WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid substrate anchoring

  1. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  2. Anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    The anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface are investigated analytically. The alignment of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) in a grating surface originates from two mechanisms, thus the anchoring energy consists of two parts. One originates from the interaction potential between NLC molecules and the molecules on the substrate surface,and the other stems from the increased elastic strain energy. Based on the two mechanisms, the expression of anchoring energy per unit area of a projected plane of this grating surface is deduced and called the equivalent anchoring energy formula. Both the strength and the easy direction of equivalent anchoring energy are a function of the geometrical parameters (amplitude and pitch) of a grating surface. By using this formula, the grating surface can be replaced by its projected plane and its anchoring properties can be described by the equivalent anchoring energy formula.

  3. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models.

  4. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  5. Molecular beacon anchored onto a graphene oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Arash; Datta, Debopam; Patel, Krunal; Lin, Gary; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we report a graphene oxide-based nanosensor incorporating semiconductor quantum dots linked to DNA-aptamers that functions as a ‘turn-off’ fluorescent nanosensor for detection of low concentrations of analytes. A specific demonstration of this turn-off aptasensor is presented for the case of the detection of mercury (II) ions. In this system, ensembles of aptamer-based quantum-dot sensors are anchored onto graphene oxide (GO) flakes which provide a platform for analyte detection in the vicinity of GO. Herein, the operation of this ensemble-based nanosensor is demonstrated for mercury ions, which upon addition of mercury, quenching of the emission intensity from the quantum dots is observed due to resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and the gold nanoparticle connected via a mercury target aptamer. A key result is that the usually dominant effect of quenching of the quantum dot due to close proximity to the GO can be reduced to negligible levels by using a linker molecule in conjunctions with the aptamer-based nanosensor. The effect of ionic concentration of the background matrix on the emission intensity was also investigated. The sensor system is found to be highly selective towards mercury and exhibits a linear behavior (r 2 > 0.99) in the nanomolar concentration range. The detection limit of the sensor towards mercury with no GO present was found to be 16.5 nM. With GO attached to molecular beacon via 14 base, 35 base, and 51 base long linker DNA, the detection limit was found to be 38.4 nM, 9.45 nM, and 11.38 nM; respectively.

  6. An important base triple anchors the substrate helix recognition surface within the Tetrahymena ribozyme active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczak, A A; Ortoleva-Donnelly, L; Zivarts, M V; Oyelere, A K; Kazantsev, A V; Strobel, S A

    1999-09-28

    Key to understanding the structural biology of catalytic RNA is determining the underlying networks of interactions that stabilize RNA folding, substrate binding, and catalysis. Here we demonstrate the existence and functional importance of a Hoogsteen base triple (U300.A97-U277), which anchors the substrate helix recognition surface within the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme active site. Nucleotide analog interference suppression analysis of the interacting functional groups shows that the U300.A97-U277 triple forms part of a network of hydrogen bonds that connect the P3 helix, the J8/7 strand, and the P1 substrate helix. Product binding and substrate cleavage kinetics experiments performed on mutant ribozymes that lack this base triple (C A-U, U G-C) or replace it with the isomorphous C(+).G-C triple show that the A97 Hoogsteen triple contributes to the stabilization of both substrate helix docking and the conformation of the ribozyme's active site. The U300. A97-U277 base triple is not formed in the recently reported crystallographic model of a portion of the group I intron, despite the presence of J8/7 and P3 in the RNA construct [Golden, B. L., Gooding, A. R., Podell, E. R. & Cech, T. R. (1998) Science 282, 259-264]. This, along with other biochemical evidence, suggests that the active site in the crystallized form of the ribozyme is not fully preorganized and that substantial rearrangement may be required for substrate helix docking and catalysis.

  7. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Guo, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, I. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ahmed, K. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Zhong, J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Favors, Z. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Zaera, F. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ozkan, M. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ozkan, C. S [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO₂) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO₂ nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g⁻¹, areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm⁻²) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg⁻¹ and power density of 128.01 kW kg⁻¹. The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  8. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Shirui; Lee, Ilkeun; Ahmed, Kazi; Zhong, Jiebin; Favors, Zachary; Zaera, Francisco; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO2 nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g(-1), areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm(-2)) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg(-1) and power density of 128.01 kW kg(-1). The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  9. Sortase A substrate specificity in GBS pilus 2a cell wall anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Francesca; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Biagini, Massimiliano; Assfalg, Michael; Nuccitelli, Annalisa; Cozzi, Roberta; Norais, Nathalie; Telford, John L; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Grandi, Guido; Maione, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is one of the most common causes of life-threatening bacterial infections in infants. In recent years cell surface pili have been identified in several Gram-positive bacteria, including GBS, as important virulence factors and promising vaccine candidates. In GBS, three structurally distinct types of pili have been discovered (pilus 1, 2a and 2b), whose structural subunits are assembled in high-molecular weight polymers by specific class C sortases. In addition, the highly conserved housekeeping sortase A (SrtA), whose main role is to link surface proteins to bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan by a transpeptidation reaction, is also involved in pili cell wall anchoring in many bacteria. Through in vivo mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the LPXTG sorting signal of the minor ancillary protein (AP2) is essential for pilus 2a anchoring. We successfully produced a highly purified recombinant SrtA (SrtA(ΔN40)) able to specifically hydrolyze the sorting signal of pilus 2a minor ancillary protein (AP2-2a) and catalyze in vitro the transpeptidation reaction between peptidoglycan analogues and the LPXTG motif, using both synthetic fluorescent peptides and recombinant proteins. By contrast, SrtA(ΔN40) does not catalyze the transpeptidation reaction with substrate-peptides mimicking sorting signals of the other pilus 2a subunits (the backbone protein and the major ancillary protein). Thus, our results add further insight into the proposed model of GBS pilus 2a assembly, in which SrtA is required for pili cell wall covalent attachment, acting exclusively on the minor accessory pilin, representing the terminal subunit located at the base of the pilus.

  10. Sortase A substrate specificity in GBS pilus 2a cell wall anchoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Necchi

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS, is one of the most common causes of life-threatening bacterial infections in infants. In recent years cell surface pili have been identified in several Gram-positive bacteria, including GBS, as important virulence factors and promising vaccine candidates. In GBS, three structurally distinct types of pili have been discovered (pilus 1, 2a and 2b, whose structural subunits are assembled in high-molecular weight polymers by specific class C sortases. In addition, the highly conserved housekeeping sortase A (SrtA, whose main role is to link surface proteins to bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan by a transpeptidation reaction, is also involved in pili cell wall anchoring in many bacteria. Through in vivo mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the LPXTG sorting signal of the minor ancillary protein (AP2 is essential for pilus 2a anchoring. We successfully produced a highly purified recombinant SrtA (SrtA(ΔN40 able to specifically hydrolyze the sorting signal of pilus 2a minor ancillary protein (AP2-2a and catalyze in vitro the transpeptidation reaction between peptidoglycan analogues and the LPXTG motif, using both synthetic fluorescent peptides and recombinant proteins. By contrast, SrtA(ΔN40 does not catalyze the transpeptidation reaction with substrate-peptides mimicking sorting signals of the other pilus 2a subunits (the backbone protein and the major ancillary protein. Thus, our results add further insight into the proposed model of GBS pilus 2a assembly, in which SrtA is required for pili cell wall covalent attachment, acting exclusively on the minor accessory pilin, representing the terminal subunit located at the base of the pilus.

  11. Direct assembly synthesis of metal complex-semiconductor hybrid photocatalysts anchored by phosphonate for highly efficient CO2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomiko M; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Morikawa, Takeshi; Iwaki, Masayo; Sato, Shunsuke; Saeki, Shu; Inoue, Masae; Kajino, Tsutomu; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2011-08-14

    Hybrid photocatalysts consisting of a ruthenium complex and p-type photoactive N-doped Ta(2)O(5) anchored with an organic group were successfully synthesized by a direct assembly method. The photocatalyst anchored by phosphonate exhibited excellent photoconversion activity of CO(2) to formic acid under visible-light irradiation with respect to the reaction rate and stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. An anchored framework BAC map of mouse chromosome 11 assembled using multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W W; Reneker, J; Chow, C W; Vaishnav, M; Bradley, A

    1998-12-15

    Despite abundant library resources for many organisms, physical mapping of these organisms has been seriously limited due to lack of efficient library screening techniques. We have developed a highly efficient strategy for large-scale screening of genomic libraries based on multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization on high-density genomic filters. We have applied this strategy to generate a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) anchored map of mouse chromosome 11. Using the MIT mouse SSLP data, 320 pairs of oligonucleotide probes were designed with an "overgo" computer program that selects new primer sequences that avoid the microsatellite repeat. BACs identified by these probes are automatically anchored to the chromosome. Ninety-two percent of the probes identified positive clones from a 5.9-fold coverage mouse BAC library with an average of 7 positive clones per marker. An average of 4.2 clones was confirmed for 204 markers by PCR. Our data show that a large number of clones can be efficiently isolated from a large genomic library using this strategy with minimal effort. This strategy will have wide application for large-scale mapping and sequencing of human and other large genomes.

  13. Efficiency of Polyoxometalate-Based Mesoporous Hybrids as Covalently Anchored Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentaleb, Faiza; Makrygenni, Ourania; Brouri, Dalil; Coelho Diogo, Cristina; Mehdi, Ahmad; Proust, Anna; Launay, Franck; Villanneau, Richard

    2015-08-03

    Polyoxometalate (POM) hybrids have been covalently immobilized through the formation of amide bonds on several types of mesoporous silica. This work allows the comparison of three POM-based mesoporous systems, obtained with three different silica supports in which either the organic functions of the support (amine vs carboxylic acid) and/or the structure of the support itself (SBA-15 vs mesocellular foams (MCF)) were varied. The resulting POM-based mesoporous systems have been studied in particular by high resolution transmission electronic microscopy (HR-TEM) in order to characterize the nanostructuration of the POMs inside the pores/cells of the different materials. We thus have shown that the best distribution and loading in POMs have been reached with SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl groups. In this case, the formation of amide bonds in the materials has led to the nonaggregation of the POMs inside the channels of the SBA-15. The catalytic activity of the anchored systems has been evaluated through the epoxidation of cyclooctene and cyclohexene with H2O2 in acetonitrile. The reactivity of the different grafted POMs hybrids has been compared to that in solution (homogeneous conditions). Parallels can be drawn between the distribution of the POMs and the activity of the supported systems. Furthermore, recycling tests together with catalyst filtration experiments during the reaction allowed us to preclude the hypothesis of a significant leaching of the supported catalyst.

  14. Lipase active-site-directed anchoring of organometallics: metallopincer/protein hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Cornelis A; Casado, Miguel A; Guillena, Gabriela; Egmond, Maarten R; van der Kerk-van Hoof, Anca; Heck, Albert J R; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; van Koten, Gerard

    2005-11-18

    The work described herein presents a strategy for the regioselective introduction of organometallic complexes into the active site of the lipase cutinase. Nitrophenol phosphonate esters, well known for their lipase inhibitory activity, are used as anchor functionalities and were found to be ideal tools to develop a single-site-directed immobilization method. A small series of phosphonate esters, covalently attached to ECE "pincer"-type d8-metal complexes through a propyl tether (ECE=[C6H3(CH2E)(2)-2,6]-; E=NR2 or SR), were designed and synthesized. Cutinase was treated with these organometallic phosphonate esters and the new metal-complex/protein hybrids were identified as containing exactly one organometallic unit per protein. The organometallic proteins were purified by membrane dialysis and analyzed by ESI-mass spectrometry. The major advantages of this strategy are: 1) one transition metal can be introduced regioselectively and, hence, the metal environment can potentially be fine-tuned; 2) purification procedures are facile due to the use of pre-synthesized metal complexes; and, most importantly, 3) the covalent attachment of robust organometallic pincer complexes to an enzyme is achieved, which will prevent metal leaching from these hybrids. The approach presented herein can be regarded as a tool in the development of regio- and enantioselective catalyst as well as analytical probes for studying enzyme properties (e.g., structure) and, hence, is a "proof-of-principle design" study in enzyme chemistry.

  15. Polymer-hybridized liposomes anchored with alkyl grafted poly(asparagine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Il; Lee, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Youn Joon; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2011-12-01

    Polymer-hybridized liposomes (PHLs) of saturated lecithin were formed by association of poly(asparagines) grafted with alkyl chains (PAsn-g-Cn). The thermal, physical, and surface properties of the polymer-hybridized liposomes were examined with varying polymer concentration, alkyl chain length (C(8), C(12), C(18), C(22)), and degree of substitution (DS) in the polymer. The inclusion of the polymer raised the membrane fluidity of liposomes. By the incorporation of small amount of polymer, the membrane rigidity of liposomes dropped sharply and then increased close to the original level as the polymer concentrations increased in the cases of PAsn-g-C(18) and PAsn-g-C(22). Also, the membrane rigidity and stability of PHLs increased with alkyl chain length at the same polymer concentration. The surface charge of PHL associated with PAsn-g-C(22) was changed by DS of alkyl chains. The polymer bearing long alkyl chains (C(12), C(18), C(22)) formed PHLs well at low polymer concentration and the number of disk-shaped polymer-lipid mixed micelles increased with polymer concentration. The anchored polymers induced shifts in gel-to-liquid crystal transition temperature (Tc) of the vesicles and Tc varied with polymer concentration, alkyl chain length, and DS of the polymer.

  16. Engineering plasmon dispersion relations : hybrid nanoparticle chain - substrate plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, Paul J.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    We consider the dispersion relations of the optical excitations in a chain of silver nanoparticles situated above a metal substrate and show that they are hybrid plasmon polaritons, composed of localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate a strong dependence of the syste

  17. A hybrid anchored-ANOVA - POD/Kriging method for uncertainty quantification in unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Luca; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To significantly increase the contribution of numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for risk assessment and decision making, it is important to quantitatively measure the impact of uncertainties to assess the reliability and robustness of the results. As unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations are becoming the standard for industrial applications, reducing the number of required samples to perform sensitivity (SA) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is an actual engineering challenge. The novel approach presented in this paper is based on an efficient hybridization between the anchored-ANOVA and the POD/Kriging methods, which have already been used in CFD-UQ realistic applications, and the definition of best practices to achieve global accuracy. The anchored-ANOVA method is used to efficiently reduce the UQ dimension space, while the POD/Kriging is used to smooth and interpolate each anchored-ANOVA term. The main advantages of the proposed method are illustrated through four applications with increasing complexity, most of them based on Large-Eddy Simulation as a high-fidelity CFD tool: the turbulent channel flow, the flow around an isolated bluff-body, a pedestrian wind comfort study in a full scale urban area and an application to toxic gas dispersion in a full scale city area. The proposed c-APK method (anchored-ANOVA-POD/Kriging) inherits the advantages of each key element: interpolation through POD/Kriging precludes the use of quadrature schemes therefore allowing for a more flexible sampling strategy while the ANOVA decomposition allows for a better domain exploration. A comparison of the three methods is given for each application. In addition, the importance of adding flexibility to the control parameters and the choice of the quantity of interest (QoI) are discussed. As a result, global accuracy can be achieved with a reasonable number of samples allowing computationally expensive CFD-UQ analysis.

  18. A major Sm epitope anchored to sequential oligopeptide carriers is a suitable antigenic substrate to detect anti-Sm antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, C J; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G; Tzioufas, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Tsikaris, V; Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, M; Sakarellos, C; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1998-11-01

    A sensitive, highly reproducible, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), was developed in order to investigate whether the synthetic heptapeptide PPGMRPP-a major epitope of the Sm autoantigen-anchored in five copies to a sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC), [(PPGMRPP)5-SOC5] is a suitable antigenic substrate to identify anti-Sm/antibodies. Sera with different autoantibody specificities [45 anti-Sm, 40 anti-U1RNP, 40 anti-Ro (SSA)/La(SSB) positive, 21 Antinuclear antibody positive, but negative for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ANA + /ENA - ) and 75 normal human sera, ANA negative] and 75 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were tested for anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 reactivity in order to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the method to detect anti-Sm antibodies. RNA immunoprecipitation assays for the detection of anti-Sm and anti-U1RNP antibodies and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the detection of anti-Ro(SSA) and anti-La(SSB) antibodies were used as reference techniques. The sensitivity of the method was 98% and the specificity was 68% for the determination of anti-Sm antibodies, while for the determination of anti-Sm and/or anti-U1RNP reactivity (antibodies to snRNPs) the corresponding values were 82% and 86%, respectively. In a comparison of the above assay with an ELISA, using Sm/U1RNP purified complex as immobilized antigen it was shown that the sensitivity of the anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA in detecting anti-snRNPs was 74%; in addition sera with anti-Sm antibodies gave higher binding in the anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 ELISA compared with anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA. Intra- and inter-assay precision was measured on four sera with reactivities extending into a wide range of absorbance values showed that the intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 2.7 to 6 and the inter-assay CV% ranged from 9 to 14.5. These results indicate that the PPGMRPP peptide anchored to a pentameric SOC as a carrier is a suitable antigen for

  19. Genome anchored QTLs for biomass productivity in hybrid Populus grown under contrasting environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Muchero

    Full Text Available Traits related to biomass production were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs in a Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides F(2 population. A genetic linkage map composed of 841 SSR, AFLP, and RAPD markers and phenotypic data from 310 progeny were used to identify genomic regions harboring biomass QTLs. Twelve intervals were identified, of which BM-1, BM-2, and BM-7 were identified in all three years for both height and diameter. One putative QTL, BM-7, and one suggestive QTL exhibited significant evidence of over-dominance in all three years for both traits. Conversely, QTLs BM-4 and BM-6 exhibited evidence of under-dominance in both environments for height and diameter. Seven of the nine QTLs were successfully anchored, and QTL peak positions were estimated for each one on the P. trichocarpa genome assembly using flanking SSR markers with known physical positions. Of the 3,031 genes located in genome-anchored QTL intervals, 1,892 had PFAM annotations. Of these, 1,313, representing 255 unique annotations, had at least one duplicate copy in a QTL interval identified on a separate scaffold. This observation suggests that some QTLs identified in this study may have shared the same ancestral sequence prior to the salicoid genome duplication in Populus.

  20. Hybrid Luminescent Films Obtained by Covalent Anchoring Terbium Complex to Silica-based Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    New monomer N-(4-carboxyphenyl)-NL-(propyltriethoxysilyl)urea (1) which acts as both a ligand for Tb3+ ion and a sol-gel precursor has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, and MS. Hybrid luminescent thin films consisting of organoterbium covalently bonded to a silica-based network have been obtained in situ via a sol-gel approach. Strong line emission of Tb3+ ion was observed from the hybrid luminescent films under UV excitation.

  1. Inorganic-organic hybrids originating from organosilane anchored onto leached vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. M. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of clay minerals leached in grafting reactions was investigated. Precursor solids were prepared by treating the sodium vermiculites with nitric acid solutions at several concentrations. The lixiviation produced the restructured porous solids with surface area over a wide range, varying from 133 to 673 m² g- 1. The sodium and lixiviated vermiculites reacted covalently with silylating agent, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, to attach this agent onto the inorganic surface, through the free available silanols. The products were characterized by CNH elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state for carbon and silicon. CHN data expressed by significant contents of anchored organic chains, up to 2.14 mmol g- 1, as the degree of leaching was increased. The success of this investigation is directly related to the leaching of the natural vermiculite, which is strongly influenced by the reactivity of the abundant original source.

  2. A pilot study applying the plant Anchored Hybrid Enrichment method to New World sages (Salvia subgenus Calosphace; Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso-Martínez, Itzi; Salazar, Gerardo A; Martínez-Gordillo, Martha; Magallón, Susana; Sánchez-Reyes, Luna; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; Lemmon, Alan R; Sazatornil, Federico; Granados Mendoza, Carolina

    2017-02-09

    We conducted a pilot study using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment to resolve relationships among a mostly Neotropical sage lineage that may have undergone a recent evolutionary radiation. Conventional markers (ITS, trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA) have not been able to resolve the relationships among species nor within portions of the backbone of the lineage. We sampled 12 representative species of subgenus Calosphace and included one species of Salvia's s.l. closest relative, Lepechinia, as outgroup. Hybrid enrichment and sequencing were successful, yielding 448 alignments of individual loci with an average length of 704bp. The performance of the phylogenomic data in phylogenetic reconstruction was superior to that of conventional markers, increasing both support and resolution. Because the captured loci vary in the amount of net phylogenetic informativeness at different phylogenetic depths, these data are promising in phylogenetic reconstruction of this group and likely other lineages within Lamiales. However, special attention should be placed on the amount of phylogenetic noise that the data could potentially contain. A prior exploration step using phylogenetic informativeness profiles to detect loci with sites with disproportionately high substitution rates (showing "phantom" spikes) and, if required, the ensuing filtering of the problematic data is recommended. In our dataset, filtering resulted in increased support and resolution for the shallow nodes in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees resulting from concatenated analyses of all the loci. Additionally, it is expected that an increase in sampling (loci and taxa) will aid in resolving weakly supported, short deep internal branches.

  3. Firm anchoring between a calcium phosphate-hybridized tendon and bone for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a goat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Sakane, Masataka; Ochiai, Naoyuki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Hattori, Shinya; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi, E-mail: sakane-m@md.tsukuba.ac.j [Biomaterial Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Using an alternative soaking process improved the tendon-bone attachment for a calcium phosphate (CaP)-hybridized tendon graft. We characterized the deposited CaP on and in tendons and analyzed the histology and mechanical properties of the tendon-bone interface in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in goats. The tendon grafts to be implanted were soaked ten times alternately in a Ca-containing solution and a PO{sub 4}-containing solution for 30 s each. Needlelike CaP nanocrystals including low-crystalline apatite were deposited on and between collagen fibrils from the surface to a depth of 200{mu}m inside the tendon. The structure resembles the extracellular matrix of bone. In animal experiments, the CaP-hybridized tendon directly bonded with newly formed bone at 6 weeks (n = 3), while fibrous bonding was observed in the control (n = 3). The ultimate failure load was not statistically different between the CaP (n = 7) and control (n = 7). However, in the failure mode, all the tendon-bone interfaces were intact in the CaP group, while three of seven specimens were pulled out from bone tunnels in the control. The result suggested that the strength of the tendon-bone interface in the CaP group is superior to that in the control group. Clinically, firm tendon-bone anchoring may lead to good results without the knee instability associated with the loosening of the bone-tendon junction in ACL reconstruction.

  4. Bio-inspired Construction of Advanced Fuel Cell Cathode with Pt Anchored in Ordered Hybrid Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhangxun; Wang, Suli; Jiang, Luhua; Sun, Hai; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Bingsen; Sheng Su, Dang; Wang, Jianqiang; Sun, Gongquan

    2015-01-01

    The significant use of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The construction of well-defined electrode architecture in nanoscale with enhanced utilization and catalytic performance of Pt might be a promising approach to address such barrier. Inspired by the highly efficient catalytic processes in enzymes with active centers embedded in charge transport pathways, here we demonstrate for the first time a design that allocates platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) at the boundaries with dual-functions of conducting both electrons by aid of polypyrrole and protons via Nafion® ionomer within hierarchical nanoarrays. By mimicking enzymes functionally, an impressive ORR activity and stability is achieved. Using this brand new electrode architecture as the cathode and the anode of a PEMFC, a high mass specific power density of 5.23 W mg−1Pt is achieved, with remarkable durability. These improvements are ascribed to not only the electron decoration and the anchoring effects from the Nafion® ionomer decorated PPy substrate to the supported Pt NPs, but also the fast charge and mass transport facilitated by the electron and proton pathways within the electrode architecture. PMID:26537781

  5. Design automation for complex CMOS/SOS LSI hybrid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P. W.; Smiley, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A design automated approach used to develop thick-film hybrid packages is described. The hybrid packages produced combine thick-film and silicon on sapphire (SOS) laser surface interaction technologies to bring the on-chip performance level of SOS to the subsystem level. Packing densities are improved by a factor of eight over ceramic dual in-line packing; interchip wiring capacitance is low. Due to significant time savings, the design automated approach presented can be expected to yield a 3:1 reduction in cost over the use of manual methods for the initial design of a hybrid.

  6. Substrate specificity of hybrid modules from peptide synthetases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsner, A; Engert, H; Saenger, W; Hamoen, L; Venema, G; Bernhard, F

    1997-01-01

    Homologous modules from two different peptide synthetases were analyzed for functionally equivalent regions. Hybrids between the coding regions of the phenylalanine-activating module of tyrocidine synthetase and the valine activating module of surfactin synthetase were constructed by combining the t

  7. Optical absorption enhancement in a hybrid system photonic crystal - thin substrate for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buencuerpo, Jeronimo; Munioz-Camuniez, Luis E; Dotor, Maria L; Postigo, Pablo A

    2012-07-02

    A hybrid approach for light trapping using photonic crystal nanostructures (nanorods, nanopillars or nanoholes) on top of an ultra thin film as a substrate is presented. The combination of a nanopatterned layer with a thin substrate shows an enhanced optical absorption than equivalent films without patterning and can compete in performance with nanostructured systems without a substrate. The designs are tested in four relevant materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), crystalline silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP). A consistent enhancement is observed for all of the materials when using a thin hybrid system (300 nm) even compared to the non patterned thin film with an anti-reflective coating (ARC). A realistic solar cell structure composed of a hybrid system with a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) an ARC and a back metal layer is performed, showing an 18% of improvement for the nanostructured device.

  8. New hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Song; ZHANG DeQiang; LI Yang; DUAN Lian; DONG GuiFang; WANG LiDuo; QIU Yong

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrate was investi-gated. The hybrid encapsulation consisted of four periods of Alq3/LiF layers as the pre-encapsulation layer and a flexible aluminum foil coated with getter as the encapsulation cap. We measured the device lifetime at a continuous constant current of 20 mA/cm2, which corresponded to an initial luminance of 2000 cd/m2, The half-luminance decay time of the encapsulated device was about 458 h. More over, the hybrid encapsulation is ultrathin and flexible, ensuring device bendability.

  9. Hybrid microsystem with functionalized silicon substrate and PDMS sample operating microchannel: A reconfigurable microfluidics scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid microsystem with separately functioned temperature controlling substrate and sample operating fluidic microchannel was developed to demonstrate a reconfigurable microfluidics scheme.The temperature controlling substrate integrated a micro heater and a temperature sensor by using traditional silicon-based micromechanical system(MEMS)technique,which guaranteed high performance and robust reliability for repeatable usage.The sample operating fluidic microchannel was prepared by poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)based soft lithography technique,which made it cheap enough for disposable applications.The PDMS microchannel chip was attached to the temperature controlling substrate for reconfigurable thermal applications.A thin PDMS film was used to seal the microchannel and bridge the functionalized substrate and the sample inside the channel,which facilitated heat transferring and prevented sample contaminating the temperature controlling substrate.Demonstrated by a one dimensional thermal resistance model,the thin PDMS film was important for the present reconfiguration applications.Thermal performance of this hybrid microsystem was examined,and the experimental results demonstrated that the chip system could work stably over hours with temperature variation less than 0.1oC.Multiple PDMS microchannel chips were tested on one heating substrate sequentially with a maximum intra-chip temperature difference of 1.0oC.DNA extracted from serum of a chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV)patient was amplified by this hybrid microsystem and the gel electrophoresis result indicated that the present reconfigurable microfluidic scheme worked successfully.

  10. Studies on 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; A K Shukla

    2015-05-01

    A cost-effective 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor is developed and performance tested. These hybrid ultracapacitors employ flexible-graphite sheets as negative plate currentcollectors that are coated amperometrically with a thin layer of conducting polymer, namely poly-aniline to provide good adhesivity to activated-carbon layer. The positive plate of the hybrid ultracapacitors comprise conventional lead-sheet that is converted electrochemically into a substrate-integrated lead-dioxide electrode. 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors both in absorbent-glass-mat and polymeric silicagel electrolyte configurations are fabricated and characterized. It is possible to realize 12 V configurations with capacitance values of ∼200 F and ∼300 F, energy densities of ∼1.9 Wh kg−1 and ∼2.5 Wh kg−1 and power densities of ∼2 kW kg−1 and ∼0.8 kW kg−1, respectively, having faradaic-efficiency values of ∼90 % with cycle-life in excess of 100,000 cycles. The effective cost of the mentioned hybrid ultracapacitors is estimated to be about ∼4 US$/Wh as compared to ∼20 US$/Wh for commercially available ultracapacitors.

  11. Functional characterization and localization of a Bacillus subtilis sortase and its substrate and use of this sortase system to covalently anchor a heterologous protein to the B. subtilis cell wall for surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Pei Xiong; Wang, Christopher L C; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2012-01-01

    Sortases catalyze the covalent anchoring of proteins to the cell surface on Gram-positive bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis suggests the presence of structural genes encoding sortases and their substrates in the Bacillus subtilis genome. In this study, a β-lactamase reporter was fused to the cell wall anchoring domain from a putative sortase substrate, YhcR. Covalent anchoring of this fusion protein to the cell wall was confirmed by using the eight-protease-deficient B. subtilis strain WB800 as the host. Inactivation of yhcS abolished the cell wall anchoring reaction. The amounts of fusion protein anchored to the cell wall were proportional to the levels of YhcS. These data demonstrate that YhcS and YhcR are the sortase and sortase substrate, respectively, in B. subtilis. Furthermore, yhcS is not essential for the survival of B. subtilis under the cultivation condition tested. YhcR fusions were distributed helically in the lateral cell wall. Interestingly, when viewed with an epifluorescence microscope, YhcS also appeared to form short helical arcs. This is the first report to illustrate such distribution of sortases in a rod-shaped bacterium. Models for the spatial distribution of both the sortase and its substrate are discussed. The amount of the reporters displayed on the surface was unambiguously quantified via a unique strategy. Under optimal conditions with the overproduction of YhcS, 47,300 YhcR fusions could be displayed per cell. Displayed reporters were biologically functional and surface accessible. Characterization of the sortase-substrate system allowed the successful development of a YhcR-based covalent surface display system. This system may have various biotechnological applications.

  12. Transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase that catalyzes the peptide bond formation between the substrate protein's omega-site and the GPI lipid anchor's phosphoethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Stephan; Kwang, Toh Yew; Grüber, Gerhard; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is predicted to be the enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI) lipid anchor to the carbonyl intermediate of the substrate protein at the ω-site. Its ~300-amino acid residue lumenal domain is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase with an α/β hydrolase fold, including a central 8-strand β-sheet and a single metal (most likely zinc) ion coordinated by 3 conserved polar residues. Phosphoethanolamine is used as an adaptor to make the non-peptide GPI lipid anchor look chemically similar to the N terminus of a peptide.

  13. Preparation and characterization of V-shaped PS-b-PEO brushes anchored on planar gold substrate through the trithiocarbonate junction group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Li; Xu, Jun-Ting; Du, Bin-Yang; Fan, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-10-15

    Trithiocarbonate group was introduced into the polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymers as the junction of the blocks through RAFT polymerization. Mixed PS and PEO brushes with a V-shape were prepared by anchoring the trithiocarbonate group on the planar gold substrate. The morphology of the V-shaped brushes was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the surface composition responsive to solvent treatment was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Different morphologies were observed for the V-shaped PS-b-PEO brushes, depending on the chain structure and solvent treatment. The highly selective solvent for PEO, ethanol, can intensify or induce microphase separation of the V-shaped brushes, leading to vertical microphase separation. When the V-shaped brushes are treated with the co-solvent, THF, miscible morphology, lateral microphase separation, and vertical microphase separation are observed as the PS block length increases. After treatment with the non-selective poor solvent, cyclohexane, the V-shaped PS(106)-b-PEO(113) brush, exhibits a laterally microphase-separated morphology, but the V-shaped PS(52)-b-PEO(113) and PS(253)-b-PEO(113) brushes are vertically microphase-separated.

  14. TiO2-B Nanoribbons Anchored with NiO Nanosheets as Hybrid Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    A new type of TiO2-B nanoribbon anchored with NiO nanosheets (TiO2@NiO) is synthesized via a hydrothermal process and a subsequent homogeneous precipitation method. XRD analysis indicates that TiO2-B and cubic NiO phases exist in the composites. According to SEM images, the morphology of the TiO2......@NiO hybrid material is unique, similar to that of leaf mosaic in biological systems. According to electrochemical investigations, the nanostructured hybrid material as an anode exhibits superior initial charge/discharge capacity and capacity retentions. The initial discharge capacity of the TiO2@Ni......O hybrid nanostructure is 395 mA h g−1, and the capacity remains 380 mA h g−1 after 50 charge/discharge cycles, which is about 96.2% capacity retention and 7.8% higher than that of pristine TiO2-B nanoribbons....

