum were isolated on both media. Aspergillus candidus, A. versicolor, C. Cladosporioides, P. aurantiogriseum and T. harzianum were isolated only on SMA, while A. niger, A. wentii and R. stolonifer were exclusively isolated on MY50G. Most ubiquitous species is A. alternata, which is isolated from all tested samples, while A. candidus, C. cladosporioides and T. harzianum were isolated from sunflower seed on reception in silo, using SMA medium.

  2. Incongruence between morphotypes and genetically delimited species in the coral genus Stylophora: phenotypic plasticity, morphological convergence, morphological stasis or interspecific hybridization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flot Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphological data suggest that, unlike most other groups of marine organisms, scleractinian corals of the genus Stylophora are more diverse in the western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea than in the central Indo-Pacific. However, the morphology of corals is often a poor predictor of their actual biodiversity: hence, we conducted a genetic survey of Stylophora corals collected in Madagascar, Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia in an attempt to find out the true number of species in these various locations. Results A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial ORF and putative control region concurs with a haploweb analysis of nuclear ITS2 sequences in delimiting three species among our dataset: species A and B are found in Madagascar whereas species C occurs in Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia. Comparison of ITS1 sequences from these three species with data available online suggests that species C is also found on the Great Barrier Reef, in Malaysia, in the South China Sea and in Taiwan, and that a distinct species D occurs in the Red Sea. Shallow-water morphs of species A correspond to the morphological description of Stylophora madagascarensis, species B presents the morphology of Stylophora mordax, whereas species C comprises various morphotypes including Stylophora pistillata and Stylophora mordax. Conclusions Genetic analysis of the coral genus Stylophora reveals species boundaries that are not congruent with morphological traits. Of the four hypotheses that may explain such discrepancy (phenotypic plasticity, morphological stasis, morphological convergence, and interspecific hybridization, the first two appear likely to play a role but the fourth one is rejected since mitochondrial and nuclear markers yield congruent species delimitations. The position of the root in our molecular phylogenies suggests that the center of origin of Stylophora is located in the western Indian Ocean, which probably

  3. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-07-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  4. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Molinero-Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study.

  5. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at candidate genes involved in abiotic stress in two Prosopis species of hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Pomponio; Susana Marcucci Poltri; Diego Lopez Lauenstein; Susana Torales

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: Identify and compare SNPs on candidate genes related to abiotic stress in Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa and interspecific hybridsArea of the study: Chaco árido, Argentina. Material and Methods: Fragments from 6 candidate genes were sequenced in 60 genotypes. DNA polymorphisms were analyzed.Main Results: The analysis revealed that the hybrids had the highest rate of polymorphism, followed by P. flexuosa and P. chilensis, the values found are comparable to other forest...

  6. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  7. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  8. Guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Exian; Yan, Bei; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber (SFF) with 6-fold rotational symmetry are investigated theoretically using finite element method (FEM). The behavior of single-mode propagation in SFF is verified. Numerical results reveal that, the cutoff ratio for endlessly single-mode propagation in SFF is 0.575 which is larger than that of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF). Moreover, SFF can present ultra-flattened near-zero chromatic dispersion, 0.249 ± 1.146 ps/nm/km, in a broadband of wavelength covering 1.20-1.84 μm over all the telecommunication wavelengths. In term of chromatic dispersion and confinement loss in the wavelength range from 1.00 to 2.00 μm, a comparison between SFF, PCF and PQF with same structure parameters is carried out. Importantly, the rotational symmetry, as a new manageable structure parameter beyond common air hole diameter and lattice constant, can be employed to manipulate the chromatic dispersion, confinement loss, effective mode area and non-linear coefficient and it dependences on these guiding characteristics are discussed in detail.

  9. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  10. The characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Kh.K.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present article describes characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode. The decomposition of sunflower pectin was studied by means of continuous fractionation method in dynamic regime. It was found that the process is of extreme nature due to heterogeneity of its macromolecule structure. The additional information on macromolecule structure of sunflower pectin was obtained.