  15. Series-connected substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with voltage-management circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; R Srinivasan; A K Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Cell voltage for a fully charged-substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor is about 2.3 V. Therefore, for applications requiring higher DC voltage, several of these ultracapacitors need to be connected in series. However, voltage distribution across each series-connected ultracapacitor tends to be uneven due to tolerance in capacitance and parasitic parallel-resistance values. Accordingly, voltage-management circuit is required to protect constituent ultracapacitors from exceeding their rated voltage. In this study, the design and characterization of the substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor with co-located terminals is discussed. Voltage-management circuit for the ultracapacitor is presented, and its effectiveness is validated experimentally.

  16. Facile room temperature deposition of gold nanoparticle-ionic liquid hybrid film on silica substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Reddy, D. Harikishore Kumar; Sankar, G.; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This work presents facile synthesis of gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-ionic liquid hybrid film of synthesis, and even coating on Si (111) substrate. XRD, XPS, and XAS spectral data confirm the presence of Au(0) while EXAFS data indicated the presence of small particles or incomplete surface species. Cross-sectional analysis using FE-SEM and edge length measurement using AFM showed that the film thickness is ca 10 nm.

  17. Polyaniline-Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanosheets with Nearly Vertical Orientation Anchoring Palladium Nanoparticles for Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Tang, Yanhong; Yan, Dafeng; Liu, Tian; Liu, Chengbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-01-13

    We report a nearly vertical reduced graphene oxide (VrGO) nanosheet coupled with polyaniline (PANI) for supporting palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The PANI-coupled VrGO (PANI@VrGO) nanosheet is prepared by a simple one-step electrodeposition technique ,and Pd nanoparticles are anchored on the support of PANI@VrGO through the spontaneous redox reaction of PANI with a palladium salt. The designed PANI@VrGO nanosheet efficiently exposes the surface of rGO sheets and stabilizes metal nanoparticles. Consequently, the Pd/PANI@VrGO electrocatalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent durability for alcohol oxidation reaction. The proposed nanoarchitecture offers a new pathway to greatly promote the performances of rGO in various applications; moreover, this work provides a powerful and universal synthetic strategy for such an architecture.

  18. Droplet spreading and permeating on the hybrid-wettability porous substrates: a lattice Boltzmann method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wen-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading and permeation of droplets on porous substrates is a fundamental process in a variety of applications, such as coating, dyeing, and printing. The spreading and permeating usually occur synchronously but play different roles in the practical applications. The mechanisms of the competition between spreading and permeation is significant but still unclear. A lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the spreading and permeation of droplets on hybrid-wettability porous substrates, with different wettability on the surface and the inside pores. The competition between the spreading and the permeation processes is studied in this work from the effects of the substrate and the fluid properties, including the substrate wettability, the porous parameters, as well as the fluid surface tension and viscosity. The results show that increasing the surfacewettability and the porosity contact angle both inhibit the spreading and the permeation processes. When the inside porosity contact angle is larger than 90° (hydrophobic, the permeation process does not occur. The droplets suspend on substrates with Cassie state. The droplets are more easily to permeate into substrates with a small inside porosity contact angle (hydrophilic, as well as large pore sizes. Otherwise, the droplets are more easily to spread on substrate surfaces with small surface contact angle (hydrophilic and smaller pore sizes. The competition between droplet spreading and permeation is also related to the fluid properties. The permeation process is enhanced by increasing of surface tension, leading to a smaller droplet lifetime. The goals of this study are to provide methods to manipulate the spreading and permeation separately, which are of practical interest in many industrial applications.

  19. DNA hybridization-induced reorientation of liquid crystal anchoring at the nematic liquid crystal/aqueous interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Andrew D; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between DNA and an adsorbed cationic surfactant at the nematic liquid crystal (LC)/aqueous interface were investigated using polarized and fluorescence microscopy. The adsorption of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) surfactant to the LC/aqueous interface resulted in homeotropic (untilted) LC alignment. Subsequent adsorption of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to the surfactant-laden interface modified the interfacial structure, resulting in a reorientation of the LC from homeotropic alignment to an intermediate tilt angle. Exposure of the ssDNA/OTAB interfacial complex to its ssDNA complement induced a second change in the interfacial structure characterized by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of lateral regions that induced homeotropic LC alignment. Fluorescence microscopy showed explicitly that the complement was colocalized in the same regions as the homeotropic domains. Exposure to noncomplementary ssDNA caused no such response, suggesting that the homeotropic regions were due to DNA hybridization. This hybridization occurred in the vicinity of the interface despite the fact that the conditions in bulk solution were such that hybridization did not occur (high stringency), suggesting that the presence of the cationic surfactant neutralized electrostatic repulsion and allowed for hydrogen bonding between DNA complements. This system has potential for label-less and portable DNA detection. Indeed, LC response to ssDNA target was detected with a lower limit of approximately 50 fmol of complement and was sufficiently selective to differentiate a one-base-pair mismatch in a 16-mer target.

  20. Fluorometric polyethyleneglycol-peptide hybrid substrates for quantitative assay of protein disulfide isomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla; St Hilaire, Phaedria M; Winther, Jakob R.

    2004-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells the enzyme protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is responsible for the formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds in secretory proteins. The reaction carried out by PDI involves interaction with a highly complex mixture of polypeptide molecules that are in the process of folding....... This means that PDI activity is typically measured in the context of a globular protein folding pathway. The absence of small, well-defined substrates for the quantitation of both oxidation and reduction reactions constitutes an inherent problem in the analysis of PDI activity. We describe a new type...... of substrate for PDI where two cysteine-containing oligopeptides are connected by an onameric ethylene glycol linker. We term such hybrid compounds PEGtides. The oligopeptides are each marked with a fluorescent aminobenzoic acid and a quenching nitrotyrosine group, respectively. The reversible formation...

  1. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  2. Deposition of transparent, hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane - nanocrystalline TiO2 hybrid films on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On-uma Nimittrakoolchai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Transparent, hydrophobic hybrid films were deposited on glass substrate from solution containing hydroxyl-terminatedpolydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and TiO2 sol by using a dip coating method. The effects of the film heat-treatment temperatureand PDMS/TiO2 component on surface properties of the hybrid films were investigated by water drop contact angle measurement,and by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses. Surface morphology of the hybrid film changed from smooth surface containing tiny spikes to rougher surface containing large protrusions during heattreatmenttemperatures of 60 - 300°C and became smooth surface containing very fine spikes at 500°C, corresponding to a change hydrophobicity behavior from contact angle measurement. The suitable condition for preparation of hydrophobic coating from this current recipe was at the PDMS/TiO2 volume ratio of 1.00 - 2.33 and heat-treatment temperature of 60°C. All the films were transparent regardless of post heat-treatment temperature. However, the films containing higher content of PDMS were slightly more transparent.

  3. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  4. Fabrication of chitosan-silver nanoparticle hybrid 3D porous structure as a SERS substrate for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Kim, Ji-Hye; Burm, Jin Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    We propose a simple, low-cost, large-area, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for biomedical applications. The SERS substrate with chitosan-silver nanoparticles (chitosan-Ag NPs) hybrid 3D porous structure was fabricated simply by a one-step method. The chitosan was used as a template for the Ag NPs deposition. SERS enhancement by the chitosan-Ag NPs substrate was experimentally verified using rhodamine B as an analyte. Thiolated single stranded DNA was also measured for atopic dermatitis genetic markers (chemokines CCL17) at a low concentration of 5 pM. We successfully designed a novel SERS substrate with silver nanoparticle hybridized 3D porous chitosan that has the potential to become a highly sensitive and selective tool for biomedical applications.

  5. Utilization of hybrid plasmonic modes to investigate surface interactions between nanocubes and polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Michael; Bottomley, Adam; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanocube monolayers deposited on polymer films were heated past the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Surface interactions between the cubes and substrate dictate the depth and rate of incorporation into the polymer. Silver nanocubes support hybrid plasmonic modes that are spatially separated when there is anisotropy in the local refractive index. Using this measure, it becomes possible to monitor the position of the cubes relative to the surface and tune spectral features in the visible spectrum. These spatially resolved plasmonic modes were used to probe the local glass transition temperature of polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the glass transition temperature of PS, PMMA, PVC were 103 ± 2, 122 ± 12, 81 ± 2 °C, respectively.

  6. Hybrid copper complex-derived conductive patterns printed on polyimide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungyoon; Jeong, Sooncheol; Kim, Yoonhyun; Jeong, Inbum; Woo, Kyoohee; Moon, Jooho

    2012-06-01

    We synthesized new copper complexes that can be readily converted into highly conductive Cu film. Mechanochemical milling of copper (I) oxide suspended in formic acid resulted in the submicron-sized Cu formate together Cu nanoparticles. The submicrometer-sized Cu formates are reactive toward inter-particle sintering and metallic Cu seeds present in the Cu complexes assist their decomposition and the nucleation of Cu. The hybrid copper complex film printed on polyimide substrate is decomposed into dense and uniform Cu layer after annealing at 250 °C for 30 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting Cu film exhibited a low resistivity of 8.2 μΩ·cm and good adhesion characteristics.

  7. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications.

  8. Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz and 1.68 (SF5 glass, the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS and figure of merit (FOM. Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results.

  9. Ag Nanorods-Oxide Hybrid Array Substrates: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, benefitting from the sufficient sensitivity, high specificity, nondestructive, and rapid detection capability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS technique, numerous nanostructures have been elaborately designed and successfully synthesized as high-performance SERS substrates, which have been extensively exploited for the identification of chemical and biological analytes. Among these, Ag nanorods coated with thin metal oxide layers (AgNRs-oxide hybrid array substrates featuring many outstanding advantages have been proposed as fascinating SERS substrates, and are of particular research interest. The present review provides a systematic overview towards the representative achievements of AgNRs-oxide hybrid array substrates for SERS applications from diverse perspectives, so as to promote the realization of real-world SERS sensors. First, various fabrication approaches of AgNRs-oxide nanostructures are introduced, which are followed by a discussion on the novel merits of AgNRs-oxide arrays, such as superior SERS sensitivity and reproducibility, high thermal stability, long-term activity in air, corrosion resistivity, and intense chemisorption of target molecules. Next, we present recent advances of AgNRs-oxide substrates in terms of practical applications. Intriguingly, the recyclability, qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as vapor-phase molecule sensing have been achieved on these nanocomposites. We further discuss the major challenges and prospects of AgNRs-oxide substrates for future SERS developments, aiming to expand the versatility of SERS technique.

  10. Analysis of a Substrate Integrated Waveguide Hybrid Ring (Rat-Race Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Dehdasht-Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient analysis of a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW single-layer hybrid ring coupler (rat-race for millimeter-wave and microwave applications. The scattered field from each circular cylinder is expanded by cylindrical eigenfunctions with unknown coefficients that have been solved by electric and magnetic tangential boundary on each metallic via. The coupler S-matrix is calculated by using mode matching that uses the cylindrical vector expansion analysis to minimize the computational time and provides more physical insight. To achieve higher bandwidth, the radiuses of the coupler under analysis have been optimized in Matlab code by invasive weed optimization (IWO method, and the results have been verified by CST package. The return loss and the isolation are less than −15 dB, and −18 dB, respectively. The insertion loss is divided equally -3±0.2 dB, with 0±5 and 180±10 degrees in output ports over the operating frequency bandwidth and the agreement of phase differences in output ports has been examined objectively by feature selective validation (FSV technique.

  11. Substrate integrated Lead-Carbon hybrid ultracapacitor with flooded, absorbent glass mat and silica-gel electrolyte configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, A.; Ravikumar, MK; Jalajakshi, A; Kumar, Suresh P; Gaffoor, SA; Shukla, AK

    2012-01-01

    Lead-Carbon hybrid ultracapacitors (Pb-C HUCs) with flooded, absorbent-glass-mat (AGM) and silica-gel sulphuric acid electrolyte configurations are developed and performance tested. Pb-C HUCs comprise substrate-integrated PbO2 (SI-PbO2) as positive electrodes and high surface-area carbon with graphite-sheet substrate as negative electrodes. The electrode and silica-gel electrolyte materials are characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, Rheometry, BET surface area, and FTIR spectroscopy in conjunct...

  12. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-10-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.

  13. Hemorrhagic stomatitis in a natural hybrid of Vipera ammodytes × Vipera berus due to inappropriate substrate in terrarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Köbölkuti, Lóránd Béla; Tenk, Miklós; Szakács, Attila; Kelemen, Attila; Spînu, Marina

    2015-06-01

    A natural hybrid of Vipera ammodytes × Vipera berus was presented having low body weight, seizures and generalized swelling of the cephalic region. Based on the history of the case and clinical examination, hemorrhagic stomatitis of traumatic origin was diagnosed. The snake was kept in a terrarium with wood chips as a substrate, and the material had induced trauma in the oral mucosa which was further complicated with Salmonella Arizonae and Morganella morganii co-infection, abscessation and osteomyelitis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of bacterial infection in European snake hybrids and one of a few case reports in European snakes. Although wood chips are an inexpensive substrate, based on our findings, they should be avoided when keeping and breeding European vipers.

  14. General Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Highly Adaptive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrospun Fibrous Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Yi-Nan; Morlay, Catherine; Gu, Yifan; Gebremariam, Binyam; Yuan, Xiao; Li, Fengting

    2016-02-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous mats are ideal substrates for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) crystal deposition because of their specific structural parameters and chemical tenability. In this work, we utilized organic-inorganic hybrid electrospun fibrous mats as support material to study the deposition of various MOF particles. HKUST-1 and MIL-53(Al) were produced through solvothermal method, while ZIF-8 and MIL-88B(Fe) were prepared using microwave-induced heating method. The synthesis procedure for both methods were simple and effective because the hybrid nanofibrous mats showed considerable affinity to MOF particles and could be used without additional modifications. The obtained MOF composites exhibited effective incorporation between MOF particles and the porous substrates. MIL-53(Al) composite was applied as fibrous sorbent and showed enhanced adsorption capacity and removal rate, as well as easier operation, compared with thepowdered sample. Moreover, MIL-53(Al) composite was easier to be regenerated compared with powder form.

  15. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis

  16. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  17. Bond Strength between Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Substrate and Self-Compacting Concrete as Topping Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Widodo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural performance evaluation of composite concrete slabs that were constructed using partially precast concreting system which utilized Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (HyFRLWAC as stay in-place formwork and self-compacting concrete (SCC as topping layer was conducted in this research. This paper focused on determining the appropriate strength limit criteria of interface between two different concrete layers. The tensile strength was tested using pull-off test, while concrete cohesion was investigated based on modified bisurface shear test, and dual L-shaped shear test was used to determine the effect of normal force on the shear strength of concrete interface. Sample variants were designed based on the substrate surface conditions, compressive strength of the topping layer, and magnitude of perpendicular normal force acting on interface area. The substrate surfaces were prepared in as-placed and grooved conditions for tensile test, cohesion, and shear strength test. Test results indicate that tensile strength, cohesion, and shear strength of the concrete interface are affected by surface condition of the substrate, compressive strength of the topping layer, and the normal force acting perpendicularly on the concrete interface area. Proposed formulation for bond strength prediction between HyFRLWAC as substrate and SCC as topping layer is also presented in this paper.

  18. Performance of PbO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor with carbon foam substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhang; Yao Hui Qu; Li Jun Gao

    2012-01-01

    PbO2/activated carbon (AC) hybrid supercapacitor in H2SO4 with a carbon foam current collector is studied.The PbO2/AC hybrid is designed with electrodeposited PbO2 thin film as positive electrode to match with AC negative electrode.The discharge curve shows capacitive characteristics between 1.88 V and 0.65 V.The hybrid system exhibits excellent energy and powe performance,with specific energy of 43.6 Wh/kg at a power density of 654.2 W/kg.The use of carbon foam current collecto ensures stability of the PbO2 electrode in H2SO4 environment.After 2600 deep cycles at 15 C high rate of charge/discharge,the capacity remains nearly unchanged from its initial value.

  19. Substrate integrated Lead-Carbon hybrid ultracapacitor with flooded, absorbent glass mat and silica-gel electrolyte configurations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; M K Ravikumar; A Jalajakshi; P Suresh Kumar; S A Gaffoor; A K Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Lead-Carbon hybrid ultracapacitors (Pb-C HUCs) with flooded, absorbent-glass-mat (AGM) and silica-gel sulphuric acid electrolyte configurations are developed and performance tested. Pb-C HUCs comprise substrate-integrated PbO2 (SI-PbO2) as positive electrodes and high surface-area carbon with graphite-sheet substrate as negative electrodes. The electrode and silica-gel electrolyte materials are characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, Rheometry, BET surface area, and FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with electrochemistry. Electrochemical performance of SI-PbO2 and carbon electrodes is studied using cyclic voltammetry with constant-current charge and discharge techniques by assembling symmetric electrical-double-layer capacitors and hybrid Pb-C HUCs with a dynamic Pb(porous)/PbSO4 reference electrode. The specific capacitance values for 2 V Pb-C HUCs are found to be 166 F/g, 102 F/g and 152 F/g with a faradaic efficiency of 98%, 92% and 88% for flooded, AGM and gel configurations, respectively.

  20. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  1. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  2. Label free detection of DNA on Au/ZnO/Ag hybrid structure based SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D. Bharathi

    2016-04-01

    Au/ZnO/Ag based SERS substrate was fabricated for the label free detection of DNA of Escherichia Coli bacteria. The SERS substrate was fabricated by growing ZnO nanorod arrays on thermally evaporated ultrathin Ag film of 5 nm thickness using hydrothermal process. Non-spherical like Au nanoparticles were decorated on ZnO nanorod arrays by sputtering technique with sputtering time of 45 sec. The surface of Au/ZnO/Ag was observed to be nearly superhydrophobic exhibiting the contact angle of 144 °. A low volume (5 µl) of aqueous solution of DNA of laboratory strain Escherichia Coli with very low concentration was adsorbed on fabricated SERS substrate by drop casting. The SERS detection of DNA molecules was achieved up to lower concentration of 10-8 M due to strong local electric field enhancement at the nanometer gap among Au nanoparticles and superhydrophobic nature of Au/ZnO/Ag surface.

  3. Synthesis of hybrid transition-metalloproteins via thiol-selective covalent anchoring of Rh-phosphine and Ru-phenanthroline complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heeten, R.; Muñoz, B.K.; Popa, G.; Laan, W.; Kamer, P.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of hybrid transition metalloproteins by thiol-selective incorporation of organometallic rhodium- and ruthenium complexes is described. Phosphine ligands and two rhodium-diphosphine complexes bearing a carboxylic acid group were coupled to the cysteine of PYP R52G, yielding a metalloe

  4. Mapping of barley alpha-amylases and outer subsite mutants reveals dynamic high-affinity subsites and barriers in the long substrate binding cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandra, L.; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyemant, G.;

    2006-01-01

    as binding barriers. Barley a-amylase I mutants Y105A and T212Y at subsite -6 and +4 resulted in release or anchoring of bound substrate, thus modifying the affinities of other high-affinity subsites (-2 and +2) and barriers. The double mutant Y105A-T212Y displayed a hybrid subsite affinity profile...

  5. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  6. Hybrid integration of synthesized dielectric image waveguides in substrate integrated circuit technology and its millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrovsky, Andreas

    This thesis deals with a novel type of integrated dielectric waveguide which is synthesized on a planar grounded substrate by perforation of the zones adjacent to a guiding channel in the center. The resulting Substrate Integrated Image Guide (SIIG) not only allows for low-loss guidance of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as the standard image guide, but also meets the requirements of low cost and ease of integration. A first objective was the detailed analysis of the propagation properties of fundamental and higher order modes in this waveguide structure, regarding attenuation, dispersion behavior, bandwidth, leakage effects, and the impact of fabrication tolerances. For this purpose, specifically adapted techniques of analysis are presented, since established methods for the conventional image guide can not be applied to the more complex periodic SIIG. Commercial electromagnetic full-wave software is used along with a dual-line approach involving a subsequent extraction of the propagation constant from simulated S-parameters. Alternatively, the solution of the eigenmode problem of a single SIIG unit cell also performs the task. Both techniques are in good agreement and provide accurate results, which is supported by measurements on laser-fabricated prototypes. It is shown that the achievable attenuation is much lower than in the standard integrated technologies and that losses mainly depend on the chosen dielectric material. As a consequence, the SIIG also is an attractive technology for applications beyond the mmW band, i. e. in the terahertz range. Design recommendations for the geometric parameters of the SIIG are discussed and a simplified equivalent model with homogeneous dielectric regions is introduced to speed up the design of passive components. Low-loss transitions between dissimilar waveguide structures are indispensable key components for a hybrid integrated platform. In order to enable the connection of standard measurement equipment in the W

  7. Thermodynamic theory of strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic film-substrate hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukhar, V G [Visual Trading Systems LLC, St Petersburg Branch, 194044 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pertsev, N A [A F Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kholkin, A L, E-mail: pertsev.domain@mail.ioffe.ru [Center for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials (CICECO) and Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-07-02

    A nonlinear thermodynamic theory is developed for the strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric (ME) effect displayed by ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanostructures. This effect results from transmission of magnetic-field-induced deformations of a thick ferromagnetic substrate to a thin ferroelectric overlayer, where the polarization changes due to lattice strains. The strain-dependent polarization and permittivity of an epitaxial nanolayer (few tens of nm thick) are calculated using the thermodynamic theory of single-domain ferroelectric films. The substrate magnetostrictive deformations are described phenomenologically, taking into account their nonlinear variation with magnetic field. The calculations show that ME polarization and voltage coefficients strongly depend on the initial strain state of the film. For BaTiO{sub 3} and PbTiO{sub 3} films deposited on Co{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the out-of-plane polarization and related ME coefficients are calculated numerically as a function of magnetic field parallel to the interface. For films stabilized in the monoclinic phase, this transverse ME response depends on the orientation of magnetic field relative to their in-plane crystallographic axes. The longitudinal ME coefficient is also evaluated and, for a substrate geometry minimizing the demagnetizing field, predicted to be comparable to the transverse one. For BaTiO{sub 3} and PbTiO{sub 3} films deposited on Terfenol-D, the calculations yield high ME polarization coefficients {approx} 10{sup -7} s m{sup -1} and giant ME voltage coefficients {approx} 50 V cm{sup -1} Oe{sup -1}.

  8. Thermodynamic theory of strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic film-substrate hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhar, V G; Pertsev, N A; Kholkin, A L

    2010-07-02

    A nonlinear thermodynamic theory is developed for the strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric (ME) effect displayed by ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanostructures. This effect results from transmission of magnetic-field-induced deformations of a thick ferromagnetic substrate to a thin ferroelectric overlayer, where the polarization changes due to lattice strains. The strain-dependent polarization and permittivity of an epitaxial nanolayer (few tens of nm thick) are calculated using the thermodynamic theory of single-domain ferroelectric films. The substrate magnetostrictive deformations are described phenomenologically, taking into account their nonlinear variation with magnetic field. The calculations show that ME polarization and voltage coefficients strongly depend on the initial strain state of the film. For BaTiO(3) and PbTiO(3) films deposited on Co(0.8)Zn(0.2)Fe(2)O(4), the out-of-plane polarization and related ME coefficients are calculated numerically as a function of magnetic field parallel to the interface. For films stabilized in the monoclinic phase, this transverse ME response depends on the orientation of magnetic field relative to their in-plane crystallographic axes. The longitudinal ME coefficient is also evaluated and, for a substrate geometry minimizing the demagnetizing field, predicted to be comparable to the transverse one. For BaTiO(3) and PbTiO(3) films deposited on Terfenol-D, the calculations yield high ME polarization coefficients approximately 10(-7) s m(-1) and giant ME voltage coefficients approximately 50 V cm(-1) Oe(-1).

  9. Analysis and design of substrate integrated waveguide using efficient 2D hybrid method

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui

    2010-01-01

    Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is a new type of transmission line. It implements a waveguide on a piece of printed circuit board by emulating the side walls of the waveguide using two rows of metal posts. It inherits the merits both from the microstrip for compact size and easy integration, and from the waveguide for low radiation loss, and thus opens another door to design efficient microwave circuits and antennas at a low cost. This book presents a two-dimensional fullwave analysis method to investigate an SIW circuit composed of metal and dielectric posts. It combines the cylindrical

  10. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Managements on Substrate Utilization Pattern of Soil Microbial Population in Hybrid Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the combined effect of nutrient and pest managements on soil biomass phospholipid contents, functional biodiversity and substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial populations in hybrid rice cropping system. The mineral N, P and K fertilizers (as urea, calcium superphosphate and KCl respectively) were incorporated at 100, 25, and 100 kg ha-1, respectively, and the various pesticides were applied at the recommended rates. The results of the experiment demonstrated a decline in the microbial abundance and soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents with the advancement of crop growth, and significant changes in substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial population studied were observed with different management practices and at different growth stages. The principal component analysis (PGA) using all 95-carbon sources (BIOLOG plates) gave good differentiation among the treatments, indicating that they have different patterns of carbon utilization under different habitats. The data showed that diversity in microbial community continuously changed with the progression in crop stage, particularly at physiological maturity (PM) stage that was evident from the utilization of different carbon sources at various crop stages.

  11. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Synthesis of hybrid transition-metalloproteins via thiol-selective covalent anchoring of Rh-phosphine and Ru-phenanthroline complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heeten, René; Muñoz, Bianca K; Popa, Gina; Laan, Wouter; Kamer, Paul C J

    2010-09-28

    The preparation of hybrid transition metalloproteins by thiol-selective incorporation of organometallic rhodium- and ruthenium complexes is described. Phosphine ligands and two rhodium-diphosphine complexes bearing a carboxylic acid group were coupled to the cysteine of PYP R52G, yielding a metalloenzyme active in the rhodium catalyzed hydrogenation of dimethyl itaconate. The successful coupling was shown by (31)P NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectroscopy. In addition wild-type PYP (PYP WT), PYP R52G and ALBP were successfully modified with a (eta(6)-arene) ruthenium(II) phenanthroline complex via a maleimide linker.

  13. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloti

  14. Ultrathin single-crystalline TiO2 nanosheets anchored on graphene to be hybrid network for high-rate and long cycle-life sodium battery electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Anwer; Huang, Yongxin; Liu, Jia; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ziheng; Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Jiatao; Wu, Feng

    2017-02-01

    In view of the growing concern about energy management issues, sodium ion batteries (SIBs) as cheap and environmentally friendly devices have increasingly received wide research attentions. The high current rate and long cycle-life of SIBs are considered as two key parameters determining its potential for practical applications. In this work, the rigid single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with a thickness of ∼4 nm has been firstly prepared, based on which a stable nanostructured network consisting of ultrathin anatase TiO2 NSs homogeneously anchored on graphene through chemical bonding (TiO2 NSs-G) has fabricated by hydrothermal process and subsequent calcination treatment. The morphology, crystallization, chemical compositions and the intimate maximum contact between TiO2 NSs and graphene are confirmed by TEM, SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman characterizations. The results of electrochemical performance tests indicated that the TiO2 NSs-G hybrid network could be consider as a promising anode material for SIBs, in assessment of its remarkably high current rate and long cycle-life aside from the improved specific capacity, rate capability and cycle stability.

  15. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  16. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail: cbertolino@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail: ale@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  17. Excellent anti-corrosive pretreatment layer on iron substrate based on three-dimensional porous phytic acid/silane hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ke; Xu, Lei; Xu, Hua; Lu, Haifeng; Gao, Feng; Hou, Shifeng; Ma, Houyi

    2016-01-01

    A novel, highly effective and environmentally friendly film-forming material, phytic acid (PA)/silane (denoted as PAS) hybrid with a three-dimensional (3D) network structure, was prepared through a condensation reaction of PA with methyltrihydroxysilane generated from the hydrolysis of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES). Two kinds of PAS-based pretreatment layers, namely NaBrO3-free and NaBrO3-doped PAS layers, were fabricated on iron substrates using the dip-coating method. SEM and AFM observations showed that the as-fabricated PAS-based layers possessed a 3D porous microstructure at the nanoscale and a rough surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic characterization demonstrated that the above PAS layers bound to the iron surface via the -P-O- bond. Moreover, analyses of steady-state polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) data indicated that the corrosion rates of the iron substrates decreased considerably in the presence of the two PAS-based pretreatment layers. In particular, the NaBrO3-dosed PAS layer displayed the better corrosion resistance ability as well as maintaining the original microstructure and surface morphology. The PAS-based pretreatment layers are expected to act as substitutes for chromate and phosphate conversion layers and will find widespread application in the surface pretreatment of iron and steel materials due to the advantages of being environmentally friendly, the rapid film-forming process, and, especially, the nanoporous microstructure and rough surface morphology.A novel, highly effective and environmentally friendly film-forming material, phytic acid (PA)/silane (denoted as PAS) hybrid with a three-dimensional (3D) network structure, was prepared through a condensation reaction of PA with methyltrihydroxysilane generated from the hydrolysis of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES). Two kinds of PAS-based pretreatment layers, namely Na

  18. Poly(ε-caprolactone) reinforced with sol-gel synthesized organic-inorganic hybrid fillers as composite substrates for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Gloria, Antonio; D-Antò, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Ugo; Ametrano, Gianluca; Bollino, Flavia; De Santis, Roberto; Ausanio, Giovanni; Catauro, Michelina; Rengo, Sandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The importance of polymer-based composite materials to make multifunctional substrates for tissue engineering and the strategies to improve their performances have been stressed in the literature. Bioactive features of sol-gel synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone)/TiO₂ or poly(ε-caprolactone)/ZrO₂ organic-inorganic hybrid materials are widely documented. Accordingly, the aim of this preliminary research was to develop advanced composite substrates consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix reinforced with sol-gel synthesized PCL/TiO₂ or PCL/ZrO₂ hybrid fillers. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses allowed to study surface topography and roughness. On the other hand, mechanical and biological performances were evaluated by small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay, respectively. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses highlighted the effect of the preparation technique. Results from small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay evidenced that PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers provided better mechanical and biological performances. PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers could be considered as advanced composite substrates for hard tissue engineering.

  19. Bio-inspired strategy for on-surface synthesis of silver nanoparticles for metal/organic hybrid nanomaterials and LDI-MS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seonki; Lee, Joon Seok; Ryu, Jungki; Lee, Sahng Ha; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Park, Chan Beum; Lee, Haeshin

    2011-12-09

    A strategy for the on-surface synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a variety of two- to three-dimensional material surfaces, utilizing polydopamine, an emerging surface modifying agent, is reported in this paper. This material-independent platform for AgNP synthesis is useful for fabricating organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials and for preparing substrates for laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF MS).

  20. Magnetic Fe3O4/Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Trace Analysis of Furazolidone in Fish Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs composed of ferromagnetic and noble metal materials show dual functions of magnetic activity and local surface plasmon response and have great potential as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS in trace analysis. Easy-to-prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs were synthesized and optimized by adjusting the ratio of silver particles aggregated with APTMS-modified Fe3O4 NPs. The hybrid NPs were assembled under an external magnetic field before being used as substrate for SERS analysis. The SERS spectral features of furazolidone standard solution were clearly identified at concentrations as low as 40 ng mL−1, and furazolidone in fish feeds could be detected at 500 ng g−1. The results indicated that the Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs as SERS substrates had a great potential for detection of trace amount of furazolidone and other prohibited or restricted antibiotics in the animal and fish feeds.

  1. h-BN Nanosheets as 2D Substrates to Load 0D Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-03-18

    h-BN, as an isoelectronic analogue of graphene, has improved thermal mechanical properties. Moreover, the liquid-phase production of h-BN is greener since harmful oxidants/reductants are unnecessary. Here we report a novel hybrid architecture by employing h-BN nanosheets as 2D substrates to load 0D Fe3O4 nanoparticles, followed by phenol/formol carbonization to form a carbon coating. The resulting carbon-encapsulated h-BN@Fe3O4 hybrid architecture exhibits synergistic interactions: 1) The h-BN nanosheets act as flexible 2D substrates to accommodate the volume change of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2) The Fe3O4 nanoparticles serve as active materials to contribute to a high specific capacity; and 3) The carbon coating not only protects the hybrid architecture from deformation but also keeps the whole electrode highly conductive. The synergistic interactions translate into significantly enhanced electrochemical performances, laying a basis for the development of superior hybrid anode materials.

  2. L’INFLUENCE DES PARTICULARITÉS BIOCHIMIQUES DE CERTAINS HYBRIDES DE MAÏS UTILISÉS COMME SUBSTRAT SUR LA QUALITÉ DES SPORES DE PENICILLIUM CHRISOGENUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zaharia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous avons essayé de mettre en évidence la modalité dont le substrat sur lequel sont obtenues les spores utilisées comme inocule peut influencer le taux de biosynthèse du mycélium issu de ces spores en culture submergée (en flacons agités. Nous avons également cherché à déceler la variante optimale de substrat et la mise en évidence des éventuels aspects biochimiques qui pourraient influencer négativement la qualité des spores. Pour des raisons pratiques, on a opté pour des variantes de substrat naturel appartenant à une même espèce végétale (caryopses de 23 hybrides de maïs autochtones.

  3. Anchored paired comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  4. Fluctuation-induced interactions in nematics with disordered anchoring energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour Haddadan, Fahimeh; Naji, Ali; Shirzadiani, Nafiseh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    We examine fluctuation-induced (pseudo-Casimir) interactions in nematic liquid-crystalline films confined between two surfaces, where one of the surfaces imposes a strong homeotropic anchoring (ensuring a uniform mean director profile), while the other one is assumed to be a chemically disordered substrate exhibiting an annealed distribution of anchoring energies. We employ a saddle-point approximation to evaluate the free energy of interaction mediated between the two surfaces and investigate how the interaction force is influenced by the presence of disordered surface anchoring energy. It is shown that the disorder results in a renormalization of the effective surface anchoring parameter in a way that it leads to quantitative and qualitative changes (including a change of sign at intermediate inter-surface separations) in the pseudo-Casimir interaction force when compared with the interaction force in the absence of disorder.

  5. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  6. Investigating the role of co-substrate-substrate ratio and filter media on the performance of anammox hybrid reactor treating nitrogen rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the anammox hybrid reactor (AHR), which combines suspended and attached growth media, for the biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The study was performed in four laboratory-scale AHRs, inoculated with mixed seed culture (1:1). The anammox process was established by feeding the AHR with synthetic wastewater, containing NH(4)-N and NO(2)-N (1:1), at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to a higher ammonium concentration (1200 mg/l) until the pseudo-steady state was attained. Subsequently, the reactors were operated at various HRTs (0.25-3.0 days) to optimize the HRT and nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The study demonstrated that HRT of 1 day, corresponding to 95.1% of nitrogen removal was optimal. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT), whereas the NLR and biomass yield correlated negatively with the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The mass balance of nitrogen showed that a major fraction (79.1%) of the input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas, and 11.25% was utilized in synthesizing the biomass. The filter media in the AHR contributed to an additional 15.4% of ammonium removal and a reduction of 29% in the sludge washout rate. The nitrogen removal kinetics in the AHR followed the modified Stover-Kincannon model, whereas the Lawrence-McCarty model best described the bacterial growth kinetics. The study concludes that the hybrid configuration of the reactor demonstrated promising results and could be suitably applied for industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactive Microcontact Printing of DNA Probes on (DMA-NAS-MAPS) Copolymer-Coated Substrates for Efficient Hybridization Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Rossella; Bertucci, Alessandro; Prasetyanto, Eko Adi; Monticelli, Marco; Conca, Dario Valter; Massetti, Matteo; Sharma, Parikshit Pratim; Damin, Francesco; Chiari, Marcella; De Cola, Luisa; Bertacco, Riccardo

    2016-04-05

    High-performing hybridization platforms fabricated by reactive microcontact printing of DNA probes are presented. Multishaped PDMS molds are used to covalently bind oligonucleotides over a functional copolymer (DMA-NAS-MAPS) surface. Printed structures with minimum width of about 1.5 μm, spaced by 10 μm, are demonstrated, with edge corrugation lower than 300 nm. The quantification of the immobilized surface probes via fluorescence imaging gives a remarkable concentration of 3.3 × 10(3) oligonucleotides/μm(2), almost totally active when used as probes in DNA-DNA hybridization assays. Indeed, fluorescence and atomic force microscopy show a 95% efficiency in target binding and uniform DNA hybridization over printed areas.

  8. Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles exhibiting strong charge-transfer-induced SERS for recyclable SERS-active substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yang, Haitao; Ren, Xiao; Tang, Jin; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xiangqun; Cheng, Zhaohua

    2015-03-01

    Flower-shaped Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared via seeding growth and subsequent wet-chemical etching of Au-ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The etched Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have shown a stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the nontotally symmetric (b2) vibrational modes of PATP molecules than Au nanoparticles alone, which is attributed to the chemical enhancement effect of the ZnO layer which is greatly excited by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au cores. Further, the mechanism of the LSPR-enhanced charge transfer (CT) effect has been proved by the SERS spectra of PATP molecules excited using different laser sources from 325 to 785 nm. Moreover, the photocatalytic experimental results indicated that Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles are promising as biologically compatible and recyclable SERS-active platforms for different molecular species.Flower-shaped Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared via seeding growth and subsequent wet-chemical etching of Au-ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The etched Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have shown a stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the nontotally symmetric (b2) vibrational modes of PATP molecules than Au nanoparticles alone, which is attributed to the chemical enhancement effect of the ZnO layer which is greatly excited by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au cores. Further, the mechanism of the LSPR-enhanced charge transfer (CT) effect has been proved by the SERS spectra of PATP molecules excited using different laser sources from 325 to 785 nm. Moreover, the photocatalytic experimental results indicated that Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles are promising as biologically compatible and recyclable SERS-active platforms for different molecular species. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00491h

  9. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  10. The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2010-11-01

    Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally.

  11. Photofunctional hybrids of rare earth complexes covalently bonded to ZnO core-shell nanoparticle substrate through polymer linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan-Fei; Yan, Bing

    2012-06-28

    A novel series of multi-component hybrids are assembled based on rare earth coordinated to rare earth ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+)) complex systems and ZnO nanocomposites through three different ester units (ethyl methacrylate (EMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA)) as functional polymer linkages. Methacrylic-group-modified ZnO nanoparticles (designated ZnO-MAA) are synthesized based on the reaction between zinc methacrylate and LiOH with the molar ratio 1 : 3.5 via sol-gel process. The final hybrid materials are prepared by introducing rare earth complexes into ZnO-MAA matrix via addition polymerization reaction in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator. The detailed characterization and luminescence of these hybrid materials are discussed. It is found that ZnO-MAA-HEMA/EMA/HFBMA-RE-phen hybrid systems have effective intramolecular energy transfer process and exhibit longer lifetime and higher quantum efficiency.

  12. Graphene oxide as a highly selective substrate to synthesize a layered MoS2 hybrid electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmiano, Edney G S; Cordeiro, Marcos A L; Rabelo, Adriano C; Dalmaschio, Cleocir J; Pinheiro, Antonio N; Pereira, Ernesto C; Leite, Edson R

    2012-08-11

    We merged the microwave synthesis approach with an extension of the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method to induce highly selective crystallization of MoS(2) layers over graphene sheets. This hybrid material showed superior electrocatalytic activity in hydrogen evolution reactions.

  13. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  14. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  15. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as "click reaction" and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV-vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  16. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, S.R.; Cardoso, H.R.P. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, C.T. [ICET, University Feevale, RS-239, 2755 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Santana, J.A.; Sarmento, V.H.V. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe – UFS, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Muller, I.L. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  17. Superhydrophobic and highly luminescent polyfluorene/silica hybrid coatings deposited onto glass and cellulose-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Raquel; Hoyos, Mario; García, Nuria; Tiemblo, Pilar

    2015-03-31

    Neat poly(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene) (PFO) and composites of PFO and a modified organonanosilica P(7) at weight ratios 90/10, 70/30, and 50/50 have been employed to prepare fluorescent and superhydrophobic coatings by spraying onto three different substrates: glass, Whatman paper, and a filtration membrane of mixed cellulose esters. The water repellency of the coatings and their photophysical properties are therein studied. It is found that, irrespective of the substrate and the composite composition, all coatings remain fluorescent. In some of the coatings prepared, confined morphologies are created, which fluoresce with a wavelength distribution resembling that of an ordered planar β-phase. Among the coatings prepared in this work, those with a ratio PFO/P(7) of 50/50 are the ones with the strongest chain confinement and the highest surface roughness, being highly emissive at the β-phase wavelengths and also superhydrophobic. Depending on the substrate these materials are also tough and flexible (cellulose based substrates) or display a remarkable light transmittance (glass). A final merit of these multifunctional materials is the simplicity of the preparation procedure, adequate for large surfaces and industrial applications.

  18. Metal Decoration Effects on the Gas-Sensing Properties of 2D Hybrid-Structures on Flexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungjin Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of metal decoration on the gas-sensing properties of a device with two-dimensional (2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 flake channels and graphene electrodes. The 2D hybrid-structure device sensitively detected NO2 gas molecules (>1.2 ppm as well as NH3 (>10 ppm. Metal nanoparticles (NPs could tune the electronic properties of the 2D graphene/MoS2 device, increasing sensitivity to a specific gas molecule. For instance, palladium NPs accumulate hole carriers of graphene/MoS2, electronically sensitizing NH3 gas molecules. Contrarily, aluminum NPs deplete hole carriers, enhancing NO2 sensitivity. The synergistic combination of metal NPs and 2D hybrid layers could be also applied to a flexible gas sensor. There was no serious degradation in the sensing performance of metal-decorated MoS2 flexible devices before/after 5000 bending cycles. Thus, highly sensitive and endurable gas sensor could be achieved through the metal-decorated 2D hybrid-structure, offering a useful route to wearable electronic sensing platforms.

  19. Metal Decoration Effects on the Gas-Sensing Properties of 2D Hybrid-Structures on Flexible Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungjin; Yoon, Jongwon; Lim, Sung Kwan; Kim, Ah Ra; Choi, Sun-Young; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Hahm, Myung Gwan

    2015-09-25

    We have investigated the effects of metal decoration on the gas-sensing properties of a device with two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) flake channels and graphene electrodes. The 2D hybrid-structure device sensitively detected NO₂ gas molecules (>1.2 ppm) as well as NH₃ (>10 ppm). Metal nanoparticles (NPs) could tune the electronic properties of the 2D graphene/MoS₂ device, increasing sensitivity to a specific gas molecule. For instance, palladium NPs accumulate hole carriers of graphene/MoS₂, electronically sensitizing NH₃ gas molecules. Contrarily, aluminum NPs deplete hole carriers, enhancing NO₂ sensitivity. The synergistic combination of metal NPs and 2D hybrid layers could be also applied to a flexible gas sensor. There was no serious degradation in the sensing performance of metal-decorated MoS₂ flexible devices before/after 5000 bending cycles. Thus, highly sensitive and endurable gas sensor could be achieved through the metal-decorated 2D hybrid-structure, offering a useful route to wearable electronic sensing platforms.

  20. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  1. The use of SiC/Si(111) hybrid substrate for MBE growth of GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, R. R.; Kotlyar, K. P.; Ilkiv, I. V.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Nikitina, E. V.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of using a silicon substrate with nanoscale buffer layer of silicon carbide for growth of GaN nanowires by molecular epitaxy on. Morphological and optical properties of the grown arrays are studied. It is shown that the integral intensity of the photoluminescence of such structures is more than 2 times higher than the best NWs GaN structures without buffer layer of silicon carbide.

  2. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10-15 M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  3. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-07

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10(-15) M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  4. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  5. Investigation of Coating Performance of UV-Curable Hybrid Polymers Containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane Coated on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakır

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are products of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin was added to the inorganic part in predetermined amounts. The resultant mixture was utilized in the preparation of free films as well as coatings on aluminum substrates. Thermal and mechanical tests such as DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, and tensile and shore D hardness tests were performed on free films. Water contact angle, gloss, Taber abrasion test, cross-cut and tubular impact tests were conducted on the coated samples. SEM examination and EDS analysis was performed on the fractured surfaces of free films. The hybrid coatings on the aluminum sheets gave rise to properties such as moderately glossed surface; low wear rate and hydrophobicity. Tensile strength of free films increased with up to 10% inorganic content in the hybrid structure and this increase was approximately three times that of the control sample. As expected; the % strain value decreased by 17.3 with the increase in inorganic content and elastic modulus values increased by a factor of approximately 6. Resistance to ketone-based solvents was proven and an increase in hardness was observed as the ratio of the inorganic part increased. Samples which contain 10% sol–gel content were observed to provide optimal properties.

  6. Endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharanjak Shefali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs represent an interesting amalgamation of the three basic kinds of cellular macromolecules viz. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. An unusually hybrid moiety, the GPI-anchor is expressed in a diverse range of organisms from parasites to mammalian cells and serves to anchor a large number of functionally diverse proteins and has been the center of attention in scientific debate for some time now. Membrane organization of GPI-APs into laterally-organized cholesterol-sphingolipid ordered membrane domains or "rafts" and endocytosis of GPI-APs has been intensely debated. Inclusion into or exclusion from these membrane domains seems to be the critical factor in determining the endocytic mechanisms and intracellular destinations of GPI-APs. The intracellular signaling as well as endocytic trafficking of GPI-APs is critically dependent upon the cell surface organization of GPI-APs, and the associations with these lipid rafts play a vital role during these processes. The mechanism of endocytosis for GPI-APs may differ from other cellular endocytic pathways, such as those mediated by clathrin-coated pits (caveolae, and is necessary for unique biological functions. Numerous intracellular factors are involved in and regulate the endocytosis of GPI-APs, and these may be variably dependent on cell-type. The central focus of this article is to describe the significance of the endocytosis of GPI-APs on a multitude of biological processes, ranging from nutrient-uptake to more complex immune responses. Ultimately, a thorough elucidation of GPI-AP mediated signaling pathways and their regulatory elements will enhance our understanding of essential biological processes and benefit as components of disease intervention strategies.

  7. Growth window and effect of substrate symmetry in hybrid molecular beam epitaxy of a Mott insulating rare earth titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Zhang, Jack Y.; Raghavan, Santosh; Kajdos, Adam P.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-5050 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The conditions for the growth of stoichiometric GdTiO{sub 3} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated. It is shown that relatively high growth temperatures (>750 Degree-Sign C) are required to obtain an MBE growth window in which only the stoichiometric film grows for a range of cation flux ratios. This growth window narrows with increasing film thickness. It is also shown that single-domain films are obtained by the growth on a symmetry-matched substrate. The influence of lattice mismatch strain on the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the GdTiO{sub 3} thin film is investigated.

  8. Ultrathin carbon nanotube-DNA hybrid membrane formation by simple physical adsorption onto a thin alumina substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Min; Lv Wei; Zhang Shaobo; Jin Fengmin; Wang Qi; Ling Guowei; Yang Quanhong, E-mail: qhyangcn@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-07-16

    Ultrathin carbon nanotube membranes can be prepared on alumina substrates by a facile immersion-adsorption approach, which involves two steps, the first step DNA wrapping and the second step uniform adsorption of the DNA-wrapped nanotubes onto porous alumina. In this approach, DNA wrapping imparts a hydrophilic nature to the carbon nanotubes, which enhances the interaction between the nanotubes and hydrophilic porous alumina and results in the self-assembly formation of ultrathin nanotube membranes with well-controlled thickness, biocompatibility, conductivity and optical properties.

  9. Anchored Instruction and Situated Cognition Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Technology, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Reviews theories of anchored instruction and addresses issues related to learning, transfer, and assessment. Highlights include video-based macrocontexts; videodisc anchors versus computer-based simulations; cooperative learning; transfer outside the classroom; authenticity; visual anchors versus verbal anchors; situated cognition; and using…

  10. Metal-Substrate-Mediated Plasmon Hybridization in a Nanoparticle Dimer for Photoluminescence Line-Width Shrinking and Intensity Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Jing; Luo, Yu; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2017-03-28

    Metal-film-coupled nanoparticles with subnanometer particle-film gaps possess an ultrasmall mode volume, responsible for a variety of intriguing phenomena in plasmonic nanophotonics. Due to the large radiative loss associated with dipolar coupling, however, the plasmonic-film-coupled nanocavities usually feature a low-quality factor, setting an ultimate limit of the increased light-matter interaction strength. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic nanocavity composed of a metal-film-coupled nanoparticle dimer, exhibiting a significantly improved quality factor. Compared to a silica-supported dimer, the spectral line width of the nanocavity plasmon resonance is reduced by a factor of ∼4.6 and is even smaller than its monomer counterpart (∼30% reduction). Comprehensive theoretical analyses reveal that this pronounced resonance narrowing effect can be attributed to intense film-mediated plasmon hybridization between the bonding dipolar and quadrupolar gap modes in the dimer. More importantly, the invoking of the dark quadrupole resonance leads to a giant photoluminescence intensity enhancement (∼200 times) and dramatic emission line-width narrowing (∼4.6 times), compared to the silica-supported dimer. The similar spectral characteristics of the measured plasmonic scattering and photoluminescence emission indicate that the radiative decay of the coupled plasmons in the nanocavity is the origin of the observed photoluminescence, consistent with a proposed phenomenological model. Numerical calculations show that the intensity enhancement is mainly contributed by the dimer-film gap rather than the interparticle gap. These findings not only shed more light on the hybridized interaction between plasmon modes but also deepen the understanding of photoluminescence emission in coupled plasmonic nanostructures.

  11. Functionalized Nanostructures: Redox-Active Porphyrin Anchors for Supramolecular DNA Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Börjesson, Karl

    2010-09-28

    We have synthesized and studied a supramolecular system comprising a 39-mer DNA with porphyrin-modified thymidine nucleosides anchored to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (liposomes). Liposome porphyrin binding characteristics, such as orientation, strength, homogeneity, and binding site size, was determined, suggesting that the porphyrin is well suited as a photophysical and redox-active lipid anchor, in comparison to the inert cholesterol anchor commonly used today. Furthermore, the binding characteristics and hybridization capabilities were studied as a function of anchor size and number of anchoring points, properties that are of importance for our future plans to use the addressability of these redox-active nodes in larger DNA-based nanoconstructs. Electron transfer from photoexcited porphyrin to a lipophilic benzoquinone residing in the lipid membrane was characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and verified by femtosecond transient absorption. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  13. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    the system the cable sizes can be changed even after concreting work _ is finished. i W The structure is also suitable for modern concrete formwork ...1 ruiinn 0i all 3up-H-Stud is a heavy-duty, all steel, expansion wedge anchor types of equipment. Typical applications: tunnel liner panels, air

  14. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  15. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative foundation system. See § 3285.301. (b) For anchor assembly type installations, the installation instructions... instructions and design for anchor type assemblies must be prepared by a registered professional engineer...

  16. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit greater...

  17. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor: A Complex Membrane-Anchoring Structure for Proteins†

    OpenAIRE

    Paulick, Margot G.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2008-01-01

    Positioned at the C-terminus of many eukaryotic proteins, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a posttranslational modification that anchors the modified protein in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The GPI anchor is a complex structure comprising a phosphoethanolamine linker, glycan core, and phospholipid tail. GPI-anchored proteins are structurally and functionally diverse and play vital roles in numerous biological processes. While several GPI-anchored proteins have been ...

  18. Anchoring Bias in Online Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather, as well as other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called \\emph{anchoring bias} is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with interval voting number in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgements, auctions, and so on.

  19. Inconspicuous anchoring effects generated by false information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qu; Jun Wang; Yuejia Luo

    2008-01-01

    The impact of false information on numerical judgments was examined on young normal subjects by an event-related potential (ERP) experiment. To imitate the judgments in real world, we ensured the subjects acknowledged of the target task. The behavioral results found that both uncertain information and false information assimilated the final estimates: higher after higher anchors and lower after lower anchors; and false information caused a weaker anchoring bias than uncertain information. ERP results provided further electrophysiological evidence for the mechanism of anchoring. In the early phrase, it was an accessibility-dominated process in which two kinds of anchors elicited an N300 component related to the accessibility of anchors propositions. The knowledge relevant to targets joined the process in the late phrase, which caused a larger amplitude of late positive component (LPC) for implausible lower anchors than that for plausible higher anchors. Source analysis showed that medial frontal gyrus, whose activity was suggested to signal the need of adjustment, was more reliable to explain the LPC elicited by implausible lower anchors. Therefore, we suggest that accessibility is facilitated when the external anchor is consistent with the world knowledge, and adjustment is initiated when the external anchor is inconsistent.

  20. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  1. A binary functional substrate for enrichment and ultrasensitive SERS spectroscopic detection of folic acid using graphene oxide/Ag nanoparticle hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen; Fang, Youxing; Wang, Erkang

    2011-08-23

    Herein graphene oxide/Ag nanoparticle hybrids (GO/PDDA/AgNPs) were fabricated according to a self-assembly procedure. Using the obtained GO/PDDA/AgNPs as SERS substrates, an ultrasensitive and label-free detection of folic acid in water and serum was demonstrated based on the inherent SERS spectra of folic acid. The modified graphene oxide exhibited strong enrichment of folic acid due to the electrostatic interaction, and the self-assembled Ag nanoparticles greatly enhanced the SERS spectra of folic acid, both of which led to an ultrahigh sensitivity. Therefore, although the SERS enhancement of p-ATP on GO/PDDA/AgNPs was weaker than that on Ag nanoparticles, the SERS signals of folic acid on GO/PDDA/AgNPs were much stronger than that on Ag nanoparticles. To improve the detection, the concentration of GO/PDDA/AgNPs was optimized to reduce background of the graphene oxide. The SERS spectra of the folic acid showed that the minimum detected concentration of folic acid in water was as low as 9 nM with a linear response range from 9 to 180 nM. To estimate the feasibility of the detection method based on GO/PDDA/AgNPs for the practical applications, diluted serum containing different concentrations of folic acid was taken as real samples. It was established that the sensitivity and the linear range for the folic acid in serum were comparable to that in water. This ultrasensitive and label-free SERS detection of folic acid based on GO/PDDA/AgNPs offers great potential for practical applications of medicine and biotechnology.

  2. Upper section for anchor timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Pishulin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to exclude rotation of the fixing device around the anchor with screwing of the tightening nut and simplification of the fixing device design. The support fixing device is made of a section of pipe and is equipped with a rotation delimiter made in the form of a female fixing device of the projection arranged on it at an angle to the longitudinal axis.

  3. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. 4 safe arm device gun barrel reaction vessel Figure 1-2. CEL 20K propell...anchors in cohesive soils, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. Berger, W. H., and E. L. Winterer...NORTHWESTERN UNIV Z.P. Bazant Evanston IL NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN, NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE Library, Albany NY OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (CE

  4. Effect of negative substrate bias on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-Si-N films deposited by a hybrid filtered cathodic arc and ion beam sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yujuan, E-mail: cnzhangyujuan@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yang Yingze; Zhai Yuhao; Zhang Pingyu [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid cathodic arc and ion beam sputtering method was employed to synthesize Ti-Si-N films. The influence of negative substrate bias on the structure and mechanical properties was investigated by using XRD, XPS, HRTEM, nanoindentor and so on. With the increasing of negative bias there is a decrease in the TiN crystallite size from 36 nm to 10 nm. Negative substrate bias promoted the conformation of nc-TiN/a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite structure with complete phase separation and uniform crystallite size. Superhard TiSiN films with a maximum hardness of 46 GPa were successfully synthesized under 100 V negative bias. Severe oxidation occurred in films deposited under 200 V and 300 V negative substrate bias due to the decreasing of deposition rate, which led to the hardness of films reduced to the value of 26 GPa and 22 GPa respectively.

  5. Side-chain-anchored N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp for bidirectional solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Jørgensen, Malene; Hansen, Steen H;

    2005-01-01

    [reaction: see text] A mild resin-immobilization strategy employing a readily prepared trityl bromide resin for anchoring building blocks via a phenol group has been developed. With N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp as a starter building block, it was possible to prepare asymmetrically substituted hybrids o...... of spider- and wasp-type polyamine toxins using solid-phase peptide synthesis conditions....

  6. Career anchors and planning education (part III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article (AS, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2006 identifies eight different career anchors and  establishes important correlation with some professions and occupations. The second part of the article (AS, No.2, 2006 focuses on considerable impact career anchors have at planning education and learning routes. The last part draws special attention to the relationship between different career anchors and career objectives. Not only career objectives expressed and dreamt of, but also those, which have actually been achieved in practice. We are also going to survey the impact of education and training for achieving career objectives. We will also make some comparison and analyses among career anchors and vertical vs. horizontal promotion and try to find out whether the career anchors influence also the direction of promotion in the organization. Finally we will show how the results of the survey about career anchors can be a useful tool for individuals and organizations at career planning.

  7. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  8. Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-20

    TITLE (Include Security Classitcation) (U) Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hrvciw, Roman D. 13a... Geosynthetics 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse it necessary and identity by block number) The success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on...the satisfactory transfer of load between the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope

  9. Anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and their Floer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of (graded) anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and use it to study the filtration of Floer' s chain complex. We then obtain an anchored version of Lagrangian Floer homology and its (higher) product structures. They are somewhat different from the more standard non-anchored version. The anchored version discussed in this paper is more naturally related to the variational picture of Lagrangian Floer theory and so to the likes of spectral invariants. We also discuss rationality of Lagrangian submanifold and reduction of the coefficient ring of Lagrangian Floer cohomology of thereof.

  10. Anchor handling tug operations: a practical guide to the operation of modern anchor handling tugs engaged in anchor handling and towing operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, I.C; Hancox, M

    2012-01-01

    ... --Turning and manoeuvring modern anchor handling vessels --The AHTS design and towing operations --The dangers of very high speed loads during deep water anchor handling operations --The dangers...

  11. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  12. Phosphonate-anchored monolayers for antibody binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty-Shamir, Helly; Gilert, Roni; Gotman, Irena; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2011-10-04

    Targeted delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to a specific tissue can be achieved by conjugation with particular biological ligands on an appropriately functionalized IONP surface. To take best advantage of the unique magnetic properties of IONPs and to maximize their blood half-life, thin, strongly bonded, functionalized coatings are required. The work reported herein demonstrates the successful application of phosphonate-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin coatings for such particles. It also describes a new chemical approach to the anchoring of antibodies on the surface of SAM-coated IONPs (using nucleophilic aromatic substitution). This anchoring strategy results in stable, nonhydrolyzable, covalent attachment and allows the reactivity of the particles toward antibody binding to be activated in situ, such that prior to the activation the modified surface is stable for long-term storage. While the SAMs do not have the well-packed crystallinity of other such monolayers, their structure was studied using smooth model substrates based on an iron oxide layer on a double-side polished silicon wafer. In this way, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry (tools that could not be applied to the nanoparticles' surfaces) could contribute to the determination of their monomolecular thickness and uniformity. Finally, the successful conjugation of IgG antibodies to the SAM-coated IONPs such that the antibodies retain their biological activity is verified by their complexation to a secondary fluorescent antibody.

  13. Robust CNT field emitters: patterning, growth, transfer, and in situ anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Valerie J.; Manohara, Harish; Toda, Risaku; Del Castillo, Linda; Murthy, Rakesh; Mulder, Jerry; Murty, Eshwari; Clark Thompson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Robust carbon nanotube (CNT)-based cold cathodes were fabricated on titanium (Ti) substrates. Methods to grow vertically aligned CNTs directly on Ti substrates were developed. These cathodes can be treated post-growth at elevated temperatures under inert atmosphere which causes the surface-grown CNTs to become anchored to the substrate surface. These samples offer improvements in field emission properties over previously studied silicon (Si) substrate-based cathodes with no anchoring, displaying low threshold voltages, high field enhancement factors, and long operating lifetimes. Current densities of 25 mA cm-2 were held for over 24 h with anchored samples at low electric fields (observed thresholds as low as 0.5 V μm-1) and more current stability. Higher current densities of up to 150 mA cm-2 could be reached with anchored samples, limited only by the experimental setup. In efforts to generate even more stable and reproducible field emission, a transfer process of CNTs from polished Si to Ti with copper (Cu) was developed (flipCNTs). These cathodes display extreme improvements over previous results, with observed thresholds as low as 0.2 V μm-1 and γ-factors as high as 30 000. To demonstrate the utility of these robust cathodes, a flipCNT-based cathode was assembled into a fully functioning vacuum triode.

  14. Anchor Bolt Position in Base Plate In Terms Of T and J Anchor Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    b Osman Mohamad Hairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, L anchor bolt system has been used for a long period of time in construction industry as one of the distributing load structures. However, there are some weaknesses in L anchor bolt which may straighten and pullup when charged with tensile load. Current practices prefer to use other types of anchor bolt systems, such as headed studs anchor bolt system to replace the L anchor bolt design. There has been lack of studies to prove that it is more effective in terms of performance. A new T anchor bolt which was basically modified from headed studs anchor bolt was proposed in this study to compare its performance of tensile loading in concrete failure to typical L design. This study aims to determine whether the T anchor bolt system gives better performance as compared to an L anchor bolt system. The performance was rated based on tensile loading on concrete failure pattern. A pullout test was conducted on two different anchor bolt systems, namely L and T. The anchor bolt embedded depth, h in concrete were varied according to their hook or bend radius. Each sample was repeated twice. There were totally eight samples. The hook or bend radius used were 50 mm and 57.5 mm for sample L1 and L2, respectively. 90-degree bend were used on sample T1 and T2. Based on test results, it can be seen that the performance of concrete failure pattern under tensile load on both L and T anchor bolt design samples with 200 mm embedment depth was better than deeper embedment depth of 230 mm. But the L anchor bolt design gives the best results as compared to T design. Although T anchor bolt design shows higher resistance before first bond failure to the concrete sample. T anchor bolt was analysed and needed deeper embedment depth to allow formation of cone pull-out shape to acquire better performance.

  15. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  16. Anatomic viral detection is automated: the application of a robotic molecular pathology system for the detection of DNA viruses in anatomic pathology substrates, using immunocytochemical and nucleic acid hybridization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, K. T.; Brigati, D. J.; Budgeon, L. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the first automated system for simultaneously detecting human papilloma, herpes simplex, adenovirus, or cytomegalovirus viral antigens and gene sequences in standard formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue substrates and tissue culture. These viruses can be detected by colorimetric in situ nucleic acid hybridization, using biotinylated DNA probes, or by indirect immunoperoxidase techniques, using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, in a 2.0-hour assay performed at a single automated robotic workstation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:2773514

  17. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  18. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  19. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  20. Anchored Instruction in a Situated Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miwha

    The purpose of this study was to design and develop a multimedia-based anchored program and to examine the effects of students' and group characteristics on the problem-solving process in anchored instruction with the multimedia program in a situated learning environment. Sixty-eight students were assigned to small groups via a stratified random…

  1. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  2. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-07

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

  3. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  4. Effects of GPI-anchored TNAP on the dynamic structure of model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. F.; Simão, A. M. S.; Bolean, M; Hoylaerts, M. F.; Millán, J. L.; Ciancaglini, P; Costa-Filho, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role during skeletal mineralization, and TNAP deficiency leads to the soft bone disease hypophosphatasia. TNAP is anchored to the external surface of the plasma membranes by means of a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. Membrane-anchored and solubilized TNAP displays different kinetic properties against physiological substrates, indicating that membrane anchoring influences the enzyme function. Here, we used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements along with spin labeled phospholipids to probe the possible dynamic changes prompted by the interaction of GPI-anchored TNAP with model membranes. The goal was to systematically analyze the ESR data in terms of line shape changes and of alterations in parameters such as rotational diffusion rates and order parameters obtained from non-linear least-squares simulations of the ESR spectra of probes incorporated into DPPC liposomes and proteoliposomes. Overall, the presence of TNAP increased the dynamics and decreased the ordering in the three distinct regions probed by the spin labeled lipids DOPTC (headgroup), and 5- and 16-PCSL (acyl chains). The largest change was observed for 16-PCSL, thus suggesting that GPI-anchored TNAP can give rise to long reaching modifications that could influence membrane processes halfway through the bilayer. PMID:26389140

  5. Sonication assisted preparation of graphene oxide/graphitic-C₃N₄ nanosheet hybrid with reinforced photocurrent for photocatalyst applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kai; Lu, Luhua; Liu, Qi; Zhu, Guangping; Wei, Xiaoqin; Bai, Jin; Xuan, Lingling; Wang, Heng

    2014-05-01

    Graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4), as an advanced metal free photocatalyst, is known to be poorly exfoliated and dispersed in water from its powder form which has a layered structure, the intrinsic plane structure is not destroyed, and this has largely limited its application. In this work, we report our progress on successful sonication exfoliation of g-C3N4 nanosheets in graphene oxide (GO) aqueous solution. By making use of the substrate character of GO, g-C3N4 nanosheets of unvaried intrinsic structure were exfoliated and anchored on the GO surface, resulting in a GO/g-C3N4 hybrid. Moreover, the photocurrent of the hybrid was largely reinforced at the optimal weight fraction of GO. As a result, the corresponding photocatalytic performance of the hybrid with optimized photocurrent character was largely improved.