  11. Fracionamento dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracteriza e quantifica as frações dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol, com a finalidade de disponibilizar dados bromatológicos que possibilitem maximizar o aproveitamento desses alimentos e otimizar o desempenho animal. Foram avaliados dois híbridos de milho (Zea mays, DKB-215 e DKB-344, dois híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, Ambar e AG-2005 e dois híbridos de girassol (Helianthus annuus, Rumbosol e M-734. A silagem de girassol apresentou menor valor de carboidratos totais (CT e B2 (celulose e hemicelulose e maior de C (lignina e fibra associada à lignina. A silagem de milho apresentou maior valor de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, A+B1 (açúcares solúveis + amido e pectina e de CT juntamente com a silagem de sorgo, enquanto a de sorgo apresentou maior valor de B2 em função da maior contribuição de colmo. Houve diferença entre híbridos dentro da cultura do girassol para CT, sendo que o Rumbosol obteve maior valor que o M-734, em razão da aptidão dos mesmos, forrageiro e granífero respectivamente. A silagem de girassol apresentou maior valor de proteína bruta (PB e de suas frações. Não foi observada diferença entre híbridos nos valores de PB e de suas frações.This work evaluates and characterizes the carbohydrates and proteins fractions of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages. The purpose was to supply composition data that make it possible to maximize use of foods and optimize animal performance. Two corn (Zea mays hybrids, DKB-215 and DKB-344; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids, Ambar and AG-2005; and sunflower (Helianthus annuus hybrids, Rumbosol and M-734; were evaluated. Sunflower silage showed the lowest total carbohydrates (TC and B2 (cellulose and hemicelluloses values and the highest content of C (lignin and fiber associated lignin. Corn silages showed higher non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, A+B1 (soluble sugars + starch and pectin and TC together sorghum silage while

  12. An improved embryo-rescue protocol for hybrid progeny from seedless Vitis vinifera grapes × wild Chinese Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui Rong; Ji, Wei; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Jian Xia; Wang, Yue Jin

    A highly efficient technique of embryo rescue is critical when using stenospermocarpic Vitis vinifera cultivars (female parents) to breed novel, disease-resistant, seedless grape cultivars by hybridizing with wild Chinese Vitis species (male parents) having many disease-resistance alleles. The effects of various factors on the improvement of embryo formation, germination, and plantlet development for seven hybrid combinations were studied. The results indicated that Beichun and Shuangyou were the best male parents. The best sampling time for ovule inoculation differed among the female parents. When hybrid ovules were cultured on a double-phase medium with five different solid medium types, percent embryo formation was highest (11.3-28.3%) on a modified MM3 medium. Percentages of embryo germination (15.4-55.4%) and plantlet development (11.15-44.6%) were all highest when embryos were cultured on Woody Plant Medium + 5.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid + 4.4 μM 6-benzylaminopurine + 1.4 μM gibberellic acid + 2% sucrose + 0.05% casein hydrolysate + 0.3% activated charcoal + 0.7% agar. In the absence of other amino acids, the addition of proline significantly increased embryo formation (36.1%), embryo germination (64.6%), and plantlet development (90.5%). A highly efficient protocol has been developed for hybrid embryo rescue from seedless V. vinifera grapes × wild Chinese Vitis species that results in a significant improvement in breeding efficiency for new disease-resistant seedless grapes.

  13. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Velázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  14. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Luciano; Alberdi, Ignacio; Paz, Cosme; Aguirrezábal, Luis; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE) could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level) TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  15. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  17. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  18. Sandwich hybridization probes for the detection of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species: An update to existing probes and a description of new probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Holly A; Marin, Roman; Birch, James M; Scholin, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    New sandwich hybridization assay (SHA) probes for detecting Pseudo-nitzschia species (P. arenysensis, P. fraudulenta, P. hasleana, P. pungens) are presented, along with updated cross-reactivity information on historical probes (SHA and FISH; fluorescence in situ hybridization) targeting P. australis and P. multiseries. Pseudo-nitzschia species are a cosmopolitan group of diatoms that produce varying levels of domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin that can accumulate in finfish and shellfish and transfer throughout the food web. Consumption of infected food sources can lead to illness in humans (amnesic shellfish poisoning; ASP) and marine wildlife (domoic acid poisoning; DAP). The threat of human illness, along with economic loss from fishery closures has resulted in the implementation of monitoring protocols and intensive ecological studies. SHA probes have been instrumental in some of these efforts, as the technique performs well in complex heterogeneous sample matrices and has been adapted to benchtop and deployable (Environmental Sample Processor) platforms. The expanded probe set will enhance future efforts towards understanding spatial, temporal and successional patterns in species during bloom and non-bloom periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of species-specific rDNA probes for Giardia by multiple fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with immunocytochemical identification of cyst wall antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley L; Jarroll, Edward; Wallis, Peter; van Keulen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we describe the development of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes to variable regions in the small subunit of 16S rRNA in three distinct Giardia species. Sense and antisense probes (17-22 mer) to variable regions 1, 3, and 8 were labeled with digoxygenin or selected fluorochomes (FluorX, Cy3, or Cy5). Optimal results were obtained with fluorochome-labeled oligonucleotides for detection of rRNA in Giardia cysts. Specificity of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was shown using RNase digestion and high stringency to diminish the hybridization signal, and oligonucleotide probes for rRNA in Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris, and Giardia ardeae were shown to specifically stain rRNA only within cysts or trophozoites of those species. The fluorescent oligonucleotide specific for rRNA in human isolates of Giardia was positive for ten different strains. A method for simultaneous FISH detection of cysts using fluorescent antibody (genotype marker) and two oligonucleotide probes (species marker) permitted visualization of G. lamblia and G. muris cysts in the same preparation. Testing of an environmental water sample revealed the presence of FISH-positive G. lamblia cysts with a specific rDNA probe for rRNA, while negative cysts were presumed to be of animal or bird origin.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemanna S Ramu