  6. Dynamically modifiable wettability comparisons of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates coated with F/TiO2 hybrid sol by UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunjie; Li, Tao; Fan, Fei; Zhao, Caiyun; Wang, Chaoxia

    2013-10-01

    To prepare a functional surface with dynamically modifiable wettability on cotton and polyester fabrics by hybrid coating, the F/TiO2 hybrid sol were synthetized with tetrabutyl titanate and fluoride silane coupling agent via sol-gel technology. The anatase component in F/TiO2 hybrid powder was mixed with rutile component from XRD, and the crystal component was unchanged in UV light and dark store condition. The switchable wettability of the fabric was assessed by contact angle in different conditions and time. The maximum contact angles of cotton and polyester fabrics coated with F/TiO2 hybrid sol were 141.8° and 136.1°, respectively, and through UV irradiation, the minimum contact angles of cotton and polyester fabrics coated with F/TiO2 hybrid sol were both 0°, respectively. Within storing in dark, the contact angles nearly completely reverted. The switchable cycle of the cotton was 84 h, while the switchable cycle of the polyester was 168 h. From AFM and fabric constructions (porosity, permeability and roughness) analysis, the fiber morphology had more effect on the contact angle than the fabric constructions. The F/TiO2 hybrid powder and the coated fabric floated on water for their excellent hydrophobicity, and the samples deposited at the bottom of water as the wettability of coated fabric increased via UV irradiation. The irradiated samples were placed in dark, and the samples floated on water again. The water diffusion and permeable capacities further confirmed the dynamically modifiable wettability. The water diffusivity and permeable capacity further confirmed the excellent switchable wettability of coated fabrics by F/TiO2 hybrid sol through UV irradiation or storage in dark.

  7. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  8. Azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a grooved interface with anisotropic polar anchoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Ye Wen-Jiang; Xuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Y Jet al.[Zhang Y J,Zhang Z D,Zhu L Z and Xuan L 2011 Liquid Cryst.38 355] investigated the effects of finite polar anchoring on the azimuthal anchoring energy at a grooved interface,in which polar anchoring was isotropic in the local tangent plane of the surface.In this paper,we investigate the effects of both isotropic and anisotropic polar anchoring on the surface anchoring energy in the frame of Fukuda et al.'s theory.The results show that anisotropic polar anchoring strengthens the azimuthal anchoring of grooved surfaces.In the one-elastic-constant approximation (K11 =K22 =K33 =K),the surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring energy is entirely consistent with the result of Faetti,and it reduces to the original result of Berreman with an increase in polar anchoring.Moreover,the contribution of the surface-like elastic term to the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy is zero.

  9. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  10. Electroactive SWNT/PEGDA hybrid hydrogel coating for bio-electrode interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Lin, Demeng; Wang, Yanping; Xiao, Yinghong; Che, Jianfei

    2011-10-15

    Electric interface between neural tissue and electrode plays a significant role in the development of implanted devices for continuous monitoring and functional stimulation of central nervous system in terms of electroactivity, biocompatibility and long-term stability. To engineer an interface that possesses these merits, a polymeric hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were employed to fabricate a hybrid hydrogel via covalent anchoring strategy, i.e., self-assembly of cysteamine (Cys) followed by Michael addition between Cys and PEGDA. XPS characterization proves that the Cys molecules are linked to gold surface via the strong S-Au bond and that the PEGDA macromers are covalently bonded to Cys. FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hybrid hydrogel coating during photopolymerization. Electrochemical measurements using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectrum clearly show the enhancement of electric properties to the hydrogel by the SWNTs. The charge transfer of the hybrid hydrogel-based electrode is quasi-reversible and charge transfer resistance decreases to the tenth of that of the pure hydrogel due to electron hopping along the SWNTs. Additionally, this hybrid hydrogel provides a favorable biomimetic microenvironment for cell attachment and growth due to its inherent biocompatibility. Combination of these merits yields hybrid hydrogels that can be good candidates for application to biosensors and biomedical devices. More importantly, the hybrid hydrogel coatings fabricated via the current strategy have good adhesion to the electrode substrate which is highly desired for chronically implantable devices.

  11. Hybrid nanomaterials: anchoring magnetic molecules on naked gold nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Hutchings, Amy-Jayne; Habib, Fatemah; Korobkov, Ilia; Scaiano, Juan C; Murugesu, Muralee

    2013-12-16

    The pairing of molecular magnets and nanomaterials couples top-down and bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology; facilitating a unique methodology to the controlled study of interfacial magnetic properties. Attaching Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) to "naked" gold nanoparticles is a novel method of exploring various avenues of magnetic nanotechnology, such as drug delivery, information storage, catalysis, and assembly of magnetic-nanostructural motifs. Herein we report the successful capping of laser ablation synthesized "naked" gold nanoparticles with a dinuclear dysprosium complex, while introducing new information regarding the changes in molecular magnetic properties upon surface attachment. We anticipate that this methodology in producing these magneto-plasmonic nanostructures not only provides answers to fundamental questions but also has the potential to provide new avenues to applications including information storage, multimodal imaging, biomedicine, and optoelectronics.

  12. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  13. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  14. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  15. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  16. Corrosion resistance of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, S. R.; Cardoso, H. R. P.; Oliveira, C. T.; Santana, J. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Muller, I. L.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol-gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane-PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase and irregular surface coverage.

  17. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  18. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  19. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  20. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  1. A Hybrid Multi-gate Model of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Device Incorporating GaN-substrate Thermal Boundary Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    coordinates and elliptical cylinder coordinates (8, 9). Douglas et al. studied the effects of several HEMT design parameters, including substrate thermal...Determination of Thermal Resistance of FETs. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques 2005, 53 (1), 306‒313. 10. Douglas , E. A.; Ren, F...Physics Letters 2010, 97, 232107‒1-3. 29. Taking, S.; Banerjee, A.; Zhou, H.; Li, X.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Oxland, R.; McGregor , I.; Bentley, S.; Rahman, F

  2. CARACTÉRISATION BIOCHIMIQUE DE CERTAINS HYBRIDES DE MAÏS UTILISÉS COMME SUBSTRAT DANS L’OBTENTION DES SPORES DE PENICILLIUM CHRISOGENUM : MISE EN ÉVIDENCE DE LA COMPOSITION BIOCHIMIQUE OPTIMALE PRO PENICILLIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zaharia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude a pour but l’identification des différents caractères biochimiques de quelques 23 hybrides de maïs cultivés dans notre pays, ainsi que l’analyse de leur influence sur le comportement du mycélium de Penicillium chrysogenum développé en culture submergée à partir de spores poussées sur des caryopses de maïs. Les données accumulées nous ont permis l’établissement d’un tableau biochimique contenant des intervalles de valeurs définissant un substrat optimal pour l’obtention de spores donnant des mycéliums productifs de Penicillium.

  3. Career anchors and learning plan (part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three parts. The first part concentrates on how important career is for an individual, organization and society. The author establishes that understanding of career has changed dramatically and does not only refer to climbing up the career ladder, but also moving off or even down the career ladder. The notion of career, as a lifelong and professional path, encompasses all aspects of human personality and their roles acquired through one's life. On basis of vast and longitudinal research, where the author has studied career anchors of individuals, it is the objective of the author to find out on basis of what grounds do the individuals decide to take certain directions in their careers and how learning contributes to such decisions. As a source the author has used Shein's theory of career anchors. Part one describes in greater detail 8 different career anchors and introduces their main features with the findings of the research, which refer to the analysis of professions (work positions and established career anchors. The author thus verifies the hypothesis that career anchors do exist in our area.

  4. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  5. Robotic Deposition of TiO2 Films on Flexible Substrates from Hybrid Inks: Investigation of Synthesis-Processing-Microstructure-Photocatalytic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Arango, Maria A; Valença de Andrade, Alana S; Cipollone, Domenic T; Grant, Lynnora O; Korakakis, Dimitris; Sierros, Konstantinos A

    2016-09-21

    TiO2 is an important material widely used in optoelectronic devices due to its semiconducting and photocatalytic properties, nontoxicity, and chemically inert nature. Some indicative applications include water purification systems and energy harvesting. The use of solution, water-based inks for the direct writing of TiO2 on flexible substrates is of paramount importance since it enables low-cost and low-energy intensive large-area manufacturing, compatible with roll-to-roll processing. In this work we study the effect of crystalline TiO2 and polymer addition on the rheological and direct writing properties of Ti-organic/TiO2 inks. We also report on the bridging crystallite formation from the Ti-organic precursor into the TiO2 crystalline phase, under ultraviolet (UV) exposure or mild heat treatments up to 150 °C. Such crystallite formation is found to be enhanced by polymers with strong polarity and pKα such as polyacrylic acid (PAA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Raman and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy are used to investigate the crystalline-phase transformation dependence based on the initial TiO2 crystalline-phase concentration and polymer addition. Transmission electron microscopy imaging and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirm the crystalline nature of such bridging printed structures. The obtained inks are patterned on flexible substrates using nozzle-based robotic deposition, a lithography-free, additive manufacturing technique that allows the direct writing of material in specific, digitally predefined, substrate locations. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solutions highlights the potential of the studied films for chemical degradation applications, from low-cost environmentally friendly materials systems.

  6. Anchoring of c-myc on nuclear matrix proteins in process of mouse thymic T lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丛梅; 蔡树涛; 周凤兰; 张锦珠; 王平

    1996-01-01

    Isolation and characteriation of functional nudear matrix proteins involved in DNA anchoring and gene expression is one of the major subjects of current nudear matrix research. Southwestern blotting (DNA-protein hybridization) was applied to studying the anchoring of c-myc on the nudear matrix proteins in mouse thymic T lymphocytes. The results showed that c-myc bound to the lamin, p34 and p36 nudear matrix proteins specifically. In the process of mouse thymic PNA T lymphocytes proliferation induced by ConA, the anchoring of c-myc on p34 and p36 nudear matrix proteins changed dynamically.

  7. A multidisciplinary approach to study the functional properties of neuron-like cell models constituting a living bio-hybrid system: SH-SY5Y cells adhering to PANI substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caponi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A living bio-hybrid system has been successfully implemented. It is constituted by neuroblastic cells, the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, adhering to a poly-anyline (PANI a semiconductor polymer with memristive properties. By a multidisciplinary approach, the biocompatibility of the substrate has been analyzed and the functionality of the adhering cells has been investigated. We found that the PANI films can support the cell adhesion. Moreover, the SH-SY5Y cells were successfully differentiated into neuron-like cells for in vitro applications demonstrating that PANI can also promote cell differentiation. In order to deeply characterize the modifications of the bio-functionality induced by the cell-substrate interaction, the functional properties of the cells have been characterized by electrophysiology and Raman spectroscopy. Our results confirm that the PANI films do not strongly affect the general properties of the cells, ensuring their viability without toxic effects on their physiology. Ascribed to the adhesion process, however, a slight increase of the markers of the cell suffering has been evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and accordingly the electrophysiology shows a reduction at positive stimulations in the cells excitability.

  8. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  9. Synthesis of Anchored Bimetallic Catalysts via Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of thermodynamically stable supported bimetallic catalysts for high-temperature reaction is significant and highly desirable but remains a grand challenge. In this work, we report a novel approach that relies on the interaction of metal nanoparticles with the support material to form unique bimetallic nanoparticles, which epitaxially anchor onto the support surface. Such unique nanostructured systems are catalytically active and ultrastable during selected catalytic reactions. In this paper, we describe the synthesis processes of ultrastable PtZn nanoparticles epitaxially anchored onto ZnO nanowires, which primarily consist of {10−10} nanoscale facets. Such anchored PtZn nanoparticles demonstrated good stability during high temperature treatments and selected catalytic reactions. The synthesis approach reported in this work provides a new strategy to develop thermodynamically stable supported bimetallic catalysts.

  10. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  11. Vegetative development of orchid hybrid in different substratesDesenvolvimento vegetativo de híbrido de orquídea em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garrett Dronk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For commercial production of orchids, it is essential to use a good substrate, and the selection of this material is very important to evaluate aspects of the economic, physical, chemical, biological, and ecological points of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of clones of BLC Nan Chang Silk ‘Olimpic Torch’ on different substrates. The substrates were: T1: tree fern fiber “xaxim” (control, T2: coconut fiber, T3: composted pine bark, T4: plant coal, T5: composted pine bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v/v T6: coconut fiber + plant coal (1:1 v/v, T7: plant coal + composted pine bark (1:1 v/v, T8: plant coal + composted pine bark + coconut fiber ( 1:1:1 v/v/v. The seedlings were grown in pots of polypropylene, kept in a nursery with 80% of brightness. We evaluated 24 months after the start of the experiment: number of pseudobulbs, the lenght of pseudobulbs, height of the plant area, height of the aerial part / lenght of the pseudobulbs and pH and electrical conductivity of the substrate. Based on the parameters of vegetative development it was concluded that all the evaluated substrates can be efficiently used for the cultivation of BLC Nan Chang Silk ‘Olimpic Torch’. A produção de orquídeas é uma atividade em crescente expansão nos mercados nacional e internacional, tornando-se evidente a necessidade de informações que permitam a otimização do seu cultivo. Para a produção comercial de orquídeas, é imprescindível a utilização de um substrato que permita maior crescimento das mudas e, na seleção deste material, é muito importante avaliar aspectos do ponto de vista econômico, físico, químico, biológico e ecológico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de clones de BLC Nan Chang Silk ‘Olimpic Torch’, obtida do cruzamento entre BLC. Bryce Canyon x BLC. Pamela Hetherington, em diferentes substratos. Os substratos avaliados foram: T1: fibra de xaxim (controle; T2: fibra de coco

  12. Optical Absorption Spectra and Excitons of Dye-Substrate Interfaces: Catechol on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Duncan John; Migani, Annapaola

    2016-06-14

    Optimizing the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on staggered gap heterojunctions requires a detailed understanding of sub-band gap transitions in the visible from the dye directly to the substrate's conduction band (CB) (type-II DSSCs). Here, we calculate the optical absorption spectra and spatial distribution of bright excitons in the visible region for a prototypical DSSC, catechol on rutile TiO2(110), as a function of coverage and deprotonation of the OH anchoring groups. This is accomplished by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) based on hybrid range-separated exchange and correlation functional (HSE06) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a treatment is necessary to accurately describe the interfacial level alignment and the weakly bound charge transfer transitions that are the dominant absorption mechanism in type-II DSSCs. Our HSE06 BSE spectra agree semiquantitatively with spectra measured for catechol on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results suggest deprotonation of catechol's OH anchoring groups, while being nearly isoenergetic at high coverages, shifts the onset of the absorption spectra to lower energies, with a concomitant increase in photovoltaic efficiency. Further, the most relevant bright excitons in the visible region are rather intense charge transfer transitions with the electron and hole spatially separated in both the [110] and [001] directions. Such detailed information on the absorption spectra and excitons is only accessible via periodic models of the combined dye-substrate interface.

  13. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    including additional model tests, is needed. The anchor configurations presented in Figures llb and llc will function adequately for the ATTF on all...causeways at sea) and offshore oil companies (mating jacket type structures at sea). 4. A suitable anchor for rock would be twice as heavy (4,000 kips) as the...NIARINF FNVIRON. LAW .. IIAIVl’RN): Seattle "A (E. ianger): Sceittle. %%A.’ Itransportation, ( oust rUCtIo & CO1m IN %IR(.IN IA INST. OF- MARINE SOI

  14. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  15. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be...

  16. Predicting Anchor Links between Heterogeneous Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadmanesh, Sina; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People usually get involved in multiple social networks to enjoy new services or to fulfill their needs. Many new social networks try to attract users of other existing networks to increase the number of their users. Once a user (called source user) of a social network (called source network) joins a new social network (called target network), a new inter-network link (called anchor link) is formed between the source and target networks. In this paper, we concentrated on predicting the formation of such anchor links between heterogeneous social networks. Unlike conventional link prediction problems in which the formation of a link between two existing users within a single network is predicted, in anchor link prediction, the target user is missing and will be added to the target network once the anchor link is created. To solve this problem, we use meta-paths as a powerful tool for utilizing heterogeneous information in both the source and target networks. To this end, we propose an effective general meta-pat...

  17. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1711804 87AU 73 89-1-3401 11. TITLE (kcn e S.cE) Caut,.cawn) Fouled Anchors: The Constellation Question Answered IL. PERSONA .. AUTHOPS) Wegner, Dana M...was familia , with the unaltered Constellation in Newport and, unknown to the Committee, had indeed visited the ship once in Baltimore (see p. 45). It is

  18. The "Anchor" Method: Principle and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgin, Paul

    This report discusses the "anchor" language learning method that is based upon derivation rather than construction, using Italian as an example of a language to be learned. This method borrows from the natural process of language learning as it asks the student to remember whole expressions that serve as vehicles for learning both words and rules,…

  19. Multimodality of Learning Through Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Mary Susan

    2004-01-01

    Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…

  20. Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

  1. The bone-anchored hearing aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sound...

  2. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  3. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  4. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  5. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  6. New polypyridine anchoring ligands for coordination complexes and surface functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on the synthesis of new polypyridine anchoring ligands and several dfferent applications. The ligands consist of a coordinating part, a flexible linker and an anchoring group. Due to the fact that different anchoring groups were used, the ligands can be applied for several types of surface-materials. Using these anchoring ligands, several coordination complexes were synthesized. Ruthenium-based complexes, bearing an ion-sensitive ligand, were tested towards...

  7. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  8. Anchored Instruction and Its Relationship to Situated Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses anchored instruction, a teaching technique using videodisc-based problem-solving environments, and describes two research projects involving anchored instruction. Argues that anchored instruction provides a way to recreate and improve upon some of the advantages of situated cognition. (FMW)

  9. Anchored Instruction for Chinese Students: Enhancing Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a videodisc-based computer-aided multimedia-anchored instruction for Chinese students and to examine its effects on student attitudes toward mathematics and anchored instruction. Participants were 74 fifth graders. Results indicated that anchored instruction improved students' attitudes toward mathematics…

  10. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Beshkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac2 in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  11. A split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen to examine the substrate specificity of atToc159 and atToc132, two Arabidopsis chloroplast preprotein import receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Dutta

    Full Text Available Post-translational import of nucleus-encoded chloroplast pre-proteins is critical for chloroplast biogenesis, and the Toc159 family of proteins serve as receptors for the process. Toc159 shares with other members of the family (e.g. Toc132, homologous GTPase (G- and Membrane (M- domains, but a highly dissimilar N-terminal acidic (A- domain. Although there is good evidence that atToc159 and atToc132 from Arabidopsis mediate the initial sorting step, preferentially recognizing photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic preproteins, respectively, relatively few chloroplast preproteins have been assigned as substrates for particular members of the Toc159 family, which has limited the proof for the hypothesis. The current study expands the number of known preprotein substrates for members of the Arabidopsis Toc159 receptor family using a split-ubiquitin membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system using the atToc159 G-domain (Toc159G, atToc132 G-domain (Toc132G and atToc132 A- plus G-domains (Toc132AG as baits. cDNA library screening with all three baits followed by pairwise interaction assays involving the 81 chloroplast preproteins identified show that although G-domains of the Toc159 family are sufficient for preprotein recognition, they alone do not confer specificity for preprotein subclasses. The presence of the A-domain fused to atToc132G (Toc132AG not only positively influences its specificity for non-photosynthetic preproteins, but also negatively regulates the ability of this receptor to interact with a subset of photosynthetic preproteins. Our study not only substantiates the fact that atToc132 can serve as a receptor by directly binding to chloroplast preproteins but also proposes the existence of subsets of preproteins with different but overlapping affinities for more than one member of the Toc159 receptor family.

  12. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of VIM-12, a novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate, reveal atypical substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Maria; Pournaras, Spyros; Kristo, Ioulia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Maniatis, Antonios N; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2007-11-13

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are considered an emerging family of Zn2+-dependent enzymes that significantly contribute to the resistance of many nosocomial pathogens against beta-lactam antimicrobials. Since these plasmid-encoded enzymes constitute specific molecular targets for beta-lactams, their exact mode of action is greatly important in deploying efficient anti-infective treatments and for the control of severe multi-resistant nosocomial infections, which becomes a global problem. A novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2-type beta-lactamase (named VIM-12) has recently been identified in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece. The sequence of this enzyme is highly similar with that of VIM-1 at its N-terminal region and with that of VIM-2 at its C-terminal region, raising the question of whether this sequence similarity reflects also a similar functional role. Moreover, the possible contribution of this novel beta-lactamase to the overall antibiotic resistance of this specific clinical isolate was investigated. The gene encoding VIM-12 was cloned and expressed, and the recombinant enzyme was used for detailed kinetic analysis, using a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. VIM-12 was found to exhibit narrow substrate specificity, compared to other known beta-lactamases, limited mainly to penicillin and to a much lesser extent to imipenen. Interestingly, meropenem was found to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme, although the active site of VIM-12 exhibited complete conservation of residues among VIM enzymes. We conclude that VIM-12 represents a novel and unique member of the family of known metallo-beta-lactamases, exhibiting atypical substrate specificity.

  13. Electrocatalytic performances of N-doped graphene with anchored iridium species in oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwangrok; Lee, Seungjun; Shim, Yeonjun; Oh, Junghoon; Kim, Sujin; Park, Sungjin

    2015-09-01

    Development of new systems with high catalytic performances in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for practical applications in fuel cells and metal-air batteries is a challenge. We develop a one-pot solution method for producing a novel hybrid material consisting of Ir species anchored on N-doped graphene. The hybrid is synthesized by reacting graphene oxide with IrCl3 · xH2O in dimethylformamide under reflux. Chemical and structural analyses confirm the attachment of Ir atoms to the N and O atoms of the N-doped graphene-based materials. The hybrid shows a good electrocatalytic performance for the ORR in alkaline media, with an onset potential of 0.88 V (versus the reversible hydrogen electrode), high long-term durability, and good tolerance for methanol poisoning.

  14. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  15. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  16. An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 刘海笑; 李新仲; 李清平; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.

  17. Anchored Instruction: Situiertes Lernen in multimedialen Lernumgebungen

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    «Anchored Instruction» ist ein konstruktivistischer Ansatz aus den USA, dessen Vertreter technologisch unterstützte, situierte Lernumgebungen für verschiedene schulische Fächer und Altersstufen entwickeln, implementieren und erforschen. Wichtige Ziele, Gestaltungsprinzipien und Merkmale solcher Lernumgebungen sowie ihre Implementation im Unterricht werden anhand von zwei Anwendungen näher dargestellt: (1) «The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury», eine Serie von Video-Geschichten und Zusatzmaterial...

  18. Developing an "anchor" system to enhance postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane

    2004-07-01

    This article uses an anchor metaphor to explain the dynamic interplay between the human body's active uses of nonrigid tools to mediate information about its adjacent environment to enhance postural control. The author used an "anchor" system (ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor) to test blindfolded adults who performed a restricted-balance task (30 s one-foot standing). Participants were tested while holding the anchors under a variety of weight conditions (125 g, 250 g, 500 g, and 1 kg) and again during a baseline condition (no anchors). When compared with the baseline condition, there was a significant reduction in the amount of body sway across the anchor conditions. The author found that mechanical support provided by the anchor system was secondary to its haptic exploratory function and that an individual can use the anchoring strategy with a dual purpose: for resting and for reorientation after intrinsic disruptions.

  19. Molecular monolayers on silicon as substrates for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touahir, L; Allongue, P; Aureau, D; Boukherroub, R; Chazalviel, J-N; Galopin, E; Gouget-Laemmel, A C; de Villeneuve, C Henry; Moraillon, A; Niedziółka-Jönsson, J; Ozanam, F; Andresa, J Salvador; Sam, S; Solomon, I; Szunerits, S

    2010-11-01

    (111) silicon surfaces can be controlled down to atomic level and offer a remarkable starting point for elaborating nanostructures. Hydrogenated surfaces are obtained by oxide dissolution in hydrofluoric acid or ammonium fluoride solution. Organic species are grafted onto the hydrogenated surface by a hydrosilylation reaction, providing a robust covalent Si-C bonding. Finally, probe molecules can be anchored to the organic end group, paving the way to the elaboration of sensors. Fluorescence detection is hampered by the high refractive index of silicon. However, improved sensitivity is obtained by replacing the bulk silicon substrate by a thin layer of amorphous silicon deposited on a reflector. The development of a novel hybrid SPR interface by the deposition of an amorphous silicon-carbon alloy is also presented. Such an interface allows the subsequent linking of stable organic monolayers through Si-C bonds for a plasmonic detection. On the other hand, the semiconducting properties of silicon can be used to implement field-effect label-free detection. However, the electrostatic interaction between adsorbed species may lead to a spreading of the adsorption isotherms, which should not be overlooked in practical operating conditions of the sensor. Atomically flat silicon surfaces may allow for measuring recognition interactions with local-probe microscopy.

  20. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  1. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders. METHODOLOGY: Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  2. Offshore Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile displays the distribution of substrate types from Pt. Arena to Pt. Sal in central/northern California. Originally this data consisted of seven paper...

  3. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  4. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  5. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: strong anchoring model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Archer, Andrew J; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. Our aim is to clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness; several models exist in the literature that result in qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the equation one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising in the case of strong anchoring. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion.

  6. Assembly of Hybrid Solar Cells: Polythiophene Wrapped CdSe Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarak, Sirinya; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.

    2014-03-01

    We prepared cadmium selenide nanorods (CdSe NRs) covered with three types of polythiophenes: poly(3-hexylthiol thiophene), poly(3-hexylamine thiophene), and poly(3-hexylphosphonate thiophene) with thiol, amine, and phosphonate functional groups, respectively, to anchor to the nanorods. This led to a thin layer of p-type conducting polymer covering the n-type inorganic nanorods. A vertically-oriented assembly of polythiophene-functionalized CdSe NRs on a conducting substrate was obtained with the use of an applied electric field. Ternary nanocomposites of CdSe-polythiophene-graphene were obtained via π- π stacking. These oriented CdSe NRs-polythiophenes nanocomposites y potential applications in hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  7. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  8. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  9. Analysis of Glenoid Inter-anchor Distance with an All-Suture Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jonathan; Robinson, Sean; Dutton, Pascual; Dickinson, Ephraim; Rodriguez, John Paul; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M.; Montgomery, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors are commonly used techniques. More recently developed all-suture systems employ smaller diameter anchors, which increase repair contact area and allow greater placement density on narrow surfaces such as the glenoid. Our goal is investigate the strength characteristics of various inter-anchor distances in a human glenoid model. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric glenoids were potted after the labrum was excised. The glenoids were then implanted with 1.4 mm all-suture anchors (Juggerknot, Biomet, Warsaw, IN) at varying inter-anchor distances. Anchors were implanted adjacent to one another or at 2 mm, 3 mm, or 5 mm distances using a template with pre-drilled holes. The glenoids were then underwent single cycle pullout testing using a test frame (Instron 8521, Instron Inc., Norwood, MA). A 5 N preload was applied to the construct and the actuator was driven away from the shoulder at a rate of 12.5mm/s as seen in Figure 1. Force and displacement were collected from the test frame actuator at a rate of 500 Hz. The primary outcomes were failure strength and stiffness. Stiffness was calculated from the initial linear region of the force displacement curve. Failure strength was defined as the first local maximum inflection point in the force displacement curve. Results: During load to fail testing, all but three of the specimens had both anchors pull out of the glenoid. The other mode of failure included one or both of the sutures failing. Stiffness was 13.52 ± 3.8, 17.97 ± 5.02, 17.59 ± 4.65 and 18.95 ± 4.67 N/mm for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower stiffness compared to the other treatment groups. Failure strength was 48.68 ± 20.64, 76.16 ± 23.78, 73.19 ± 35.83 and 87.04 ± 34.67 N for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown in Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower

  10. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  11. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  12. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  13. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  14. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  15. Liposomal nanotransporter for targeted binding based on nucleic acid anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdl, Lukas; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Kudr, Jiri; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Konecna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel; Zitka, Ondrej; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-02-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been developed intensively in recent years due to lower reagent consumption, faster analysis, and possibility of the integration of several analytical detectors into one chip. Electrochemical detectors are preferred in microfluidic systems, whereas liposomes can be used for amplification of the electrochemical signals. The aim of this study was to design a nanodevice for targeted anchoring of liposome as transport device. In this study, liposome with encapsulated Zn(II) was prepared. Further, gold nanoparticles were anchored onto the liposome surface allowing binding of thiol moiety-modified molecules (DNA). For targeted capturing of the transport device, DNA loops were used. DNA loops were represented by paramagnetic microparticles with oligo(DT)25 chain, on which a connecting DNA was bound. Capturing of transport device was subsequently done by hybridization to the loop. The individual steps were analyzed by electrochemistry and UV/Vis spectrometry. For detection of Zn(II) encapsulated in liposome, a microfluidic system was used. The study succeeded in demonstrating that liposome is suitable for the transport of Zn(II) and nucleic acids. Such transporter may be used for targeted binding using DNA anchor system.

  16. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-09-30

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Calculation of prestressed anchor segment by 3D infiniteelement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen WANG; Hongyang XIE; Yuanhan WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on 1D infinite element theory, the coordinate transformation and shape function of 3D point-radiation 4-node infinite elements were derived.They were coupled with 8-node finite elements to compute the compressive deformation of the prestressed anchor segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchor segment, the stresses and displacements in the rock around the anchor segment are concentrated in the zone center with the anchor axis and are subjected to exponential decay. Therefore, the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculation results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results.

  18. AUV Load Separation Motion with Constraint of Anchor Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cheng; SONG Bao-wei; DU Xiao-xu; WANG Peng; LI Jia-wang

    2009-01-01

    Motion equations of AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle) load separation with the constraint of anchor chain is derived. Based on proper engineering assumptions for anchor chain,system viewpoint is used to found the motion equations, and the D'Alembert principle is used to eliminate the constraint force of anchor chain. Based on the equations, the motion simulation is carried out to a certain AUV, which reflects the actual condition, and is used for the reference of resrarching AUV load separation motion with the constraint of anchor chain.

  19. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  20. Dynamical investigation of macromolecular hybridization bioassays

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, R; Wixforth, A

    2002-01-01

    A novel sensoric technique for the dynamical in situ investigation of a hybridization bio assay is presented, which utilizes a metal bead labeling method. Therein, hybridization results in an increased metal coverage on parts of a substrate, where it takes place. Our sensing principle relies on the measurement of the radio frequency impedance of the hybridization spots. We propose several examples for sensor devices.

  1. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Thermal stability and molecular ordering of organic semiconductor monolayers: effect of an anchor group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew O F; Knauer, Philipp; Resel, Roland; Ringk, Andreas; Strohriegl, Peter; Werzer, Oliver; Sferrazza, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The thermal stability and molecular order in monolayers of two organic semiconductors, PBI-PA and PBI-alkyl, based on perylene derivatives with an identical molecular structure except for an anchor group for attachment to the substrate in PBI-PA, are reported. In situ X-ray reflectivity measurements are used to follow the stability of these monolayers in terms of order and thickness as temperature is increased. Films have thicknesses corresponding approximately to the length of one molecule; molecules stand upright on the substrate with a defined structure. PBI-PA monolayers have a high degree of order at room temperature and a stable film exists up to 250 °C, but decomposes rapidly above 300 °C. In contrast, stable physisorbed PBI-alkyl monolayers only exist up to 100 °C. Above the bulk melting point at 200 °C no more order exists. The results encourage using anchor groups in monolayers for various applications as it allows enhanced stability at the interface with the substrate.

  3. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  4. Experimental Research on the Performance of Coalmine -used Anchor Bolt Cutting by a Fore -Hybrid High-pressure Abrasive Water-jet%前混式高压磨料水射流切割锚杆性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王从东

    2015-01-01

    In order to study coalmine -used anchor bolt cutting by high -pressure water jet , by using a fore-hy-brid high-pressure abrasive water -jet cutting system built by our own , the anchor bolt cutting experiment was conducted .Based on the study of the influence of jet pressure , abrasive parameters , traversing speed , and jet target distance on cutting , it was concluded that the jet pressure and cutting depth can be simplified as a linear relationship and nozzle traversing speed and cutting depth as a inverse relationship , and there is the optimum val-ue of the abrasive parameters and the target distance .At the same time , the optimal process parameters of cutting were obtained .%为了研究高压水射流切割煤矿锚杆的问题 ,利用自行搭建前混式高压磨料水射流切割系统对煤矿用的锚杆进行切割试验,通过对射流压力、磨料参数、横移速度和喷射靶距等参数对切割能力影响的探讨,得出射流压力与切割深度可以简化为线性关系,喷嘴横移速度与切割深度可以简化为反比关系,以及磨料参数和靶距存在最优值等结论,同时获取了切割所需的最佳工艺参数.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  6. Career anchors and values from different career management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cunha da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the relationships between career anchors and young Generation Y professionals’ values, from the career concept perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Research concerning the proposed objective was carried out through quantitative research involving 189 Business Administration majors from a Catholic university in São Paulo, Brazil. We used two instruments to identify the career anchors and values of respondents: Schein (1990 and Schwartz (1994, respectively. We used statistical techniques to explore the relationships between career anchors and values. Findings – Among the results, mention should be made to the statistical relationships found between analyzed career anchors and values. It is also important to stress that, although the Lifestyle career anchor was predominantly present in the conglomerate division, this anchor was the predominant characteristic in the differentiation of the smaller group of respondents, the new career group. The General Management Career Anchor, which presents a lower incidence, is the predominant characteristic of the larger group, referring to organizational careers. As well as the Lifestyle career anchor, the Hedonism value was predominant among respondents. Originality/value – The need to consider the following was found: Generation Y presents generational characteristics that drive people management to propose work structures that offer activities to generate learning, pleasure, self-fulfillment and conciliation between work and personal life.

  7. Anchored Instruction in Preservice Educational Technology Classes: A Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the anchored instruction (i.e., using a theme or anchor around which various learning activities take place) approach in preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology. Participants were 48 students enrolled in the three sections of a preservice educational technology class during the summer of 1997.…

  8. Effects of Knowledge Abstraction with Anchored Instruction on Learning Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Fen; And Others

    Transfer of learning is one of the major purposes of education. Theories and research have tried hard to answer questions such as: how does transfer occur? and how is transfer enhanced? Situated cognitive theory and research about anchored instruction together bring some positive findings. Anchored instruction provides the learner with a situated,…

  9. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach about Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, A. Edward; Morse, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    A training module about assistive technology using an integrated hypermedia format and principles of anchored instruction was developed and field tested with 57 undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals. The trainees responded positively to the anchored instruction. This article details the module's development, evaluation, and…

  10. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  11. Structure of a CGI-58 Motif Provides the Molecular Basis of Lipid Droplet Anchoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Nagy, Harald Manuel; Arthanari, Haribabu; Pillip, Christoph Jens; Lindermuth, Hanna; Luna, Rafael Eulogio; Wagner, Gerhard; Zechner, Rudolf; Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in lipid droplets (LDs) are hydrolyzed in a highly regulated metabolic process called lipolysis to free fatty acids that serve as energy substrates for β-oxidation, precursors for membrane lipids and signaling molecules. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) stimulates the enzymatic activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of TGs to diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. In adipose tissue, protein-protein interactions between CGI-58 and the LD coating protein perilipin 1 restrain the ability of CGI-58 to activate ATGL under basal conditions. Phosphorylation of perilipin 1 disrupts these interactions and mobilizes CGI-58 for the activation of ATGL. We have previously demonstrated that the removal of a peptide at the N terminus (residues 10–31) of CGI-58 abrogates CGI-58 localization to LDs and CGI-58-mediated activation of ATGL. Here, we show that this tryptophan-rich N-terminal peptide serves as an independent LD anchor, with its three tryptophans serving as focal points of the left (harboring Trp21 and Trp25) and right (harboring Trp29) anchor arms. The solution state NMR structure of a peptide comprising the LD anchor bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles as LD mimic reveals that the left arm forms a concise hydrophobic core comprising tryptophans Trp21 and Trp25 and two adjacent leucines. Trp29 serves as the core of a functionally independent anchor arm. Consequently, simultaneous tryptophan alanine permutations in both arms abolish localization and activity of CGI-58 as opposed to tryptophan substitutions that occur in only one arm. PMID:26350461

  12. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  13. Substrate-induced bulk alignment of liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Chakrabarti, A.; Mouritsen, Ole G.;

    1996-01-01

    The Gay-Berne model for liquid crystals in the presence of a substrate surface is studied using the hybrid Monte Carlo method. A simple non-mean-field substrate-molecule potential is proposed to describe the effects of rubbed polymer-coated substrates on the liquid crystals. Effects...

  14. Breaking anchored droplets in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell

    CERN Document Server

    Amselem, Gabriel; Gallaire, François; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    We study microfluidic self digitization in Hele-Shaw cells using pancake droplets anchored to surface tension traps. We show that above a critical flow rate, large anchored droplets break up to form two daughter droplets, one of which remains in the anchor. Below the critical flow velocity for breakup the shape of the anchored drop is given by an elastica equation that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid. As the velocity crosses the critical value, the equation stops admitting a solution that satisfies the boundary conditions; the drop breaks up in spite of the neck still having finite width. A similar breaking event also takes place between the holes of an array of anchors, which we use to produce a 2D array of stationary drops in situ.

  15. Highly Stable Nanocontainer of APTES-Anchored Layered Titanate Nanosheet for Reliable Protection/Recovery of Nucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, In Young; Park, Dae-Hwan; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-02-01

    A universal technology for the encapsulative protection of unstable anionic species by highly stable layered metal oxide has been developed via the surface modification of a metal oxide nanosheet. The surface anchoring of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on exfoliated titanate nanosheet yields a novel cationic metal oxide nanosheet, which can be universally used for the hybridization with various biological and inorganic anions. The encapsulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cationic APTES-anchored titanate lattice makes possible the reliable long-term protection of DNA against enzymatic, chemical, and UV-vis light corrosions. The encapsulated DNA can be easily released from the titanate lattice via sonication, underscoring the functionality of the cationic APTES-anchored titanate nanosheet as a stable nanocontainer for DNA. The APTES-anchored titanate nanosheet can be also used as an efficient CO2 adsorbent and a versatile host material for various inorganic anions like polyoxometalates, leading to the synthesis of novel intercalative nanohybrids with unexplored properties and useful functionalities.

  16. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Underwater exploration in the coastal region off Baga (Goa, India) led to the recovery of an isolated stone artefact, which resembles a pyramidal type of anchor stone. This anchor stone is unlike to other pyramidal anchor stones found elsewhere...

  17. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  18. The association of BAG6 with SGTA and tail-anchored proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Leznicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BAG6 protein is a subunit of a heterotrimeric complex that binds a range of membrane and secretory protein precursors localized to the cytosol, enforcing quality control and influencing their subsequent fate. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BAG6 has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and a C-terminal Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain, separated by a large central proline-rich region. We have used in vitro binding approaches to identify regions of BAG6 important for its interactions with: i the small-glutamine rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA and ii two model tail-anchored membrane proteins as a paradigm for its hydrophobic substrates. We show that the BAG6-UBL is essential for binding to SGTA, and find that the UBL of a second subunit of the BAG6-complex, ubiquitin-like protein 4A (UBL4A, competes for SGTA binding. Our data show that this binding is selective, and suggest that SGTA can bind either BAG6, or UBL4A, but not both at the same time. We adapted our in vitro binding assay to study the association of BAG6 with an immobilized tail-anchored protein, Sec61β, and find both the UBL and BAG domains are dispensable for binding this substrate. This conclusion was further supported using a heterologous subcellular localization assay in yeast, where the BAG6-dependent nuclear relocalization of a second tail-anchored protein, GFP-Sed5, also required neither the UBL, nor the BAG domain of BAG6. SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of these findings, we propose a working model where the large central region of the BAG6 protein provides a binding site for a diverse group of substrates, many of which expose a hydrophobic stretch of polypeptide. This arrangement would enable the BAG6 complex to bring together its substrates with potential effectors including those recruited via its N-terminal UBL. Such effectors may include SGTA, and the resulting assemblies influence the subsequent fate of the hydrophobic BAG6

  19. Synthesis of porphyrinoids with silane anchors and their covalent self-assembling and metallation on solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariola-Leikas, Essi; Hietala, Matti; Veselov, Alexey; Okhotnikov, Oleg; Semjonov, Sergei L; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    We have synthesized a set of porphyrin and phthalocyanine compounds with two different silane anchors. Syntheses of the anchor-substituted chromophores have been carried out via hydrosilylation of alkene derivatives, catalyzed by platinum complexes. The reduction side-process was suppressed using specific anchor/catalyst pairs, and the silane-containing compounds were successfully isolated from hydrogenated by-products in pure form with good yields. The target porphyrinoids having stable reactive silane anchors possess the ability to self-assemble on metal oxides and quartz surfaces and optical fibers. Covalent attachment is done in one-step, which makes the bonding process fast and easy. Immobilized chromophores were further converted by on-surface reactions into Zn(II) and Mg(II) metal complexes. The metallation time was found to be as fast as 1 min for Zn ion. Bonding densities calculated from the absorbances of the deposited layers give rough estimations for packing of the molecules on various substrates and evidence for monomolecular layers formation.

  20. Anchorage Behaviors of Frictional Tieback Anchors in Silty Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung; Hsiao, Wen-Ta; Chen, Ke-Ting; Hu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Ssu-Yi

    2017-06-01

    Soil anchors are extensively used in geotechnical applications, most commonly serve as tieback walls in deep excavations. To investigate the anchorage mechanisms of this tieback anchor, a constitutive model that considers both strain hardening and softening and volume dilatancy entitled SHASOVOD model, and FLAC3D software are used to perform 3-D numerical analyses. The results from field anchor tests are compared with those calculated by numerical analyses to enhance the applicability of the numerical method. After the calibration, this research carried out the parameter studies by numerical analyses. The numerical results reveal that whether the yield of soil around an anchor develops to ground surface and/or touches the diaphragm wall depending on the overburden depth H and the embedded depth Z of an anchor, this study suggests the minimum overburden and embedded depths to avoid the yield of soils develop to ground surface and/or touch the diaphragm wall. When the embedded depth, overburden depth or fixed length of an anchor increases, the anchorage capacity also increases. Increasing fixed length should be the optimum method to increase the anchorage capacity for fixed length less than 20m. However, when the fixed length of an anchor exceeds 30 m, the increasing rate of anchorage capacity per fixed length decreases, and progressive yield occurs obviously between the fixed length and surrounding soil.

  1. Distributed localization for anchor-free sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xunxue; Shan Zhiguan; Liu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Geographic location of nodes is very useful in a sensor network. Previous localization algorithms assume that there exist some anchor nodes in this kind of network, and then other nodes are estimated to create their coordinates. Once there are not anchors to be deployed, those localization algorithms will be invalidated. Many papers in this field focus on anchor-based solutions. The use of anchors introduces many limitations, since anchors require external equipments such as global position system, cause additional power consumption. A novel positioning algorithm is proposed to use a virtual coordinate system based on a new concept-virtual anchor. It is executed in a distributed fashion according to the connectivity of a node and the measured distances to its neighbors. Both the adjacent member information and the ranging distance result are combined to generate the estimated position of a network, one of which is independently adopted for localization previously. At the position refinement stage the intermediate estimation of a node begins to be evaluated on its reliability for position mutation; thus the positioning optimization process of the whole network is avoided falling into a local optimal solution. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can resolve the distributed localization problem for anchor-free sensor networks, and is superior to previous methods in terms of its positioning capability under a variety of circumstances.

  2. Comparison of two maxillary protraction protocols: tooth-borne versus bone-anchored protraction facemask treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter; Wilmes, Benedict; Drescher, Dieter; Martin, Chris; Weaver, Bryan; Gunel, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    Protraction facemask has been advocated for treatment of class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency. Studies using tooth-borne rapid palatal expansion (RPE) appliance as anchorage have experienced side effects such as forward movement of the maxillary molars, excessive proclination of the maxillary incisors, and an increase in lower face height. A new Hybrid Hyrax bone-anchored RPE appliance claimed to minimize the side effects of maxillary expansion and protraction. A retrospective study was conducted to compare the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes in patients treated with these two protocols. Twenty class III patients (8 males, 12 females, mean age 9.8 ± 1.6 years) who were treated consecutively with the tooth-borne maxillary RPE and protraction device were compared with 20 class III patients (8 males, 12 females, mean age 9.6 ± 1.2 years) who were treated consecutively with the bone-anchored maxillary RPE and protraction appliances. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start of treatment and at the end of maxillary protraction. A control group of class III patients with no treatment was included to subtract changes due to growth to obtain the true appliance effect. A custom cephalometric analysis based on measurements described by Bjork and Pancherz, McNamara, Tweed, and Steiner analyses was used to determine skeletal and dental changes. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. Significant differences between the two groups were found in 8 out of 29 cephalometric variables (p overjet correction, and correction in molar relationship. Subjects in the bone-anchored facemask group had less downward movement of the "A" point, less opening of the mandibular plane (SNL-ML and FH-ML), and more vertical eruption of the maxillary incisors. The Hybrid Hyrax bone-anchored RPE appliance minimized the side effect encounter by tooth-borne RPE appliance for maxillary expansion and protraction and may serve as an alternative treatment

  3. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  4. Planar ring-shaped phononic crystal anchoring boundaries for enhancing the quality factor of Lamb mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binci, L.; Tu, C.; Zhu, H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.

    2016-11-01

    We report the use of planar ring-shaped phononic crystals (PnCs) as anchor boundaries of very-high-frequency band piezoelectric-on-silicon Lamb mode resonators for the purpose of enhancing their quality factor (Q). Here, we exploit the acoustic bandgap associated with the PnC anchoring boundaries to reduce acoustic energy leakage out of the micromechanical resonator. The proposed approach provides greater mechanical robustness (by merit of interlocking the cells in a matrix) and the possibility of electrical routing through the PnC cells. We experimentally show enhancements in Q by a factor of three using the proposed approach of hybridizing planar ring-shaped PnCs with micromechanical resonators. The effect of these PnCs on resonator Q is further corroborated by their effects in suppressing transmission when incorporated into a delay line.

  5. Neurostimulation leads, intrathecal catheters and anchoring devices evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Demartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies highlight the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal therapy for the management of chronic pain syndromes resistant to pharmacological or less invasive interventional therapies. One of the possible complications of these techniques, reported in literature, is migration of the lead or catheter; thus the use of an anchoring system is considered mandatory. Every company that produces devices for neurostimulation or neuromodulation provides various anchoring devices evolved over time. In the study, the authors discuss about the most common anchoring devices based on their clinical experience.

  6. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  7. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  8. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; XUAN Li

    2011-01-01

    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition.Employing some approximations for the elastic constants,we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves,with a period of π/2.This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable.Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.In most liquid crystal devices,the liquid crystals are sandwiched between two substrates coated with alignment layers.In the absence of externally applied fields,the orientation of the liquid crystal in the cell is determined by the anchoring condition of the alignment layer.[1-3] One usually distinguishes three main types of liquid crystalline director alignment near solid walls:homeotropic,homogeneous (or planar) and tilted orientations.Here we study the first of these and consider the biaxial nematic phase,which was observed in lyotropic systems as early as 1980[4] and has been confirmed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.%A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our

  9. A Mechanistic Explanation of the Peculiar Amphiphobic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings by Combining XPS Characterization and DFT Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Alessandro; Cannelli, Oliviero; Boccia, Alice; Zanoni, Robertino; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Caldarelli, Aurora; Veronesi, Federico

    2015-09-16

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling analysis of hybrid functional coatings constituted by fluorinated alkylsilane monolayers covalently grafted on a nanostructured ceramic oxide (Al2O3) thin film deposited on aluminum alloy substrates. Such engineered surfaces, bearing hybrid coatings obtained via a classic sol-gel route, have been previously shown to possess amphiphobic behavior (superhydrophobicity plus oleophobicity) and excellent durability, even under simulated severe working environments. Starting from XPS, SEM, and contact angle results and analysis, and combining it with DFT results, the present investigation offers a first mechanistic explanation at a molecular level of the peculiar properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic coating in terms of composition and surface structural arrangements. Theoretical modeling shows that the active fluorinated moiety is strongly anchored on the alumina sites with single Si-O-Al bridges and that the residual valence of Si is saturated by Si-O-Si bonds which form a reticulation with two vicinal fluoroalkylsilanes. The resulting hybrid coating consists of stable rows of fluorinated alkyl chains in reciprocal contact, which form well-ordered and packed monolayers.

  10. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  11. Anchored but not internalized: shape dependent endocytosis of nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Feng, Xi; Yin, Hang; Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yanhuan; Chu, Zhiqin; Raabova, Helena; Vavra, Jan; Cigler, Petr; Liu, Renbao; Wang, Yi; Li, Quan

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticle-cell interactions begin with the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, a process that eventually determines their cellular fate. In the present work, we show that the morphological features of nanodiamonds (NDs) affect both the anchoring and internalization stages of their endocytosis. While a prickly ND (with sharp edges/corners) has no trouble of anchoring onto the plasma membrane, it suffers from difficult internalization afterwards. In comparison, the internalization of a round ND (obtained by selective etching of the prickly ND) is not limited by its lower anchoring amount and presents a much higher endocytosis amount. Molecular dynamics simulation and continuum modelling results suggest that the observed difference in the anchoring of round and prickly NDs likely results from the reduced contact surface area with the cell membrane of the former, while the energy penalty associated with membrane curvature generation, which is lower for a round ND, may explain its higher probability of the subsequent internalization.

  12. New Mathematical Modelling of Stabilizing Pile with Prestressed Tieback Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical modelling for analyzing stabilizing piles with prestressed tieback anchors. The new differential equations governing the mechanical response of the stabilizing pile are formulated and the boundary conditions considering the tie-back anchors are mathematically specified. Then, the system of differential equations is numerically solved by the high-accuracy Runge-Kutta finite difference method. A simple computer program has been written on the platform of MATLAB to run the procedure of the proposed algorithm. This approach is entirely different from the traditional finite element method used to design the anchored piles. The FEM is employed to verify the feasibility of the developed method. The comparative case study indicates that the proposed method has more higher modeling and computing efficiency than the FEM and can be an alternative method for designing the anchored pile used for slope stabilization.

  13. The relation between career anchors, emotional intelligence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emotional intelligence (measured by the Assessing Emotions Scale) and employability ... career anchors, career development, emotional intelligence, employability satisfaction ...... occupational, race and gender groups, and economic sectors before final conclusions .... 'Sources of job stress, work engagement and career.

  14. Reaching the top: career anchors and professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ruth; Shmulevitz, Carmela; Raviv, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This study, based on Shein's conceptual theory of career anchors, examined the relationship between career anchors, professional development and emerging career patterns for graduates of 12 consecutive two year second career programs in nursing (N=231) compared to graduates of concurrent four year academic programs (N=273). A 2-group comparison design was used and data collection tools included a demographic profile, a professional profile and a career anchor questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found in regard to career anchors (pdevelopment (pnurses were specialization and lifestyle where academic graduates chose management, autonomy and service. Academics displayed a statistically significant preference for administrative specialization (34%) compared to the second career tract (6.5%). Researchers propose that each group develops differently and contributes to the workplace and the importance of both certification and academic incentives to ensure recruitment.

  15. Effect of a preload force on anchor system frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Aihong; Xu Jinhai; Liu Haishun

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationship between preload forces and natural frequencies of anchors was obtained from the structure of an anchor and its mechanical characteristics.We established a numerical model for the dynamic analysis of a bolt support system taking into consideration the working surroundings of the anchor.The natural frequency distribution of the system under various preload forces of the anchor was analyzed with ANSYS.Our results show that each order of the system frequency varied with an increase in preload forces.A single order frequency decreased with an increase in the preload force.A preload force affected low-order frequencies more than high-order frequencies.We obtained a functional relationship by fitting preload forces and fundamental frequencies,which was in agreement with our theoretical considerations.This study provides theoretical support for the detection of preload forces.

  16. Robust conductance of dumbbell molecular junctions with fullerene anchoring groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Settnes, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    that a dumbbell construction with C60 molecules acting as anchors yields more well-defined conductances as compared to the widely used thiol anchoring groups. Here, we use density functional theory to investigate the electronic properties of this dumbbell construction. The conductance is found to be stable...... support the original motivation to achieve conductance values more stable towards changes in the structure of the molecule-metal contact leading to larger reproducibility in experiments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  18. Behavioral Biases of Individual Investors: The Effect of Anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Zaiane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of the anchoring bias in the financial decision making of individual investors. A survey study is carried out to find out how the studied bias affects the investment behavior on the Tunisian stock market. The survey is for exploratory purpose and it is based on multiple factorial correspondence analyses. The results reveal that Tunisian investors do not suffer from the anchoring bias.

  19. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; SAFRAN, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five ...

  20. Characterizing the flow of stirred vessels with anchor type impellers

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto S.M.C.; Nunhez J.R.; Duarte C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its importance in chemical industries, there are few works which studies anchor type impellers and only a fraction of the works investigate these systems under a computational approach. The great majority refers to turbine impellers, specially Rushton turbines, under turbulent flow. Anchor impellers are used specially for highly viscous flow, typical of polymer reactions. The viscosity is normally in the range 1000-10000 cp. Since this range of viscosity describe highly viscous flows,...

  1. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  2. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  3. A ternary functional Ag@GO@Au sandwiched hybrid as an ultrasensitive and stable surface enhanced Raman scattering platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-yun; Hao, Rui; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing

    2017-07-01

    The graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by virtues of plasmonic metal nanostructures and graphene or its derivatives have attracted tremendous interests which are expected to make up the deficiency of traditional plasmonic metal substrates. Herein, we designed and fabricated a novel ternary Ag@GO@Au sandwich hybrid wherein the ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films were seamlessly wrapped around the hierarchical flower-like Ag particle core and meanwhile provided two-dimensional anchoring scaffold for the coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coverage density of loading Au NPs could be readily controlled by tuning the dosage amount of Au particle solutions. These features endowed the sandwiched structures high enrichment capability for analytes such as aromatic molecules and astonishing SERS performance. The Raman signals were enormously enhanced with an ultrasensitive detection limit of rhodamine-6G (R6G) as low as 10-13 M based on the chemical enhancement from GO and multi-dimensional plasmonic coupling between the metal nanoparticles. In addition, the GO interlayer as an isolating shell could effectively prevent the metal-molecule direct interaction and suppress the oxidation of Ag after exposure at ambient condition which enabled the substrates excellent reproducibility with less than 6% signal variations and prolonged life-time. To evaluate the feasibility and the practical application for SERS detection in real-world samples based on GO sandwiched hybrid as SERS-active substrate, three different prohibited colorants with a series of concentrations were measured with a minimum detected concentration down to 10-9 M. Furthermore, the prepared GO sandwiched nanostructures can be used to identify different types of colorants existing in red wine, implying the great potential applications for single-particle SERS sensing of biotechnology and on-site monitoring in food security.

  4. 棉花遗传锚定的基因组物理图谱%Toward a Genetically-anchored Physical Map of the Cotton Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew H. PATERSON; James C. ESTILL; Jun-kang RONG; Dawn T. WILLIAMS-COPLIN; Barry S. MARLER

    2002-01-01

    @@ We are using a high-density (1-cM) molecular map of the cotton genome based on RFLP, SSR,and EST markers as a foundation for development of a robust BAC based physical map. The 'overgo' approach is providing an efficient means by which to accomplish hybridization-based anchoring of geneticallymapped cotton sequences, and also heterologous sequences from other genomes that are useful for comparative biology.

  5. First principles investigations on the electronic structure of anchor groups on ZnO nanowires and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Lorke, M.; Rosa, A. L.; Frauenheim, Th. [BCCMS, Universität Bremen, Am Fallturm 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schoenhalz, A. L.; Dalpian, G. M. [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados 5001, Santo André (Brazil); Rocha, A. R. [IFT, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-05-28

    We report on density functional theory investigations of the electronic properties of monofunctional ligands adsorbed on ZnO-(1010) surfaces and ZnO nanowires using semi-local and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. We consider three anchor groups, namely thiol, amino, and carboxyl groups. Our results indicate that neither the carboxyl nor the amino group modify the transport and conductivity properties of ZnO. In contrast, the modification of the ZnO surface and nanostructure with thiol leads to insertion of molecular states in the band gap, thus suggesting that functionalization with this moiety may customize the optical properties of ZnO nanomaterials.

  6. A soluble acid invertase is directed to the vacuole by a signal anchor mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Anne L; Casu, Rosanne E; Perroux, Jai M; Jackson, Mark A; Grof, Christopher P L

    2011-06-15

    Enzyme activities in the vacuole have an important impact on the net concentration of sucrose. In sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid), immunolabelling demonstrated that a soluble acid invertase (β-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) is present in the vacuole of storage parenchyma cells during sucrose accumulation. Examination of sequences from sugarcane, barley and rice showed that the N-terminus of the invertase sequence contains a signal anchor and a tyrosine motif, characteristic of single-pass membrane proteins destined for lysosomal compartments. The N-terminal peptide from the barley invertase was shown to be capable of directing the green fluorescent protein to the vacuole in sugarcane cells. The results suggest that soluble acid invertase is sorted to the vacuole in a membrane-bound form.

  7. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  8. HyberLoc: Providing Physical Layer Location Privacy in Hybrid Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    El-Badry, Rania; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    In many hybrid wireless sensor networks' applications, sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environments where trusted and un-trusted nodes co-exist. In anchor-based hybrid networks, it becomes important to allow trusted nodes to gain full access to the location information transmitted in beacon frames while, at the same time, prevent un-trusted nodes from using this information. The main challenge is that un-trusted nodes can measure the physical signal transmitted from anchor nodes, even if these nodes encrypt their transmission. Using the measured signal strength, un-trusted nodes can still tri-laterate the location of anchor nodes. In this paper, we propose HyberLoc, an algorithm that provides anchor physical layer location privacy in anchor-based hybrid sensor networks. The idea is for anchor nodes to dynamically change their transmission power following a certain probability distribution, degrading the localization accuracy at un-trusted nodes while maintaining high localization accuracy at trusted node...

  9. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  11. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  12. Multistructural biomimetic substrates for controlled cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orza, Anamaria I.; Mihu, Carmen; Soritau, Olga; Diudea, Mircea; Florea, Adrian; Matei, Horea; Balici, Stefana; Mudalige, Thilak; Kanarpardy, Ganesh K.; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2014-02-01

    Multidimensional scaffolds are considered to be ideal candidates for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering based on their potential to provide an excellent microenvironment and direct the fate of the cultured cells. More recently, the use of stem cells in medicine has opened a new technological opportunity for controlled tissue formation. However, the mechanism through which the substrate directs the differentiation of stem cells is still rather unclear. Data concerning its specific surface chemistry, topology, and its signaling ability need to be further understood and analyzed. In our study, atomic force microscopy was used to study the stiffness, roughness, and topology of the collagen (Coll) and metallized collagen (MC) substrates, proposed as an excellent substrate for regenerative medicine. The importance of signaling molecules was studied by constructing a new hybrid signaling substrate that contains both collagen and laminin extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The cellular response—such as attachment capability, proliferation and cardiac and neuronal phenotype expression on the metallized and non-metallized hybrid substrates (collagen + laminin)—was studied using MTT viability assay and immunohistochemistry studies. Our findings indicate that such hybrid materials could play an important role in the regeneration of complex tissues.

  13. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  14. Nematic Liquid Crystal Alignment Behaviors between Crossed Stretched Miropolymer Filaments with Anchoring Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2006-04-01

    We observed the molecular alignment of a liquid crystal (LC) induced by crossing two stretched micropolymer filaments between glass substrates and confirmed its light modulation property. The two microfilaments, which were extracted from a cellulose cloth by stretching it in advance, had surface molecular alignment and stabilized nematic LC alignment between the microfilaments crossed with a small angle. In the fabricated LC cell, a spatially-uniform LC planar alignment is achieved in the area of a filament interval of less than 60 μm. By polarizing microscopy observation of the isotropic-to-nematic wetting transition of the LC material between the polymer filaments, it was confirmed that the stable LC alignment area is formed by the surface anchoring of the filaments. When external voltages were applied to the obtained uniformed alignment LC area, a characteristic periodic electrooptic property was confirmed on the basis of electrically-controlled birefringence under the alignment control of the in-plane anchoring of the filaments.

  15. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: Strong anchoring model

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Te-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Structural and mechanical properties of Laponite-PEG hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikinaka, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Kazuto; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Osada, Yoshihito; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji; Shigehara, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids were obtained by the sol-gel type organic modification reaction of Laponite sidewalls with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bearing alkoxysiloxy terminal functionality. By casting an aqueous dispersion of the hybrid, the flexible and transparent hybrid films were obtained. Regardless of the inorganic/organic component ratio, the hybrid film had the ordered structure of Laponite in-plane flat arrays. The mechanical strength of hybrid films was drastically improved by the presence of cross-linking among alkoxysilyl functionalities of PEG terminals and the absence of PEG crystallines. Hybrid films, especially those that consisted of PEG with short chain, showed good mechanical properties that originate from quasi-homogeneous dispersion of components due to anchoring of PEG terminal to Laponite sidewall and interaction of PEG to Laponite surface.

  17. An Analysis for Cross Beam-Ground Anchor Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yingzi; Zhang Baiqing; Tang Huiming

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of water facilities, hydroelectric projects, highways and railways in China, beam-anchor reinforcement has been widely used to stabilize slopes in recent years. But the theory for the design of beam-anchor reinforcement is far behind the application. Cross beam-ground anchor reinforcement is a combination of beams and anchors forming a new structure to prevent slope sliding. The forces in the beams are discussed using theoretical analysis and numerical modeling. The Winkler model is used to analyze the beams, and reasonable values of λ, length, spacing and cantilevered length for the beams are determined through a theoretical analysis. A three-dimensional finite element method is adopted to model the interaction of the beams and soils and a structure analysis is applied to treat the beams and to study the stress distribution in external and internal beams. The analytical results show that it is better to satisfy λ≥2π, the spacing between anchors ls should be lsλ<π/2 and cantilever length should be (0.3-0.5)ls for the optimum design. The numerical results show that the same design can be used for all beams in different directions, including the internal and external beams. The application of the analytical method for reinforcement beam analysis is acceptable. It is better to choose a safety coefficient of 1.3 for design based on the analytical method for safety.

  18. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  19. Surface anchored metal-organic frameworks as stimulus responsive antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancet, Maria Pilar Arpa; Hanke, Maximilian; Wang, Zhengbang; Bauer, Stella; Azucena, Carlos; Arslan, Hasan K; Heinle, Marita; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Surface-anchored, crystalline and oriented metal organic frameworks (SURMOFs) have huge potential for biological applications due to their well-defined and highly-porous structure. In this work we describe a MOF-based, fully autonomous system, which combines sensing, a specific response, and the release of an antimicrobial agent. The Cu-containing SURMOF, Cu-SURMOF 2, is stable in artificial seawater and shows stimulus-responsive anti-fouling properties against marine bacteria. When Cobetia marina adheres on the SURMOF, the framework's response is lethal to the adhering microorganism. A thorough analysis reveals that this response is induced by agents secreted from the microbes after adhesion to the substrate, and includes a release of Cu ions resulting from a degradation of the SURMOF. The stimulus-responsive antifouling effect of Cu-SURMOF 2 demonstrates the first application of Cu-SURMOF 2 as autonomous system with great potential for further microbiological and cell culture applications.

  20. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  1. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  2. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...... to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell...

  3. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell......Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...

  4. Comparative Haploid Genetic Screens Reveal Divergent Pathways in the Biogenesis and Trafficking of Glycophosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Davis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs play essential roles in physiology, but their biogenesis and trafficking have not been systematically characterized. Here, we took advantage of the recently available haploid genetics approach to dissect GPI-AP pathways in human cells using prion protein (PrP and CD59 as model molecules. Our screens recovered a large number of common and unexpectedly specialized factors in the GPI-AP pathways. PIGN, PGAP2, and PIGF, which encode GPI anchor-modifying enzymes, were selectively isolated in the CD59 screen, suggesting that GPI anchor composition significantly influences the biogenesis of GPI-APs in a substrate-dependent manner. SEC62 and SEC63, which encode components of the ER-targeting machinery, were selectively recovered in the PrP screen, indicating that they do not constitute a universal route for the biogenesis of mammalian GPI-APs. Together, these comparative haploid genetic screens demonstrate that, despite their similarity in overall architecture and subcellular localization, GPI-APs follow markedly distinct biosynthetic and trafficking pathways.

  5. Arrangement of anchor reinforcement in roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈启永; 芦付松

    2003-01-01

    Bolting of mining roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving has been practised successfully in Hebi mining area.It provides a new method for roadway support and settles the problem of support difficulty radically for sublevel caving in Hebi mining area.Where anchor reinforcement holds an important station in roadway support.This article brings forward the arrangement project of anchor based on theoretic analysis.Compared with arranged in the middle of the entry, anchor arranged in the vertex of the entry can reduces the length of anchor,shortens the anchor installation time,and heightens the reliability of anchor installation.

  6. Mechanical behavior of the U-anchor of super-CFRP rod under tensile loading

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; yamaguchi, Kohei; Hino, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    - A suitable anchoring system is required to anchor a CFRP tendon due to its sensitivity in lateral pressure. Recent developed anchors are still relying on lateral pressure in anchoring CFRP tendons. A new CFRP unit equipped with U-anchor at both end of the rod body without any jointing (namely of Super CFRP, S-CFRP) has been developed. This paper presents the mechanical behavior as well as failure mechanism of U-anchor under direct loading and loaded under embedded within concrete, respec...