    Full Text Available In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  1. Abiotic stress and antioxidant enzymes expression in sunflower leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Azpilicueta, C.E.; Gallego, S.M.; Benavides, M.P.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Although ROS act as mediators of oxidative damage, a signalling role for O 2 - and H 2 O 2 has been proposed. In the present work, the effect of cadmium (300 and 500 μM CdCl 2 ) or UVB radiation (30 KJ/m 2 ) on expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sod3) and catalase (cat1 and cat3) was evaluated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf discs. Samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 h of Cd treatments or white light recuperation after UVB treatment. RNA extractions and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed. Treatment of 300 μM Cd induced 6.4, 2.9 and 6 fold the expression of sod3, cat1 and cat3 over the controls, respectively, after 8 h of treatment, but 500 μM Cd showed lesser induction levels. Immediately after UVB irradiation, the mRNA of the three enzymes decreased. After 8 h of white light recovery, cat1 and cat3 were induced (1.9 and 3.5 fold, respectively) and the maximum sod3 expression was observed at 12 h (7 fold), respect to control. In conclusion, the balance between superoxide dismutase and peroxidases activities in cells is crucial for determining the steady-state level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 . In our assay conditions, sod3, cat1 and cat3 were induced in response to abiotic stress at a late phase (8-12 h). The main induction of cat3 suggests that core-catalases of peroxisomes might play a key regulatory role in controlling H 2 O 2 level. (author)

  2. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  3. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Sewalem; Soad Elfeky; Fatma El- Shintinawy

    2014-01-01

    Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid pero...

  4. Update on exotic ash collection for hybrid breeding and survey for EAB-resistance in native North American species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Daniel A. Herms; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Nurul I. Faridi; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the high levels of devastation observed on North American ash species infested with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), reports from Asia indicate that EAB-induced destruction of Asian ash species is limited to stressed trees. This indicates that Asian ash species have co-evolved resistance, or at least a high degree...

  5. Recombination Events Involving the atp9 Gene Are Associated with Male Sterility of CMS PET2 in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddemann, Antje; Horn, Renate

    2018-03-11

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems represent ideal mutants to study the role of mitochondria in pollen development. In sunflower, CMS PET2 also has the potential to become an alternative CMS source for commercial sunflower hybrid breeding. CMS PET2 originates from an interspecific cross of H. petiolaris and H. annuus as CMS PET1, but results in a different CMS mechanism. Southern analyses revealed differences for atp6 , atp9 and cob between CMS PET2, CMS PET1 and the male-fertile line HA89. A second identical copy of atp6 was present on an additional CMS PET2-specific fragment. In addition, the atp9 gene was duplicated. However, this duplication was followed by an insertion of 271 bp of unknown origin in the 5' coding region of the atp9 gene in CMS PET2, which led to the creation of two unique open reading frames orf288 and orf231 . The first 53 bp of orf288 are identical to the 5' end of atp9 . Orf231 consists apart from the first 3 bp, being part of the 271-bp-insertion, of the last 228 bp of atp9 . These CMS PET2-specific orfs are co-transcribed. All 11 editing sites of the atp9 gene present in orf231 are fully edited. The anther-specific reduction of the co-transcript in fertility-restored hybrids supports the involvement in male-sterility based on CMS PET2.

  6. Recombination Events Involving the atp9 Gene Are Associated with Male Sterility of CMS PET2 in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Reddemann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS systems represent ideal mutants to study the role of mitochondria in pollen development. In sunflower, CMS PET2 also has the potential to become an alternative CMS source for commercial sunflower hybrid breeding. CMS PET2 originates from an interspecific cross of H. petiolaris and H. annuus as CMS PET1, but results in a different CMS mechanism. Southern analyses revealed differences for atp6, atp9 and cob between CMS PET2, CMS PET1 and the male-fertile line HA89. A second identical copy of atp6 was present on an additional CMS PET2-specific fragment. In addition, the atp9 gene was duplicated. However, this duplication was followed by an insertion of 271 bp of unknown origin in the 5′ coding region of the atp9 gene in CMS PET2, which led to the creation of two unique open reading frames orf288 and orf231. The first 53 bp of orf288 are identical to the 5′ end of atp9. Orf231 consists apart from the first 3 bp, being part of the 271-bp-insertion, of the last 228 bp of atp9. These CMS PET2-specific orfs are co-transcribed. All 11 editing sites of the atp9 gene present in orf231 are fully edited. The anther-specific reduction of the co-transcript in fertility-restored hybrids supports the involvement in male-sterility based on CMS PET2.