  7. Study of hybrid orientation structure wafer*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Kaizhou; Zhang Jing; Xu Shiliu; Zhang Zhengfan; Yang Yonghui; Chen Jun; Liang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Two types of 5 μm thick hybrid orientation structure wafers, which were integrated by (110) or (100) orientation silicon wafers as the substrate, have been investigated for 15-40 V voltage ICs and MEMS sensor applications. They have been obtained mainly by SOI wafer bonding and a non-selective epitaxy technique, and have been presented in China for the first time. The thickness of BOX SiO2 buried in wafer is 220 nm. It has been found that the quality of hybrid orientation structure with (100) wafer substrate is better than that with (110) wafer substrate by “Sirtl defect etching of HOSW”.

  8. Anchoring High-Concentration Oxygen Vacancies at Interfaces of CeO(2-x)/Cu toward Enhanced Activity for Preferential CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Li, Liping; Hu, Wanbiao; Huang, Xinsong; Li, Qi; Xu, Yangsen; Zuo, Ying; Li, Guangshe

    2015-10-21

    Catalysts are urgently needed to remove the residual CO in hydrogen feeds through selective oxidation for large-scale applications of hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We herein propose a new methodology that anchors high concentration oxygen vacancies at interface by designing a CeO2-x/Cu hybrid catalyst with enhanced preferential CO oxidation activity. This hybrid catalyst, with more than 6.1% oxygen vacancies fixed at the favorable interfacial sites, displays nearly 100% CO conversion efficiency in H2-rich streams over a broad temperature window from 120 to 210 °C, strikingly 5-fold wider than that of conventional CeO2/Cu (i.e., CeO2 supported on Cu) catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst exhibits a highest cycling stability ever reported, showing no deterioration after five cycling tests, and a super long-time stability beyond 100 h in the simulated operation environment that involves CO2 and H2O. On the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, we clearly show that the anchored oxygen vacancies are generated as a consequence of electron donation from metal copper atoms to CeO2 acceptor and the subsequent reverse spillover of oxygen induced by electron transfer in well controlled nanoheterojunction. The anchored oxygen vacancies play a bridging role in electron capture or transfer and drive molecule oxygen into active oxygen species to interact with the CO molecules adsorbed at interfaces, thus leading to an excellent preferential CO oxidation performance. This study opens a window to design a vast number of high-performance metal-oxide hybrid catalysts via the concept of anchoring oxygen vacancies at interfaces.

  9. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  10. High-intensity ultrasonication as a way to prepare graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode with high capacity in lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José R; Menéndez, Rosa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Nacimiento, Francisco; Tirado, José L; Zhecheva, Ekaterina; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode material with very homogeneous distribution and close contact of graphene and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles has been achieved by using high-intensity ultrasonication. Due to the negative charge of the graphene surface, iron ions are attracted toward the surface of dispersed graphene, according to the zeta potential measurements. The anchoring of the FeO(OH) particles to the graphene layers has been revealed by using mainly TEM, XPS and EPR. TEM observations show that the size of the iron oxide particles is about 4 nm. The ultrasonication treatment is the key parameter to achieve small particle size in these graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid materials. The electrochemical behavior of composite graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide prepared by using high-intensity ultrasonication is outstanding in terms of gravimetric capacity and cycling stability, particularly when metallic foam is used as both the substrate and current collector. The XRD-amorphous character of iron oxyhydroxide in the hybrid electrode material and the small particle size contribute to achieve the improved electrochemical performance.

  11. A glucose biosensor employing a stable artificial peroxidase based on ruthenium purple anchored cinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Jyh-Myng; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai; Chung, Ching-Rue

    2003-06-01

    Iron-enriched industrial waste cinder (CFe*) has been recycled for efficient and stable anchoring of Ru(CN)6(4-) to the formation of a hybrid ruthenium purple complex. The cinder/ruthenium purple hybrid-modified carbon paste electrode (designated as CPE/CFe*-RP) was worked out for hydrodynamic analysis of H2O2 at a low detecting potential of 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl in pH 7 ammonium buffer solution. The highly active, selective, and stable electrocatalytic system with a function similar to peroxidase enzyme shows a linear calibration curve up to 0.8 mM H2O2 at a rotation rate of 3600 rpm with slope and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.11 microA/microM and 33 nM, respectively. Interference by direct electrochemical oxidation of easily oxidizable substances can be prevented as a result of the low detecting potential of the working system. A glucose biosensor was further constructed by coating with glucose oxidase and Tosflex on the CPE/CFe*-RP (denoted as CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts). The proposed CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts with a two-layer configuration, that is, enzyme and protecting layers, exhibits good operational performance in terms of response time, linearity, detection limit, and lifetime.

  12. Sorting of LPXTG peptides by archetypal sortase A: role of invariant substrate residues in modulating the enzyme dynamics and conformational signature of a productive substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tora; Pawale, Vijaykumar S; Choudhury, Devapriya; Roy, Rajendra P

    2014-04-22

    Transpeptidase sortase catalyzes the covalent anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria. Sortase A (SrtA) of Staphylococcus aureus is a prototype enzyme and considered a bona fide drug target because several substrate proteins are virulence-related and implicated in pathogenesis. Besides, SrtA also works as a versatile tool in protein engineering. Surface proteins destined for cell wall anchoring contain a LPXTG sequence located in their C-terminus which serves as a substrate recognition motif for SrtA. Recent studies have implicated substrate-induced conformational dynamics in SrtA. In the present work, we have explored the roles of invariant Leu and Pro residues of the substrate in modulating the enzyme dynamics with a view to understand the selection process of a catalytically competent substrate. Overall results of molecular dynamics simulations and experiments carried out with noncanonical substrates and site-directed mutagenesis reveal that the kinked conformation due to Pro in LPXTG is obligatory for productive binding but does not per se control the enzyme dynamics. The Leu residue of the substrate appears to play the crucial role of an anchor to the beta6-beta7 loop directing the conformational transition of the enzyme from an "open" to a "closed" state subsequent to which the Pro residue facilitates the consummation of binding through predominant engagement of the loop and catalytic motif residues in hydrophobic interactions. Collectively, our study provides insights about specificity, tolerance, and conformational sorting of substrate by SrtA. These results have important implications in designing newer substrates and inhibitors for this multifaceted enzyme.

  13. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  14. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  15. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  16. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    -anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...

  17. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  18. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  19. Stepping stones of Amsterdam, Local and global anchor points 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois, G. de Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the results of research on the relation between local and global anchor points in the city of Amsterdam, executed by a small group of international students from Italy and Spain within the scope of two research modules in their Bachelor education at the University of Applied Scienc

  20. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used explicit…

  1. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  2. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  3. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains un...

  4. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  5. Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Cabau, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"

  6. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajesh; Kusai Baroudi; K. Bala Kasi Reddy; Praveen, B. H.; V. Sumanth Kumar; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  7. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  8. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  9. Anchoring return: the role of the Solutions Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Maria Natta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing a minimum standard of living and livelihood opportunities to help anchor those who have returned is critical for the future stability and security of Afghanistan. This is one of the three main objectives of the 2012 Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees.

  10. A Proteomics Investigation of Anchored PKA-RI Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovanich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Compartmentalization of kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the specificity of second messenger mediated signaling events. Localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated by interaction of its regulatory subunit (PKA-R) with the versatile family of A-kinase anchoring pr

  11. The bone-anchored hearing aid for children: recent developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Leijendeckers, J.M.; Hol, M.K.S.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid, or BAHA, system was introduced. Its transducer is coupled directly to the skull percutaneously to form a highly effective bone-conduction hearing device. Clinical studies on adults with conductive hearing loss have shown that the BAHA system outperforms convent

  12. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  13. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  14. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    as doorjambs (Rao, 1999). Similar types of ring stone have also been reported from off Oman and it is suggested by the local people of that region that they would have been used as anchors for fishing nets. However, the description given by local fishermen...

  15. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  16. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    is that they are trapezoidal or rectangular in shape, used to have two square or rectangular holes at the lower end opposite facing each other for securing wooden flukes and a round hole at the apex meant for cable. The other feature of Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor...

  17. Audiometric evaluation of bilaterally fitted bone-anchored hearing aids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Pouw, C.T.M. van der; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral fittings of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) were evaluated in 25 patients with at least 3 months experience with using two BAHAs. For all patients, air conduction hearing aids were contraindicated due to either recurrent otorrhoea or otitis externa (19 cases) or to congenital aural atres

  18. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  19. Synergistic effect of a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂华; 刘荣桂; 陈蓓; 李明君; 石天罡

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the anchoring force of anchors for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons further, a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons was developed. The increment in anchoring force induced by the clamping segment of anchor was studied. Taking the deformation of all parts in clamping segment in the transverse direction into consideration, the calculation formula for the increment of anchoring force was proposed based on the linear elastic hypotheses. The proposed model is verified by experiments and conclusions are drawn that the anchoring force is influenced mainly by the inclination angle of clamping pieces, the length of clamping part and the thickness of bonding medium. Especially, the thickness of bonding medium should be lowered in design to improve the synergistic effect of anchors.

  20. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Stone anchors are the primary antiquites in marine archaeological studies. Evidences of their evolution are noticed in India since 2500 B.C. A number of stone anchors have been recovered during the recent marine archaeological explorations at Dwarka...

  1. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal eCzapiewski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature ageing progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are 1 weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and 2 disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  2. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high

  3. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  4. Anchoring Errors in Clinical Judgments: Type I Error, Adjustment, or Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael V.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted two studies to clarify nature of anchoring errors in clinical judgments. Judgments from 103 undergraduates in Study 1 evidenced neither anchoring errors nor gender differences. Judgments from 157 psychologists in Study 2 affirmed adjustment and mitigation hypotheses over anchoring hypothesis alone. Mitigation process appeared adaptable…

  5. A group of 20 stone anchors from the waters of Dwarka, on the Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    A large number of stone anchors were discovered in a water depth of 10-14 m off Dwarka during the 1998-99 season. The seabed near the anchors consists of a ledge with an average height of 1 m. Several anchors were found trapped between the rocks...

  6. Biomimetic Mussel Adhesive Inspired Clickable Anchors Applied to the Functionalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Anja S.; Schoedel, Christine; Walther, Andreas; Yuan, Jiayin; Loos, Katja; Mueller, Axel H. E.; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The functionalization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with dopamine-derived clickable biomimetic anchors is reported. Herein, an alkyne-modified catechol-derivative is employed as the anchor, as i) the catechol-functional anchor groups possess irreversible covalent binding affinity to Fe3O4 nanop

  7. The biggest stone anchors (Indo-Arab type) from Mithi Virdi, Bhavnagar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Kumar, B.

    of Mahabharata). They are the biggest stone anchors ever found from anywhere in the world. The average length of the anchor is 4.9 m and the average weight is estimated to be about 3800 kgs. These anchors are generally termed as Indo-Arab type. The paper...

  8. The influence of bone formation on anchoring percutaneous devices with titanium fibre mesh flanges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    For man-made percutaneous devices (PD), it is known that anchoring will improve the clinical success. Previously, our Department has designed PDs that use a sheet of titanium (Ti) fibre mesh for anchoring. In nature, a very successful natural PD occurs, namely the tooth. Teeth are anchored in the al

  9. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  10. Biomimetic Mussel Adhesive Inspired Clickable Anchors Applied to the Functionalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Anja S.; Schoedel, Christine; Walther, Andreas; Yuan, Jiayin; Loos, Katja; Mueller, Axel H. E.; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The functionalization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with dopamine-derived clickable biomimetic anchors is reported. Herein, an alkyne-modified catechol-derivative is employed as the anchor, as i) the catechol-functional anchor groups possess irreversible covalent binding affinity to Fe3O4 nanop

  11. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  12. Controlling the self-ordering behaviour of nanostructures on patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochola, Gregory; Snook, Ian K.; Russo, Salvy P.

    2011-04-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to show how 2D anchoring patterns on a substrate can be utilised to accurately control the placement and morphology of nucleating 3D nanostructures. The 2D anchoring patterns for our model system consisted of a Pt ad-atom island on a Pt substrate with a surrounding monolayer of Ag atoms. The crystallographic direction of the Pt/Ag boundaries comprising the 2D anchoring pattern and the shape of the pattern was found to have a significant effect on the resultant 3D nanostructures to the extent that one can force nanostructures to have unstable facets, changing the appearance of nanostructures completely. We used the Pt/Ag system as a model to study the effects of square, rectangular and triangular anchoring patterns on Pt(111) and Pt(100) substrates. However, the processes observed are thought to result from the successful altering of the growth mode from Frank-Van der Merwe to Volmer-Weber growth; hence, these processes should be quite general and applicable to other systems.

  13. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  14. Hollow CuO nanospheres uniformly anchored on porous Si nanowires: preparation and their potential use as electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2012-11-01

    Hollow CuO nanospheres have been prepared via a reduction reaction of copper ions on porous Si nanowires combined with calcination in air and uniformly anchored on their surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize and analyze as-synthesized samples. The results reveal that Si nanowires fabricated from heavily doped Si wafer are formed with a meso-porous structure by an Ag-assisted etching approach, and Cu nanoparticles are formed and uniformly decorated on the Si nanowires through a reaction of copper ions reduced by silicon. After annealing in air, Cu nanoparticles are in situ oxidized and transformed into CuO, leading to the formation of hollow nanospheres because of the Kirkendall effect. The diameter size of as-prepared CuO hollow spheres anchored on porous Si nanowires is mainly around 30 nm. Finally, in order to illuminate the advantages of this novel hybrid nanostructure of nanosized hollow spheres supported on porous nanowires, its electrochemical sensing performance to hydrazine as an example has been further investigated. The results confirm that it is a good potential application to detect hydrazine.Hollow CuO nanospheres have been prepared via a reduction reaction of copper ions on porous Si nanowires combined with calcination in air and uniformly anchored on their surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize and analyze as-synthesized samples. The results reveal that Si nanowires fabricated from heavily doped Si wafer are formed with a meso-porous structure by an Ag-assisted etching approach, and Cu nanoparticles are formed and uniformly decorated on the Si nanowires through a reaction of copper ions reduced by silicon. After annealing in air, Cu nanoparticles are in situ oxidized and transformed into CuO, leading to the

  15. Spider's super-glue: thread anchors are composite adhesives with synergistic hierarchical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Grawe, Ingo; Wirth, Marina; Karstedt, André; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-03-28

    Silk is a key innovation in spiders, fascinating both biologists and material scientists. However, to fulfil their biological function silken threads must be strongly fastened to substrates or other threads. The majority of modern spiders produce a unique and rather unexplored bio-adhesive: the two-compound pyriform secretion, which is spun into elaborate patterns (so called attachment discs) and used to anchor silken threads to substrates. Strong adhesion is achieved on a high variety of surfaces with a minimum of material consumption. Pyriform threads polymerize under ambient conditions, become functional within less than a second and can remain stable for years. They are biodegradable, biocompatible and highly versatile - the adhesion and the overall toughness of the attachment disc can be controlled by spinneret movements on a macroscopic level (ref. 1: V. Sahni et al., Nat. Commun., 2012, 3, 1106, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2099). We found that the pyriform thread is a silk fibre that is coated with glue-like cement consisting of aligned nanofibrils, lipid enclosures and a dense, isotropic boundary layer. The threads are spun in a meshwork pattern that promotes stress distribution and crack arresting. Our results demonstrate, that hierarchical organization and fibre embedding may explain the high adhesive strength and flaw tolerance of a structure made by the same, rather simple type of silk glands.

  16. Hybrids of silver nanoparticles with amphiphilic hyperbranched macromolecules exhibiting antimicrobial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Aymonier, Cyril; Schlotterbeck, Ulf; Antonietti, Lydie; Zacharias, Philipp; Thomann, Ralf; Till, Joerg C.; Mecking, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Hybrids of silver particles of 1 to 2 nm in size with highly branched amphiphilically modified polyethyleneimines adhere effectively to polar substrates providing environmentally friendly antimicrobial coatings.

  17. Threshold property of a nematic liquid crystal cell with two grating surface substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen; Yuan Meng-Yao

    2009-01-01

    A grating surface can drive the liquid crystal molecules to orientate along the direction parallel or vertical to the projected plane of the grating surface. The nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell manufactured with two pre-treated grating surface substrates may realize the vertical display, parallel display and twist display. In this paper, the threshold property of this NLC cell is investigated systematically. With the Frank elastic theory and the equivalent anchoring energy formula of grating surface substrate, the analytic expressions of the threshold voltage related to three displays are obtained, which are dependent on their geometrical parameters such as amplitude δ and pitch λ of the grating surface substrate. For a certain anchoring strength, the threshold voltage increases or decreases with the increase of the value δ/λ of the different displays.

  18. Rapid Deterioration of the Anchor Performance of the Wind Turbine Caused by Liquid Water

    OpenAIRE

    千々和, 伸浩; Chijiwa, Nobuhiro; MAI, THI HONG; Mai.Thi, Hong; 岩波, 光保; Iwanami, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    In some wind turbines, it is found that sludge spouting on the tower foundation and the tower is lifted up just after several months have passed from starting service. Common characteristic of those wind turbine towers is that they are anchored to the foundation by anchor ring method. In anchor ring method, ring-shaped base plate welded to the wind turbine tower is expected to act as anchor in the foundation. It is suspected that liquid water may have some effect on such a kind of the anchor ...

  19. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  20. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  1. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    things, they serve for the transportation of hydrocarbons from the subsea facilities to the production and drilling equipment at the sea surface. Flexible risers are the prime choice for connecting floating production, storage and offloading facilities, because they are specially designed for dynamic...... of composite materials. One of the problems related to the substitution of tensile steel members is that anchoring in the metallic end fittings of the pipe is very challenging.The purpose of this thesis is to ensure the transfer of tensile loads between a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer and a metallic...... in the grip, and to measure the contact stresses distribution and evolution during pullout.The results of the experimental and numerical analysis show that it is possible to reliably anchor composite materials using a metallic grip. The models developed during the project show how to improve the efficiency...

  2. Optimization Analysis Model of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hangers of self-anchored suspension bridge need to be tensioned suitably during construction. In view of this point, a simplified optimization calculation method of cable force for self-anchored suspension bridge has been developed based on optimization theories, such as minimum bending energy method, and internal force balanced method, influence matrix method. Meanwhile, combined with the weak coherence of main cable and the adjacently interaction of hanger forces, a simplified analysis method is developed using MATLAB, which is then compared with the optimization method that consider the main cable's geometric nonlinearity with software ANSYS in an actual example bridge calculation. This contrast proves the weak coherence of main cable displacement and the limitation of the adjacent cable force influence. Furthermore, a tension program that is of great reference value has been developed; some important conclusions, advices, and attention points have been summarized.

  3. Organization, 'Anchoring' of Knowledge, and Innovative Activity in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Vinding, Anker Lund

    2006-01-01

    The construction industry is characterised by the widespread use of project organisation. It has been suggested that the relatively low level of innovative activity in the industry can be explained by the temporary nature of firm boundary-crossing projects. Survey data from the Danish construction...... industry is used to investigate the importance of learning and 'anchoring' of project-specific knowledge at the firm level for participation in innovative activities. The data cover both the overall Danish construction industry and a specific region, North Jutland, which has a relatively high...... specialisation of construction workers. Latent class and regression analyses reveal that firms that make extensive use of partnering, together with internal product and process evaluation and knowledge diffusion (labelled 'knowledge-anchoring mechanisms'), are more likely to participate in innovative activities...

  4. Research on roll stabilization for ships at anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-zhang; QI Zhi-gang; ZHOU Ting; Li Dong-song

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing importance of ocean exploitation,providing anti-rolling stability for ships at anchor has become more and more important. The lift-generation theory of traditional fin stabilizers is based on incoming flow velocity,which is not suitable for explaining lift generated at anchor. We analyzed non-steady flows,with forces on fin stabilizers generated by non-incoming flow velocity conditions,and gave a new lift-generation model. The correctness of the model was proven by comparing experimental results of fin stabilizer motion under non-incoming velocity conditions from the fluid computation software with that from the emulator of the lift-generation model. Finally,the model was used in an anti-rolling system on a ship and the reduction of roll was much better than what could be achieved by passive anti-rolling tanks.

  5. Modification of the Bankart reconstruction using a suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, S M; Holtgrewe, J L; King, S

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was done to determine the effectiveness of a suture anchor in doing a Modified Bankart Reconstruction on the traumatic unidirectional Bankart lesion shoulder. From 1989 to 1991, 26 patients encompassing 27 shoulders with recurrent instability had modified Bankart reconstructions. A minimum 18-month follow-up was obtained by examination of 24 patients with telephone interviews done on two patients. The average follow-up was 23.6 months. A 93.1% good-to-excellent result was obtained using the Bankart rating scale. There were no failures or complications. The surgeon involved in the study thought the suture anchor facilitated the attachment of the avulsed capsulolabral complex in doing the Bankart procedure.

  6. Mobile Anchor Assisted Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongyang; Huang, Pei; Poor, H Vincent; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative localization algorithm is proposed that considers the existence of obstacles in mobilityassisted wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this scheme, a mobile anchor (MA) node cooperates with static sensor nodes and moves actively to refine location performance. The localization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved further by changing the transmission range of mobile anchor node. The algorithm takes advantage of cooperation betweenMAs and static sensors while, at the same time, taking into account the relay node availability to make the best use of beacon signals. For achieving high localization accuracy and coverage, a novel convex position estimation algorithm is proposed, which can effectively solve the localization problem when infeasible points occur because of the effects of radio irregularity and obstacles. This method is the only range-free based convex method to solve the localization problem when the feasible set of localization inequalities is empty. Simulatio...

  7. Improved anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J

    2009-01-01

    As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.

  8. Anchoring FRP laminates for the seismic strengthening of RC columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadone, Raphaëlle; Quiertant, Marc; FERRIER, Emmanuel; Chataigner, Sylvain; Mercier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of seismic strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) columns by externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP). Particularly, a novel strengthening system, designed for the flexural strengthening of columns is studied. This flexural strengthening is achieved by FRP plates bonded longitudinally and anchored at the column-stub junction. The proposed system is validated through an experimental campaign carried out on full-scale RC columns. Different...

  9. Conditional depletion of nuclear proteins by the Anchor Away system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Geisberg, Joseph V; Wong, Koon Ho; Jin, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear proteins play key roles in the regulation of many important cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes encoding nuclear proteins are essential. This unit describes a method termed Anchor Away that can be used to conditionally and rapidly deplete nuclear proteins of interest. It involves conditional export of the protein of interest out of the nucleus and its subsequent sequestration in the cytoplasm. This method can be used to simultaneously deplete multiple proteins from the nucleus.

  10. Effect of anchoring 4-anilidopiperidines to opioid peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Ravil R.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Vardanyan, Ruben S.; Liu, Lu; Ma, Shou-wu; Davis, Peg; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.; Hruby, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of new opioid peptides featuring a 4-anilidopiperidine moiety. Despite the fact that the chemical structures of fentanyl surrogates have been found suboptimal per se for the opioid activity, the corresponding conjugates with opioid peptides displayed potent opioid activity. These studies shed an instructive light on the strategies and potential therapeutic values of anchoring the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold to different classes of opioid peptides. PMID:23623418

  11. Robust dithiocarbamate-anchored amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce an effective and facile technique that achieves robust amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles by binding the polyamine poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) to the surface using a dithiocarbamate (DTC) modification of the side group amines. The DTC anchor confers superior short- and long-term colloidal stability compared to a physisorbed layer of the same polymer. We also demonstrate that the surface amines are available for further functionalization and that at least four alternately charged polyelectrolyte layers can be assembled onto the particles. The latter modification could not be performed on a physisorbed functional layer, so this demonstrates the effectiveness of the DTC groups in robustly anchoring the polymer to the particle surface. At the same time, the DTC-anchored polymer layer is less than 2 nm thick in the dry state. This is one-third of the thickness of a physisorbed polyamine layer deposited under the same conditions, and sufficiently thin that the plasmonic field enhancement on the metal particle remains accessible to the outside environment. We attribute the difference in thickness to multiple DTC bonds on each polymer chain forcing it into much closer conformity to the particle surface than in the physisorbed case.

  12. Tunable fabrication of hierarchical hybrids via the incorporation of poly(dopamine) functional interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Junxian; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Two kinds of ternary hybrids were prepared by anchoring different shapes and loadings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on poly(dopamine) (PDA) functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres with two different strategies, i.e., in situ reduction and self-assembly approach. PDA coatings were firstly introduced to functionalize the hydrophobic PS surface with sufficient amino and hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the interaction between Au NPs and the polymer spheres. Thus, Au NPs could be easily immobilized onto the surface of the PDA/PS microspheres, and the hierarchical composite microspheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure without sacrificing the spherical PS morphology. PS/PDA/Au-R and PS/PDA/Au-A microspheres fabricated by in situ reduction and self-assembly approach showed different distinct Au nano-shell morphology with the corresponding optical, catalytic and electrochemical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy verified these hierarchical structures with the ultrathin PDA film incorporating between the inner PS core and the outer Au NPs shell. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PDA and Au layer on the surface of the composite particles. These green and facile methods with mild experimental conditions can extend to fabricate other polymer or inorganic substrates coated by various noble metals.

  13. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana

  14. Anchoring and electro-optical dynamics of thin liquid crystalline films in a polyimide cell: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lay Min; Kwon, Hye J.; Kang, Joo H.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2006-07-01

    The surface-dependent anchoring and electro-optical (EO) dynamics of thin liquid crystalline films have been examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A simple nematic liquid crystal, 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), is confined as 40, 50, and 390nm thick films in nanocavities defined by gold interdigitated electrode arrays (IDEAs) patterned on polyimide-coated zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates [Noble et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 15020 (2002)]. New strategies for controlling the anchoring interactions and EO dynamics are explored based on coating a ZnSe surface with an organic polyimide layer in order to both planarize the substrate and induce a planar alignment of the liquid crystalline film. The polyimide layer can be further treated so as to induce a strong alignment of the nematic director along a direction parallel to the electrode digits of the IDEA. Step-scan time-resolved spectroscopy measurements were made to determine the rate constants for the electric-field-induced orientation and thermal relaxation of the 5CB films. In an alternate set of experiments, uncoated ZnSe substrates were polished unidirectionally to produce a grooved surface presenting nanometer-scale corrugations. The dynamical rate constants measured for several nanoscale film thicknesses and equilibrium organizations of the director in these planar alignments show marked sensitivities. The orientation rates are found to vary strongly with both the magnitude of the applied potential and the initial anisotropy of the alignment of the director within the IDEA. The relaxation rates do not vary in this same way. The marked variations seen in EO dynamics can be accounted for by a simple coarse-grained dynamical model.

  15. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C12) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L(-1) limit of detections (LOD

  16. Anchors from Goa waters, central west coast of India: Remains of Goa's overseas trade contacts with Arabian countries and Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    for the hawser is present. The palms are corroded. No preser vation coat is visible on the anchor sur face (Fig. 13). Iron anchor B: This iron anchor is datable to the 16th?18th century with a 2.70 m long shank having a hole... at the end of the shank meant for a ring, however the ring is missing. The state of preser vation of the anchor is good but the palms are slightly corroded. This anchor is similar to anchor ?A? in shape. Iron anchor C: The length of the shank is 2...

  17. Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2008-12-23

    The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

  18. Two-Dimensional Large Deformation Finite Element Analysis for the Pulling-up of Plate Anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; HU Yu-xia; JIN Xia

    2006-01-01

    Based on mesh regeneration and stress interpolation from an old mesh to a new one, a large deformation finite element model is developed for the study of the behaviour of circular plate anchors subjected to uplift loading. For the determination of the distributions of stress components across a clay foundation, the Recovery by Equilibrium in Patches is extended to plastic analyses. ABAQUS, a commercial finite element package, is customized and linked into our program so as to keep automatic and efficient running of large deformation calculation. The quality of stress interpolation is testified by evaluations of Tresca stress and nodal reaction forces. The complete pulling-up processes of plate anchors buried in homogeneous clay are simulated, and typical pulling force-displacement responses of a deep anchor and a shallow anchor are compared. Different from the results of previous studies, large deformation analysis is of the capability of estimating the breakaway between the anchor bottom and soils. For deep anchors, the variation of mobilized uplift resistance with anchor settlement is composed of three stages, and the initial buried depths of anchors affect the separation embedment slightly. The uplift bearing capacity of deep anchors is usually higher than that of shallow anchors.

  19. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  20. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  1. Well-dispersed sulfur anchored on interconnected polypyrrole nanofiber network as high performance cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fuxing; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Menbayeva, Almagul; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Wang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Preparation of novel sulfur/polypyrrole (S/PPy) composite consisting well-dispersed sulfur particles anchored on interconnected PPy nanowire network was demonstrated. In such hybrid structure, the as-prepared PPy clearly displays a three-dimensionally cross-linked and hierarchical porous structure, which was utilized in the composite cathode as a conductive network trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and enhancing the overall electrochemical performance of the system. Benefiting from this unique structure, the S/PPy composite demonstrated excellent cycling stability, resulting in a discharge capacity of 931 mAh g-1 at the second cycle and retained about 54% of this value over 100 cycles at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the S/PPy composite cathode exhibits a good rate capability with a discharge capacity of 584 mAh g-1 at 1 C.

  2. Anchor group versus conjugation: toward the gap-state engineering of functionalized ZnO(1010) surface for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Ruini, Alice; Catellani, Alessandra

    2011-04-20

    Molecular sensitization of the single-crystal ZnO (1010) surface through absorption of the catechol chromophore is investigated by means of density functional approaches. The resulting type II staggered interface is recovered in agreement with experiments, and its origin is traced back to the presence of molecular-related states in the gap of metal-oxide electronic structure. A systematic analysis carried out for further catecholate adsorbates allows us to identify the basic mechanisms that dictate the energy position of the gap states. The peculiar level alignment is demonstrated to be originated from the simultaneous interplay among the specific anchoring group, the backbone conjugation, and the lateral functional groups. The picture derived from our results provides efficient strategies for tuning the lineup between molecular and oxide states in hybrid interfaces with potential impact for ZnO-based optoelectronic applications.

  3. A nickel tripeptide as a metallodithiolate ligand anchor for resin-bound organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kayla N; Jeffery, Stephen P; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y

    2006-05-17

    The molecular structure of the acetyl CoA synthase enzyme has clarified the role of individual nickel atoms in the dinickel active site which mediates C-C and C-S coupling reactions. The NiN2S2 portion of the biocatalyst (N2S2 = a cysteine-glycine-cysteine or CGC4- tripeptide ligand) serves as an S-donor ligand comparable to classical bidentate ligands operative in organometallic chemistry, ligating the second nickel which is redox and catalytically active. Inspired by this biological catalyst, the synthesis of NiN2S2 metalloligands, including the solid-phase synthesis of resin-bound Ni(CGC)2-, and sulfur-based derivatization with W(CO)5 and Rh(CO)2+ have been carried out. Through comparison to analogous well-characterized, solution-phase complexes, Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR spectroscopy establishes the presence of unique heterobimetallic complexes, of the form [Ni(CGC)]M(CO)x, both in solution and immobilized on resin beads. This work provides the initial step toward exploitation of such an evolutionarily optimized nickel peptide as a solid support anchor for hybrid bioinorganic-organometallic catalysts.

  4. Loss of the membrane anchor of the target receptor is a mechanism of bioinsecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darboux, Isabelle; Pauchet, Yannick; Castella, Claude; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Charles, Jean-François; Pauron, David

    2002-04-30

    The mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus is because of a binary toxin (Bin), which binds to Culex pipiens maltase 1 (Cpm1), an alpha-glucosidase present in the midgut of Culex pipiens larvae. In this work, we studied the molecular basis of the resistance to Bin developed by a strain (GEO) of C. pipiens. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization experiments showed that Cpm1 was undetectable in the midgut of GEO larvae, although the gene was correctly transcribed. The sequence of the cpm1(GEO) cDNA differs from the sequence we previously reported for a susceptible strain (cpm1(IP)) by seven mutations: six missense mutations and a mutation leading to the premature termination of translation. When produced in insect cells, Cpm1(IP) was attached to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). In contrast, the premature termination of translation of Cpm1(GEO) resulted in the targeting of the protein to the extracellular compartment because of truncation of the GPI-anchoring site. The interaction between Bin and Cpm1(GEO) and the enzyme activity of the receptor were not affected. Thus, Bin is not toxic to GEO larvae because it cannot interact with the midgut cell membrane, even though its receptor site is unaffected. This mechanism contrasts with other known resistance mechanisms in which point mutations decrease the affinity of binding between the receptor and the toxin.

  5. Hairpin DNA Switch for Ultrasensitive Spectrophotometric Detection of DNA Hybridization Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Enzyme Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youyu; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Maham, Aihui; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-08-01

    A novel DNA detection platform based on a hairpin-DNA switch, nanoparticles, and enzyme signal amplification for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization has been developed in this work. In this DNA assay, a “stem-loop” DNA probe dually labeled with a thiol at its 5’ end and a biotin at its 3’ end, respectively, was used. This probe was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) anchored by a protein, globulin, on a 96-well microplate. In the absence of target DNA, the immobilized probe with the stem-loop structure shields the biotin from being approached by a bulky horseradish peroxidase linked-avidin (avidin-HRP) conjugate due to the steric hindrance. However, in the presence of target DNA, the hybridization between the hairpin DNA probe and the target DNA causes significant conformational change of the probe, which forces biotin away from the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the biotin becomes accessible by the avidin-HRP, and the target hybridization event can be sensitively detected via the HRP catalyzed substrate 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine using spectrophometric method. Some experimental parameters governing the performance of the assay have been optimized. At optimal conditions, this DNA assay can detect DNA at the concentration of femtomolar level by means of a signal amplification strategy based on the combination of enzymes and nanoparticles. This approach also has shown excellent specificity to distinguish single-base mismatches of DNA targets because of the intrinsic high selectivity of the hairpin DNA probe.

  6. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  7. Clinical Outcomes After Suture Anchor Repair of Recalcitrant Medial Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian M; Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Allen, Answorth A; DePalma, Brian J; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical and patient-reported outcomes and return to sport after surgical treatment of medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation. Consecutive patients were evaluated after undergoing debridement and suture anchor repair of the flexor-pronator mass for the treatment of medial epicondylitis. Demographic variables, a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and 10-point pain and satisfaction scales were collected. Ability and time to return to sport after surgery were evaluated, and the relationship between predictor variables and both elbow function and return to sport was investigated. Median age at the time of surgery was 55 years (range, 29-65 years), with median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-67 months). Median QuickDASH score and OES at final follow-up were 2.3 (range, 0-38.6) and 45 (range, 22-48), respectively. Most patients returned to premorbid sporting activities at a median of 4.5 months (range, 2.5-12 months), whereas 4 patients (14%) reported significant limitations at final follow-up. Older age at the time of surgery was predictive of better QuickDASH score and OES (P=.05 and P=.02, respectively). Patients who underwent surgery after a shorter duration of symptoms had better outcomes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (QuickDASH, P=.09; OES, P=.10). Surgical treatment of recalcitrant medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation offers good pain relief and patient satisfaction, with little residual disability. Older age at the time of surgery predicts a better outcome.

  8. Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.

  9. Anchoring a Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Bryan R; Webber, Bonnie Lynn; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1998-01-01

    We here explore a ``fully'' lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for discourse that takes the basic elements of a (monologic) discourse to be not simply clauses, but larger structures that are anchored on variously realized discourse cues. This link with intra-sentential grammar suggests an account for different patterns of discourse cues, while the different structures and operations suggest three separate sources for elements of discourse meaning: (1) a compositional semantics tied to the basic trees and operations; (2) a presuppositional semantics carried by cue phrases that freely adjoin to trees; and (3) general inference, that draws additional, defeasible conclusions that flesh out what is conveyed compositionally.

  10. Anchor-based English-Chinese Bilingual Chunk Alignment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU We-lin; CHENG Chang-sheng; XU Liang-xian; LU Ru-zhan

    2005-01-01

    Chunk alignment for the bilingual corpus is the base of Example-based Machine Translation. An anchor-based English-Chinese bilingual chunk alignment model and the corresponding algorithm of alignment are presented in this paper. It can effectively overcome the sparse data problem due to the limited size of the bilingual corpus. In this model, the chunk segmentation disambiguation is delayed to the alignment process, and hence the accuracy of chunk segmentation is improved. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and viability of this model.

  11. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  12. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  13. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  14. Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller;

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...... curvature was essential for enrichment in raft-like liquid-ordered phases; enrichment was driven by relief of lateral pressure upon anchor insertion and most likely affects the localization of lipidated proteins in general....

  15. Seismic Behavior and Modeling of Anchored Nonstructural Components Considering the Influence of Cyclic Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Derrick Andrew

    2011-01-01

    During an earthquake, reinforced concrete members in a building will suffer cracking that oscillates as the building dynamically deforms. Equipment that services the building, such as mechanical and electrical items, are anchored to these components, and therefore will be subjected to this dynamic environment. Despite understanding this practical loading situation, as well as recognizing that anchor load capacity is significantly reduced when an anchor is embedded in cracked concrete, there r...

  16. An anchoring system for fish habitat structures: field technique, evaluation, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Fontaine; Thomas D. Merritt

    1988-01-01

    Steel cable can be used to bind rocks and logs together to construct fish habitat structures in streams. Cables must be securely anchored if structures are to withstand floods. This paper describes a way to anchor cables into bedrock or ballast boulders. Anchor tensile strength ranged from 7,500 to 36,500 pounds and was related to type of resin and embedment depth....

  17. A chemical approach to unraveling the biological function of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor

    OpenAIRE

    Paulick, Margot G.; Forstner, Martin B.; Groves, Jay T.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2007-01-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a C-terminal posttranslational modification found on many eukaryotic proteins that reside in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The complex and diverse structures of GPI anchors suggest a rich spectrum of biological functions, but few have been confirmed experimentally because of the lack of appropriate techniques that allow for structural perturbation in a cellular context. We previously synthesized a series of GPI anchor analogs with sys...

  18. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Ultimate Tensile Capacity of Adhesive Anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bo; WU Zhi-min; SONG Zhi-fei

    2007-01-01

    To predict the tensile capacity of adhesive anchors, a multilayered feed-forward neural network trained with the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. The ANN model have 5 inputs, including the compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete, anchor diameter, hole diameter, embedment of anchors, and ultimate load. The predictions obtained from the trained ANN show a good agreement with the experiments. Meanwhile, the predicted ultinate tensile capacity of anchors is close to the one calculated from the strength formula of the combined cone-bond failure model.

  20. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA.

  1. Suture anchor versus suture through tunnel fixation for quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthart, William A; Cohen, David A; Levine, Richard G; Parks, Brent G; Boucher, Henry R

    2008-05-01

    This biomechanical study compared suture anchors versus transosseous sutures for repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using a force of 150 N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. No significant difference in displacement was found between the 2 techniques with initial loading or with load or no load after 1000 cycles. Displacement after 1000 cycles for suture anchors and bone tunnels was 4.65 and 4.50 mm, respectively. These findings suggest a possible role for suture anchors in repairing quadriceps tendon ruptures. Suture anchors are relatively expensive but require less dissection over the patella and do not involve suture placement about the patella tendon.

  2. Glucosamine-Anchored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Fabrication, Ultraviolet Irradiation, and Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lee, Min-Ho; Giasson, Suzanne; Zhu, X X

    2015-07-15

    A biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with improved physicochemical properties is useful for electrocatalysis and sensor development. Herein, a new class of functionalized GO with a chemically anchored biomolecule glucosamine is developed. Structural and chemical analyses confirm the glucosamine anchoring. Ultraviolet irradiation transforms the surface chemistry of GO. Glucosamine-anchored GO nanosheets exhibit improved cyclic voltammetric and amperometric sensing activity toward the model redox probe, ruthenium(II) and N-acetylneuraminic acid, respectively. The biomolecular anchoring and ultraviolet irradiation helped to tune and enhance the properties of GO, which may find multiple applications in optimizing sensor platforms.

  3. Optimization of Dead Load State in Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sun∗; Rucheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the reasonable completed dead load state in earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridges, a practical method is proposed. The method is based on the rigidly supported continuous beam method and the feasible zone method, emphasizing on the mutual effect between the self⁃anchored structural parts and the earth⁃anchored ones. Three cable⁃stayed bridge models are designed with the main spans of 1 400 m, including a partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, a cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge and a fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, in which the C50 concrete and Q345 steel are adopted. The partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge and the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge secure lower compressive force in the girder than the fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge by 25 percent at least. The same is for the material consumption of the whole bridge. Furthermore, the anchor volume is more than 20% lower in the partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge than that in the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge. Consequently, the practical span of cable⁃stayed bridges can be accordingly extended.

  4. Post-installed concrete anchors in nuclear power plants: Performance and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp, E-mail: philipp@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Review of qualification and design regulations for anchors in nuclear power plants. • First complete set of nuclear anchor load–displacement data and its evaluation ever. • Demonstration of robust test behavior of a qualified post-installed anchor product. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants (NPPs), post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and non-structural connections to concrete. In many countries, anchor products employed for safety relevant applications have to be approved by the authorities. For the high safety standards in force for NPPs, special requirements have to be met to allow for extreme design situations. This paper presents an experimental test program conducted to evaluate the performance of anchors according to the German Guideline for Anchorages in Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Technology Installations (DIBt KKW Leitfaden, 2010). After a brief introduction to anchor behavior and the regulative context, the results of tension and shear tests carried out on undercut anchors are discussed. Robust load capacities and relatively small displacements determined for demanding load and crack cycling tests demonstrated the suitability of anchors qualified according to a state-of-the-art qualification guideline.

  5. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J; Bryce, Martin R; Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David

    2014-02-07

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for -OH and -CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains.

  6. Effects of surface morphology on the anchoring and electrooptical dynamics of confined nanoscale liquid crystalline films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Alison R; Kwon, Hye J; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2002-12-18

    The orientation and dynamics of two 40-nm thick films of 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a nematic liquid crystal, have been studied using step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The films are confined in nanocavities bounded by an interdigitated electrode array (IDA) patterned on a zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrate. The effects of the ZnSe surface morphology (specifically, two variations of nanometer-scale corrugations obtained by mechanical polishing) on the initial ordering and reorientation dynamics of the electric-field-induced Freedericksz transition are presented here. The interaction of the 5CB with ZnSe surfaces bearing a spicular corrugation induces a homeotropic (surface normal) alignment of the film confined in the cavity. Alternately, when ZnSe is polished to generate fine grooves along the surface, a planar alignment is promoted in the liquid crystalline film. Time-resolved FTIR studies that enable the direct measurement of the rate constants for the electric-field-induced orientation and thermal relaxation reveal that the dynamic transitions of the two film structures are significantly different. These measurements quantitatively demonstrate the strong effects of surface morphology on the anchoring, order, and dynamics of liquid crystalline thin films.

  7. Gpr161 anchoring of PKA consolidates GPCR and cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Verena A; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Ilouz, Ronit; Tschaikner, Philipp; Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Courcelles, Mathieu; Apelt, Federico; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Baillie, George S; Thibault, Pierre; Aanstad, Pia; Stelzl, Ulrich; Taylor, Susan S; Stefan, Eduard

    2016-07-12

    Scaffolding proteins organize the information flow from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector cascades both spatially and temporally. By this means, signaling scaffolds, such as A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), compartmentalize kinase activity and ensure substrate selectivity. Using a phosphoproteomics approach we identified a physical and functional connection between protein kinase A (PKA) and Gpr161 (an orphan GPCR) signaling. We show that Gpr161 functions as a selective high-affinity AKAP for type I PKA regulatory subunits (RI). Using cell-based reporters to map protein-protein interactions, we discovered that RI binds directly and selectively to a hydrophobic protein-protein interaction interface in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Gpr161. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a binary complex between Gpr161 and RI promotes the compartmentalization of Gpr161 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Gpr161, functioning as an AKAP, recruits PKA RI to primary cilia in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Gpr161 is a target of PKA phosphorylation, and that mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site affects ciliary receptor localization. Thus, we propose that Gpr161 is itself an AKAP and that the cAMP-sensing Gpr161:PKA complex acts as cilium-compartmentalized signalosome, a concept that now needs to be considered in the analyzing, interpreting, and pharmaceutical targeting of PKA-associated functions.

  8. A novel family of Apicomplexan glideosome-associated proteins with an inner membrane-anchoring role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Hayley E; Tonkin, Christopher J; O'Donnell, Rebecca A; Tham, Wai-Hong; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Gould, Sven; Cowman, Alan F; Crabb, Brendan S; Gilson, Paul R

    2009-09-11

    The phylum Apicomplexa are a group of obligate intracellular parasites responsible for a wide range of important diseases. Central to the lifecycle of these unicellular parasites is their ability to migrate through animal tissue and invade target host cells. Apicomplexan movement is generated by a unique system of gliding motility in which substrate adhesins and invasion-related proteins are pulled across the plasma membrane by an underlying actin-myosin motor. The myosins of this motor are inserted into a dual membrane layer called the inner membrane complex (IMC) that is sandwiched between the plasma membrane and an underlying cytoskeletal basket. Central to our understanding of gliding motility is the characterization of proteins residing within the IMC, but to date only a few proteins are known. We report here a novel family of six-pass transmembrane proteins, termed the GAPM family, which are highly conserved and specific to Apicomplexa. In Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii the GAPMs localize to the IMC where they form highly SDS-resistant oligomeric complexes. The GAPMs co-purify with the cytoskeletal alveolin proteins and also to some degree with the actin-myosin motor itself. Hence, these proteins are strong candidates for an IMC-anchoring role, either directly or indirectly tethering the motor to the cytoskeleton.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Influence of Substrate Surface Preparation on Adhesion Mechanisms of Aluminum Cold Spray Coatings on 300M Steel Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastic, A.; Vijay, M.; Tieu, A.; Rahmati, S.; Jodoin, B.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of substrate surface topography on the creation of metallurgical bonds and mechanical anchoring points has been studied for the cold spray deposition of pure aluminum on 300M steel substrate material. The coatings adhesion strength showed a significant decrease from 31.0 ± 5.7 MPa on polished substrates to 6.9 ± 2.0 MPa for substrates with roughness of 2.2 ± 0.5 μm. Strengths in the vicinity of 45 MPa were reached for coatings deposited onto forced pulsed waterjet treated surfaces with roughnesses larger than 33.8 μm. Finite element analysis has confirmed the sole presence of mechanical anchoring in coating adhesion strength for all surface treatment except polished surfaces. Grit embedment has been shown to be non-detrimental to coating adhesion for the current deposited material combination. The particle deformation process during impacts has been studied through finite element analysis using the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) constitutive model. The obtained equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ), temperature, contact pressure and velocity vector were correlated to the particle ability to form metallurgical bonds. Favorable conditions for metallurgical bonding were found to be highest for particles deposited on polished substrates, as confirmed by fracture surface analysis.

  10. Substrate and head group modifications for enhanced stability in molecular electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrato, Michael-Anthony

    Poor Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) stability is a barrier which impedes the incorporation of molecular layers as functional components in electronic device architectures. Here we investigate the molecular electronic characteristics of two well established approaches to enhancing SAM stability. In Chapter 2 we investigate the electrochemical modification of Au substrates by the underpotential deposition of silver monolayers (AgUPD). In Chapter 3 we study chelating dithiophosphinic acid (DTPA) head groups to anchor SAM molecules to substrates. Based on molecular electronic characterization using EGaIn Tip testbeds, we observed that AgUPD substrates maintained the inherent electronic character of n-alkanethiolate SAMs, but reduced charge transport by almost 1 order of magnitude as compared with the same SAMs on bulk Au substrates. Similar molecular electronic characterization of (diphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid SAMs on Au substrates revealed that the DTPA head group induced a ~3 order of magnitude drop in charge transport as compared with analogous thiophenol SAMs.

  11. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  12. Bone anchor systems for orthodontic application: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, W K; Chua, H D P; Cheung, L K

    2012-11-01

    This systematic review was performed to investigate the usefulness and clinical effectiveness of skeletal anchorage devices to determine the most effective bone anchor system for orthodontic tooth movement. Literature on bone anchorage devices was selected from PubMed and the Cochrane Library from January 1966 to June 2010. 55 publications regarding miniplates, miniscrews, palatal implants and dental implants as orthodontic anchorage were identified for further analysis. All bone anchorage devices were found to have relatively high success rates and demonstrated their ability to provide absolute anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement. Significant tooth movement could be achieved with low morbidities and good patient acceptance. The reported success rates for the four groups of anchorage systems were generally high with slight variability (miniplates 91.4-100%; palatal implants 74-93.3%; miniscrews 61-100%; dental implants 100%). It was concluded that bone anchorage systems can achieve effective orthodontic movement with low morbidities. The success rate is generally high with slight variability between miniplates, palatal implants, miniscrews and dental implants. Owing to the lack of randomized controlled trials, there is no strong evidence to confirm which bone anchor system is the most effective for orthodontic tooth movement.

  13. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J; Stensballe, Allan; Peck, Scott C; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-12-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains unclear, they have attracted attention because they act as enzymes and receptors in cell adhesion, differentiation, and host-pathogen interactions. GPI-APs may represent potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in humans and are interesting in plant biotechnology because of their key role in root development. We here present a general mass spectrometry-based proteomic "shave-and-conquer" strategy that specifically targets GPI-APs. Using a combination of biochemical methods, mass spectrometry, and computational sequence analysis we identified six GPI-APs in a Homo sapiens lipid raft-enriched fraction and 44 GPI-APs in an Arabidopsis thaliana membrane preparation, representing the largest experimental dataset of GPI-anchored proteins to date.

  14. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn David N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Results Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105 span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map

  15. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, Frank A; Staton, Margaret E; Blackmon, Barbara P; Ficklin, Stephen P; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Shapiro, Howard; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2011-08-16

    The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree) are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS) II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105) span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map assembly. A comparison between the two T. cacao

  16. Surface-Anchored Poly(4-vinylpyridine)–Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Metal Composites for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Bora

    2016-08-05

    A platform for chemiresistive gas detectors based upon single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersions stabilized by poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) covalently immobilized onto a glass substrate was developed. To fabricate these devices, a glass substrate with gold electrodes is treated with 3-bromopropyltrichlorosilane. The resulting alkyl bromide coating presents groups that can react with the P4VP to covalently bond (anchor) the polymer–SWCNT composite to the substrate. Residual pyridyl groups in P4VP not consumed in this quaternization reaction are available to coordinate metal nanoparticles or ions chosen to confer selectivity and sensitivity to target gas analytes. Generation of P4VP coordinated to silver nanoparticles produces an enhanced response to ammonia gas. The incorporation of soft Lewis acidic Pd2+ cations by binding PdCl2 to P4VP yields a selective and highly sensitive device that changes resistance upon exposure to vapors of thioethers. The latter materials have utility for odorized fuel leak detection, microbial activity, and breath diagnostics. A third demonstration makes use of permanganate incorporation to produce devices with large responses to vapors of volatile organic compounds that are susceptible to oxidation.

  17. Compartmentalization Role of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs in Mediating Protein Kinase A (PKA Signaling and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Rababa'h

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs stimulation enhances contractility through protein kinase-A (PKA substrate phosphorylation. This PKA signaling is conferred in part by PKA binding to A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs. AKAPs coordinate multi-protein signaling networks that are targeted to specific intracellular locations, resulting in the localization of enzyme activity and transmitting intracellular actions of neurotransmitters and hormones to its target substrates. In particular, mAKAP (muscle-selective AKAP has been shown to be present on the nuclear envelope of cardiomyocytes with various proteins including: PKA-regulatory subunit (RIIα, phosphodiesterase-4D3, protein phosphatase-2A, and ryanodine receptor (RyR2. Therefore, through the coordination of spatial-temporal signaling of proteins and enzymes, mAKAP controls cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels very tightly and functions as a regulator of PKA-mediated substrate phosphorylation leading to changes in calcium availability and myofilament calcium sensitivity. The goal of this review is to elucidate the critical compartmentalization role of mAKAP in mediating PKA signaling and regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by acting as a scaffolding protein. Based on our literature search and studying the structure–function relationship between AKAP scaffolding protein and its binding partners, we propose possible explanations for the mechanism by which mAKAP promotes cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. Characterization of the catalytic activity of the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase ADAM15 in cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzky, Thorsten; Yang, Guangli; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Overall, Christopher M; Worpenberg, Susanne; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Eder, Joerg; Blobel, Carl P

    2009-04-28

    ADAM15 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 15) is a membrane-anchored metalloproteinase, which is overexpressed in several human cancers and has been implicated in pathological neovascularization and prostate cancer metastasis. Yet, little is known about the catalytic properties of ADAM15. Here, we purified soluble recombinant ADAM15 to test for its ability to cleave a library of peptide substrates. However, we found no processing of any of the peptide substrates tested here, and therefore turned to cell-based assays to characterize the catalytic properties of ADAM15. Overexpression of full-length membrane-anchored ADAM15 or the catalytically inactive ADAM15E-->A together with various membrane proteins resulted in increased release of the extracellular domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2iiib (FGFR2iiib) by ADAM15, but not ADAM15E-->A. This provided a robust assay for a characterization of the catalytic properties of ADAM15 in intact cells. We found that increased expression of ADAM15 resulted in increased FGFR2iiib shedding, but that ADAM15 was not stimulated by phorbol esters or calcium ionophores, two commonly used activators of ectodomain shedding. Moreover, ADAM15-dependent processing of FGFR2iiib was inhibited by the hydroxamate-based metalloproteinase inhibitors marimastat, TAPI-2 and GM6001, and by 50 nM TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3), but not by 100 nM TIMP-1, and only weakly by 100 nM TIMP-2. These results define key catalytic properties of ADAM15 in cells and its response to stimulators and inhibitors of ectodomain shedding. A cell-based assay for the catalytic activity of ADAM15 could aid in identifying compounds, which could be used to block the function of ADAM15 in pathological neovascularization and cancer.

  19. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun

    2017-08-14

    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  20. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...... and breaking. DLC coating with thicknesses between 25 and 105 nm is found to considerably increase the mechanical strength of the substrates while at the same time ensuring conservation of sufficient field enhancements of the gold plasmonic substrates....

  1. Mean-field density functional theory of a nanoconfined classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid. I. The role of molecular anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattes, Stefanie M.; Gubbins, Keith E.; Schoen, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we employ classical density functional theory (DFT) to investigate for the first time equilibrium properties of a Heisenberg fluid confined to nanoscopic slit pores of variable width. Within DFT pair correlations are treated at modified mean-field level. We consider three types of walls: hard ones, where the fluid-wall potential becomes infinite upon molecular contact but vanishes otherwise, and hard walls with superimposed short-range attraction with and without explicit orientation dependence. To model the distance dependence of the attractions, we employ a Yukawa potential. The orientation dependence is realized through anchoring of molecules at the substrates, i.e., an energetic discrimination of specific molecular orientations. If the walls are hard or attractive without specific anchoring, the results are "quasi-bulk"-like in that they can be linked to a confinement-induced reduction of the bulk mean field. In these cases, the precise nature of the walls is completely irrelevant at coexistence. Only for specific anchoring nontrivial features arise, because then the fluid-wall interaction potential affects the orientation distribution function in a nontrivial way and thus appears explicitly in the Euler-Lagrange equations to be solved for minima of the grand potential of coexisting phases.

  2. Mean-field density functional theory of a nanoconfined classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid. I. The role of molecular anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattes, Stefanie M; Gubbins, Keith E; Schoen, Martin

    2016-05-21

    In this work, we employ classical density functional theory (DFT) to investigate for the first time equilibrium properties of a Heisenberg fluid confined to nanoscopic slit pores of variable width. Within DFT pair correlations are treated at modified mean-field level. We consider three types of walls: hard ones, where the fluid-wall potential becomes infinite upon molecular contact but vanishes otherwise, and hard walls with superimposed short-range attraction with and without explicit orientation dependence. To model the distance dependence of the attractions, we employ a Yukawa potential. The orientation dependence is realized through anchoring of molecules at the substrates, i.e., an energetic discrimination of specific molecular orientations. If the walls are hard or attractive without specific anchoring, the results are "quasi-bulk"-like in that they can be linked to a confinement-induced reduction of the bulk mean field. In these cases, the precise nature of the walls is completely irrelevant at coexistence. Only for specific anchoring nontrivial features arise, because then the fluid-wall interaction potential affects the orientation distribution function in a nontrivial way and thus appears explicitly in the Euler-Lagrange equations to be solved for minima of the grand potential of coexisting phases.

  3. Functionalization of Poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a substrate for DNA microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fixe, A.F.; Dufva, Hans Martin; Telleman, Pieter

    2004-01-01

    amines was confirmed by the immobilization of DNA probes and hybridization with a complementary DNA strand. The hybridization signal and the hybridization efficiency of the chemically aminated PMMA slides were comparable to the hybridization signal and the hybridization efficiency obtained from...... since the hybridization performance of microarrays subjected to 20 PCR heat cycles was only reduced by 4%. In conclusion, this new strategy to modify PMMA provides a robust procedure to immobilize DNA, which is a very useful substrate for fabricating single use diagnostics devices with integrated......A chemical procedure was developed to functionalize poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. PMMA is reacted with hexamethylene diamine to yield an aminated surface for immobilizing DNA in microarrays. The density of primary NH2 groups was 0.29 nmol/cm(2). The availability of these primary...

  4. Production of a functional cell wall-anchored minicellulosome by recombinant Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Benjamin J; Kovács, Katalin; Wilding-Steele, Tom; Markus, Robert; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels is no longer tenable. Not only are they a finite resource, their use is damaging the environment through pollution and global warming. Alternative, environmentally friendly, renewable sources of chemicals and fuels are required. To date, the focus has been on using lignocellulose as a feedstock for microbial fermentation. However, its recalcitrance to deconstruction is making the development of economic processes extremely challenging. One solution is the generation of an organism suitable for use in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), i.e. one able to both hydrolyse lignocellulose and ferment the released sugars, and this represents an important goal for synthetic biology. We aim to use synthetic biology to develop the solventogenic bacterium C. acetobutylicum as a CBP organism through the introduction of a cellulosome, a complex of cellulolytic enzymes bound to a scaffold protein called a scaffoldin. In previous work, we were able to demonstrate the in vivo production of a C. thermocellum-derived minicellulosome by recombinant strains of C. acetobutylicum, and aim to develop on this success, addressing potential issues with the previous strategy. The genes for the cellulosomal enzymes Cel9G, Cel48F, and Xyn10A from C. cellulolyticum were integrated into the C. acetobutylicum genome using Allele-Coupled Exchange (ACE) technology, along with a miniscaffoldin derived from C. cellulolyticum CipC. The possibility of anchoring the recombinant cellulosome to the cell surface using the native sortase system was assessed, and the cellulolytic properties of the recombinant strains were assayed via plate growth, batch fermentation and sugar release assays. We have been able to demonstrate the synthesis and in vivo assembly of a four-component minicellulosome by recombinant C. acetobutylicum strains. Furthermore, we have been able to anchor a minicellulosome to the C. acetobutylicum cell wall by the use of the native sortase system. The recombinant

  5. Feasibilty of electroplated gold for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessner, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    Electroplating was investigated as a method of providing thick gold films. Because electroplated gold has never been used for hybrid microcircuit (HMC) substrate metallization, this feasibility study was also designed to determine the characteristics of electroplated gold and its compatibility with present HMC fabrication processes. Ceramic substrates 95 by 114 mm (3.75 by 4.5 in.) were electroplated with 6, 10, and 25 ..mu..m of gold after 0.02 ..mu..m of chromium and 0.5 ..mu..m of gold had been either sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto the substrate surfaces. Substrates vacuum evaporated with 6 ..mu..m of gold were used as a control group. The substrates were evaluated for via resistance, RF electrical characteristics, conductor definition and resolution, solder wettability, thermocompression bondability, and environmental stability.

  6. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    that this also could be a lifting device of Grapnel type stone anchors (Raban 2001, Per. Comm.). This sug- gestion may not hold water in view of findings from Somnath. Of the total 44 anchors reported from Somnath, six are composite type and only 3 are grapnel...

  7. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  8. Stone anchors from Sindhudurg Fort on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.

    , of which there are triangular and three grapnet-type, used to construct the jetty along with the locally available sand stone. The two remaining grapnet-type anchors are erected on the jetty for mooring purposes. It is found that none of the anchors were...

  9. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  10. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  11. The use of suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Whitener, George B; Rubright, James H; Creighton, R Alexander; Logel, Kevin J; Wood, Mark L

    2007-07-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an incapacitating injury that usually requires surgical repair. Traditional repair methods involve transpatellar suture tunnels, but recent reports have introduced the idea of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured tendon. We present 5 cases of our technique of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

  12. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  13. A Single-hole stone anchor from Kottapatnam: Early historic port site of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, K.P.; Kumari, S.; Imsong, O.; Vanlalhruaitluangi, V.

    were also collected from the sand dunes near to the object. 2 Description of the stone anchor The partially buried single-hole stone anchor lies about 50 m away from the present western bank of the lagoon, which is locally known as ‘voda revu...

  14. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-03-07

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  15. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs, by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory and maps (anchors problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  16. Effects of Anchored Instruction on Enhancing Chinese Students' Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    This study investigates the effects of computer-aided videodisc-based anchored instruction on promoting elementary school students' problem-solving skills in Taiwan. Anchored instruction combines theories such as situated cognition, cognitive apprenticeship, cooperative learning, and constructivist theories. With the help of interactive videodisc…

  17. Using Video-Based Anchored Instruction To Enhance Learning: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih Cindy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effects of computer-assisted videodisc-based anchored instruction on attitudes toward mathematics and instruction as well as problem-solving skills among Taiwanese elementary students. Findings suggest that video-based anchored instruction provided a more motivating environment that enhanced students'…

  18. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  19. A Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with University General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, John; Malone, D. Michael; Stecker, Pamela M.; Greene, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a traditional instructional format and technology-enhanced anchored instruction on the immediate and long-term acquisition of knowledge was evaluated with 100 university students in a special-education course. The CD-ROM-based anchored-instruction group outperformed the traditional instruction group on the multiple-choice follow-up test…

  20. Anchored Instruction: A Model for Integrating the Language Arts through Content Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Michael E.; Mitchell, Judith P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a description of anchored instruction, a model of curriculum integration combined with inquiry learning that builds prior knowledge and engages students in the application of the language arts. Sets out the eight steps involved in creating an anchored instruction unit. (SR)

  1. The Effects of Technology-Enhanced Anchored Instruction on the Knowledge of Preservice Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, John; Malone, D. Michael; Clinton, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    The immediate and long-term acquisition of knowledge of 37 students divided into two groups (nonanchored instruction and anchored instruction) was explored. Although no differences between the two groups on the posttest immediately following the lectures was noted, the anchored instruction group outperformed the nonanchored group on the eight-week…

  2. Effects of Tagcloud-Anchored Group Discussions on Pre-Service Teachers' Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Group discussions are critical for students constructing new understanding and knowledge in both classroom and distance education. Tagclouds can provide an intuitive overview about the group's collective knowledge and could potentially be used as an anchor for group discussions. The effect of using tagclouds as anchors for group discussions was…

  3. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  4. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  5. Grapnel stone anchors from Saurashtra: Remnants of Indo-Arab trade on the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    used as indications of ancient trade routes and sizes of boats. Marine archaeological investigations have brought to light a large number of stone anchors occurring along the Indian coast. One of the important type is grapnel anchor which has been cut...

  6. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  7. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  8. MODIFICATION OF PALLADIUM METALLIC CATALYST WITH POLYMER-ANCHORED THIOETHER LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hanfan; MAO Guoping

    1993-01-01

    A well-dispersed metallic palladium catalyst modified by polymer-anchored thioether ligands was used for the hydrogenation of cyclopentadiene to cyclopentene with high activity and selectivity in ambient condition. The evidences to show the modification of catalytic properties by polymer anchored ligands were given.

  9. Career Anchors: Distribution and Impact on Job Satisfaction, the Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Nira; Valency, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the career anchor concept developed by Edgar Schein. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on the distribution of the eight career anchors, on a large heterogeneous sample and the differences in the distribution by gender and type of employment; and the impact of the congruence on job…

  10. Characterization of a Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T Lipoteichoic Acid with a Novel Glycolipid Anchor Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Morita, Naoki; FUKIYA, Satoru; Tomita, Satoru; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Yokota, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We determined the chemical structure of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131(T). The repeating unit was comprised of glycerolphosphate and 2-alanylglycerolphosphate. The glycolipid anchor was tetrahexosylglycerol with two or three acyl groups. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a tetrahexose structure in an LTA glycolipid anchor.

  11. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  12. Anchor cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    An understanding of cell-invasive behavior has been limited by the lack of in vivo models where this activity can be clearly visualized and manipulated. We show that a single cell in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, the anchor cell (AC), initiates uterine-vulval contact through a cell invasion event. Using genetic analysis, laser ablations, and cell-specific markers, we demonstrate that AC invasion is predominantly stimulated by the 1 degrees vulval lineage cells, which generate a diffusible signal that promotes AC invasive behavior toward these cells and further targets invasive processes between the two central 1 degrees vulval lineage cells. We also show that AC invasion is regulated by the AC response to this cue, as well as a vulval-independent mechanism that weakly drives invasion. These studies dissect the regulatory mechanisms that underlie a simple cell-invasive behavior in vivo, and introduce AC invasion as a model for understanding key checkpoints controlling cell invasion.