  7. Transcriptomic identification of candidate genes involved in sunflower responses to chilling and salt stresses based on cDNA microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniego Norma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that sunflower production is expanding to arid regions, tolerance to abiotic stresses as drought, low temperatures and salinity arises as one of the main constrains nowadays. Differential organ-specific sunflower ESTs (expressed sequence tags were previously generated by a subtractive hybridization method that included a considerable number of putative abiotic stress associated sequences. The objective of this work is to analyze concerted gene expression profiles of organ-specific ESTs by fluorescence microarray assay, in response to high sodium chloride concentration and chilling treatments with the aim to identify and follow up candidate genes for early responses to abiotic stress in sunflower. Results Abiotic-related expressed genes were the target of this characterization through a gene expression analysis using an organ-specific cDNA fluorescence microarray approach in response to high salinity and low temperatures. The experiment included three independent replicates from leaf samples. We analyzed 317 unigenes previously isolated from differential organ-specific cDNA libraries from leaf, stem and flower at R1 and R4 developmental stage. A statistical analysis based on mean comparison by ANOVA and ordination by Principal Component Analysis allowed the detection of 80 candidate genes for either salinity and/or chilling stresses. Out of them, 50 genes were up or down regulated under both stresses, supporting common regulatory mechanisms and general responses to chilling and salinity. Interestingly 15 and 12 sequences were up regulated or down regulated specifically in one stress but not in the other, respectively. These genes are potentially involved in different regulatory mechanisms including transcription/translation/protein degradation/protein folding/ROS production or ROS-scavenging. Differential gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR for 12.5% of the microarray candidate sequences. Conclusion

  8. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  9. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastián; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Higgins, Janet; Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; González, Sergio; Rivarola, Máximo; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Hopp, H Esteban; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Paniego, Norma; Fernández, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2017-07-01

    By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.

  10. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  11. Racial characterization and genetic diversity of sunflower broomrape populations from Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebri MALEK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. has been restricted to Cuenca province in Central Spain, and the Guadalquivir Valley in Southern Spain, that represent different gene pools of the species. This pathogenic plant has now spread to other areas such as Castilla y León region in Northern Spain. The racial status and genetic diversity were investigated in six populations of sunflower broomrape collected in several provinces of Castilla y León. Evaluation of virulence to a set of differential host genotypes classified three of the populations as race F, while the other three populations were classified as a race below F, probably race E. Genetic diversity analysis using a set of 20 SSR markers showed that the broomrape populations from new areas of Northern Spain are mainly derived from the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. Introgression from the Cuenca gene pool was observed in one of the populations, in which the percentage of polymorphic loci was 31%, Shanon´s diversity index was 0.17, and the average number of pairwise differences was 1.69, compared to zero for the three parameters in the other five populations. The absence of race F individuals in the populations classified as race below F indicated that seed migration took place, probably before the generalized expansion of race F in the Guadalquivir Valley area, at the beginning of the 1990s.

  12. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Development and use of fluorescent 16S rRNA-targeted probes for the specific detection of Methylophaga species by in situ hybridization in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Monique; Regnault, Béatrice; Grimont, Patrick

    2003-09-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria are widespread in nature. They may play an important role in the cycling of carbon and in the metabolism of dimethylsulfide in a marine environment. Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylophaga are a unique group of aerobic, halophilic, non-methane-utilizing methylotrophs. Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed for the specific detection of Methylophaga species, marine methylobacteria, by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Probe MPH-730 was highly specific for all members of the genus Methylophaga while probe MPHm-994 targeted exclusively M. marina. The application of these probes were demonstrated by the detection of Methylophaga species in enrichment cultures from various marine sediments. All isolates recovered were visualized by using the genus specific probe MPH-730. The results were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing which demonstrated that all selected isolates belong to Methylophaga. Five isolates could be detected by the M. marina-specific probe MPHm-994 and were confirmed by rRNA gene restriction pattern (ribotyping). With the development of these specific probes, fluorescence in situ hybridization shows that the genus Methylophaga is widespread in marine samples.

  14. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  15. Identifying hybridizing taxa within the Daphnia longispina species complex: a comparison of genetic methods and phenotypic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhá, Š.; Thielsch, A.; Kraus, R.H.S.; Seďa, Jaromír; Schwenk, K.; Petrusek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 1 (2010), s. 107-122 ISSN 0018-8158. [International Symposium on Cladocera /8./. Aguascalientes, 21.10.2008-25.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600960901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Daphnia * interspecific hybridization * internal transcribed spacer * allozyme electrophoresis * microsatellites Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2010

  16. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  17. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  18. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  19. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  20. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... The effect of single treatment with gamma-rays, sodium azide and combination treatments of gamma- rays and sodium azide on seed germination, seedling survival, pollen fertility and seed set in sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) M2 generation was studied in the varieties of USH-430 and SHSF-333.