  13. Codend selectivity in a commercial Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Frandsen, Rikke; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2017-01-01

    Danish seining (or anchor seining) is a fishing technique that is gaining increasing attention because itis considered to be a fuel-efficient fishing method with low environmental impact. However, scientificdocumentation of the selectivity characteristics of Danish seines is lacking, and the gear...... generally isgrouped with bottom trawls and Scottish seines in fisheries management legislation. In this study, wedeveloped a codend cover to estimate the selectivity of a standard commercial Danish seine codendfor four fish species. The data for the dominant species, dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice...... (Pleuronectesplatessa), was best described by models that combine two or three logistic models, which indicated thatmore than one selection process was at work. Selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) was best described by aRichard curve and selectivity of red gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucernus) by a logistic curve...

  14. Group II intron-anchored gene deletion in Clostridium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizhi Jia

    Full Text Available Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron "ClosTron" system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493-1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established.

  15. Ideological Differences in Anchoring and Adjustment During Social Inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V

    2016-09-08

    Recent research has demonstrated that conservatives perceive greater similarity to political ingroup members than do liberals. In two studies, we draw from a framework of "anchoring and adjustment" to understand why liberals and conservatives differ in their perceptions of ingroup similarity. Results indicate that when participants made judgments under time pressure, liberals and conservatives did not differ in assuming ingroup similarity. However, when participants were given sufficient time to make judgments, liberals assumed less similarity than conservatives did, suggesting that liberals adjusted their judgments to a greater extent than conservatives did (Studies 1 and 2). In examining an underlying motivational process, we found that when conservatives' desire to affiliate with others was attenuated, they adjusted their initial judgments of ingroup similarity to a similar extent as liberals did (Study 2). We discuss implications for research on ideology and social judgment.

  16. [Refixation of sternoclavicular luxation with a suture anchor system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, W; Laskowski, J; Grossterlinden, L; Rueger, J M

    2010-05-01

    Luxations of the sternoclavicular joint are rare injuries. We present a case of anterior dislocation which was caused by a minor fall onto the right shoulder. Diagnosis was delayed by 2 weeks which prevented treatment by closed reduction. As an alternative surgical treatment a PDS cord around the clavicle and the first rib was used to stabilize the clavicle at the vertical level. Subsequently, fixation to the medial side was achieved by a suture anchor that was placed into the manubrium. The presented case highlights this simple and safe method to treat dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint in which standard treatment cannot be performed. A detailed description for each operation step is given and our experience in terms of aftercare and outcome is reported.

  17. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  18. [Cu(phen)2](2+) acts as electrochemical indicator and anchor to immobilize probe DNA in electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Xi; Yan, Songling; Ren, Yinna; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Peng; Dong, Yulin; Zhang, Chaocan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel protocol for sensitive in situ label-free electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on copper complex ([Cu(phen)2](2+), where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and graphene (GR) modified glassy carbon electrode. Here, [Cu(phen)2](2+) acted advantageously as both the electrochemical indicator and the anchor for probe DNA immobilization via intercalative interactions between the partial double helix structure of probe DNA and the vertical aromatic groups of phen. GR provided large density of docking site for probe DNA immobilization and increased the electrical conductivity ability of the electrode. The modification procedure was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to explore the hybridization events. Under the optimal conditions, the designed electrochemical DNA biosensor could effectively distinguish different mismatch degrees of complementary DNA from one-base mismatch to noncomplementary, indicating that the biosensor had high selectivity. It also exhibited a reasonable linear relationship. The oxidation peak currents of [Cu(phen)2](2+) were linear with the logarithm of the concentrations of complementary target DNA ranging from 1 × 10(-12) to 1 × 10(-6) M with a detection limit of 1.99 × 10(-13) M (signal/noise = 3). Moreover, the stability of the electrochemical DNA biosensor was also studied.

  19. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  20. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  1. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  2. Molecular interactions of the neuronal GPI-anchored lipocalin Lazarillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Akerström, Bo; Herrera, Macarena; Bastiani, Michael J; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2008-01-01

    Lazarillo, a glycoprotein involved in axon growth and guidance in the grasshopper embryo, is the only member of the lipocalin family that is attached to the cell surface by a GPI anchor. Recently, the study of Lazarillo homologous genes in Drosophila and mouse has revealed new functions in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and neurodegeneration. Here we report an analysis of biochemical properties of Lazarillo to gain insight into the molecular basis of its physiological function. Recombinant forms of the grasshopper protein were expressed in two different systems to test: (1) potential binding of several hydrophobic ligands; (2) protein-protein homophilic interactions; and (3) whether interaction with the function-blocking mAb 10E6 interferes with ligand binding. We tested 10 candidate ligands (retinoic acid, heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, ecdysterone, juvenile hormone, farnesol, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid), and monitored binding using electrophoretic mobility shift, absorbance spectrum, and fluorimetry assays. Our work indicates binding to heme and retinoic acid, resulting in increased electrophoretic mobility, as well as to fatty acids, resulting in multimerization. Retinoic acid and fatty acids binding were confirmed by fluorescence titration, and heme binding was confirmed with absorbance spectrum assays. We demonstrate that Lazarillo oligomerizes in solution and can form clusters in the plasma membrane when expressed and GPI-anchored to the cell surface, however it is unable to mediate cell-cell adhesion. Finally, by ligand-mAb competition experiments we show that ligand-binding alone cannot be the key factor for Lazarillo to perform its function during axonal growth in the grasshopper embryo.

  3. Vibration Characteristic of Anchoring System of Bolt and Elastic Wave Propagation Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; LI Yi; NING Jian-guo; LIN Hua-chang

    2006-01-01

    Based on one-dimension wave theory, the propagation law of elastic wave along the rock bolt, rock medium and their coupling system are researched, and the attenuation law and propagation mechanism of wave in the anchoring system are obtained. Meanwhile, the studies on end reflection and dynamic response under load are also carried out experimentally, the relationship between anchoring length and excited wave length is obtained when the end reflection of bolt emerges, and it is concluded that under the condition of bolt loaded,as the load increases, the reflection of the upper interface of anchoring segment weakens while the end reflection strengthens relatively, hence the energy attenuation increases. These results provide some important theory basis for measuring the effective anchoring length of bolt, judging the bonding quality of anchoring end and surrounding rock, and estimating the utmost load force of bolt.

  4. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  5. Incorporation of Ceramides into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins Can Be Monitored In Vitro▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Régine; Guillas, Isabelle; Vionnet, Christine; Roubaty, Carole; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fatty acid of the diacylglycerol moiety is exchanged for a C26:0 fatty acid through the subsequent actions of Per1 and Gup1. In most GPI anchors this modified diacylglycerol-based anchor is subsequently transformed into a ceramide-containing anchor, a reaction which requires Cwh43. Here we show that the last step of this GPI anchor lipid remodeling can be monitored in microsomes. The assay uses microsomes from cells that have been grown in the presence of myriocin, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and thus inhibits the biosynthesis of ceramide-based anchors. Such microsomes, when incubated with [3H]DHS, generate radiolabeled, ceramide-containing anchor lipids of the same structure as made by intact cells. Microsomes from cwh43Δ or mcd4Δ mutants, which are unable to make ceramide-based anchors in vivo, do not incorporate [3H]DHS into anchors in vitro. Moreover, gup1Δ microsomes incorporate [3H]DHS into the same abnormal anchor lipids as gup1Δ cells synthesize in vivo. Thus, the in vitro assay of ceramide incorporation into GPI anchors faithfully reproduces the events that occur in mutant cells. Incorporation of [3H]DHS into GPI proteins is observed with microsomes alone, but the reaction is stimulated by cytosol or bovine serum albumin, ATP plus coenzyme A (CoA), or C26:0-CoA, particularly if microsomes are depleted of acyl-CoA. Thus, [3H]DHS cannot be incorporated into proteins in the absence of acyl-CoA. PMID:19074599

  6. Incorporation of ceramides into Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins can be monitored in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Régine; Guillas, Isabelle; Vionnet, Christine; Roubaty, Carole; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fatty acid of the diacylglycerol moiety is exchanged for a C(26:0) fatty acid through the subsequent actions of Per1 and Gup1. In most GPI anchors this modified diacylglycerol-based anchor is subsequently transformed into a ceramide-containing anchor, a reaction which requires Cwh43. Here we show that the last step of this GPI anchor lipid remodeling can be monitored in microsomes. The assay uses microsomes from cells that have been grown in the presence of myriocin, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and thus inhibits the biosynthesis of ceramide-based anchors. Such microsomes, when incubated with [(3)H]DHS, generate radiolabeled, ceramide-containing anchor lipids of the same structure as made by intact cells. Microsomes from cwh43Delta or mcd4Delta mutants, which are unable to make ceramide-based anchors in vivo, do not incorporate [(3)H]DHS into anchors in vitro. Moreover, gup1Delta microsomes incorporate [(3)H]DHS into the same abnormal anchor lipids as gup1Delta cells synthesize in vivo. Thus, the in vitro assay of ceramide incorporation into GPI anchors faithfully reproduces the events that occur in mutant cells. Incorporation of [(3)H]DHS into GPI proteins is observed with microsomes alone, but the reaction is stimulated by cytosol or bovine serum albumin, ATP plus coenzyme A (CoA), or C(26:0)-CoA, particularly if microsomes are depleted of acyl-CoA. Thus, [(3)H]DHS cannot be incorporated into proteins in the absence of acyl-CoA.

  7. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.

  8. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  9. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposom...

  10. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  11. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  12. Hybrid microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

  13. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  14. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  15. Examining the Impact of Covariates on Anchor Tests to Ascertain Quality over Time in a College Admissions Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; von Davier, Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a comprehensive procedure for the implementation of a quality control process of anchor tests for a college admissions test with multiple consecutive administrations. We propose to examine the anchor tests and their items in connection with covariates to investigate if there was any unusual behavior in the anchor test results over time…

  16. Letrozole dispersed on poly (vinyl alcohol) anchored maleic anhydride grafted low density polyethylene: a controlled drug delivery system for treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Akhtar Jahan; Chaudhury, Koel; Adhikari, Basudam

    2014-04-01

    The present work focuses on the design of a drug delivery system for systemic, controlled release of the poorly soluble breast cancer drug, letrozole. The drug delivery system was prepared in two steps: a low density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate surface was grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) via solution grafting technique. Next, the grafted substrate was used to anchor a hydrophilic polymeric drug release system consisting of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The PVA anchored MA grafted LDPE (PVA/MA-g-LDPE) drug release system was used for the controlled release of letrozole. This system was characterized using ATR-FTIR spectrophotometry, surface profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility studies were also carried out. In vitro release studies of letrozole from the system were performed in distilled water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37°C. Release of ∼90% letrozole from hydrophilic PVA matrix was observed within a period of 35 days. A high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.99) was seen between the release of letrozole in distilled water and PBS. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT colorimetric assay suggested that all samples were biocompatible. It is concluded that the letrozole delivery system appears to overcome the limitations associated with letrozole by providing enhanced drug dissolution rate, controlled release and improved bioavailability of the incorporated drug and, therefore, seems to have extended therapeutic effects.

  17. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  18. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  19. Determinants of GPI-PLC localisation to the flagellum and access to GPI-anchored substrates in trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Jack; Webb, Helena; Carrington, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In Trypanosoma brucei, glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) is a virulence factor that releases variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from dying cells. In live cells, GPI-PLC is localised to the plasma membrane where it is concentrated on the flagellar membrane, so activity or access must be tightly regulated as very little VSG is shed. Little is known about regulation except that acylation within a short internal motif containing three cysteines is necessary for GPI-PLC to access VSG in dying cells. Here, GPI-PLC mutants have been analysed both for subcellular localisation and for the ability to release VSG from dying cells. Two sequence determinants necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified. First, all three cysteines are required for full concentration on the flagellar membrane. Mutants with two cysteines localise predominantly to the plasma membrane but lose some of their flagellar concentration, while mutants with one cysteine are mainly localised to membranes between the nucleus and flagellar pocket. Second, a proline residue close to the C-terminus, and distant from the acylated cysteines, is necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane. The localisation of GPI-PLC to the plasma but not flagellar membrane is necessary for access to the VSG in dying cells. Cellular structures necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified by depletion of components. Disruption of the flagellar pocket collar caused loss of concentration whereas detachment of the flagellum from the cell body after disruption of the flagellar attachment zone did not. Thus, targeting to the flagellar membrane requires: a titratable level of acylation, a motif including a proline, and a functional flagellar pocket. These results provide an insight into how the segregation of flagellar membrane proteins from those present in the flagellar pocket and cell body membranes is achieved.

  20. Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.

  1. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical.

  2. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  3. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  4. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam engineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rock–grout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  5. Theoretical analysis of a new segmented anchoring style in weakly cemented soft surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zenghui; Wang Weiming; Wang Lihua

    2016-01-01

    According to the tensile failure of rock bolt in weakly cemented soft rock, this paper presents a new seg-mented anchoring style in order to weaken the cumulative effect of anchoring force associated with the large deformation. Firstly, a segmented mechanical model was established in which free and anchoring section of rock bolt were respectively arranged in different deformation zones. Then, stress and displace-ment in elastic non-anchoring zone, elastic anchoring zone, elastic sticking zone, softening sticking zone and broken zone were derived respectively based on neural theory and tri-linear strain softening constitutive model of soft rock. Results show that the anchoring effect can be characterized by a supporting parameter β. With its increase, the peak value of tangential stress gradually moves to the roadway wall, and the radial stress significantly increases, which means the decrease of equivalent plastic zone and improvement of confining effect provided by anchorage body. When β increases to 0.72, the equivalent plastic zone disappears, and stresses tend to be the elastic solutions. In addition, the anchoring effect on the displacement of surrounding rock can be quantified by a normalization factorδ.

  6. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams e A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    abstract High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam en-gineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rockegrout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  7. Anchoring effects in the judgment of confidence: semantic or numeric priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven R; Petrusic, William M; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have debated whether anchoring effects are the result of semantic or numeric priming. The present study tested both hypotheses. In four experiments involving a sensory detection task, participants first made a relative confidence judgment by deciding whether they were more or less confident than an anchor value in the correctness of their decision. Subsequently, they expressed an absolute level of confidence. In two of these experiments, the relative confidence anchor values represented the midpoints between the absolute confidence scale values, which were either explicitly numeric or semantic, nonnumeric representations of magnitude. In two other experiments, the anchor values were drawn from a scale modally different from that used to express the absolute confidence (i.e., nonnumeric and numeric, respectively, or vice versa). Regardless of the nature of the anchors, the mean confidence ratings revealed anchoring effects only when the relative and absolute confidence values were drawn from identical scales. Together, the results of these four experiments limit the conditions under which both numeric and semantic priming would be expected to lead to anchoring effects.

  8. Poly(glycidyl ether)-Based Monolayers on Gold Surfaces: Control of Grafting Density and Chain Conformation by Grafting Procedure, Surface Anchor, and Molecular Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Silke; Weinhart, Marie

    2017-03-07

    For a meaningful correlation of surface coatings with their respective biological response reproducible coating procedures, well-defined surface coatings, and thorough surface characterization with respect to layer thickness and grafting density are indispensable. The same applies to polymeric monolayer coatings which are intended to be used for, e.g., fundamental studies on the volume phase transition of surface end-tethered thermoresponsive polymer chains. Planar gold surfaces are frequently used as model substrates, since they allow a variety of straightforward surface characterization methods. Herein we present reproducible grafting-to procedures performed with thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) copolymers composed of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and ethyl glycidyl ether (EGE). The copolymers feature different molecular weights (2 kDa, 9 kDa, 24 kDa) and are equipped with varying sulfur-containing anchor groups in order to achieve adjustable grafting densities on gold surfaces and hence control the tethered polymers' chain conformation. We determined "wet" and "dry" thicknesses of these coatings by QCM-D and ellipsometry measurements and deduced anchor distances and degrees of chain overlap of the polymer chains assembled on gold. Grafting under cloud point conditions allowed for higher degrees of chain overlap compared to grafting from a good solvent like ethanol, independent of the used sulfur-containing anchor group for polymers with low (2 kDa) and medium (9 kDa) molecular weights. By contrast, the achieved grafting densities and thus chain overlaps of surface-tethered polymers with high (24 kDa) molecular weights were identical for both grafting methods. Monolayers prepared from an ethanolic solution of poly(glycidyl ether)s equipped with sterically demanding disulfide-containing anchors revealed the lowest degrees of chain overlap. The ratio of the radius of gyration to the anchor distance (2 Rg/l) of the latter coating was found to be lower than 1

  9. Multiple alternative substrate kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vernon E

    2015-11-01

    The specificity of enzymes for their respective substrates has been a focal point of enzyme kinetics since the initial characterization of metabolic chemistry. Various processes to quantify an enzyme's specificity using kinetics have been utilized over the decades. Fersht's definition of the ratio kcat/Km for two different substrates as the "specificity constant" (ref [7]), based on the premise that the important specificity existed when the substrates were competing in the same reaction, has become a consensus standard for enzymes obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The expansion of the theory for the determination of the relative specificity constants for a very large number of competing substrates, e.g. those present in a combinatorial library, in a single reaction mixture has been developed in this contribution. The ratio of kcat/Km for isotopologs has also become a standard in mechanistic enzymology where kinetic isotope effects have been measured by the development of internal competition experiments with extreme precision. This contribution extends the theory of kinetic isotope effects to internal competition between three isotopologs present at non-tracer concentrations in the same reaction mix. This article is part of a special issue titled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  10. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  11. The 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor system versus a traditional suture anchor for ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the thumb: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, C D; McGillivary, G R; Hutton, W C

    2010-02-01

    We compared the biomechanical strength of the 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor with a traditional Bio-SutureTak suture anchor in repair of ulnar collateral ligament injuries. Iatrogenic ulnar collateral ligament injuries in 18 cadaveric thumbs were repaired and used to test for load to failure and cyclic loading. The average force required to generate a 2 mm gap was 7.7 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 6.3 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.04). The ultimate load to failure was 28.0 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 18.8 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.16). There were no statistical differences between the two suture anchors under cyclic loading. The 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor provides significantly stronger resistance to 2 mm gap formation at the repair site and is less likely to fail at the suture-ligament interface. However, there was no difference in the load to failure between the two suture anchors.

  12. Experimental study on the stability of plate anchors in clay under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay has been studied extensively, the results considering the effects of offshore cyclic loading are relatively rare. In the present study, 1 g model tests are carried out to investigate the effect of cyclic loading on the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay. The ultimate pullout capacity of plate anchors in clay decreases as the accumulated plastic shear strain grows due to the strain-softening of clay under cyclic loading. The load–displacement curves of these tests are presented and the effects of overburden stress and cyclic loading amplitude on the strain-softening behavior are discussed.

  13. Extrusion of bone anchor suture following flexor digitorum profundus tendon avulsion injury repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2011-09-01

    Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) zone I tendon avulsion injury is traditionally repaired with a pullout suture technique. More recently, bone anchor sutures have been used as a viable alternative and have largely replaced areas in hand surgery where pullout suture technique was once required. To date, there have been very few complications reported related to bone anchor suture use in FDP tendon reattachment to the bone. We report a very unusual case of extrusion of bone anchor through the nailbed, 6 years after zone I FDP tendon avulsion injury repair and a brief review of literature.

  14. Suture anchor repair of patellar tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Atul F; Shah, Roshan P; Summers, Nathan; Israelite, Craig L

    2013-12-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex problem that often requires surgical repair for functional deficits. We present a brief technical note on suture anchor fixation of a patellar tendon rupture after TKA. A surgical technique and literature review follows. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for tendinous repairs in other areas of orthopedic surgery, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in patellar tendon repair after TKA. The technique must be evaluated in more patients with longer follow-up before adoption.

  15. Behavior of pre-stress group anchors--Theory approach and model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Siming; WANG Chenghua; QIAO Jianping

    2003-01-01

    First of all the pre-stress group anchor ropes are resolved into two sub-systems: the stable rock stand lateral resistance load and inner bonding section stand lateral resistance load and pre-stress load. Then, discretization of every sub-system was carried on and it is assumed that different micro-sections possess uniform distribution side resistance. On the basis of Mindlin stress solution, stress overlay principle, modified layered-summation method as well as the load transfer method, we study the anchor group effect and present a theory model which calculates the anchor group effect and establishes the relevant iterate standard.

  16. Anchoring of drifting spiral and scroll waves to impermeable inclusions in excitable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlin, Christian W; Pertsov, Arkady M

    2012-07-20

    Anchoring of spiral and scroll waves in excitable media has attracted considerable interest in the context of cardiac arrhythmias. Here, by bombarding inclusions with drifting spiral and scroll waves, we explore the forces exerted by inclusions onto an approaching spiral and derive the equations of motion governing spiral dynamics in the vicinity of inclusion. We demonstrate that these forces nonmonotonically depend on distance and can lead to complex behavior: (a) anchoring to small but circumnavigating larger inclusions; (b) chirality-dependent anchoring.

  17. Study of Vertical Seismic Response of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 石磊; 张哲

    2004-01-01

    Based on the variational prineiple of incomplete generalized potential energy with large deflection, the vertical nonlinear vibrational differential equation of self-anchored suspension bridge is presented by taking the effect of coupling of flexural and axial action into consideration. The linear vertical equation is obtained by omitting the nonlinear term, and the pseudo excitation method(PEM). Taking the self-anchored concrete suspension bridge over Lanqi Songhua river for an example, the expected peak responses of main beam, towers and cables are calculated. And the seismic spatial effects on vertical seismic response of self-anchored suspension bridges are discussed.

  18. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  1. Multiple sequence alignment with user-defined anchor points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pöhler Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated software tools for multiple alignment often fail to produce biologically meaningful results. In such situations, expert knowledge can help to improve the quality of alignments. Results Herein, we describe a semi-automatic version of the alignment program DIALIGN that can take pre-defined constraints into account. It is possible for the user to specify parts of the sequences that are assumed to be homologous and should therefore be aligned to each other. Our software program can use these sites as anchor points by creating a multiple alignment respecting these constraints. This way, our alignment method can produce alignments that are biologically more meaningful than alignments produced by fully automated procedures. As a demonstration of how our method works, we apply our approach to genomic sequences around the Hox gene cluster and to a set of DNA-binding proteins. As a by-product, we obtain insights about the performance of the greedy algorithm that our program uses for multiple alignment and about the underlying objective function. This information will be useful for the further development of DIALIGN. The described alignment approach has been integrated into the TRACKER software system.

  2. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions).

  3. Financial fluctuations anchored to economic fundamentals: A mesoscopic network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Balagopal; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2017-08-14

    We demonstrate the existence of an empirical linkage between nominal financial networks and the underlying economic fundamentals, across countries. We construct the nominal return correlation networks from daily data to encapsulate sector-level dynamics and infer the relative importance of the sectors in the nominal network through measures of centrality and clustering algorithms. Eigenvector centrality robustly identifies the backbone of the minimum spanning tree defined on the return networks as well as the primary cluster in the multidimensional scaling map. We show that the sectors that are relatively large in size, defined with three metrics, viz., market capitalization, revenue and number of employees, constitute the core of the return networks, whereas the periphery is mostly populated by relatively smaller sectors. Therefore, sector-level nominal return dynamics are anchored to the real size effect, which ultimately shapes the optimal portfolios for risk management. Our results are reasonably robust across 27 countries of varying degrees of prosperity and across periods of market turbulence (2008-09) as well as periods of relative calmness (2012-13 and 2015-16).

  4. Emergence of Anchored Flux Tubes Through the Convection Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George H; McClymont, Alexander N

    2010-01-01

    We model the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in the Sun's convection zone. A flux tube is assumed to lie initially near the top of the stably stratified radiative core below the convection zone, but a segment of it is perturbed into the convection zone by gradual heating and convective overshoot motions. The ends ("footpoints") of the segment remain anchored at the base of the convection zone, and if the segment is sufficiently long, it may be buoyantly unstable, rising through the convection zone in a short time. The length of the flux tube determines the ratio of buoyancy to magnetic tension: short loops of flux are arrested before reaching the top of the convection zone, while longer loops emerge to erupt through the photosphere. Using Spruit's convection zone model, we compute the minimum footpoint separation $L_c$ required for erupting flux tubes. We explore the dependence of $L_c$ on the initial thermal state of the perturbed flux tube segment and on its initial magnetic field strength. Followi...

  5. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  6. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  7. Comparison of the tendon damage caused by four different anchor systems used in transtendon rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm(2) for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm(2) for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm(2) for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears.

  8. Substrate-induced strain in carbon nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osváth, Z., E-mail: osvath.zoltan@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Vértesy, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lábár, J. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Nemes-Incze, P.; Horváth, Z.E.; Biró, L.P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, MFA, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Korea–Hungary Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences (KHJLN), P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-08-28

    Graphitic nanodisks of typically 20–50 nm in thickness, produced by the so-called Kvaerner Carbon Black and Hydrogen Process were dispersed on gold substrate and investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The roughness of the gold surface was drastically changed by annealing at 400 °C. AFM measurements show that this change in the surface roughness induces changes also in the topography of the nanodisks, as they closely follow the corrugation of the gold substrate. This leads to strained nanodisks, which is confirmed also by confocal Raman microscopy. We found that the FE-SEM contrast obtained from the disks depends on the working distance used during the image acquisition by In-lens detection, a phenomenon which we explain by the decrease in the amount of electrons reaching the detector due to diffraction. This process may affect the image contrast in the case of other layered materials, like hexagonal boron nitride, and other planar hybrid nanostructures, too. - Highlights: • Bending of carbon nanodisks is induced by the roughness of the gold substrate. • Confocal Raman microscopy shows a compressive strain induced in the nanodisks. • The electron microscopy contrast of nanodisks depends on the working distance.

  9. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... positioning of the test rig supports and their proximity to the anchor assembly being tested (Sec. .3285.402(b... examine labor market, or revealed preference, studies. Using the DOT estimate, avoiding one death in...

  10. Factors affecting the dynamic response of pre-stressed anchors after transient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huijun; Li Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The wide application of pre-stressed bolting technology in coal mine tunnels has made the nondestructive stress wave reflection method of determining bolting quality an important one.The effect of the support plate on the dynamic response of the pre-stressed anchor is of particular interest.A theoreticalanalysis and numerical simulations are used to identify the factors affecting the contact stress between the support plate and the rock wall.A formula allowing the calculation of contact stress is presented.Stress wave propagation through the nut,support plate,and rock wall are predicted.The dynamic response signals were measured in the field using prestressed anchors pre-tightened to different torques.The effects from the support plate on the dynamic response were recorded and the results compared to the predictions of pre-stressed anchor.This work provides a theoretical reference for the signal processing of dynamic reflected wave signals in anchor bolts.

  11. Optimal design of anchor cables for slope reinforcement based on stress and displacement fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Yang; Zhihui Zhong; Yucheng Zhang; Xudong Fu

    2015-01-01

    How to determine reasonable position and length of anchor cable is a frequently encountered but not well addressed problem in slope reinforcement projects. In this paper, the variable-modulus elastoplastic strength reduction method (SRM) is used to obtain the stress field, displacement field, and factor of safety of slope. Slope reinforcement using anchor cables is modeled by surface loading, i.e. different distributions of surface loading represent various reinforcement schemes. Optimal reinforcement scheme of anchor cables can be determined based on slope stress and displacement fields. By comparing the factor of safety and stress field before and after slope reinforcement, it is found that better rein-forcement results can be achieved if strong reinforcement is applied upon the regions with high stress and large displacement. This method can well optimize the arrangement of anchor cables. In addition, several cases are employed to verify the proposed method.

  12. Numerical prediction of the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To predict the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads, based on the assumption that there is no separation between the plate and soil, the numerical model of the motion and transformation of the plate anchor subjected to combined loads including the normal force, tangential force and bending moment loads in ABAQUS software is set up. The numerical model is proved by comparing the calculated bearing capacity with that of analytical solution. The numerical model is used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the plate anchor subjected to the combined loads including the normal force, the tangential force and bending moment. The results show that murff model is used to preferably fit the ultimate bearing capacity envelope of plate anchors subjected to combined loads.

  13. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  14. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

  15. Dynamic Effects of Anchor Positional Tolerance on Tension Moored Floating Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher; Pakrashi, Vikram; Murphy, Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    For water depths greater than 60m floating wind turbines will become the most economical option for generating offshore wind energy. Tension mooring stabilised units are one type of platform being considered by the offshore wind energy industry. The complex mooring arrangement used by this type of platform means that the dynamics are greatly effected by offsets in the positioning of the anchors. This paper examines the issue of tendon anchor position tolerances. The dynamic effects of three positional tolerances are analysed in survival state using the time domain FASTLink. The severe impact of worst case anchor positional offsets on platform and turbine survivability is shown. The worst anchor misposition combinations are highlighted and should be strongly avoided. Novel methods to mitigate this issue are presented.

  16. Covalent anchoring of a racemization catalyst to CALB-beads: towards dual immobilization of DKR catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, B.; Träff, A.; Krumlinde, P.; Dijkstra, H.P.; Egmond, M.R.; van Koten, G.; Bäckvall, J.-E.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of a heterogeneous bifunctional catalytic system, combining the catalytic properties of an organometallic catalyst (racemization) with those of an enzyme (enantioselective acylation) is described. A novel ruthenium phosphonate inhibitor was synthesized and covalently anchored to a

  17. 锚链直径对船舶锚泊能力的影响%Influence of Diameter of Anchor Chains on the Anchoring Capability of Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓芳; 丁德勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of anchor system using thinner anchor chains,this paper deduces the catenary equation by taking every anchor chain link as an infinitesimal. Based on the equation,the length of anchor chains and the maximum environmental forces and water depth are calculated for anchor chains with different diameters. According to the calculation result and actual practices,it is concluded that though the thicker the anchor chain,the better the anchoring capability,the applications of thinner chains are more reasonable when not using anchors with high holding power,or when the situation does not demand any special request of the mooring region or water depth.%从减轻船总体负担、采用链径更小的海洋系泊链的设计需求出发,以单个链环为微元对锚链在锚泊状态所形成悬链线方程进行推导,建立锚链在典型锚泊状态下的悬链线方程,并以此为基础完成不同链径锚链在抛锚长度、最大可承受环境力、最大抛锚深度等方面的计算分析。结合计算结果和船舶实际使用情况,对采用不同链径锚链的锚泊能力进行综合分析后认为,虽然链径较粗的锚链的理论锚泊能力较强,但若采用霍尔锚等非大抓力锚,或对锚泊水域面积无明确要求、没有在深水中抛锚的特殊需求等,则可以选用链径相对较细的海洋系泊链代替目前规范中规定的电焊锚链。

  18. Fabrication of Chitosan-gold Nanocomposites Combined with Optical Fiber as SERS Substrates to Detect Dopamine Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jaewook; Kang, Ikjoong [Gachon Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    This research was aimed to fabricate an optical fiber-based SERS substrate which can detect dopamine neurotransmitters. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly anchored on the surface of optical fiber, and then gold layer was subseque N{sub T}ly deposited on the anchored chitosan NPs via electroless plating method. Finally, chitosan-gold nanocomposites combined with optical fiber reacted with dopamine molecules of 100-1500 mg/ day which is a standard daily dose for Parkinson's disease patientss. The amplified Raman signal at 1348 cm{sup -1} obtained from optical fiber-based SERS substrate was plotted versus dopamine concentrations (1-10 mM), demonstrating an approximate linearity of Y = 303.03X + 2385.8 (R{sup 2} = 0.97) with narrow margin errors. The optical fiber-based Raman system can be potentially applicable to in-vitro (or in-vivo) detection of probe molecules.

  19. Tail-anchored membrane proteins: exploring the complex diversity of tail-anchored-protein targeting in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Ben M; Mullen, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are special class of integral membrane proteins that in recent years have received a considerable amount of attention due to their diverse cellular functions and unique targeting and insertion mechanisms. Defined by the presence of a single, hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain at or near their C terminus, TA proteins must be inserted into membranes post-translationally and are orientated such that their larger N-terminal domain (most often the functional domain) faces the cytosol, while their shorter C-terminal domain faces the interior of the organelle. The C-terminal domain of TA proteins also usually contains the information responsible for their selective targeting to the proper subcellular membrane, a process that, based primarily on studies with yeasts and mammals, appears to be highly complex due to the presence of multiple pathways. Within this context, we discuss here the biogenesis of plant TA proteins and the potential for hundreds of new TA proteins identified via bioinformatics screens to contribute to the already remarkable number of roles that this class of membrane proteins participates in throughout plant growth and development.

  20. Exploring body-anchored and experience-based learning in a community of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The article aims to integrate body-anchored and experience-based learning in the theoretical concept of learning in a community of practice. Present moment, epoché, intentional orientation and meaning making are introduced as the four basic premises for body-anchored and experience-based learning...... as the outflow of speech acts, originally based on embodied and experience-based knowledge....