  1. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  2. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E.; Marek, Laura F.; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval. PMID:23555290

  3. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  4. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  5. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  6. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  7. Effect of growing degree days on autumn planted sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) having high degree of adaptability under wide range of climatic conditions, allow the crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Field experiments in autumn were laid out at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan for two years (2007 and 2008), ...

  8. Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced ...

  9. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  10. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  11. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  12. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  13. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  15. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  16. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  17. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  18. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field tested over several ...

  19. The effects of gamma rays and genotypes on sunflower organogenesis traits [Helianthus annuus L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachid Al-Chaarani, G.; Gentzbittel, L.; Berrault, G.; Lenoble, S.; Sarrafi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of two inbred lines (AS613 and AS616) and their hybrid were irradiated with seven gamma rays doses (5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 Grays). Organogenesis traits were studied for all irradiated seeds as well as non irradiated ones used as control. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with three replications. Each replication consisted of 16 Petri dishes with four explants per gamma rays dose and per genotype. The regeneration ability of genotypes and the effects of gamma rays on regeneration were scored by assessing the percentage of explants forming shoots (ES/100E), the average number of shoots per explant shooting (S/ES) and the average number of shoots per explant plated (S/E). Genetic variability was observed among the three genotypes for all studied traits. The effect of irradiation and the interaction between genotype and irradiation were also significant for all the studied traits. Heterosis, when the hybrid was compared with the mean of the two parents, was significant for the different gamma rays doses in all traits except for 15 and 55 Grays, which were not significant for the percentage of explants forming shoots (ES/100E). Seed irradiation by 5 and 15 Grays is likely to have a significant effect by increasing the regeneration ability by cotyledon culture in sunflower [it

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic variability of disc flower corolla length and nectar content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nectar content and disc flower corolla length are the two most important parameters of attractiveness to pollinators in sunflower. The phenotypic and genotypic variability of these two traits was studied in four commercially important hybrids and their parental components in a trial with three fertilizer doses over two years. The results showed that, looking at individual genotypes, the variability of disc flower corolla length was affected the most by year (85.38-97.46%. As the study years were extremely different, the phenotypic variance of the hybrids and parental components was calculated for each year separately. In such conditions, looking at all of the crossing combinations, the largest contribution to phenotypic variance of the corolla length was that of genotype: 57.27-61.11% (NS-H-45 64.51-84.84% (Velja; 96.74-97.20% (NS-H-702 and 13.92-73.17% (NS-H-111. A similar situation was observed for the phenotypic variability of nectar content, where genotype also had the largest influence, namely 39.77-48.25% in NS-H-45; 39.06-42.51% in Velja; 31.97-72.36% in NS-H-702; and 62.13-94.96% in NS-H-111.

  1. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  2. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m -2 current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min -1 constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  3. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  4. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G J; Markell, S G; Song, Q J; Qi, L L

    2017-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii occurring in the United States. The evaluation of 114 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross between HA 89 and PI 494578 against P. halstedii race 734 revealed that single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population indicated that the DM resistance gene derived from wild H. argophyllus PI 494578 is located on the upper end of the linkage group (LG) 8 of the sunflower genome, as was determined single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with DM resistance. Analysis of 11 additional SNP markers previously mapped to this region revealed that the resistance gene, named Pl 20 , co-segregated with four markers, SFW02745, SFW09076, S8_11272025, and S8_11272046, and is flanked by SFW04358 and S8_100385559 at an interval of 1.8 cM. The newly discovered P. halstedii resistance gene has been introgressed from wild species into cultivated sunflower to provide a novel gene with DM resistance. The homozygous resistant individuals were selected from BC 2 F 2 progenies with the use of markers linked to the Pl 20 gene, and these lines should benefit the sunflower community for Helianthus improvement.

  5. Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.

  6. Chromosomal study of lettuce and its allied species (Lactuca spp., Asteraceae) by means of karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Takayuki; Nagano, Katsuya; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Uchiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    In this study, in addition to the karyotype analysis, the chromosomal distributions of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs, and the Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3) telomeric sequences were detected by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to promote the information of chromosomal organization and evolution in the cultivated lettuce and its wild relatives, L. sativa, L. serriola, L. saligna and L. virosa. The karyotype analysis revealed the dissimilarity between L. virosa and the remaining species. In all four Lactuca species studied, one 5 S rDNA and two 18 S rDNA loci were detected. The simultaneous FISH of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs revealed that both rDNA loci of L. sativa, L. serriola and L. saligna were identical, however, that of L. virosa was different from the other species. These analyses indicate the closer relationships between L. sativa/L. serriola and L. saligna rather than L. virosa. Arabidopsis-type telomeric sequences were detected at both ends of their chromatids of all chromosomes not in the other regions. This observation suggests the lack of telomere-mediated chromosomal rearrangements among the Lactuca chromosomes.

  7. High performance preconcentration of inorganic Se species by dispersive micro-solid phase extraction with a nanosilica-ionic liquid hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaver, Mauricio; Coronado, Eduardo A.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2017-12-01

    A highly sensitive and efficient dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method was developed for inorganic Se speciation analysis. A novel ionic liquid (IL)-nanomaterial hybrid consisting of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide-functionalized nanosilica was used for the efficient retention of Se(IV) complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, followed by elution with an ethyl acetate/Triton X-114 mixture and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Se(VI) species was selectively determined by difference between total inorganic Se and Se(IV) after pre-reduction. The IL-nanomaterial hybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Likewise, Se(IV) sorption capacity of the retention material and maximum amount of IL loaded on its surface were determined. Several factors concerning the functionalization, extraction and elution steps were optimized, yielding a 100% extraction efficiency for Se(IV) under optimal conditions. A limit of detection of 1.1 ng L- 1, a relative standard deviation of 5.7% and a 110-fold enhancement factor were obtained. The D-μ-SPE method was successfully applied to several water samples from different origins and compositions, including rain, tap, underground, river and sea.

  8. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  9. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) Populations from Southern Spain Is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; Malek, Jebri; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape) is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Center and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990's to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes.

  10. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. Populations from Southern Spain is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eMartín-Sanz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Centre and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990’s to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G and, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes.

  11. Pervaporation and sorption behavior of zeolite-filled polyethylene glycol hybrid membranes for the removal of thiophene species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Li, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-CuY zeolite hybrid membranes were prepared for sulfur removal from gasoline feed. The sorption and diffusion behavior of typical gasoline components through the hybrid membranes has been investigated by systematic studies of dynamic sorption curves. Influencing factors including feed temperature, permeate pressure, and zeolite content in the membranes on membrane performance have been evaluated. Immersion experiments results showed the preferential sorption of thiophene, which is key in fulfilling the separation of thiophene/hydrocarbon mixtures. The sorption, diffusion, and permeation coefficients of gasoline components in filled membranes are higher than those in unfilled membranes. Pervaporation (PV) and gas chromatography (GC) experiments results corresponded to the discussions on dynamic sorption curves. PV experiments showed that lower permeate pressure meant higher separation performance. The optimum temperature occurred at 383K, and an Arrhenius relationship existed between permeation flux and operating temperature. The CuY zeolite filling led to a significant increase of flux since the porous zeolite provides for more diffusion for small molecules in mixed matrix membranes. The sulfur enrichment factor increased first and then decreased with the increasing zeolite content, which was attributed to the combined influence of complexation force between CuY and thiophenes as well as the trade-off phenomenon between flux and selectivity. At 9 wt% CuY content, a higher permeation flux (3.19 kg/(m(2) h)) and sulfur enrichment factor (2.95) were obtained with 1190 microg/g sulfur content level in gasoline feed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptide from Sunflower Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qun Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower proteins were hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme for the production of antioxidant peptide. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC were consecutively employed to purify a novel sunflower antioxidant peptide, and the ability to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol was expressed as the antioxidative activity of the peptide. The amino acid sequence was identified as Ala-Cys-Ala-His-Asp-Lys-Val by a Q-Tof2 mass spectrometer. This novel peptide exhibited a high antioxidative activity of 79.42 U/mL, which is expected to protect against oxidative damage in living systems in relation to aging and carcinogenesis. Higher antioxidative activities were presumed mainly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in its sequence.

  14. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  15. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  16. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  17. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences (P> 0.05) could be found in mean growth rate (0.77 kg/day and 0.80 kg/day) and ... Digestible energy, pigs, poultry, protein content, rats, relative nutritive value, sunflower oilcake meal, ... density of the meal is increased while the crude fibre content ..... two meals differed by only 3.5%, while a range of 6% to 28%.

  18. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  19. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  20. Polytene chromosomes of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species (Calliphoridae, Diptera): analysis of banding patterns and in situ hybridization with Drosophila sex determining gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalla, S

    1994-03-01

    Standard maps for the five banded polytene chromosomes found in trichogen cell nuclei of the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies and the amphogenic Chrysomya pinguis are presented. The chromosomes are highly homologous in the two species; differences in banding patterns are predominantly caused by one pericentric and ten paracentric inversions. In chromosome 5 of the amphogenic Chrysomya phaonis, also analysed in this paper, an additional paracentric inversion was observed. The distribution of species specific inversions indicates that the monogenic C. rufifacies is phylogenetically older than the amphogenic species. The maternal sex realizer locus F'/f on polytene chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies is not associated with a structural heterozygosity. Chromosome pair 6 of C. rufifacies and the sex chromosome pair of C. pinguis are under-replicated in polytene nuclei; they consist of irregular chromatin granules, frequently associated with nucleolus material. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in Chrysomya is probably correlated with heterochromatin accumulation. A search for sex determining genes in Chrysomya was initiated using sex determining sequences from Drosophila melanogaster for in situ hybridization. The polytene band 41A1 on chromosome 5 of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species contains sequences homologous to the maternal sex determining gene daughterless (da). Homology to the zygotic gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila is detected in band 39A1 on chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies. The findings reported here are the first evidence for a possible homology between the da gene of Drosophila and the maternal sex realizer F' of C. rufifacies. An hypothesis for the evolution of the maternal effect sex determination of C. rufifacies is proposed.

  1. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  3. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  4. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  5. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  6. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  7. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  8. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  9. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  10. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  11. RXLR and CRN effectors from the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii induce hypersensitive-like responses in resistant sunflower lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g. plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analysed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and these six effectors were selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances.

  12. Citric acid assisted phytoextraction of chromium by sunflower; morpho-physiological and biochemical alterations in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Abbas, Farhat; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain; Saeed, Rashid; Wu, Longhua

    2017-11-01

    Soil and water contamination from heavy metals and metalloids is one of the most discussed and burning global issues due to its potential to cause the scarcity of healthy food and safe water. The scientific community is proposing a range of lab and field based physical, chemical and biological solutions to remedy metals and metalloids contaminated soils and water. The present study finds out a possibility of Chromium (Cr) extraction by sunflower from spiked soil under chelating role of citric acid (CA). The sunflower plants were grown under different concentrations of Cr (0, 5, 10 & 20mgkg -1 ) and CA (0, 2.5 & 5mM). Growth, biomass, gas exchange, photosynthesis, electrolyte leakage (EL), reactive oxygen species (ROS; malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacole values peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) were measured. The results depicted a clear decline in plant height, root length, leaf area, number of leaves and flowers per plant along with fresh and dry biomass of all parts of plant with increasing concentration of Cr in soil. Similar reduction was observed in chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble protein, gas exchange attributes and SPAD. The increasing concentration of Cr also enhanced the Cr uptake and accumulation in plant roots, stem and leaves along with the production of ROS and EL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes increased with increasing Cr concentration from 0 to 10mg, but decreased at 20mgkg -1 soil. The CA application significantly alleviated Cr-induced inhibition of plant growth, biomass, photosynthesis, gas exchange, soluble proteins and SPAD value. Presence of CA also enhanced the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and reduced the production of ROS and EL. The chelating potential of CA increased the concentration and accumulation of Cr in plant roots, stem and leaves. It is concluded that the

  13. First report of Orobanche ludoviciana parasitizing sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape is the common name given to a group of flowering plants belonging to the genus Orobanche that parasitize the roots of higher dicotyledonous plants. More than 100 species of Orobanche have been identified, all of which are obligate parasites that lack chlorophyll and depend upon their host ...

  14. Growth and N2-fixation of dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in an inter cropping system using natural abundances of 15N and 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2010-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants grown in mono cropping and inter cropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield , oil content, dry matter production (DM), land equivalent ratio (LER), N- yield, competition for soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 13 C and 15 N natural abundance techniques. Three different combinations of sesbania (ses) and sunflower (sun) were investigated in the inter cropping system (1ses:1sun; 1ses:2sun, and 2ses:1sun, row ratio). The results showed that: From productivity standpoint, the 1ses:1sun surpassed the other treatments in terms of N and DM yields and exhibited a similar distribution of total DM and N uptake in the sesbania and sunflower plant species. The 1ses:2sun was next in order in terms of DM and N uptake showing also a similar distribution of total N in both plant species. On the other hand, the 1ses:2sun gave the greatest seed and oil production and together with 1ses:1sun treatment were satisfactory in terms of LER for DM in both species having almost similar values. However, the former treatment was more appropriate than the latter because of its higher LER value for seed and oil yield of sunflower plants. Nevertheless, 2ses:1sun treatment seemed not to be an appropriate treatment due to the divergence of LER values in both species, where sunflower plants had a low value as compared to sesbania. From ecological standpoint, the best treatment was 1ses:2sun which showed the greatest N 2 -fixation. Sesbania plants fixed almost identical amounts of atmospheric N 2 in both the mono cropping and inter cropping systems although the density of these plants in the latter was only 1/3 that of the former system. Moreover, soil N-uptake in the 1ses:2sun was the lowest among other treatments. These results give an advantage to the 1ses:2sun treatment over other treatments in terms of soil N consumption and N 2 fixation to meet sesbania's N requirements. %Δ 13 C in the

  15. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  16. Row spacing effects on light extinction coefficients of corn, sorghum, soybean, and sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flénet, F.; Kiniry, J.R.; Board, J.E.; Westgate, M.E.; Reicosky, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many crop models, light intercepted by a canopy (IPAR) is calculated from a Beer's Law equation: IPAR = PAR x [1- exp(-k x LAI)], where k is the extinction coefficient, PAR the photosynthetically active radiation, and LAI the leaf area index. The first objective of this study was to investigate the effect of row spacing on k for corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to provide information for modeling. Data from literature and from an experiment conducted at Temple, TX, were evaluated. The second objective was to investigate effects of time of day and stage of crop development on k for different row spacings. Seeds of all four species were sown in rows 0.35, 0.66, or 1.00 m apart. Measurements of canopy light interception were taken near solar noon on two dates before anthesis. At anthesis, extinction coefficients were determined at 0845, 1015, and 1145 h (solar time). The extinction coefficient showed a linear decrease as row spacing increased. For each crop, the effect of row spacing on k was described by one linear regression for most data. Stage of crop development and stage of development x row spacing interaction did not significantly affect k during the period of measurements. The effect of time of day was significant for all four crops, and the time of day x row spacing interaction was significant for soybean and sunflower. Thus, modeling light interception for different row spacings should account for these effects

  17. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  18. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  19. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblom, J.J. [California State University-Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  20. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  1. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  2. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... from Helianthus paradoxus (Pecos sunflower) from plants in Texas. Permit TE-829761 Applicant: Bureau of... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available...: Texas A & M University, Galveston, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of...

  3. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  4. Using Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" to Teach the Study of Genocide and the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Kimberley A.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses a project called ""The Sunflower" Symposium," named in honor of Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" (1998). The project was a catalyst for discussions on legalized discrimination, the infringement of civil rights, (in)justice, (in)tolerance, and civic responsibility, influencing students to connect the Holocaust to other world…

  5. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  6. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on the metabolism of photoassimilated 14C in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, V.; Angelov, M.; Popov, G.

    1981-01-01

    In experiments carried out on sunflower the specific changes in the metabolism of photoassimilated 14 C caused by nitrogen deficiency are investigated. The data presented show that nitrogen deficiency in sunflower inhibits the metabolism of photoassimilated 14 C through phosphoglyceric acid and phosphoenolpyruvate and directs it to a great extent through hexo-monophosphates towards the hydrocarbons-sucrose and starch. (authors)

  7. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  8. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  9. Physicochemical properties of 2S Albumins and the corresponding protein isolate from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower albumins (SFAs) are a diverse group of proteins present in sunflower isolates, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2S. This research presents a detailed study of the influence of pH on the structure and solubility of SFAs. The effect of temperature on the structure of SFAs

  10. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  11. Evolution and diversification of the CYC/TB1 gene family in Asteraceae--a comparative study in Gerbera (Mutisieae) and sunflower (Heliantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtiharju, Sari; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Vetterli, Adrien; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2012-04-01

    Plant-specific TCP domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate morphological novelties during plant evolution, including the complex architecture of the Asteraceae inflorescence that involves different types of flowers. We conducted comparative analysis of the CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1) gene family in Gerbera hybrida (gerbera) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower), two species that represent distant tribes within Asteraceae. Our data confirm that the CYC/TB1 gene family has expanded in Asteraceae, a condition that appears to be connected with the increased developmental complexity and evolutionary success of this large plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the CYC/TB1 gene family revealed both shared and lineage-specific duplications in gerbera and sunflower, corresponding to the three gene lineages previously identified as specific to core eudicots: CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3. Expression analyses of early stages of flower primordia development indicated that especially within the CYC2 clade, with the greatest number of secondary gene duplications, gene expression patterns are conserved between the species and associated with flower and inflorescence development. All sunflower and gerbera CYC2 clade genes showed differential expression between developing flower types, being upregulated in marginal ray (and trans) flowers. One gene in gerbera (GhCYC3) and two in sunflower (HaCYC2d and HaCYC2c) were indicated to be strong candidates as regulators of ray flower identity, a function that is specific for Asteraceae. Our data further showed that other CYC2 clade genes are likely to have more specialized functions at the level of single flowers, including the late functions in floral reproductive organs that may be more conserved across plant families. The expression patterns of CYC1 and CYC3 clade genes showed more differences between the two species but still pointed to possible conserved functions during vegetative plant development. Pairwise protein

  12. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA, located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6×5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1; and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater, with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.

  13. Production and morphological components of sunflower on soil fertilized with cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agroindustrial residues, such as cassava wastewater, have been used as soil fertilizers, reducing environmental pollution and recovering nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate production and morphological components and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, hybrid Helio-250, fertilized with cassava wastewater. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronomico de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with six cassava wastewater rates (0, 8.5, 17.0, 34.0, 68.0 and 136 m3 ha-1 and four replications. The variables evaluated were shoot fresh and dry weight, capitulum fresh and dry weight, capitulum diameter, seed yield, oil yield and seed oil content. The use cassava wastewater as soil fertilizer improved the production and morphological variables evaluated, except the seed oil content, which decreased with application of cassava wastewater rates above 25 m3 ha-1.

  14. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  15. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.

  18. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large